Sample records for chemical fertilizers application

  1. Effects of sewage sludge compost and chemical fertilizer application on microbial biomass and N mineralization rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zaman; H. J. Di; K. Sakamoto; S. Goto; H. Hayashi; K. Inubushi

    2002-01-01

    To determine the effect of sewage sludge compost and chemical fertilizer application on the soil chemical properties, net N mineralization rates, CO2 evolution rates, microbial biomass C and N, a non-leaching experiment was conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25°C) and moisture content (80% wHC) using 2 types of soils that had been previously treated with sewage sludge composts or

  2. Paddy Soil Stability and Mechanical Properties as Affected by Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizer and Animal Manure in Subtropical China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang-Tao LI; Bin ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Wet stability, penetration resistance (PR), and tensile strength (TS) of paddy soils under a fertilization experiment for 22 years were determined to elucidate the function of soil organic matter in paddy soil stabilization. The treatments included no fertilization (CK), normal chemical fertilization (NPK), double the NPK application rates (2NPK), and NPK mixed with organic manure (NPK+OM).Compared with CK, fertilization increased

  3. Inorganic chemical fertilizer application on US farms increased from very low levels to relatively high levels during the two to three decades after World War II.

    E-print Network

    Inorganic chemical fertilizer application on US farms increased from very low levels to relatively high levels during the two to three decades after World War II. Increased fertilizer use greatly. It was apparent well before the rapid expansion in fertilizer use that inexpensive ways to evaluate the fertility

  4. Changes in mineral N, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in different soil depths after surface applications of dairy shed effluent and chemical fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zaman; K. C. Cameron; H. J. Di; K. Inubushi

    2002-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of surface applications of dairy shed effluent (DSE) (effluent collected from a dairy milking shed and consists of dung, urine and water) or chemical fertilizer (NH4Cl) on N dynamics, microbial biomass C and N and extracellular enzyme activities (protease, deaminase and urease) in different soil depths. The DSE and NH4Cl were

  5. An industrial application using meager-lean coal briquette in chemical fertilizer plant

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Zhao Yinrong; Wang Xingou; Hu Kunmo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School; Wang Shiquan; Tao Xilo; Wang Guangnan; Chen Zhiyon [Hebi Coal Mine Bureau, Beijing (China). The Fourth Coal Mine; [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1998-12-31

    Mechanized mining results in increased fine coals up to 60--80% of raw coal produced. Because anthracite lump coals are used as fuel coal by Chinese small and/or middle fertilizer factories in gasifiers supplying fuel gas and syngas, an increasing disparity between supply and demand of lump coal is intensifying. The necessary development and production of gasification briquettes from coal fines is welcomed by the small and middle fertilizer factories. This paper discusses making syngas using meager-lean coal briquettes, produced from coal fines and mixed coal using the newly developed binder; the coal was from the Fourth Coal Mine, Hebi Coal Mine Bureau.

  6. Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop

  7. Africa Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Africa Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values are expressed of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop. ´Projection: Africa

  8. Effects of organic manure and chemical fertilizer on soil fertility and productivity of plant and ratoon crops of sugarcane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SM Bokhtiar; K Sakurai

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of integrated use of some organic manures and chemical fertilizers on soil fertility and productivity in plant and the subsequent ratoon crops of sugarcane. The manures included press mud, farmyard manure (FYM) and green manure (Crotalaria juncea) and the fertilizers were urea, TSP, MOP, gypsum and zinc sulphate. Application of organic manure

  9. Differences in Chemical Composition of Soil Organic Carbon Resulting From Long-Term Fertilization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1–3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4–6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3–52.6% and 9.4–64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration. PMID:25884713

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Benefits of organic residues and chemical fertilizer

    E-print Network

    van Kessel, Chris

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Benefits of organic residues and chemical fertilizer to productivity of rain may improve the efficiency of fertilizer use, on-farm residues, for example farmyard manure (FYM of fertilizer use at four sites. Rice yield without fertilizer but with addition of residues ranged from 1

  11. [Effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions and their global warming potentials in paddy fields with double-rice cropping].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Shen, Jian-Lin; Zheng, Liang; Liu, Jie-Yun; Qin, Hong-Ling; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-Shui

    2014-08-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions, which were measured using the static chamber/gas chromatography method, and their global warming potentials in typical paddy fields with double-rice cropping in Hunan province. The results showed that the combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers did not change the seasonal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy soils, but significantly changed the magnitudes of CH4 and N2O fluxes in rice growing seasons as compared with sole application of chemical fertilizers. During the two rice growing seasons, the cumulative CH4 emissions for the pig manure and chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer each contributing to 50% of the total applied N (1/2N + PM) treatment were higher than those for the treatments of no N fertilizer (ON), half amount of chemical N fertilizer (1/2N) and 100% chemical N fertilizer (N) by 54.83%, 33.85% and 43.30%, respectively (P < 0.05), whilst the cumulative N2O emissions for the 1/2N + PM treatment were decreased by 67.50% compared with N treatment, but increased by 129.43% and 119.23% compared with ON and 1/2N treatments, respectively (P < 0.05). CH4 was the dominant contributor to the global warming potential (GWP) in both rice growing seasons, which contributed more than 99% to the integrated GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions for all the four treatments. Both GWP and yield-scaled GWP for the treatment of 1/2N + PM were significantly higher than the other three treatments. The yield-scaled GWP for the treatment of 1/2N + PM was higher than those for the N, 1/2N and ON treatments by 58.21%, 26.82% and 20. 63%, respectively. Therefore, combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers in paddy fields would increase the GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions during rice growing seasons and this effect should be considered in regional greenhouse gases emissions inventory. PMID:25338388

  12. APPLICATION of INORGANIC FERTILIZERS LOWER FRASER VALLEY

    E-print Network

    Data 2 4.0 Estimated Fertilizer Application by Crop 2 5.0 Estimated Fertilzer Application by Zone 3 6 of the participating parties. #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 Census of Agriculture Data 1 3.0 Industry and Expenditures A.2 Land Use and Cropping B Fertilizer Industry Data B.1 Annual Retail Fertilizer Sales, Southern

  13. Effect of different types of organic fertilizers on the chemical properties and enzymatic activities of an Oxisol under intensive cultivation of vegetables for 4 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ed-Haun Chang; Ren-Shih Chung; Fei-Neng Wang

    2008-01-01

    The effects of different types of organic fertilizers on the chemical and enzymatic properties of an Oxisol were studied after being fertilized for four consecutive years (26 crops) in a greenhouse under intensive cultivation of vegetables. Seven treatments, consisting of five types of organic fertilizer treatments, one “sequential application” (SA) treatment, and a chemical fertilizer treated plot were compared. The

  14. Use Phosphorus Free Fertilizer Beginning January 1, 2012, Michigan law restricts phosphorus fertilizer applications on lawns.

    E-print Network

    Use Phosphorus Free Fertilizer Beginning January 1, 2012, Michigan law restricts phosphorus.michigan.gov/mda-fertilizer The Phosphorus Law Michigan Fertilizer Law (1994 PA 451, Part 85, Fertilizers) restricts the use of phosphorus homeowners and commercial applicators must follow the phosphorus application restrictions. Where can I find

  15. CARBON SEQUESTRATION FOLLOWING MANURE OR FERTILIZER APPLICATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure or compost application can increase carbon (C) sequestration in the soil since these organic sources contain significant amounts of C. Experiment was conducted from 1992 to 1996 to evaluate the effects of annual or biennial N- and P-based manure or composted manure application and fertilized ...

  16. Effect of different application rates of organic fertilizer on soil enzyme activity and microbial population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ed-Haun Chang; Ren-Shih Chung; Yuong-How Tsai

    2007-01-01

    After cultivating 24 crops of vegetables for three consecutive years in a greenhouse, the effects of different application rates of compost (Rate 1, 270 kg N ha y; Rate 2, 540 kg N ha y; Rate 3, 810 kg N ha y; Rate 4, 1,080 kg N ha y) were compared with the effects of chemical fertilizer (CF) and no application of fertilizer treatments (CK) for some selected soil chemical properties, microbial populations and soil enzyme

  17. Corn grain yield and nutrient uptake from application of enhanced-efficiency nitrogen fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demand for food and agricultural products directly impact the use of chemical fertilizers particularly nitrogen (N). This study examined corn grain yield and nutrient uptake resulting from applications of different N fertilizer sources, urea (U), urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN), ammonium nitr...

  18. Nitrification and acidification from urea application in red soil (Ferralic Cambisol) after different long-term fertilization treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose. Long-term manure applications can prevent or reverse soil acidification by chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer. However, the resistance to re-acidification from further chemical fertilization is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of urea application on nitrification and a...

  19. Land Application of Organic Fertilizers or Amendments 

    E-print Network

    Harmel, Daren; Mechell, Justin; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2007-12-13

    supplies if applied excessively or improperly. *Extension Assistant, Agricultural Engineering; Agricultural Engineer, USDA-ARS, Grassland Soil and Water Research Laboratory; Professor and Extension Specialist, The Texas A&M System L-5493 12/07 Justin... management practice is to develop a nutrient management plan that bases application rates on annual soil tests and realistic crop yield goals. Fertilizer applica- tions that exceed soil test recommendations waste time and money. Annual soil tests...

  20. Annual nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for different lawngrass species for Florida. The fertilizer should be applied in multiple (2-6) applications yearly. With each fertilizer

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Annual nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for different lawngrass species for Florida. The fertilizer should be applied in multiple (2-6) applications yearly. With each fertilizer application, ½ to 1 lb. of N should be applied. To find out how much of the common fertilizer types this relates to, go

  1. Effect of Different Fertilizer Application on the Soil Fertility of Paddy Soils in Red Soil Region of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (P<0.05). The application of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (P<0.05). During the experimental period, the average AN and AP contents were highest in OM treatment (about 1.6 and 29.6 times of that in the CK, respectively) and second highest in NPK treatment (about 1.2 and 20.3 times of that in the CK). Unlike AN and AP, the highest value of AK content was observed in NPK treatments with 38.10 mg·kg?1. Thus, these indicated that organic manure should be recommended to improve soil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region. PMID:23028550

  2. Process Improvement Study of the Rock Springs Fertilizer Complex for Chevron Chemical Company, Rock Springs, WY [Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Applications and Evaluations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eastwood

    1989-01-01

    This work has carried out in two phases: Phase 1; identification of opportunities for heat pumps in industrial applications and Phase 2; evaluation of heat pumps in industrial applications. In Phase 1, pinch analysis was applied to several industrial sites to identify the best opportunities for heat pumping and other forms of heat integration. In Phase 2, more detailed analyses

  3. Management strategy 3: fixed rate fertilizer applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous chapters outlined management strategies for pond fertilization that take into account specific individual pond nutrient needs. Those methods would most likely be more ecologically efficient than a pre-determined fixed-rate nutrient addition strategy. However, the vast majority of available ...

  4. Speciation of rare earth elements in soil and accumulation by wheat with rare earth fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Shan, X Q

    2001-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the accumulation of rare earth elements (REEs), La, Ce, Pr and Nd, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and the speciation of these elements in soil following the application of REE-based fertilizers. Improved crop yield was confirmed by the experiment. The accumulation behavior of La, Ce, Pr and Nd in wheat varied depending on the concentration of REE fertilizer application, i.e. increased with increasing REE concentration at low fertilization application, constant over the medium REE range, and decreased with increasing REE concentration at high fertilizer application. Significant negative correlation was obtained between REE contents in roots and soil pH (r = -0.5787 to -0.8442 for La). REEs in both the fertilized and unfertilized soils were fractionated by a three-stage sequential extraction procedure into three chemically distinct fractions: water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate bound (B1), Fe-Mn oxide bound (B2), and organic and sulfide bound (B3). REEs in fertilized soils were found mainly in the B2 and B3 fractions, with only a small amount in the B1 fraction. REEs in B1 and B2 fractions were negatively correlated with soil pH (r = -0.6892 to -0.8927 and -0.7462 to -0.9482). Significant correlation was obtained between REEs in B1 fraction and REE contents in root. The correlation coefficients ranged from 0.6159 to 0.7410 when fertilizer application was lower than 20.0 mg/kg soil. No acceptable relationship was observed between REE contents in shoot and any of the extractable fractions in soils. PMID:11291446

  5. Comparative effects of Azolla and blue-green algae in combination with chemical N fertilizer on rice crop

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A L Singh; P K Singh

    1986-01-01

    FreshAzolla pinnata (Bangkok) and dry blue-green algae dominated byAulosira sp. andGloeotrichia sp. were inoculated separately at the rates of 500 and 10 kg\\/ha, 10 and 3 days after transplanting, respectively to evaluate\\u000a their effects in combination with chemical N fertilizer applied at different stages of rice crop. Split application of 30\\u000a kg N\\/ha urea (15 kg basal and 15 kg

  6. Predicting Nitrogen in Streams: A Comparison of Two Estimates of Fertilizer Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehaffey, M.; Neale, A.

    2011-12-01

    Decision makers frequently rely on water and air quality models to develop nutrient management strategies. Obviously, the results of these models (e.g., SWAT, SPARROW, CMAQ) are only as good as the nutrient source input data and recently the Nutrient Innovations Task Group has called for a better accounting of nonpoint nutrient sources. Currently, modelers frequently rely on county level fertilizer sales records combined with acreage of crops to estimate nitrogen sources from fertilizer for counties or watersheds. However, since fertilizer sales data are based on reported amounts they do not necessarily reflect actual use on the fields. In addition the reported sales data quality varies by state resulting in differing accuracy between states. In this study we examine an alternative method potentially providing a more uniform, spatially explicit, estimate of fertilizer use. Our nitrogen application data is estimated at a 30m pixel resolution which allows for scalable inputs for use in water and air quality models. To develop this dataset we combined raster data from the National Cropland data layer (CDL) data with the National Land Cover Data (NLCD). This process expanded the NLCD's 'cultivated crops' classes to included major grains, cover crops, and vegetable and fruits. The Agriculture Resource Management Survey chemical fertilizer application rate data were summarized by crop type and year for each state, encompassing the corn, soybean, spring wheat, and winter wheat crop types (ARMS, 2002-2005). The chemical fertilizer application rate data were then used to estimate annual application parameters for nitrogen, phosphate, potash, herbicide, pesticide, and total pesticide, all expressed on a mass-per-unit-crop-area basis for each state for each crop type. By linking crop types to nitrogen application rates, we can better estimate where applied fertilizer would likely be in excess of the amounts used by crops or where conservation practices may improve retention and uptake helping offset the impacts to water. To test the accuracy of our finer resolution nitrogen application data, we compare its ability to predict nitrogen concentrations in streams with the ability of the county sales data to do the same.

  7. Fertilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Brown

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization is the epic story of a single sperm facing incredible odds to unite with an egg and form a new human life. The sperm's journey is visualized with rich detail and narrative to convey a fresh understanding of a classic physiological tale.

  8. Fertilization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thomas Brown (Nucleus Medical Media; )

    2013-02-01

    Thomas Brown of Nucleus Medical Media created this video to show the complete journey of fertilization from the cellular perspective. It was awarded an honorable mention in the 2012 International Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge, hosted by Science Magazine and the U.S. National Science Foundation.

  9. Chemical Characteristics of Aerosol Mists in Phosphate Fertilizer Manufacturing Facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Mei Hsu; Chang-Yu Wu; Dale A. Lundgren; J. Wesley Nall; Brian K. Birky

    2007-01-01

    Of the carcinogens listed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), strong inorganic mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a known human carcinogen. In this study, aerosol sampling was conducted at 24 locations in eight Florida phosphoric acid and concentrated fertilizer manufacturing plants and two locations as background in Winter Haven and Gainesville, Florida, using dichotomous samplers. The locations were

  10. Commercial Fertilizers 1924-25. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach; Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

    1925-01-01

    ................ Oil Mill and Fertilizer Works .............. Palestine Oil Mill and Fertilizer Company .... Pate Brothers .......................... .I Pelican Fertilizer Works ................. Planters Fertilizer and Chemical Company ... : 1 Pick...

  11. Chemical characteristics of aerosol mists in phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lundgren, Dale A; Nall, J Wesley; Birky, Brian K

    2007-01-01

    Of the carcinogens listed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), strong inorganic mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a known human carcinogen. In this study, aerosol sampling was conducted at 24 locations in eight Florida phosphoric acid and concentrated fertilizer manufacturing plants and two locations as background in Winter Haven and Gainesville, Florida, using dichotomous samplers. The locations were selected where sulfuric acid mist may potentially exist, including sulfuric acid pump tank areas, belt or rotating table phosphoric acid filter floors, sulfuric acid truck loading/unloading stations, phosphoric acid production reactors (attack tanks), and a concentrated fertilizer granulator during scrubbing with a weak sulfuric acid mixture. An ion chromatography system was used to analyze sulfate and other water soluble ion species. In general, sulfate, fluoride, ammonium, and phosphate were the major species in the fertilizer facilities. For the rotating table/belt phosphoric acid filter floor, phosphate and fluoride were the dominant species for PM10, and the maximum concentrations were 170 and 106 microg/m3, respectively. For the attack tank, fluoride was the dominant species for PM10, and the maximum concentration was 462 microg/m3. At the sulfuric acid pump tank, sulfate was the dominant species, and the maximum PM10 sulfate concentration was 181 microg/m3. The concentration of PM10 sulfate including ammonium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and sulfuric acid were lower than 0.2 mg/m3 at all locations. The aerosols at the filter floor and the attack tank were acidic. The coarse mode aerosol at the sulfuric acid pump tank (an outdoor location) was acidic, whereas the fine mode aerosol was neutral to basic. PMID:17162477

  12. PROJECT TITLE: Fertilization of Late-Seeded Winter Wheat in Chemical Fallow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Lutcher; Morrow County; William Schillinger; Stewart Wuest; Don Wysocki; Neil Christensen; Irv Rauch; Chris Rauch; Leon Reese; Ken Nelson; Joe Rietmann; Joe McElligott; Mary Corp; Morrow County Grain

    OF RESEARCH FINDINGS: Application of P fertilizer (30 lb P2O5\\/ac) improved grain yield at two of three experimental sites in 2004-2005. Yield responses appear to be the result of an increase in the number of heads per unit area (HPU). The accuracy of P fertilizer recommendations may be improved if soil test levels are evaluated in conjunction with the CaCO3

  13. A segmented regression model for event history data: an application to the fertility

    E-print Network

    Gerkmann, Ralf

    A segmented regression model for event history data: an application to the fertility patterns in- dividual data for Italian women from the Second National Survey on Fertility. The model provides insights into dramatic decrease of fertility experienced in Italy, in that it detects a 'common' tendency

  14. INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FERTILIZATION ON SELECTED PHYSICAL FEATURES AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ARONIA FRUIT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarzyna Skupie?; Ireneusz Ochmian; Józef Grajkowski

    A b s t r a c t . Aronia melanocarpa (Michx) Elliot, called also black chokeberry, is a species with lower cultivation requirements within the Rosaceae family. The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of foliar fertilization with Mn, 'Alkalin' (N, K and S i) and Mn + 'Alkalin' on physical features and chemical composition of

  15. Commercial Fertilizers in 1925-26. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

    1926-01-01

    -Fertilizer-Serv~ce Inc ............................ Pittsburg Cotton Oil 60 . and Fertilizer Works ........... Planters Fertilizer and Chemical Company .............. Self Thos .......................................... shr&veport Fertilizer Works... Oil kornpany. ..................... .......... Planters Fertilizer and Chemical Company.. Thomas Self. ..................................... Shreveport Fertilizer Works.. ....................... Swift & Company...

  16. Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H. J.; Ye, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. L.; Lin, X. Y.; Ni, W. Z.

    A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato-radish-pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers + lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers + medium rate of COM (T3), and chemical fertilizers + high rate of COM (T4) were designed in the present experiment. The supplied doses of N, P, and K were equal for all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoot biomass and market yields of tomato, radish and pakchoi among treatments ( P > 0.05). It was found that positive P and K balance existed in the tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system of all treatments. Compared with no manure treatment (T1), application of medium rate of COM (T3) decreased N, P runoff losses, increased N, P, K contents in crop tissues except N, P in pakchoi shoot, and lessened P, K accumulation in soils, accordingly, improved the efficiency of macronutrient. It was concluded that appropriate COM used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers could not only meet the crops’ nutrient requirement, but also improved the efficiency of macronutrient and remained positive balance of P and K in the intensive tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system, which can be regarded as an effective measure for a contribution towards sustainable agriculture and a control pathway for reducing the potential risk of castoff to water environment.

  17. MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

  18. Various Fertilizers Effect on Home Garden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amin Uddin

    In terms of total yield, fertilizer application had a significant effect on the total plot yield. The compost fertilizer applied was low that the yield of tomato, kangkong, radish, and bitter gourd were lower than the yield of those vegetables in the chemical fertilizer-treated plot. The amount of compost should be increased up to 60 t\\/ha.

  19. 59 FR- Pesticide Chemicals Category, Formulating, Packaging and Repackaging Effluent Limitations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-04-14

    ...wholesale distribution of animal feeds, fertilizers, agricultural chemicals, pesticides...Refilling establishments frequently provide fertilizer sales and application as well as selling...wholesale distribution of animal feeds, fertilizers, agricultural chemicals,...

  20. Effects of field-applied composted cattle manure and chemical fertilizer on ammonia and particulate ammonium exchanges at an upland field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Koga, Nobuhisa; Yanai, Yosuke

    The present study aimed to investigate the NH 3 volatilization loss from field-applied compost and chemical fertilizer and evaluate the atmosphere-land exchange of NH 3 and particulate NH 4+ (pNH 4) at an upland field with volcanic ash soil (Andosol) in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Two-step basal fertilization was conducted on the bare soil surface. First, a moderately fermented compost of cattle manure was applied by surface incorporation (mixing depth, 0-15 cm) at a rate of 117 kg N ha -1 as total nitrogen (T-N) corresponding to 9.9 kg N ha -1 as ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 4-N). Twelve days later, a chemical fertilizer containing 10% (w/w) of NH 4-N as a mixture of ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphates was applied by row placement (cover depth, 3 cm) at a rate of 100 kg N ha -1 as NH 4-N. The study period was divided into the first-half, beginning after the compost application (CCM period), and the second-half, beginning after the chemical fertilizer application (CF period). The mean air concentrations of NH 3 and pNH 4 (1.5 m height) were 7.6 and 3.0 ?g N m -3, respectively, in the CCM period; the values were 3.7 and 3.9 ?g N m -3, respectively, in the CF period. The composition ratios of NH 3 to the sum of NH 3 and pNH 4 (1.5 m height) were 72% and 49% in the CCM and CF periods, respectively. The NH 3 volatilization loss from the compost was 0.8% of the applied T-N (or 9.3% of the applied NH 4-N) and that from the chemical fertilizer was near zero. Excluding the period immediately after the compost application, the upland field acted as a net sink for NH 3 and pNH 4.

  1. Chemical reactions during the preparation of P and NPK fertilizers from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Vogel; Christian Adam; Burkhard Peplinski; Stephan Wellendorf

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper we show how P and NPK fertilizers can be prepared from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes (SSA) and which chemical reactions occur during these post-treatment steps. The SSA used for this investigation was treated thermochemically at a temperature of 1,000°C in a rotary kiln after the addition of calcium chloride hydrate or magnesium chloride hydrate to

  2. VARIABLE SOURCE N FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS TO OPTIMIZE CROP N USE EFFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial variation in soil water content and drainage due to differences in soil physical properties may lead to higher soil N loss, primarily through leaching and gaseous losses, and lower N fertilizer use efficiency. This research investigated the concept of variable source N fertilizer application...

  3. Cadmium and zinc in soil solution extracts following the application of phosphate fertilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphaël Lambert; Cynthia Grant; Sébastien Sauvé

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the solubility of cadmium and zinc in soils after the application of phosphate fertilizers containing those two metals. The solubility of cadmium and zinc was assessed by measuring their concentration in soil water extracts. Three monoammonium phosphate fertilizers containing various amounts of metals were applied on cultivated fields for 3 years at three different rates. In order to

  4. RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON NUTRIENTS IN RUNOFF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Gilley; B. Eghball

    The application of compost or fertilizer at rates that exceed crop nutrient requirements can result in phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) accumulation in soil. This study was conducted to determine the influence of soil P and N contents on the concentrations and total amounts of P and N transported in runoff. Composted beef cattle feedlot manure or inorganic fertilizer were

  5. Nitrogen fertilizer applications to maize after alfalfa: grain yield, kernel composition, and plant mineral nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers often apply greater rates of nitrogen (N) fertilizer to first-year maize (Zea mays L.) after alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) than are needed to attain maximum yields. Fertilizer N applications that do not result in increased grain yield will lead to increased input costs, reduced profitability...

  6. Effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on yield, nutrient uptake, heavy metal content and residual fertility in a rice–mustard cropping sequence under acid lateritic soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Rautaray; B. C. Ghosh; B. N. Mittra

    2003-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years in sandy loam acid lateritic soil to study the direct effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on rice (Oryza sativa) and their residual effect on mustard (Brassica napus var glauca) grown in sequence. Rice yields were higher when fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers were used in an

  7. Does nitrogen fertilizer application rate to corn affect nitrous oxide emissions from the rotated soybean crop?

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Mitchell, David C; Barker, Daniel W; Miguez, Fernando; Sawyer, John E; Pantoja, Jose; Castellano, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Little information exists on the potential for N fertilizer application to corn ( L.) to affect NO emissions during subsequent unfertilized crops in a rotation. To determine if N fertilizer application to corn affects NO emissions during subsequent crops in rotation, we measured NO emissions for 3 yr (2011-2013) in an Iowa, corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation with three N fertilizer rates applied to corn (0 kg N ha, the recommended rate of 135 kg N ha, and a high rate of 225 kg N ha); soybean received no N fertilizer. We further investigated the potential for a winter cereal rye ( L.) cover crop to interact with N fertilizer rate to affect NO emissions from both crops. The cover crop did not consistently affect NO emissions. Across all years and irrespective of cover crop, N fertilizer application above the recommended rate resulted in a 16% increase in mean NO flux rate during the corn phase of the rotation. In 2 of the 3 yr, N fertilizer application to corn (0-225 kg N ha) did not affect mean NO flux rates from the subsequent unfertilized soybean crop. However, in 1 yr after a drought, mean NO flux rates from the soybean crops that received 135 and 225 kg N ha N application in the corn year were 35 and 70% higher than those from the soybean crop that received no N application in the corn year. Our results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that cover crop effects on NO emissions are not easily generalizable. When N fertilizer affects NO emissions during a subsequent unfertilized crop, it will be important to determine if total fertilizer-induced NO emissions are altered or only spread across a greater period of time. PMID:26024252

  8. AN AMMONIA EMISSION INVENTORY FOR FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. (R826371C006)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fertilizer application represents a significant fraction of ammonia emissions from all sources in the United States. Previously published ammonia inventories have generally suffered from poor spatial and temporal resolution, erroneous activity levels, and highly uncertain emis...

  9. The influence of phosphate fertilizer application levels and cultivars on cadmium uptake by Komatsuna (Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swe Swe Mar; Masanori Okazaki; Takashi Motobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a common impurity in phosphate fertilizers and application of phosphate fertilizer may contribute to soil Cd accumulation. Changes in Cd burdens to agricultural soils and the potential for plant Cd accumulation resulting from fertilizer input were investigated in this study. A field experiment was conducted on Haplaquept to investigate the influence of calcium superphosphate on extractable and

  10. Use of Spectroradiometers to Guide In-season Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Irrigated Cotton in West Texas

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    1 Use of Spectroradiometers to Guide In-season Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Irrigated Cotton Plains, center pivots are the preferred irrigation method. Nitrogen fertilizer management is convenient is efficient as well. The timing of N fertilizer injections then becomes a management question producers need

  11. Effects of nitrogen source and rate and method of fertilizer application on yield and fruit size in 'Bluecrop' highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was done to determine the effects of N source and rate and two common methods of fertilizer application on yield and fruit size in a maturing field of highbush blueberry. Plants were fertilized by drip fertigation or with granular fertilizer using urea or ammonium sulfate applied at a rate o...

  12. Disease incidence and severity of rice plants in conventional chemical fertilizer input compared with organic farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Luo, Fan

    2015-04-01

    To study the impacts of different fertilizer applications on rice growth and disease infection, a 3-year field experiment of rice cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai from 2012-2014. No any pesticides and herbicides were applied during the entire experiment to prevent their disturbance to rice disease. Compared with green (GM) and cake manures (CM), the application of chemical fertilizer (CF) stimulated the photosysthesis and vegetative growth of rice plants more effectively. Chlorophyll content, height and tiller number of the rice plants treated with the CF were generally higher than those treated with the GM and CM and the control; the contents of nitrate (NO3--N), ammonium (NH4+-N), Kjeldahl nitrogen (KN) and soluble protein treated with the CF were also higher than those with the others during the 3-year experiment. The 3-year experiment also indicated that the incidences of stem borers, shreath blight, leaf rollers and planthoppers of the rice treated with the CF were signficantly higher than those treated with the GM and CM and the control. Especially in 2012 and 2014, the incidences of rice pests and diseases treated with the CF were far more severe than those with the others. As a result, the grain yield treated with the CF was not only lower than that treated with the GM and CM, but also lower than that of the no-fertilizer control. This might be attributed to two reasons: Pests favor the rice seedlings with sufficient N-related nutrients caused by CF application; the excessive accumulation of nutrients in the seedlings might have toxic effects and weaken their immune systems, thus making them more vulnerable to pests and diseases. In comparison, the plants treated with a suitable amount of organic manure showed a better capability of disease resistance and grew more healthy. In addition, the incidences of rice pests and diseases might also be related to climatic conditions. Shanghai was hit by strong subtropical storms in the summer of both 2012 and 2014, which might explain a high incidence of rice planthoppers in the two years. While a a continous high-temperature and no-storm climate in the summer of 2013 might lead to the low incidences of planthoppers and other pests and diseases in the year.

  13. Applications of GnRH in the control and management of fertility in female animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Herbert; T. E. Trigg

    2005-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) has long been recognized as a potential target for the control and management of fertility in female animals. Attempts to apply GnRH-based technology to manage fertility have focussed on the development of GnRH agonists, antagonists and vaccines. All of these methods have potential, but the widespread application of these technologies has been limited to date.The greatest

  14. Evaluation of intrinsic vulnerability to nitrate contamination of groundwater: appropriate fertilizer application management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshio Mishima; Masayuki Takada; Rie Kitagawa

    2011-01-01

    In agricultural areas, fertilizer application is the main source of nitrate contamination of groundwater. To develop fertilizer\\u000a management strategies to combat this problem, arable land in Hokkaido, Japan was evaluated using geographic information system\\u000a techniques for intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. The DRASTIC method was modified to adapt it to\\u000a the Hokkaido environment and used for the evaluation. Of

  15. Bioinoculants: a sustainable approach to maximize the yield of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata L.) under low input of chemical fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Nosheen, Asia; Bano, Asghari; Ullah, Faizan

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to find out the effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) either alone or in combination with different doses of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Brassica carinata (L.) cv. Peela Raya. PGPR were applied as seed inoculation at 10(6) cells/mL(-1) so that the number of bacterial cells per seed was 2.6 × 10(5) cells/seed. The chemical fertilizers, namely, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were applied in different doses (full dose (urea 160 kg ha(-1) + DAP 180 kg ha(-1)), half dose (urea 80 kg ha(-1) + DAP 90 kg ha(-1)), and quarter dose (urea 40 kg ha(-1) + DAP 45 kg ha(-1)). The chemical fertilizers at full and half dose significantly increased the chlorophyll, carotenoids, and protein content of leaves and the seed yield (in kilogram per hectare) but had no effect on the oil content of seed. The erucic acid (C22:1) content present in the seed was increased. Azospirillum performed better than Azotobacter and its effect was at par with full dose of chemical fertilizers (CFF) for pigments and protein content of leaves when inoculated in the presence of half dose of chemical fertilizers (SPH). The seed yield and seed size were greater. Supplementing Azospirillum with SPH assisted Azospirillum to augment the growth and yield, reduced the erucic acid (C22:1) and glucosinolates contents, and increased the unsaturation in seed oil. It is inferred that A. brasilense could be applied as an efficient bioinoculant for enhancing the growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Ethiopian mustard at low fertilizer costs and sustainable ways. PMID:24097367

  16. Chemical testing procedures for poorly soluble P fertilizers used on acid leaching sands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Deeley; J. S. Yeates; R. J. Gilkes

    1987-01-01

    Water and three citrate extractants were used to measure the solubility of a range of novel iron and aluminium containing superphosphate fertilizers and rock phosphates that are being investigated for use on P leaching acid sands in SW Australia. Various measures of P dissolution of the fertilizers in these extractants were related to agronomic performance. The fertilizers were evaluated in

  17. Investigation of the Effects of Phosphate Fertilizer Application on the Heavy Metal Content in Agricultural Soils with Different Cultivation Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehrdad Cheraghi; Bahareh Lorestani; Hajar Merrikhpour

    The use of phosphate fertilizers is essential in agriculture, because they supply farmland with nutrients for growing plants.\\u000a However, heavy metals might be included as impurities in natural materials and minerals, so heavy metals can also be present\\u000a in phosphate fertilizers or other chemical fertilizers. The aim of this work was to assess the heavy metal content and contamination\\u000a status

  18. Commercial Fertilizers in 1922-23. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

    1923-01-01

    Brothers ....................................... 11 .............................. Pelican Fertilizer Works 13 Planters' Fertilizer and Chemical Company ............. 24 ........................... Shreveport Fertilizer Works 1 .................................. Swift and Company 146 Tennessee...

  19. The effects of a single application of fertilizer on the fish population of Postoak Lake

    E-print Network

    Ramsey, David Bennis

    1973-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF A SINGLE APPLICATION OF FERTILIZER ON THE FISH POPUIATION OF POSTOAK LAKE A Thesis by DAVID BENNIS RAMSEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Ma)or Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences THE EFFECTS OF A SINGLE APPLICATION OF FERTILIZER ON THE FISH POPUIATION OF POSTOAK LAKE A Thesis by DAVID BENNIS RAMSEY Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

  20. Reducing fertilizer-derived N2O emission: Point injection vs. surface application of ammonium-N fertilizer at a loamy sand site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Kücke, Martin; Flessa, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    N2O emitted from soil originates either from denitrification of nitrate and/or nitrification of ammonium. N fertilization can have an important impact on N2O emission rates. Injection of nitrate-free ammonium-N fertilizer, in Germany also known as CULTAN (Controlled Uptake Long-Term Ammonium Nutrition), results in fertilizer depots with ammonium concentrations of up to 10 mg N g-1 soil-1. High concentrations of ammonium are known to inhibit nitrification. However, it has not yet been clarified how N2O fluxes are affected by CULTAN. In a field experiment, two application methods of nitrogen fertilizer were used at a loamy sand site: Ammonium sulphate was applied either by point injection or by surface application. 15N-ammonium sulphate was used to distinguish between N2O originating from either fertilizer-N or soil-N. Unfertilized plots and plots fertilized with unlabeled ammonium sulphate served as control. N2O emissions were measured using static chambers, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were determined in soil extracts. Stable isotope analysis of 15N in N2O, nitrate and ammonium was used to calculate the contribution of fertilizer N to N2O emissions and the fertilizer turnover in soil. 15N analysis clearly indicated that fertilizer derived N2O fluxes were higher from surface application plots. For the period of the growing season, about 24% of the flux measured in surface application treatment and less than 10% from injection treatment plots originated from the fertilizer. In addition, a lab experiment was conducted to gain insight into processes leading to N2O emission from fertilizer depots. One aim was to examine whether the ratio of N2O to nitrate formation differs depending on the ammonium concentration. Loamy sand soil was incubated in microcosms continuously flushed with air under conditions favouring nitrification. 15N-labeled nitrate was used to differentiate between nitrification and denitrification. Stable isotope analyses of 15N were performed on N2O in the gas phase and on ammonium and nitrate extracted from soil samples.

  1. Speciation of rare earth elements in soil and accumulation by wheat with rare earth fertilizer application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuzhen Zhang; Xiao-quan Shan

    2001-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the accumulation of rare earth elements (REEs), La, Ce, Pr and Nd, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and the speciation of these elements in soil following the application of REE-based fertilizers. Improved crop yield was confirmed by the experiment. The accumulation behavior of La, Ce, Pr and Nd in wheat varied depending

  2. The accuracy of farm machinery for precision agriculture: a case for fertilizer application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Goense

    1997-01-01

    Work quality, capacity and reliability are important criteria for design and evaluation of farm equipment. With the introduction of precision agriculture, the ability to adapt to spatially variable soil and crop conditions, becomes an additional aspect. A calculation method was developed to find the precision of site specific fertilizer application. The variance between the required rate, RR, and the applied

  3. Effects of repeated applications of municipal solid waste compost and fertilizers to three lowbush blueberry fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Warman; J. C. Burnham; L. J. Eaton

    2009-01-01

    Field experiments were initiated in May 1999 and continued through 2002 to investigate the application of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and fertilizers to lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) fields. Three sites were selected: Debert, N.S. (Truro sandy loam) and two sites near Musquodoboit, N.S. (both Rawdon gravely loamy sands). Treatments at each site were in a randomized complete block

  4. Soil and Plant Response to Applications of Municipal Solid Waste Compost and Fertilizer to Willamette Raspberries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Warman

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was initiated in 1997 to compare two application rates of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost with commercial fertilizer for the cultivation of “Willamette” raspberries. Mehlich 3 extractable soil elements, plant leaf tissue, and fruit elemental analysis were assessed from 2000 to 2002. The lower rate of compost was applied to provide the same amount of N used for

  5. Methods for evaluating the influence of chemicals on human-male fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.

    1981-09-21

    Since sperm can be used to measure chemically induced damage to the gonads and can be readily studied in humans as well as animals, sperm anomaly assays have received much attention in the fields of human monitoring and chemical mutagenesis. This paper gives a brief description of the methods of sperm assays in men and laboratory animals and some of their applications. This is followed by a discussion of the predictive value of induced sperm changes, correlations of results to carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, and the relative strengths and weaknesses of sperm assays.

  6. Fertilizers and Fertilizer Analyses: With the New Law Controlling the Sale of Fertilizers and Poisonous Insecticides in the State. 

    E-print Network

    Harrington, H. H.

    1899-01-01

    'XAS AGRICULTURAL ' EXPERIMENT STATIONS. SULrLtETIP po. 51. Chemical Section-MAY, 1899-Field Crops and HorticuZture. "FERTILIZERS AND FERTILIZER ANALYSES" With the New Law Contro~~~ng Sale of Fertilizers and Poisonc lnsecticides in the State... is COLLE( STATION, IL'EXAS. Reports from this station are sent lo farmers of State upon application to the Director. "VLL., 7E the /I: y- ,@, Pq k- r-- 0. * G- TEXAS FERTILIZER AND POISONOUS ' - INSECTICIDE CONTROL. CAL DEPl BY THE CHEMIt 4RTMEN...

  7. Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

  8. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

  9. Spatial Optimization of Fertilizer Application by Centrifugal Spreading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Virin; J. Koko; E. Piron; P. Martinet; M. Berducat; Blaise Pascal

    We study an approach for the optimization of spreading performed by centrifugal spreaders in order to minimize environmental effects due to application errors. Faced with a large scale problem, we divide the domain of study into subdomains so that each tramline is individually dealt with. In order to take into account the mechanical limits of the device, some inequality constraints

  10. Ideal and saturated soil fertility as bench marks in nutrient management; 2 interpretation of chemical soil tests in relation to ideal and saturated soil fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Janssen; Willigen de P

    2006-01-01

    In a previous paper (Part I), the ideal soil fertility and the saturated soil fertility were expressed on a relative scale, called soil fertility grade (SFG). In the current paper (Part II), the relation between SFG and soil test values is discussed. The required uptake of nutrients from the soil is translated into soil organic carbon, P-Olsen, exchangeable K, and

  11. [Effects of continuous application of bio-organic fertilizer on banana production and cultural microflora of bulk soil in orchard with serious disease incidence].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shu-tang; Shen, Zong-zhuan; Sun, Yi-fei; Lyu, Na-na; Ruan, Yun-ze; Li, Rong; Shen, Qi-rong

    2015-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years to investigate the effects of different fertilization applications on the suppression of banana fusarium wilt disease, crop yield, fruit quality and culturable microflora in a banana orchard which has been monocultured with banana for 12 years and suffered serious banana fusarium wilt disease. The fertilizers included chemical fertilizer (CF), cow manure compost (CM), pig manure compost (PM) and bio-organic fertilizer (BIO). The banana soil microflora was invested using plate-counting method and culture-dependent polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis method (CD PCR-DGGE). Results showed that, compared with the other treatments, 2-year consecutive application of BIO significantly reduced the banana fusarium wilt disease incidence, and improved the banana mass per tree, crop yield, total soluble sugar content and the ratio of total soluble sugar to titratable acidity of fruits (sugar/acid ratio). Moreover, the analysis of culturable microflora showed that BIO application significantly increased the soil microbial biomass, soil culturable bacteria, bacillus and actinomycetes, and the ratio of bacteria to fungi (B/F) , while decreased the Fusarium oxysporum. Based on the CD PCR-DGGE results, the BIO application significantly altered the soil culturable bacterial structure and showed highest richness and diversity after 2 years of BIO application. The phylogenetic analysis of the selected bands showed that BIO application enriched the soil with the species of Paenibacillus sp., Burkholderia sp., uncultured Verrucomicrobia sp. and Bacillus aryabhattai, and depressed the species of Ralstonia sp., Chryseobacterium gleum, Fluviicola taffensis, Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus megaterium. These results confirmed that the continuous application of BIO effectively controlled the fusarium wilt disease, improved the crop yield and fruit quality, and modulated the soil culturable microflora under field condition. PMID:26094464

  12. Study on the Nutritional Characteristics of Baxi Banana (Musa AAA Cavendish cv. Baxi) and Application Technique of Potassium and Magnesium Fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao Lixian; Zhou Xiuchong; Li Guoliang; Peng Zhiping

    It is important to study the combined application of potassium and magnesium fertilizer in banana fertilization. This paper investigated the nutritional characteristics of Baxi banana (Musa AAA Cavendish cv. Baxi) and effect of combined application of potassium and magnesium fertilizer on its growth. Results from field trials indicated that stem and leaf were the main parts for nutrient accumulation. During

  13. Growth and yield responses of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) as affected by shade and fertilizer applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Wilson; Althea Ovid

    1993-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted on a Vertisol to study the effect of shade and fertilizer applications in reducing lime?induced iron chlorosis, thereby improving crop growth and yield of ginger. Plant height and tiller number were increased with shade treatment, while the severity of iron chlorosis was reduced. Ginger growth under 66% saran netting, inter?cropped with ochro and inter?cropped with corn

  14. EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY, AND FUSARIUM WILT IN

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    1 EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY content and fertility, and can support the growth of soil-borne pathogens. Some growers choose to apply compost as an antagonistic suppression approach to combat soil-borne disease effects on crop yields

  15. Chemical sensing applications of semiconductor photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luebker, Elizabeth R.; Leung, Larry K.; Murphy, Catherine J.; Lisensky, George C.; Ellis, Arthur B.

    1991-05-01

    Semiconductor-derived interfaces have applications in chemical sensing because the bulk photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the semiconductor can be perturbed by chemical adsorption at the surface. Using changes in PL intensity, we have created semiconductor-based systems for non-destructive, in situ, on-line chemical sensing. This paper presents practical applications of PL-based chemical sensors. We have investigated the use of semiconductor PL in a headspace analysis, and in the detection of compounds dissolved in hydrocarbon solution and in aqueous solution. We have constructed two portable systems using semiconductor sensors, where the excitation source, semiconductor, and detection electronics can be transported and used as an on-line system at remote locations. These sensors can be used to detect various classes of compounds in both the liquid and gas phases.

  16. Properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciun, M. F.; Khrapach, I.; Barnes, M. D.; Russo, S.

    2013-10-01

    The vast and yet largely unexplored family of graphene materials has great potential for future electronic devices with novel functionalities. The ability to engineer the electrical and optical properties in graphene by chemically functionalizing it with a molecule or adatom is widening considerably the potential applications targeted by graphene. Indeed, functionalized graphene has been found to be the best known transparent conductor or a wide gap semiconductor. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms driving the functionalization of graphene with hydrogen is proving to be of fundamental interest for energy storage devices. Here we discuss recent advances on the properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  17. Effects of field-applied composted cattle manure and chemical fertilizer on ammonia and particulate ammonium exchanges at an upland field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kentaro Hayashi; Nobuhisa Koga; Yosuke Yanai

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the NH3 volatilization loss from field-applied compost and chemical fertilizer and evaluate the atmosphere–land exchange of NH3 and particulate NH4+ (pNH4) at an upland field with volcanic ash soil (Andosol) in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Two-step basal fertilization was conducted on the bare soil surface. First, a moderately fermented compost of cattle manure was applied

  18. FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    TRI-STATE FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CORN, SOYBEANS, WHEAT & ALFALFA TRI-STATE FERTILIZER University Extension Bulletin E-2567 (New), July 1995 #12;Tri-state Fertilizer Recommendations for Corn D.B. Mengel, Purdue University FOREWORD When fertilizer first became readily available in the 1930s

  19. Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates* #

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi

    2014-01-01

    Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased ?-, ?-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of ?-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and ?-/?-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

  20. Commercial Fertilizers in 1926-27. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

    1927-01-01

    .............. ....................................... Pate Brothers. Pelican Fertil~zer Works .............................. Pick Fertilizer Service. Inc ............................ Pittshurg Cotton Oil Company ......................... Planters Fertilizer and Chemical Company.... A combined planter and fertilizer distributer may be used, but care should be taken to select a machine which applies the fertilizer properly, as some machines are not satisfactory. Fertilizer may also be placed in the ground not more than three...

  1. Distributions of rare earths and heavy metals in field-grown maize after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingkai Xu; Wangzhao Zhu; Zijian Wang; Geert-Jan Witkamp

    2002-01-01

    Rare earths are widely applied in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition through the use of fertilizers, yet little is known of their accumulation in field-grown crops. We have studied the distribution of 16 rare earths (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanide elements) in field-grown maize and the concentration of heavy metals in the grains after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer.

  2. Lime and Soil Moisture Effects on Nitrogen gas Loss Following Fertilizer Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.; Oldenburg, C.

    2007-12-01

    The loss of nitrogen from fertilizer application through ammonia volatilization and nitrous oxide emissions are of major environmental concern. Liming has been regarded as a mitigation option for lowering soil nitrogen gas emissions following the addition of fertilizers. A mechanistic nitrogen-cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) has been developed to simulate the interaction of water saturation variation with biogeochemical processes, and the balance between liming and soil buffering capacity. The model was tested with data from a laboratory soil incubation following the addition of synthetic urine (500 kg N ha-1). Simulation results agreed well with measured N2O emissions and soil inorganic-N concentrations. The study indicated that liming significantly increase NH3 volatilization, while the reduction in cumulative N2O emissions depended strongly on water regime. The cumulative N2O emissions under relatively dry conditions were reduced by up to 243% with liming. However, the cumulative N2O and N2 emissions were predicted to increase by up to 346% following liming because the resulting NO3--N pools (from enhanced nitrification) were susceptible to enhanced N2O and N2 losses during subsequent water application. Consequently, short-term (i.e., days ¡§C weeks) gains made in reducing soil N2O emissions by liming can be offset, and potentially reversed, by emissions later in the growing season. We describe an approach using the modeling framework to optimize N gas reductions using liming under various edaphic, crop type, fertilizer and irrigation application rates, and climate conditions.

  3. In Vivo Applications of Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amos Gottlieb; Skip Divers; Henry K. Hui

    \\u000a As stated at the beginning of this volume, the term “biosensor” refers to sensors that use biomolecules in the molecular recognition\\u000a or transduction processes. Although there have been many proposals to use fiberoptic biosensors in vivo, almost all the work\\u000a to date has been in vitro. In the more general class of fiberoptic chemical sensors, in vivo applications have progressed

  4. Changes in fertility parameters and contents of heavy metals of soddy-podzolic soils upon the long-term application of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasbieva, M. T.; Kosolapova, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of the long-term sewage sludge (SS) application on the chemical, agrophysical, and biological properties of a soddy-podzolic soil ( Umbric Albeluvisols Abruptic) was studied. Regular SS application in the course of five crop rotations (1976-2013) ensured the improvement of the soil fertility parameters, i.e., a rise in the contents of humus, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium; a better state of the soil adsorption complex, bulk density, and aggregation; and higher cellulolytic, nitrification, and urease activities. The efficiencies of SS and the traditional organic fertilizer (cattle manure) were compared. The effect of the long-term application of SS on the accumulation of heavy metals in the soils was also studied. It was found that the application of SS caused a rise in the bulk content of heavy metals and in the contents of their acid-extractable and mobile forms by 1.1-6.0 times. However, the maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were not exceeded. In the soil subjected to the application of SS for more than 25 years, the cadmium concentration somewhat exceeded the maximum permissible concentration.

  5. Nonsurgical fertility control for managing free-roaming dog populations: a review of products and criteria for field applications.

    PubMed

    Massei, Giovanna; Miller, Lowell A

    2013-11-01

    About 75% of dogs worldwide are free to roam and reproduce, thus creating locally overabundant populations. Problems caused by roaming dogs include diseases transmitted to livestock and humans, predation on livestock, attacks on humans, road traffic accidents, and nuisance behavior. Nonsurgical fertility control is increasingly advocated as more cost-effective than surgical sterilization to manage dog populations and their impact. The aims of this review were to 1) analyze trends in numbers of scientific publications on nonsurgical fertility control for dogs; 2) illustrate the spectrum of fertility inhibitors available for dogs; 3) examine how differences between confined and free-roaming dogs might affect the choice of fertility inhibitors to be used in dog population management; and 4) provide a framework of criteria to guide decisions regarding the use of nonsurgical fertility control for dog population management. The results showed that the 117 articles published between 1982 and 2011 focussed on long-term hormonal contraceptives, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, immunocontraceptives, and male chemical sterilants. The number of articles published biennially increased from one to five papers produced in the early 1980s to 10 to 20 in the past decade. Differences between confined dogs and free-roaming dogs include reproduction and survival as well as social expectations regarding the duration of infertility, the costs of sterilization, and the responsibilities for meeting these costs. These differences are likely to dictate which fertility inhibitors will be used for confined or free-roaming dogs. The criteria regarding the use of fertility control for dog population management, presented as a decision tree, covered social acceptance, animal welfare, effectiveness, legal compliance, feasibility, and sustainability. The review concluded that the main challenges for the future are evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, sustainability, and effects of mass nonsurgical sterilization campaigns on dog population size and impact as well as integrating nonsurgical fertility control with disease vaccination and public education programs. PMID:23998740

  6. Effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers plus nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen runoff loss in vegetable soils.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiaogang; Ma, Junwei; Zou, Ping; Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Yin, Jianzhen; Fu, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen fertilizers leads to various ecological problems such as large amounts of nitrogen runoff loss causing water body eutrophication. The proposal that nitrification inhibitors could be used as nitrogen runoff loss retardants has been suggested in many countries. In this study, simulated artificial rainfall was used to illustrate the effect of the nitrification inhibitor DMPP (3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate) on nitrogen loss from vegetable fields under combined organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer application. The results showed that during the three-time simulated artificial rainfall period, the ammonium nitrogen content in the surface runoff water collected from the DMPP application treatment increased by 1.05, 1.13, and 1.10 times compared to regular organic and inorganic combined fertilization treatment, respectively. In the organic and inorganic combined fertilization with DMPP addition treatment, the nitrate nitrogen content decreased by 38.8, 43.0, and 30.1% in the three simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. Besides, the nitrite nitrogen content decreased by 95.4, 96.7, and 94.1% in the three-time simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. A robust decline in the nitrate and nitrite nitrogen surface runoff loss could be observed in the treatments after the DMPP addition. The nitrite nitrogen in DMPP addition treatment exhibited a significant low level, which is near to the no fertilizer application treatment. Compared to only organic and inorganic combined fertilizer treatment, the total inorganic nitrogen runoff loss declined by 22.0 to 45.3% in the organic and inorganic combined fertilizers with DMPP addition treatment. Therefore, DMPP could be used as an effective nitrification inhibitor to control the soil ammonium oxidation in agriculture and decline the nitrogen runoff loss, minimizing the nitrogen transformation risk to the water body and being beneficial for the ecological environment. PMID:25081006

  7. CFD applications in chemical propulsion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    The present research is aimed at developing analytical procedures for predicting the performance and stability characteristics of chemical propulsion engines. Specific emphasis is being placed on understanding the physical and chemical processes in the small engines that are used for applications such as spacecraft attitude control and drag make-up. The small thrust sizes of these engines lead to low nozzle Reynolds numbers with thick boundary layers which may even meet at the nozzle centerline. For this reason, the classical high Reynolds number procedures that are commonly used in the industry are inaccurate and of questionable utility for design. A complete analysis capability for the combined viscous and inviscid regions as well as for the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic portions of the flowfield is necessary to estimate performance levels and to enable tradeoff studies during design procedures.

  8. VARIABLE SOURCE N FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS TO OPTIMIZE CROP N USE EFFICIENCY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer in corn has long been essential for improving yields and increasing economic returns. The efficient utilization of N fertilizer is becoming increasingly more important because of rising fertilizer costs and the possible negative impact of environmental N loss. The lo...

  9. [Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

    2013-10-01

    An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24483072

  10. Applications of microfluidics in chemical biology Douglas B Weibel1

    E-print Network

    Prentiss, Mara

    Applications of microfluidics in chemical biology Douglas B Weibel1 and George M Whitesides2 This review discusses the application of microfluidics in chemical biology. It aims to introduce the reader to microfluidics, describe characteristics of microfluidic systems that are useful in studying chemical biology

  11. A laboratory evaluation of ammonia volatilization and nitrate leaching following nitrogen fertilizer application on a coarse-textured soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a series of field studies, differing rainfall patterns within the first month after nitrogen (N) fertilizer application to a coarse-textured soil significantly affected yields and N-use efficiency of irrigated corn (Zea mays L.), and responses varied with N source. A laboratory study was conducte...

  12. Effects of fertilizer rate, application timing and plant spacing on yield and nutrient content of bell pepper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. M. Russo

    1991-01-01

    Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var annuum L.), cv Pip, transplants were established at 31 and 46 cm in?rows on bare soil and drip irrigated on a twice weekly schedule. A base rate of fertilizer was applied either in one preplant application or in two (preplant and first flower set) or three (preplant, first flower set, after the midseason harvest) split

  13. Influence of lime, fertilizer and manure applications on soil organic matter content and soil physical conditions: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Haynes; R. Naidu

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lime, fertilizer and manure applications on soil organic matter status and soil physical properties are of importance to agricultural sustainability. Their effects are complex and many interactions can occur. In the short-term, liming can result in dispersion of clay colloids and formation of surface crusts. As pH is increased the surface negative charge on clay colloids increases

  14. Development of a web-based runoff forecasting tool to guide fertilizer and manure application in the Chesapeake Bay watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing the land application of fertilizers and manures is critical to protecting water quality in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. While modern nutrient management tools are designed to help farmers with their long-term field management planning, they do not support daily decisions such as when to a...

  15. Effects of Long-Term Compost and Fertilizer Application on Soil Phosphorus Status Under Paddy Cropping System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olayvanh Singvilay; Wansik Shin; Eunhee Kim; Jongbae Chung; Tongmin Sa

    2004-01-01

    External phosphorus (P) fertilization in intensive cropping systems often exceeds P demand by crops, which leads to P accumulation in soils. Levels of different pools of soil P have been affected not only by soil properties and climatic condition but also by rate and type of P applied. This experiment was conducted to investigate the long-term applications of compost and

  16. Soil microbes and plant fertilization.

    PubMed

    Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    With respect to the adverse effects of chemical fertilization on the environment and their related expenses, especially when overused, alternative methods of fertilization have been suggested and tested. For example, the combined use of chemical fertilization with organic fertilization and/or biological fertilization is among such methods. It has been indicated that the use of organic fertilization with chemical fertilization is a suitable method of providing crop plants with adequate amount of nutrients, while environmentally and economically appropriate. In this article, the importance of soil microbes to the ecosystem is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and endophytic bacteria in providing necessary nutrients for plant growth and yield production. Such microbes are beneficial to plant growth through colonizing plant roots and inducing mechanisms by which plant growth increases. Although there has been extensive research work regarding the use of microbes as a method of fertilizing plants, it is yet a question how the efficiency of such microbial fertilization to the plant can be determined and increased. In other words, how the right combination of chemical and biological fertilization can be determined. In this article, the most recent advances regarding the effects of microbial fertilization on plant growth and yield production in their combined use with chemical fertilization are reviewed. There are also some details related to the molecular mechanisms affecting the microbial performance and how the use of biological techniques may affect the efficiency of biological fertilization. PMID:21989562

  17. Influence of wastewater application and fertilizer use on growth, photosynthesis, nutrient homeostatis, yield and heavy metal accumulation in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Faizan, Shahla; Kausar, Saima; Akhtar, Neelima

    2014-05-01

    The scarceness of freshwater assets is a serious problem in semi-arid zones and marginal quality water is increasingly being used in agriculture. This study aimed at evaluating the physico-chemical and biological risks on irrigated soils of treated wastewater, the nutrient supply and the effect on okra plant. A pot experiment based on completely randomized block design was conducted with Treated Wastewater (TW) and inorganic fertilizers to observe a comparative effect on biochemical characters using Okra var. Nidhi. The physico-chemical analysis of the TW showed that it was rich in total suspended and dissolved solids with large amount of BOD and COD. The higher amount of Cl-, Ca++, Mg++ and K+ were also present in the effluent. The heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb) content in TW is comparatively more than groundwater (GW). The values of these heavy metals were slightly higher in the soil irrigated with TW. The effluent severely affects crop plants and soil properties when used for irrigation. The growth parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, yield and nutrient homeostatis were analyzed during different growth periods in all treatments. All the parameters were found to increase due to wastewater application. Among the fertilizer treatments, N120 proved optimum, N90 deficient and N150 proved as luxury dose. The seeds accumulated Cd and Ni but their level was under permissible limits. Thus, it may be concluded that wastewater may be used profitably for the cultivation of okra. PMID:26030995

  18. Growth characters and chemical constituents of Dracocephalum moldavica L. plants in relation to compost fertilizer and planting distance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Hussein; S. E. El-Sherbeny; M. Y. Khalil; N. Y. Naguib; S. M. Aly

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out during two successive seasons to investigate the response of Dracocephalum moldavica L. (dragonhead) to various plant densities and compost applications. Compost levels had a promoting influence on most of vegetative growth parameters and accelerated essential oil accumulation and chemical constituents including total carbohydrate and photosynthetic pigments content. Similarly, wider plant spacing showed the greatest effect

  19. Methane oxidation in an intensively cropped tropical rice field soil under long-term application of organic and mineral fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Nayak, D R; Babu, Y Jagadeesh; Datta, A; Adhya, T K

    2007-01-01

    Methane (CH4) oxidation is the only known biological sink process for mitigating atmospheric and terrestrial emissions of CH4, a major greenhouse gas. Methane oxidation in an alluvial soil planted to rice (Oryza sativa L.) under long-term application of organic (compost with a C/N ratio of 21.71), and mineral fertilizers was measured in a field-cum-laboratory incubation study. Oxidation rates were quantified in terms of decrease in the concentration of CH4 in the headspace of incubation vessels and expressed as half-life (t(1)2) values. Methane oxidation rates significantly differed among the treatments and growth stages of the rice crop. Methane oxidation rates were high at the maximum tillering and maturity stages, whereas they were low at grain-filling stage. Methane oxidation was low (t(1)2) = 15.76 d) when provided with low concentration of CH4. On the contrary, high concentration of CH4 resulted in faster oxidation (t(1)2) = 6.67 d), suggesting the predominance of "low affinity oxidation" in rice fields. Methane oxidation was stimulated following the application of mineral fertilizers or compost implicating nutrient limitation as one of the factors affecting the process. Combined application of compost and mineral fertilizer, however, inhibited CH4 oxidation probably due to N immobilization by the added compost. The positive effect of mineral fertilizer on CH4 oxidation rate was evident only at high CH4 concentration (t(1)2 = 4.80 d), while at low CH4 concentration their was considerable suppression (t(1) = 17.60 d). Further research may reveal that long-term application of fertilizers, organic or inorganic, may not inhibit CH4 oxidation. PMID:17940256

  20. The application of biosorption for production of micronutrient fertilizers based on waste biomass.

    PubMed

    Tuhy, Lukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, new environmental-friendly fertilizer components were produced in biosorption process by the enrichment of the biomass with zinc, essential in plant cultivation. The obtained new preparations can be used as controlled release micronutrient fertilizers because microelements are bound to the functional groups present in the cell wall structures of the biomass. It is assumed that new fertilizing materials will be characterized by higher bioavailability, gradual release of micronutrients required by plants, and lower leaching to groundwater. The biological origin of the material used in plant fertilization results in the elimination of toxic effect towards plants and groundwater mainly caused by low biodegradability of fertilizers. Utilitarian properties of new formulations enable to reduce negative implications of fertilizers for environmental quality and influence ecological health. In this work, the utilitarian properties of materials such as peat, bark, seaweeds, seaweed post-extraction residues, and spent mushroom substrate enriched via biosorption with Zn(II) ions were examined in germination tests on Lepidium sativum. Obtained results were compared with conventional fertilizers-inorganic salt and chelate. It was shown that zinc fertilization led to biofortification of plant in these micronutrients. Moreover, the mass of plants fertilized with zinc was higher than in the control group. PMID:25108517

  1. Preplant SlowRelease Nitrogen Fertilizers Produce Similar Bell Pepper Yields as Split Applications of Soluble Fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Guertal

    2000-01-01

    applications of urea (Brown et al., 1988). Highest fruit yield of bell pepper grown on plastic mulch was obtained Slow-release N materials are used to reduce N leaching losses from with broadcast-applied SCU or isobutylidene diurea sandy soils and extend N availability over a growing season. The objective of this research was to examine the effectiveness of preplant (IBDU), when

  2. Ammonia Emission from Mineral Fertilizers and Fertilized Crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven G. Sommer; Jan K. Schjoerring; O. T. Denmead

    2004-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in NH3 emission from inorganic N fertilizers and fertilized crops is required if reliable and operational NH3 emission factors and decision support systems for inorganic fertilizers are to be developed, taking into account the actual soil properties, climatic conditions and management factors. For this reason, the present review focuses on

  3. Evaluation of Variable Rate Fertilizer Applications In an Arizona Cotton Production System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Norton; L. J. Clark; H. Borrego

    2005-01-01

    A project was initiated in the 2004 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) growing season in an effort to accomplish two major objectives. The first was to continue with phosphorus (P) fertilization evaluations that have taken place in the Upper Gila River Valley for the past four seasons by continuing to document the effects of P fertilization on crop yield and fiber quality.

  4. Uniform and variable-rate application of potassium fertilizers in Louisiana sugarcane production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    If sugar and cane yields are to be optimized and profitability improved, it is critical that a sugarcane crop receive the proper levels of plant nutrients. Under-fertilization can result in reduced cane yields, while over-fertilization can reduce sugar recovery. Potassium (K) has been associated wit...

  5. Antagonism at combined effects of chemical fertilizers and carbamate insecticides on the rice-field N2-fixing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum sp. in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nabakishore; Rath, Shakti

    2014-01-01

    Effects of chemical fertilizers (urea, super phosphate and potash) on toxicities of two carbamate insecticides, carbaryl and carbofuran, individually to the N2-fixing cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermum sp. were studied in vitro at partially lethal levels (below highest permissive concentrations) of each insecticide. The average number of vegetative cells between two polar heterocysts was 16.3 in control cultures, while the mean value of filament length increased in the presence of chemical fertilizers, individually. Urea at the 10 ppm level was growth stimulatory and at the 50 ppm level it was growth inhibitory in control cultures, while at 100 ppm it was antagonistic, i.e. toxicity-enhancing along with carbaryl, individually to the cyanobacterium, antagonism was recorded. Urea at 50 ppm had toxicity reducing effect with carbaryl or carbofuran. At 100 and 250 ppm carbofuran levels, 50 ppm urea only had a progressive growth enhancing effect, which was marked well at 250 ppm carbofuran level, a situation of synergism. Super phosphate at the 10 ppm level only was growth promoting in control cultures, but it was antagonistic at its higher levels (50 and 100 ppm) along with both insecticides, individually. Potash (100, 200, 300 and 400 ppm) reduced toxicity due to carbaryl 20 and carbofuran 250 ppm levels, but potash was antagonistic at the other insecticide levels. The data clearly showed that the chemical fertilizers used were antagonistic with both the insecticides during toxicity to Cylindrospermum sp.

  6. PHOSPHORUS LOSS TO RUNOFF WATER 24 HOURS AFTER APPLICATION OF MANURE OR FERTILIZER: I. EFFECTS OF POST-APPLICATION TILLAGE AND RATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) added to soil from fertilizer and manure application could pose a threat to water quality even if best management practices (BMPs) are followed. The objective of this study was to compare concentrations and losses of total suspended solids (TSS) and various P forms in runoff water wh...

  7. Cabbage: Varieties -- Fertilizers 

    E-print Network

    Pittuck, B. C.; McHenry, S. A.

    1903-01-01

    .98 per cent. The five fertilizer applications giving best results at each of the co-op- erative fertilizer experiment stations were as follows : AT BEEVILLE. ........... 1. Acid Phosphate (600 lbs. per acre), yielded 18,020 pounds... Eight cultivations, man and horse (two days' work). . 3 5( Spraying twice (material, 60 cents; labor, $1.00) ... 1 6( .................. Total cost to maturity. .$l2 8! To this statement must be added cost of fertilizers, irrigation, handling...

  8. Effects of leguminous plant residues and NPK fertilizer application on the performance of yam (Dioscorea rotundata ‘c.v.’ ewuru) in south-western Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gani Oladejo Kolawole

    2012-01-01

    The effects of cultivating and incorporating residues of previous tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) and soybean (Glycine max) with application of NPK fertilizer on yam performance were evaluated at the teaching and research farm, LAUTECH, Nigeria. There were nine treatments: incorporation of legume residues (5 t DM ha), application of recommended fertilizer rate for yam (90–50–75 kg NPK ha) in the zone or

  9. The Rengen Grassland Experiment: Plant species composition after 64 years of fertilizer application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Hejcman; Michaela Klaudisová; Jürgen Schellberg; Dagmar Honsová

    2007-01-01

    A long-term fertilizer experiment (the Rengen Grassland Experiment, RGE) was established in 1941 in the Eifel Mountains of Germany on low productive grassland naturally dominated by Calluna vulgaris and Nardus stricta. Six treatments combinations of Ca, N, P, and K fertilizer were applied annually: an unfertilized control, Ca, CaN, CaNP, CaNP–KCl, and CaNP–K2SO4. In mid-June 2005, plant cover was visually

  10. Application of Rare Earth Phosphate Fertilizer in Western Area of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Xiangsheng; Wang Jiachen; Yang Jun; Fan Yubin; Wu Yanping; Zhang He

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth phosphate fertilizer (REPF) as base fertilizer (750 kg per hm2) was applied in the western area of China during the “Tenth Five-Year Plan”, and the results show as follows: compared with calcium superphosphate (CK), REPF increases crops yields for maize by 17.0%, for rice by 10.5%, for wheat by 24.2%, for potato by 18.5%, for cabbage by 16.3%,

  11. [Effects of irrigation mode and N application rate on cotton field fertilizer N use efficiency and N losses].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Wei, Chang-Zhou; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Peng; Wang, Juan; Zhu, Qi-Chao; Wang, Jin-Xin

    2012-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation modes (drip irrigation and furrow irrigation) and different N application rates (0, 240, 360 and 480 kg N x hm(-2)) on the fertilizer N use efficiency and N losses in a cotton field in Xinjiang, Northwest China. The main N cycling pathways, such as the N uptake by cotton plant, NO3(-)-N residual in soil, NH3 volatilization, NO3(-)-N leaching, and nitrification-denitrification, were quantitatively monitored. Compared with furrow irrigation, drip irrigation increased the seed cotton yield, plant N uptake, and fertilizer N use efficiency significantly. The NO3(-)-N residual in soil was significantly greater under furrow irrigation than under drip irrigation. With the application of fertilizer N, the N loss from NH3 volatilization under drip irrigation occupied 0.06% -0.14% of applied N, and was significantly greater than that under furrow irrigation. The N loss from NO3(-)-N leaching under drip irrigation and furrow irrigation was 4.4% and 8.8% of the applied N, respectively. Compared with furrow irrigation, drip irrigation could significantly decrease the NO3(-)-N leakage rate in leakage water. The nitrification-dinetrification loss under drip irrigation and furrow irrigation was 17.9% and 16.8% of the applied N, respectively. It was suggested that NO3(-)-N leaching and nitrification-denitrification were the main N losses in the cotton fields of Xinjiang. PMID:23359936

  12. Commercial Fertilizers in 1919-20. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

    1920-01-01

    Planters Fertilizer and ~h~nhi~;l'CbGp&;: : : : : : : : : : : : : .......................... Shreveport Fertilizer Works. . Sulphur Springs Acid and Fertilizer Company. .......... ................................... Swift ~k Company.. Tennessee Coal...-Guarantee ................. Planters Fertilizer and Chemical Co., Houston. Fort Worth. Texas. and New Orleans. La.- Planters' Plow Brand Blood and Bone With Potash- 28010 28011 28012 28284 28097 Guarantee ....................................... Analysis...

  13. Quantifying Uncertainties in N2O Emission Due to N Fertilizer Application in Cultivated Areas

    PubMed Central

    Philibert, Aurore; Loyce, Chantal; Makowski, David

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential approximately 298 times greater than that of CO2. In 2006, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated N2O emission due to synthetic and organic nitrogen (N) fertilization at 1% of applied N. We investigated the uncertainty on this estimated value, by fitting 13 different models to a published dataset including 985 N2O measurements. These models were characterized by (i) the presence or absence of the explanatory variable “applied N”, (ii) the function relating N2O emission to applied N (exponential or linear function), (iii) fixed or random background (i.e. in the absence of N application) N2O emission and (iv) fixed or random applied N effect. We calculated ranges of uncertainty on N2O emissions from a subset of these models, and compared them with the uncertainty ranges currently used in the IPCC-Tier 1 method. The exponential models outperformed the linear models, and models including one or two random effects outperformed those including fixed effects only. The use of an exponential function rather than a linear function has an important practical consequence: the emission factor is not constant and increases as a function of applied N. Emission factors estimated using the exponential function were lower than 1% when the amount of N applied was below 160 kg N ha?1. Our uncertainty analysis shows that the uncertainty range currently used by the IPCC-Tier 1 method could be reduced. PMID:23226430

  14. A novel mobile dual-wavelength laser altimetry system for improved site-specific Nitrogen fertilizer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitel, J.; Magney, T. S.; Vierling, L. A.; Brown, T. T.; Huggins, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Reducing fertilizer inputs while maintaining yield would increase farmer's profits and similarly lessen the adverse environmental effects of production agriculture. The development of technologies that allow precise, site-specific application of Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has thus been an important research goal over the past decades. Remote sensing of foliar crop properties and function with tractor-mountable optical sensors has thought to be useful to optimize N fertilizer applications. However, on-the-go sensing of foliar crop properties and function has proven difficult, particularly during early crop growth stages when fertilizer decisions are often made. This difficulty arises from the fact that the spectral signal measured by on-the-go sensors is dominated by soil reflectance during early crop growth stages. Here, we present the basic principles behind a novel, dual-wavelength, tractor mountable laser altimetry system that measures the laser return intensity of the reflected green and red laser light. The green (532 nm) and the red (660 nm) wavelength combination allows calculation of a modified Photochemical Reflectance Index (mPRI) that have shown to be sensitive to both crop function and foliar chemistry. The small field of view of the laser points (diameter: 4 mm) combined with its high sampling rate (1000 points sec-1) allows vegetation returns to be isolated from ground returns by using simple thresholds. First tests relating foliar N of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with laser derived mPRI are promising (r2 = 0.72). Further research is needed to test the relationship between laser derived spectral indices and crop function.

  15. [Effects of different application rates of humic acid compound fertilizer on pepper and its mechanism of anti-senility and incremental yield].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhimei; Xue, Shichuan; Liang, Wenju; Liu, Yuzhu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different application rates of humic acid compound fertilizer (HA) on the yield and physiological characteristics of pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) were studied in this paper. The results showed that different application rates of (HA) could affect the physiological activities and yield of pepper. The nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and peroxidase (POD) activity were improved with increasing application rate, but the change rate of NRA was reduced gradually. POD activity in inorganic compound fertilizer treatment was improved significantly when the application rate of fertilizer was higher than 0.3 g.kg-1, but that in HA treatment changed smoothly. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was improved significantly when the application rate of fertilizer was lower than 0.2 g.kg-1, and decreased gradually when the application rate was higher than 0.2 g.kg-1. The change of transpiration rate was consistent with that of SOD activity. The relationship between the application rate of fertilizer and the yield of pepper could be described with quadratic curve regression model. According to the equation, the highest application rate of HA should be 0.27 g.kg-1, and the highest yield of pepper could reach 165.22 g per pot. PMID:15139193

  16. Computational Toxicology: Application in Environmental Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview of computational models that describe various aspects of the source-to-health effect continuum. Fate and transport models describe the release, transportation, and transformation of chemicals from sources of emission throughout the general envir...

  17. Residual effects of sewage-sludge application on plant and soil-profile chemical composition

    SciTech Connect

    Hue, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term effects on plant and soil-profile chemical composition imposed by a residential sewage sludge were studied on an Oxisol from Hawaii. Sludge was applied at 0, 45, 90, and 180 Mg/ha in 1983. An NPK-fertilized treatment was included for comparison. Sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) was grown as a test crop in the 1983-84 and 1986-87 seasons. Soil samples for chemical analysis were taken in 1987 at three depths: 0-23 cm, 23-46 cm, and 46-69 cm. Beneficial effects of sludge, measured 3 years after application (beginning of the 1986's planting), were evident by large yield increases on sludge-amended soils relative to the unamended and the NPK-fertilized soils. The first cutting produced approximately 5 Mg/ha of dry matter from the sludge treatments, regardless of rate, as compared with 3 and 1.5 Mg/ha from the NPK and the 0 treatments. Regrowths showed similar effect, though less dramatic; average yields were 2.6 Mg/ha with sludge and 1.6 Mg/ha without. Heavy-metal concentrations in plants were generally unaffected by sludge applications; probably because (i) heavy-metal contents of the sludge were low, and (ii) soil pH was increased by sludge. Remarkable increases in pH, exchangeable Ca and extractable P, and resultant decreases in exchangeable Al, in all three soil layers of sludge-amended soils suggest that surface application of a low heavy-metal sludge could serve to correct subsoil acidity and enhance subsoil P availability.

  18. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory §...

  19. On Some Applications of Information Indices in Chemical Graph Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena V. Konstantinova

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Information theory has been used in various branches of science. During recent years it is applied extensively in chemical\\u000a graph theory for describing chemical structures and for providing good correlations between physico–chemical and structural\\u000a properties by means of information indices. The application of information indices to the problem of characterizing molecular\\u000a structures is presented in the paper. The information indices

  20. Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Graduate Programs Application Checklist | 1 |

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Complete of the Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering GAMES Application at https://games.unl.edu/GAMES/login.jsp in GAMES. They will be given the option to type their comments directly in a web form, or to upload

  1. Improvement of Preimplantation Development of In Vitro-Fertilized Bovine Zygotes by Glucose Supplementation to a Chemically Defined Medium

    PubMed Central

    SAKAGAMI, Nobutada; NISHINO, Osamu; ADACHI, Satoshi; UMEKI, Hidenobu; UCHIYAMA, Hiroko; ICHIKAWA, Kyoko; TAKESHITA, Kazuhisa; KANEKO, Etsushi; AKIYAMA, Kiyoshi; KOBAYASHI, Shuji; TAMADA, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented to the medium at the specific stage of embryo culture may be useful for the production of bovine blastocysts. PMID:24976585

  2. Improvement of preimplantation development of in vitro-fertilized bovine zygotes by glucose supplementation to a chemically defined medium.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Nobutada; Nishino, Osamu; Adachi, Satoshi; Umeki, Hidenobu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

    2014-10-01

    The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented to the medium at the specific stage of embryo culture may be useful for the production of bovine blastocysts. PMID:24976585

  3. EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON GROWTH YIELD AND PESTS OF VEGETABLE CROPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to measure the yield response of Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to an organic fertilizer derived from hydrolyzed feather, meat, bone, and blood meal, sulfate of potash and langeinite (Nature Safe 10-2-8). Th...

  4. Do nitrogen fertilizer rate and application timing make a difference in corn production?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high prices of nitrogen fertilizer have forced corn producers to consider strategies to increase nitrogen use efficiency. Improving nitrogen management in corn could involve the implementation of several management strategies. Side dressing, adjustment of nitrogen levels according to the site’s...

  5. A Comparison of Continuous Nitrogen Fertigation to Conventional Granular Fertilizer Application in Highbush Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertigation practices are currently being evaluated and compared to conventional fertilizer aplication on 0.6 acres of 'Bluecrop' blueberry planted April 2006 in Corvallis, OR. Plants are spaced 2.5 x 10 ft. apart and growing on mulched, raised beds. Treatments include two methods of fert...

  6. Neural subtype specification of fertilization and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells and application in parkinsonian mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiziano Barberi; Peter Klivenyi; Noel Y Calingasan; Hyojin Lee; Hibiki Kawamata; Kathleen Loonam; Anselme L Perrier; Juan Bruses; Maria E Rubio; Norbert Topf; Viviane Tabar; Neil L Harrison; M Flint Beal; Malcolm A S Moore; Lorenz Studer

    2003-01-01

    Existing protocols for the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells require extended in vitro culture, yield variable differentiation results or are limited to the generation of selected neural subtypes. Here we provide a set of coculture conditions that allows rapid and efficient derivation of most central nervous system phenotypes. The fate of both fertilization- and nuclear transfer–derived ES

  7. Derivation of a Variable Rate Nitrogen Application Model for In-Season Fertilization of Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizers used in crop production contribute to pollution of groundwater by nitrate and occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Economic and environmental pressures are forcing producers to improve nitrogen use efficiency. The objective of this study was to develop a production-based...

  8. Microwave Technology--Applications in Chemical Synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave heating, being specific and instantaneous, is unique and has found a place for expeditious chemical syntheses. Specifically, the solvent-free reactions are convenient to perform and have advantages over the conventional heating protocols as summarized in the previous se...

  9. The effects of manure and nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a high-input cropping system.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure. PMID:24830463

  10. The Effects of Manure and Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a High-Input Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

    2014-01-01

    With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure. PMID:24830463

  11. Chemical structure representations and applications in computational toxicity.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

    2012-01-01

    Efficient storage and retrieval of chemical structures is one of the most important prerequisite for solving any computational-based problem in life sciences. Several resources including research publications, text books, and articles are available on chemical structure representation. Chemical substances that have same molecular formula but several structural formulae, conformations, and skeleton framework/scaffold/functional groups of the molecule convey various characteristics of the molecule. Today with the aid of sophisticated mathematical models and informatics tools, it is possible to design a molecule of interest with specified characteristics based on their applications in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, biotechnology, nanomaterials, petrochemicals, and polymers. This chapter discusses both traditional and current state of art representation of chemical structures and their applications in chemical information management, bioactivity- and toxicity-based predictive studies. PMID:23007430

  12. Chemical signals play a crucial role in many aspects of fertilization, including activation and attraction of sperm,

    E-print Network

    Krug, Patrick J.

    a given order, but it is unclear whether they are effective at physiological pH (Ward and Kopf, 1993 and egg is a key factor mediating sexual reproduction. Dissolved signal molecules that cause sperm to orient and accelerate towards an egg could play pivotal roles in fertilization success

  13. Free energy calculations: Applications to chemical and biochemical phenomena

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter. Kollman

    1993-01-01

    The author will review the applications of free energy calculations employing molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo methods to a variety of chemical and biochemical phenomena. The focus is on the applications of such calculations to molecular solvation, molecular association, macromolecular stability, and enzyme catalysis. The molecules discussed range from monovalent ions and small molecules to proteins and nucleic acids.

  14. Free energy calculations: Applications to chemical and biochemical phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Kollman, P. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

    1993-11-01

    The author will review the applications of free energy calculations employing molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo methods to a variety of chemical and biochemical phenomena. The focus is on the applications of such calculations to molecular solvation, molecular association, macromolecular stability, and enzyme catalysis. The molecules discussed range from monovalent ions and small molecules to proteins and nucleic acids.

  15. Commercial Fertilizers in 1917-18. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1918-01-01

    -Guarantee ................ Analysls ........................................ Analysis ........................................ Pelican Truck Grower-Guarantee ................... Analysis ........................................ Planters' Fertilizer and Chemical Co., Houston.... Texas- Planters' Corn Fertilizer-Guarantee ................. Analysis ........................................ Planters' Farmer's Champion With Potash-Guarantee Analysis ........................................ Analysis...

  16. [Effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-li; Meng, Lin; Wang, Qiu-jun; Luo, Jia; Huang, Qi-wei; Xu, Yang-chun; Yang, Xing-ming; Shen, Qi-rong

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment was carried to study the effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield, nitrogen (N) use efficiency, soil N supply, and soil microbial diversity. Rapeseed cake compost (RCC), pig manure compost (PMC), and Chinese medicine residue compost (MRC) were mixed with chemical N, P and K fertilizers. All the treatments except CK received the same rate of N. The results showed that all N fertilizer application treatments had higher rice yield (7918.8-9449.2 kg x hm(-2)) than the control (6947.9 kg x hm(-2)). Compared with that of chemical fertilizers (CF) treatment (7918.8 kg x hm(-2)), the yield of the three organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers treatments ranged in 8532.0-9449.2 kg x hm(-2), and the increment was 7.7%-19.3%. Compared with treatment CF, the treatments of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers were significantly higher in N accumulation, N transportation efficiency, N recovery rate, agronomic N use efficiency, and physiological N use efficiency. These mixed fertilizers treatments promoted rice N uptake and improved soil N supply, and thus, increased N use efficiency, compared with treatments CF and CK. Neighbor joining analysis indicated that soil bacterial communities in the five treatments could be classified into three categories, i.e., CF and CK, PMC and MRC, and RCC, implying that the application of exogenous organic materials could affect soil bacterial communities, while applying chemical fertilizers had little effect on them. PMID:19637602

  17. Estimating NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China using the bi-directional CMAQ model coupled to an agro-ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X.; Wang, S. X.; Ran, L. M.; Pleim, J. E.; Cooter, E.; Bash, J. O.; Benson, V.; Hao, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in atmospheric aerosol chemistry. China is one of the largest NH3 emitting countries with the majority of NH3 emissions coming from agricultural practices, such as fertilizer application and livestock production. The current NH3 emission estimates in China are mainly based on pre-defined emission factors that lack temporal or spatial details, which are needed to accurately predict NH3 emissions. This study provides the first online estimate of NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China, using an agricultural fertilizer modeling system which couples a regional air quality model (the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model, or CMAQ) and an agro-ecosystem model (the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, or EPIC). This method improves the spatial and temporal resolution of NH3 emissions from this sector. We combined the cropland area data of 14 crops from 2710 counties with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land use data to determine the crop distribution. The fertilizer application rates and methods for different crops were collected at provincial or agricultural region levels. The EPIC outputs of daily fertilizer application and soil characteristics were input into the CMAQ model and the hourly NH3 emissions were calculated online with CMAQ running. The estimated agricultural fertilizer NH3 emissions in this study were approximately 3 Tg in 2011. The regions with the highest modeled emission rates are located in the North China Plain. Seasonally, peak ammonia emissions occur from April to July. Compared with previous researches, this study considers an increased number of influencing factors, such as meteorological fields, soil and fertilizer application, and provides improved NH3 emissions with higher spatial and temporal resolution.

  18. Comparison of sludge and fertilizer applications on establishment and growth of seedlings of two sweetgum ecotypes endomycorrhizal with Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatus. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kormanik, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    Three different field trails are ongoing. The first study involves effects of sludge and fertilizer applications on the development of sweetgum progeny from 2 mother trees, each representing a different ecotype. Differences in overall survival exist between the 2 ecotypes (56.7% and 71.3%). Survival differences among the seedlings of both ecotypes in the fertilizer treatment were 58%, sludge 66% and control 73%. These figures are due to the differences in grass competition that developed across treatments. In study 2, grass competition was controlled and one level of fertilizer was used for all ecotypes and VAM symbionts. Pooling of data showed that VA seedlings were taller than non-VA seedlings. The third experiment compares root-collar diameter of progeny of 2 different sweetgum mother trees under uniform fertilizer treatment. Data suggest that root-collar diameter of mycorrhizal seedlings is a good indicator of future vigor. (MF)

  19. N2O emissions due to nitrogen fertilizer applications in two regions of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signor, D.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Conant, R.

    2013-03-01

    Among the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), N2O has the highest global warming potential. N2O emission is mainly connected to agricultural activities, increasing as nitrogen concentrations increase in the soil with nitrogen fertilizer application. We evaluated N2O emissions due to application of increasing doses of ammonium nitrate and urea in two sugarcane fields in the mid-southern region of Brazil: Piracicaba (São Paulo state) and Goianésia (Goiás state). In Piracicaba, N2O emissions exponentially increased with increasing N doses and were similar for urea and ammonium nitrate up to a dose of 107.9 kg ha-1 of N. From there on, emissions exponentially increased for ammonium nitrate, whereas for urea they stabilized. In Goianésia, N2O emissions were lower, although the behavior was similar to that at the Piracicaba site. Ammonium nitrate emissions increased linearly with N dose and urea emissions were adjusted to a quadratic equation with a maximum amount of 113.9 kg N ha-1. This first effort to measure fertilizer induced emissions in Brazilian sugarcane production not only helps to elucidate the behavior of N2O emissions promoted by different N sources frequently used in Brazilian sugarcane fields but also can be useful for future Brazilian ethanol carbon footprint studies.

  20. 40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

  1. 40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

  2. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. The...

  3. 40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

  4. 40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

  5. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. The...

  6. 40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

  7. 40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

  8. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. The...

  9. Application of mixed-integer programming in chemical engineering

    E-print Network

    Pogiatzis, Thomas

    2013-06-11

    Application of Mixed-Integer Programming in Chemical Engineering Thomas Pogiatzis Homerton College University of Cambridge This dissertation is submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy November 2012 ^En tz?e˜inon t˜h tsili˜ac p?s> stä bol... Kazantzakis) Preface The work in this dissertation was undertaken at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, between October 2009 and November 2012. It is the original work of the author, except where specifically...

  10. [Sustainability of crop yields in China under long-term fertilization and different ecological conditions].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong-fang; Xu, Ming-gang; Zhang, Hui-min; Zhang, Shu-xiang; Zhang, Wen-jü

    2010-05-01

    By using sustainable yield index (SYI), this paper analyzed the sustainability of maize, rice, and wheat yields at 20 long-term fertilization experiment sites in China under different fertilization system and ecological conditions. The SYI value of test crops varied significantly with fertilization system, crop kind, effective accumulated temperature, and sunshine hour. Irrespective of fertilization, the SYI value of rice was generally higher than that of maize and wheat. Under long-term no fertilization, the SYI values of rice, wheat, and maize were lower, being 0.55, 0.44, and 0.43, respectively. Fertilization, especially a combined application of NPK and manure, promoted the sustainability of crop yields, with the SYI values of rice, wheat, and maize being 0.66, 0.58, and 0.57, respectively. Under the application of N and NK, the SYI values ranged in 0. 36-0. 47. SYI value > 0.55 represented the better sustainability of crop yields, while SYI < 0.45 represented a worse one. Longitude, altitude, and weather factors also affected the SYI values, especially that of maize. Under no fertilization, maize had the largest variation of SYI value, followed by wheat, and rice. Our results indicated that a combined application of chemical fertilizers with manure benefited high and stable yielding, being the optimal fertilization mode for maintaining the sustainability of grain yield. PMID:20707111

  11. Carbon sequestration and methane emission from a tropical rice field under intensive rice cultivation with long-term application of compost and inorganic fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, D. R.; Yeluriapti, J.; Adhya, T. K.

    2009-04-01

    The impact of long-term intensive rice-rice cropping system with different managements on soil organic carbon content (SOC) and methane emission was studied using a 36-year-old fertility experiment under tropical climate. Intensive rice production systems are important sinks of carbon but at the same time these are the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4, a major greenhouse gas. A significant increase in soil organic carbon in the treatments receiving compost or compost + inorganic fertilizer was observed. But the Control treatment where there is no fertilizer amendment, the SOC content decreased slightly. 36 years of application of compost and inorganic fertilizer application resulted in 32% increase in SOC content over the control treatment. Methane emission varied significantly among the treatments, growth stages and growth seasons. Treatments with combined application of compost and inorganic fertilizer showed highest CH4 emission during both dry and wet season. About 3.9 to 10.8 % of the total annual carbon input was lost through CH4 emission. CH4 emission showed significant positive correlation with soil parameters such as ferrous iron content, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase activity and plant parameters such as grain yield and straw yield. Step-wise regression analysis showed ferrous iron content of soil and straw yield explained more than 80% of variability in CH4 emission during both dry and wet season.

  12. Understanding emissions of ammonia from buildings and the application of fertilizers: an example from Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, M.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Kryza, M.; Dore, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    A Europe-wide dynamic ammonia (NH3) emissions model has been applied for one of the large agricultural countries in Europe, and its sensitivity on the distribution of emissions among different agricultural functions was analyzed by comparing with observed ammonia concentrations and by implementing all scenarios in a chemical transport model (CTM). The results suggest that the dynamic emission model is most sensitive to emissions from animal manure, in particular how animal manure and its application on fields is connected to national regulations. To incorporate the national regulations, we obtained activity information on agricultural operations at the sub-national level for Poland, information about infrastructure on storages and current regulations on manure practice from Polish authorities. The information was implemented in the existing emission model and was connected directly with calculations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The model was used to calculate four emission scenarios with high spatial (5 km × 5 km) and temporal resolution (3 h) for the entire year 2010. In the four scenarios, we have compared a constant emission approach (FLAT), scenario (1) against (2) a dynamic approach based on the Europe-wide default settings (Skjøth et al., 2011, scenario DEFAULT); (3) a dynamic approach that takes into account Polish practice and less regulation compared to Denmark (POLREGUL); (4) a scenario that focuses on emissions from agricultural buildings (NOFERT). The ammonia emission was implemented into the chemical transport model FRAME (Fine Resolution Atmospheric Multi-pollutant Exchange) and modelled ammonia concentrations were compared with measurements. The results for an agricultural area suggest that the default setting in the dynamic model is an improvement compared to a non-dynamical emission profile. The results also show that further improvements can be obtained at a national scale by replacing the default information on manure practice with information that is connected with local practice and national regulations. Implementing a dynamical approach for simulation of ammonia emission is a reliable but challenging objective for CTM models that continue to use fixed emission profiles.

  13. Impact of Organic Amendments with and Without Mineral Fertilizers on Soil Microbial Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilani, S. S.; Bahmanyar, M. A.

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of Sewage Sludge (SS), Municipal Waste Compost (MWC) and Vermicompost (VC) with and without chemical fertilizer (Urea, 50 kg ha-1 + Potassium sulfate, 100 kg ha-1 + Triple super phosphate, 127.5 kg ha-1) on Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in a soil cropped to soybean. Experiment was arranged in a complete block design with three replications. Organic amendments were added to soil at rate of 0 (control treatment), 20 and 40 Mg ha-1. Furthermore each level of organic fertilizers with ½ normal of chemical fertilizer was also enriched. Soil samples were taken after one year of fertilization. Results illustrated that application of organic amendments increased TOC and SMR and soybean yield compared to control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Sewage sludge amended soils showed higher SMR, TOC and soybean yield than that of other organic amendment treatments. An increasing trend was observed in all studied parameters, as rates of application increased. All parameters were greater in treatments receiving a combination of chemical fertilizers and organic amendments (enriched treatments) compared to soils receiving organic amendments alone. Results obtained by discriminate analysis indicated that rates of application were more effective to create discriminating among treatments. This study showed that TOC was significantly correlated with SMR. Significant correlation was also observed between SMR and soybean yield.

  14. The Application of Virtual Reality to ( Chemical Engineering ) Education

    E-print Network

    Bell, John T.

    -based learning. This poster presents work performed by the authors to apply VR to engineering education, in threeThe Application of Virtual Reality to ( Chemical Engineering ) Education John T. Bell Electronic Visualization Laboratory Department of Computer Science University of Illinois Chicago JBell@uic.edu H. Scott

  15. A review of chemical heat pump technology and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W Wongsuwan; S Kumar; P Neveu; F Meunier

    2001-01-01

    Chemical heat pumps (CHPs) provide high storage capacity and high heat of reaction as compared to sensible heat generated by absorption. Investigation of material properties and their operation have led to their heat pumps exploitation for commercial and industrial applications. Integration of solar thermal system to the CHPs would assist in expanding the utilization of CHPs and also for many

  16. Stochastic mapping for chemical plume source localization with application to autonomous hydrothermal vent discovery

    E-print Network

    Jakuba, Michael Vavrousek, 1976-

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a stochastic mapping framework for autonomous robotic chemical plume source localization in environments with multiple sources. Potential applications for robotic chemical plume source localization ...

  17. [Effects of long-term fertilization on organic carbon functional groups in black soil as revealed by synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qing-He; Dong, Pei-Bo; Li, Cui-Lan; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Gao, Qiang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

    2012-10-01

    A 20 years (1984-2004) stationary field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term application of chemical fertilizers (N or NPK) alone or in combination with low (0.125 kg x hm(-2)) or high dose of corn stalk (0.25 kg x hm(-2)) on organic carbon functional groups in black soil using synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (C-1s NEXAFS). Compared with the control (CK) treatment, the aromatic C and the carboxyl C of soil increased, whereas the aliphatic C, the carbonyl C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio decreased after the application of chemical fertilizer alone. After the application of chemical fertilizations in combined with corn stalk, the aromatic C decreased while the aliphatic C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio increased as compared to N or NPK fertilizer treatment. And the change tendency was more obvious with the increase in the dose of corn stalk applied. Regardless of corn stalk application, the aromatic C, the aliphatic C, and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio were all higher for NPK than for N fertilizer treatment. The above results indicated that, compared with the no-fertilizer control treatment, the application of chemical fertilizers alone resulted in the relative proportion of aromatic compounds increased whereas that of aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds decreased. On the other hand, the relative proportion of the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds was higher after the application of chemical fertilizers with than without corn stalk, with high than with low dose of corn stalk, and with NPK than with N fertilization. C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy could characterize in situ the changes of organic carbon functional groups in soil under long-term stationary fertilization. PMID:23285902

  18. Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-10-01

    Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ?100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies. PMID:22963545

  19. Comparative response of varied irrigated maize to organic and inorganic fertilizer application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandika, I. R.; Kadyampakeni, D.; Bottomani, C.; Kakhiwa, H.

    The response of varied irrigated maize (Zea mays) to organic and inorganic fertilizer N, was evaluated at Kasinthula Agricultural Station (2003-2006), Malawi to determine the optimum nutrient and irrigation frequency combinations for soil-water and nutrient management which will address water stress and low soil fertility problem. Hybrid maize variety (DK 8031) was planted on ridges spaced at 0.75 × 0.25 m in a split-plot design replicated three times, with four irrigation frequencies as main plots and fertilizer sources as subplots. Irrigation frequencies comprised: water balance scheduling at 40% depletion, and irrigating 40 mm every 3-4 days, 7 days and 14 days. The nitrogen sources were compost (C), farmyard manure (FYM), urea (U) and their mixtures [(2U:C); (U:2C); (2U:FYM); and (U:2FYM)]. Organic manure was banded three weeks before planting. Data on grain yield was collected and subjected to ANOVA using the Genstat and LSD 0.05 test separating statistical significant means. There was positive ( P < 0.01) and highly significant interactions between maize grain yield, crop water productivity (CWP) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). The water balance scheduling at 40% soil moisture depletion had highest grain yields, CWP and NUE among the four irrigation frequencies that was not significantly different to 40 mm every 3-4 days and every 7 days obtained with nitrogen sourced from sole Urea which were not significantly different to mean grain yields, CWP and NUE from (2U:C) and (2U:FYM). CWP was optimally maximised in sole urea (9.8, 8.8 kg mm -1 ha -1) and mixed treatments of 2U:C (8.2, 7.2 kg mm -1 ha -1) or 2U:FYM (8.2-8.9 kg mm -1 ha -1) for maize irrigated every 7 days and at 40% depletion using soil water balance schedule respectively. The greatest NUE of 53.5 kg kg N -1 under (2U:FYM) treatments was experienced at 40% depletion irrigation schedule and was also not significantly different to sole urea and (2U:FYM) treatments (52.8 and 51.6 kg kg N -1) irrigated at 40% depletion and every 3-4 days irrigation schedule respectively. The minimum NUE 19.8 kg kg N -1was observed in FYM treatments irrigated every 14 days. Generally, yields were optimized in the 40% depletion and 40 mm in 7 days in the 2U:C and 2U:FYM treatment. Maize fertilized with sole organic N sources was lowest in CWP and NUE in all irrigation regimes, and exhibited high water dependencies. An increase in irrigation frequency and urea ratio increased maize yield and NUE, while CWP decreased. It can, therefore, be concluded that with adequate water and high inorganic N ratio, there is great potential to facilitate N release from organic matter. In times of water shortage, sole urea can better or more easily be utilized than organic nitrogen sources.

  20. The influence of host plant, nitrogen fertilization and fungicide application on the abundance and seasonal dynamics of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in arable soils of northern Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Land; H. Alten; F. Schönbeck

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation examines whether the crop plant, increased nitrogen (N) fertilization and fungicide application influence the pattern of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) populations. For this purpose, two arable field locations in Lower Saxony (Hotteln and Langreder) were chosen and the formation of mycorrhiza, spore density, number of infectious propagules (MPN) and frequency of spore types within VAM populations were

  1. Response of two okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) varieties to fertilizers: Yield and yield components as influenced by nitrogen and phosphorus application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VB Ogunlela; MK Ahmed; JD Olarewaju

    1985-01-01

    The response of two okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) varieties (‘White velvet’ and ‘NHAE 47-4’) to fertilization in northern Nigeria was examined using four rates of nitrogen (0, 25, 50 and 100 kg ha-1) and three rates of phosphorus (0, 13 and 26 kg ha-1). Nitrogen application significantly increased green pod yield, pod diameter, number of fruits per plant, number

  2. Effects of field application of phosphate fertilizers on the availability and uptake of lead, zinc and cadmium by cabbage ( Brassica chinensis L.) in a mining tailing contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biling WANG; Zhengmiao XIE; Jianjun CHEN; Juntao JIANG; Qiufeng SU

    2008-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate the reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals including lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in a soil contaminated by mining tailings in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China. Three commercial phosphate (P) fertilizers including phosphate rock (PR), calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), and single superphosphate (SSP) were applied to the plot at three P application rates,

  3. Chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Brooks, Kriston P.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage is the sought after hydrogen storage media for automotive applications because of the expected low pressure operation (<20 atm), moderate temperature operation (<200 °C), system gravimetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/kgsystem), and system volumetric capacities (>0.05 kg H2/Lsystem). Currently, the primary shortcomings of chemical hydrogen storage are regeneration efficiency, fuel cost and fuel phase (i.e., solid or slurry phase). Understanding the required material properties to meet the DOE Technical Targets for Onboard Hydrogen Storage Systems is a critical knowledge gap in the hydrogen storage research community. This study presents a set of fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage material property guidelines for automotive applications meeting the 2017 DOE technical targets. Viable material properties were determined using a boiler-plate automotive system design. The fluid-phase chemical hydrogen storage media considered in this study were neat liquids, solutions, and non-settling homogeneous slurries. Material properties examined include kinetics, heats of reaction, fuel-cell impurities, gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen storage capacities, and regeneration efficiency. The material properties, although not exhaustive, are an essential first step in identifying viable chemical hydrogen storage material properties-and most important, their implications on system mass, system volume and system performance.

  4. Field assessment of soil quality as affected by compost and fertilizer application in a broccoli field (San Benito County, California)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Stamatiadis; M Werner; M Buchanan

    1999-01-01

    Selected in-field physical, chemical and biological indicators were measured for the rapid assessment of soil quality changes in a Sorrento silty clay loam as a result of compost and ammonium nitrate application to a broccoli field (San Benito County, CA). Plots were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications of 0, 22 and 44Mgha?1 compost treatments

  5. Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2012-04-16

    Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

  6. Comparison of sludge and fertilizer applications on establishment and growth of seedlings of two sweetgum ecotypes endomycorrhizal with glomus mosseae and glomus etunicatus. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kormanik, P.P.

    1983-11-01

    A study of sludge and fertilizer applications on the development of sweetgum progeny from two different mother trees. There are significant differences in survival between the genetically different half-sib progeny. Half-sib progeny from mother tree 76-11 had 72% survival, while those from 76-9 had only 56% survival. A second study had only one level of a commercial fertilizer which was used for all genetic tree lines. The third outplanting experiment was installed to compare root coolar diameters of progeny from two genotypic lines of sweetgum.

  7. Effect of Chemical Fertilizer and Animal Wastes Application on Environmental Life Support Using the “Delphi” Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Kushwaha; J. E. Ochi; M. M. Abubakar; G. B. Ayoola

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of environmental problems has posed a special challenge to scientists in general and economists in particular due to intractability of environmental variables. One methodology developed to overcome this problem, in technical terms, is the “Delphi” technique. The “Delphi” technique integrates environmental variables, economic criteria and political value judgements into a decision-making functional model. Thirty-five experts, whose technical knowledge varied

  8. Natural radionuclides and trace elements in rice field soils in relation to fertilizer application: study of a chronic kidney disease area in Sri Lanka

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohana Chandrajith; Shirani Seneviratna; Kumudu Wickramaarachchi; T. Attanayake; T. N. C. Aturaliya; C. B. Dissanayake

    2010-01-01

    The rising number of chronic kidney disease patients with no identifiable cause (CKD of uncertain aetiology), prevalent in\\u000a some areas of the dry zone of Sri Lanka is suspected to be related to the environmental exposure to heavy metals. Agricultural\\u000a soils are well recognized as being contaminated with potentially toxic metals from various forms of fertilizers and agro-chemicals,\\u000a which could

  9. Nitrogen and phosphorus losses in surface runoff and drainage water after application of slurry and mineral fertilizer to perennial grass ley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eila Turtola; Erkki Kemppainen

    ), but the respective P losses (0.7-0.9 kg ha -1 ) were not affected. During the ley years (1993-96) the N and P losses were increased by surface application of fertilizers and by abun- dance of surface runoff (83-100% of the total runoff). Nutrient losses were extremely high after slurry application in autumn and winter, accounting for 11% and 33%

  10. 40 CFR 414.80 - Applicability; description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability;...

  11. 21 CFR 1309.25 - Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Requirements for Registration...exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants...distribute, import, or export a combination ephedrine product is...to registration; all other chemical control requirements...

  12. 21 CFR 1309.25 - Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Requirements for Registration...exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants...distribute, import, or export a combination ephedrine product is...to registration; all other chemical control requirements...

  13. 21 CFR 1309.25 - Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Requirements for Registration...exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants...distribute, import, or export a combination ephedrine product is...to registration; all other chemical control requirements...

  14. Application of repetitive pulsed power technology to chemical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, R.J.; Hamil, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The numerous sites of soil and water contaminated with organic chemicals present an urgent environmental concern that continues to grow. Electron and x-ray irradiation have been shown to be effective methods to destroy a wide spectrum of organic chemicals, nitrates, nitrites, and cyanide in water by breaking molecules to non-toxic products or entirely mineralizing the by-products to gas, water, and salts. Sandia National Laboratories is developing Repetitive High Energy Pulsed Power (RHEPP) technology capable of producing high average power, broad area electron or x-ray beams. The 300 kW RHEPP-II facility accelerates electrons to 2.5 MeV at 25 kA over 1,000 cm{sup 2} in 60 ns pulses at repetition rates of over 100 Hz. Linking this modular treatment capability with the rapid optical-sensing diagnostics and neutral network characterization software algorithms will provide a Smart Waste Treatment (SWaT) system. Such a system would also be applicable for chemical manufacture and processing of industrial waste for reuse or disposal. This talk describes both the HREPP treatment capability and sensing technologies. Measurements of the propagated RHEPP-II beam and dose profiles are presented. Sensors and rapid detection software are discussed with application toward chemical treatment.

  15. Applications of neural networks in chemical engineering: Hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Grizzaffi, P.A. (Southwestern Louisiana Inst., Lafayette, LA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Expert systems are known to be useful in capturing expertise and applying knowledge to chemical engineering problems such as diagnosis, process control, process simulation, and process advisory. However, expert system applications are traditionally limited to knowledge domains that are heuristic and involve only simple mathematics. Neural networks, on the other hand, represent an emerging technology capable of rapid recognition of patterned behavior without regard to mathematical complexity. Although useful in problem identification, neural networks are not very efficient in providing in-depth solutions and typically do not promote full understanding of the problem or the reasoning behind its solutions. Hence, applications of neural networks have certain limitations. This paper explores the potential for expanding the scope of chemical engineering areas where neural networks might be utilized by incorporating expert systems and neural networks into the same application, a process called hybridization. In addition, hybrid applications are compared with those using more traditional approaches, the results of the different applications are analyzed, and the feasibility of converting the preliminary prototypes described herein into useful final products is evaluated. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Merging applicability domains for in silico assessment of chemical mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruifeng; Wallqvist, Anders

    2014-03-24

    Using a benchmark Ames mutagenicity data set, we evaluated the performance of molecular fingerprints as descriptors for developing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models and defining applicability domains with two machine-learning methods: random forest (RF) and variable nearest neighbor (v-NN). The two methods focus on complementary aspects of chemical mutagenicity and use different characteristics of the molecular fingerprints to achieve high levels of prediction accuracies. Thus, while RF flags mutagenic compounds using the presence or absence of small molecular fragments akin to structural alerts, the v-NN method uses molecular structural similarity as measured by fingerprint-based Tanimoto distances between molecules. We showed that the extended connectivity fingerprints could intuitively be used to define and quantify an applicability domain for either method. The importance of using applicability domains in QSAR modeling cannot be understated; compounds that are outside the applicability domain do not have any close representative in the training set, and therefore, we cannot make reliable predictions. Using either approach, we developed highly robust models that rival the performance of a state-of-the-art proprietary software package. Importantly, based on the complementary approach used by the methods, we showed that by combining the model predictions we raised the applicability domain from roughly 80% to 90%. These results indicated that the proposed QSAR protocol constituted a highly robust chemical mutagenicity prediction model. PMID:24494696

  17. Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical stratigraphy

    E-print Network

    Banner, Jay L.

    Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical Accepted 23 June 2003 Abstract Radiogenic isotopes have wide application to chemical stratigraphy briefly reviews the principles of radiogenic isotope geochemistry and the distribution of a number

  18. Incremental Integration Tools for Chemical Engineering: An Industrial Application of Triple Graph

    E-print Network

    Westfechtel, Bernhard

    Incremental Integration Tools for Chemical Engineering: An Industrial Application of Triple Graph a framework which constitutes an industrial application of triple graph grammars. It solves integration problems in a specific domain, namely design processes in chemical engineering. Here, different design

  19. Integration of Chemical Sensors with LSI Technology — History and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixier-Mita, Agnès; Takahashi, Takuya; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    Chemical sensors are one of the oldest fields of research closely related to the semiconductor technology. From the Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors (ISFET) in the 70's, through Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) sensors from the end of the 80's, chemical sensors are combining in the 90's MEMS technology with LSI intelligence to devise more selective, sensitive and autonomous devices to analyse complex mixtures. A brief history of chemical sensors from the ISFET to the nowadays LSI integrated sensors is first detailed. Then the states-of-the-art of LSI integrated chemical sensors and their wide range of applications are discussed. Finally the authors propose a brand-new usage of integrated wireless MEMS sensors for remote surveillance of chemical substances, such as food-industry or pharmaceutical products, that are stored in closed environment like a bottle, for a long period. In such environment, in-situ analyse is necessary, and electrical cables, for energy supply or data transfer, cannot be used. Thanks to integrated MEMS, an autonomous long-term in-situ quality deterioration tracking system is possible.

  20. 5.0 Application of Chemical Reaction Codes 5.1. Background

    E-print Network

    5.1 5.0 Application of Chemical Reaction Codes 5.1. Background Determination of species analyses of water compositions and a competent chemical reaction model. Computerized chemical reaction that may leach from waste, an understanding of the capabilities and application of chemical reaction models

  1. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  2. Nitrogen use efficiency in a wheat-corn cropping system from 15 years of manure and fertilizer applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and adverse environmental impacts caused by N fertilization increasingly threaten the sustainability of agriculture. To develop strategies for efficient nutrient management, we investigated the effects of long-term (1991-2005) various fertilization regimes on yield,...

  3. SIMBA-N: Modeling nitrogen dynamics in banana populations in wet tropical climate. Application to fertilization management in the Caribbean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Dorel; Raphaël Achard; Philippe Tixier

    2008-01-01

    In banana plantations of the Caribbean, nitrogen (N) fertilization widely exceeds nutrient outputs after harvest. Under wet tropical climate, leaching results in considerable waste of N. Fertilization management aims at maintaining soil mineral N at the optimal level for banana nutrition throughout the year but it does not take into account variations in crop N demand or N supply through

  4. Phosphorus Uptake and Translocation in Field-Grown Maize after Application of Rare Earth-Containing Fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingkai Xu; Zijian Wang

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, rare earths and rare-earth containing fertilizers along with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been used by agriculturists to improve crop yield and quality. The interaction between rare earths and N has been explained in soils, yet little is known of the effect of rare earths on P nutrition of field-grown crops. When maize plants entered

  5. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION OF PRODUCING FERTILIZER FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS: APPLICATION OF BULGARIAN EXPERIENCE TO CASE STUDY OF PORTUGAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryunosuke KIKUCHI; Yontcho G. PELOVSKI; Sandra M. SANTOS

    2005-01-01

    A Bulgarian project at Maritsa East power station demonstrated the proper transformation of air pollutants (SOx and NOx) into nitrogen fertilizer. Although this technology has not been put into practice in Bulgaria, it seems feasible on an industrial scale and so it may help to ease Portugal's reliance on imports of nitrogen fertilizer and thereby contain the outfl ow of

  6. Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvina Vargas Gil; Analia Becker; Claudio Oddino; Mónica Zuza; Adriana Marinelli; Guillermo March

    2009-01-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological\\u000a indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in\\u000a response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage\\u000a systems (NT: no tillage, DH:

  7. Response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to an application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer grown on Olasiti soils from Minjingu-Manyara, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kisetu, Eliakira; Teveli, Christina Ngomzee Medutieki

    2013-11-15

    A screen-house pot experiment was conducted to assess the response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to the application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer (31% P2O5) on Olasiti soil, Manyara Region-Tanzania. This study was prompted by very low or limited use of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer by smallholder farmers in the country while yields turnout of most crops, green gram inclusive, is not promising. The soil was clay with medium pH (pH 5.5-7.0) and neutral reaction (pH 6.6-7.3). The results showed that the number of pods and seeds increased from 3-6 and 7-9, respectively, at 40 to 160 mg per 4 kg soil of fertilizer applied. Similarly, the tissue N and P increased with treatment levels. The number of pods per plant and seeds per pod showed similar increase, signifying the role of these nutrients in protein synthesis in leguminous plants like green gram. Soil properties could be the spearhead to low responses obtained at low (< 80 mg per 4 kg soil) and high (> 320 mg per 4 kg soil) rates of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer applied. It was concluded that to optimize green gram production in Olasiti soil, Minjingu Mazao fertilizer containing 31% P2O5 should be applied at a rate of 160-320 kg ha(-1) while considering other necessary agronomic practices. However, field studies to confirm the findings of this study and verify the usefulness of this fertilizer brand to green gram in Olasiti soil under field conditions could practically be the viable option before its recommendation to the smallholder farmers. PMID:24511709

  8. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

    1997-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Two areas of particular interest are safety monitoring and emission monitoring. In safety monitoring, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen at potentially low temperatures is important while for emission monitoring the detection of nitrogen oxides, hydrogen, hydrocarbons and oxygen is of interest. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. (2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this general area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  9. Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications.

    PubMed

    Balmer, R S; Brandon, J R; Clewes, S L; Dhillon, H K; Dodson, J M; Friel, I; Inglis, P N; Madgwick, T D; Markham, M L; Mollart, T P; Perkins, N; Scarsbrook, G A; Twitchen, D J; Whitehead, A J; Wilman, J J; Woollard, S M

    2009-09-01

    Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer audio, magnetometry and novel lasers. Often the material is synthesized in planar form; however, non-planar geometries are also possible and enable a number of key applications. This paper reviews the material properties and characteristics of single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond, and how these can be utilized, focusing particularly on optics, electronics and electrochemistry. It also summarizes how CVD diamond can be tailored for specific applications, on the basis of the ability to synthesize a consistent and engineered high performance product. PMID:21832327

  10. Preserving Fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kutluk Oktay; Ozgur Oktem

    \\u000a Negative impact of modern cancer treatment methods on human reproduction has been recognized. In this chapter, we first summarize\\u000a the facts about cancer and treatment-related adverse outcomes in female reproductive function, then discuss the needs, and\\u000a outline the current strategies and the future directions of fertility preservation and ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation\\u000a in adult and adolescent female patients whose fertility

  11. Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

  12. Biochar application to temperate soils - effects on soil fertility and crop yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, S.; Zehetner, F.; Feichtmair, S.; Wimmer, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Kitzler, B.; Watzinger, A.; Soja, G.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar (BC) application to soil as a potential soil amendment is currently intensively explored. Depending on feedstock and highest treatment temperature (HTT), BC application to soil may contribute to the soil nutrient status by directly adding nutrients to the soil as well as by increasing pH, cation exchange and water holding capacity. These parameters are known to play an important role in the soil nutrient status and nutrient availability. A positive effect on plant growth after BC application to tropical soils has been observed repeatedly; however, the effect of BC application to soils in temperate climate regions is much less explored. We investigated the effect of BC to temperate soils and crop yield using a randomized pot experiment in a greenhouse with three agricultural soils (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four BC types (from straw, mixed woodchips and vineyard pruning, all pyrolyzed at 525°C). In order to analyze the effect of pyrolysis temperature, we additionally applied vineyard pruning BC pyrolyzed at 400°C. Selected treatments were planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.), followed by barley (Hordeum vulgare). Soil sampling was carried out after barley harvest. Investigated soil parameters included pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC), CAL-extractable P and K, EDTA extractable Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn as well as nitrogen supplying potential (NSP). Biomass production of the two crops was determined as well as its elemental composition. Biochar application (3% wood-based BC) caused a considerable pH increase for the acidic Planosol. The effect of BC application on CEC was dependent on the original status of the soil, notably soil pH and texture. 3 % BC application (wood) decreased CEC by 3.5 % and 10 % for the Chernozem and Cambisol, respectively, but increased CEC by 35 % for the acidic, sandy Planosol, which may be due to the strong liming effect found for the Planosol. BC application significantly raised CAL-extractable K for all soils. CAL-extractable P only increased in the Planosol and Cambisol at 3% application rate. Mustard yield decreased by 67% for vineyard pruning BC if nitrogen deficiency was not compensated for, straw-derived BC only caused a 2 % decrease of mustard yield. Barley yield was still significantly lower in most BC-treated pots compared to the controls, however, plant yields were less reduced for the second crop. Only straw-derived BC treatments showed a significantly higher barley yield (1955 ± 40 g m-2) compared to the control (1837 ± 70 g m-2). The results of the elemental composition of the barley grains showed that Al uptake in the Planosol significantly decreased after application of wood and straw BC, which may be due to the pH increase after BC application. In addition, Ca uptake in barley grains was significantly higher in the 3% wood BC treatment compared to the control. This may be caused by a higher Ca content of the wood BC as revealed by XRF. Mn uptake, on the other hand, was significantly reduced after BC application.

  13. Comparison of Five Fertilization Programs for Fish Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude E. Boyd

    1981-01-01

    Five fertilization programs were compared in sunfish ponds at Auburn, Alabama, during the 1980 growing season. Each fertilization program was replicated four times and fertilizers were applied on 12 dates. Amounts of fertilizer per application, types of fertilizer (percentages by weight), and net production of sunfish were: 45 kg\\/hectare of fishpond fertilizer (N-P2O5-K2O:20–20-5), 228 kg\\/hectare of sunfish; 20 kg\\/hectare of

  14. Relationships between Extractable Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus Saturation after Long-Term Fertilizer or Manure Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total soil P (TP), soil-test P (STP), and the degree of soil P saturation are affected by long-term P application but relationships between these measurements need to be established for grain production cropping systems to improve P management guidelines. This research studied these relationships fr...

  15. Effect of Timing of Sulfur Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Rapeseed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Altaf Ahmad; Ishrat Khan; N. A. M Anjum; Iram Diva; M. Z. Abdin; Muhammad Iqbal

    2005-01-01

    There is usually a positive yield response when sulfur (S) is applied to rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.) plants grown on S-deficient soils. Recommendations include application of some of or the entire amount of S at planting, but the plant requirement as well as availability of S to rapeseed during its various phenological stages is not well documented. In a field

  16. The Application of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing miniature chemical sensors for a variety of applications including fire detection, emissions monitoring, fuel leak detection, and environmental monitoring. Smart Lick and Stick sensor technology which integrates a sensor array, electronics, telemetry, and power into one microsystem are being developed. These microsystems require low power consumption for long-term aerospace applications. One approach to decreasing power consumption is the use of nanotechnology. Nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) carbon monoxide (CO) sensors developed previously by this group have been successfully used for fire detection and emissions monitoring. This presentation will briefly review the overall NASA GRC chemical sensor program and discuss our further effort in nanotechnology applications. New carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing material using doped nanocrystalline SnO2 will be discussed. Nanocrystalline SnO2 coated solid electrolyte CO2 sensors and SnO2 nanorod and nanofiber hydrogen (H2) sensors operated at reduced or room temperatures will also be discussed.

  17. Impact of fertilizer application and urban wastes on the quality of groundwater in the Cambrai Chalk aquifer, Northern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serhal, Hani; Bernard, Daniel; Khattabi, Jamal El; Sabine, Bastin-Lacherez; Shahrour, Isam

    2009-06-01

    Since 1975, Europe sets up its policy to limit the degradation and the pollution of the aquatic environments through 30 directives and regulations. In the north of France, the nitrate concentrations measured in the groundwater exceed the water drinking limit fixed at 50 mg/L by the European framework directive in the field of water (2000/60/EC). This high concentration is due to intensive agriculture, industrialization and demographic growth. Several programs were launched in order to resolve this situation: “Ferti-better” or the use of fertilizer in moderation and installation and amelioration of wastewater collect and treatment systems. In order to estimate the influence of the anthropic activities on the quality of groundwater in the “Artois-Picardy” basin, a preliminary validation on parcel and district scale were necessary. The impact of these programs in the “Cambrai district” was evaluated using an integrated approach, which is based on the use of four numerical models: AgriFlux, VS2DT, Modflow and MT3D. The results illustrate an improvement due to the “Ferti-Better” program initiated in 1990 and punctual degradation under urbanized areas. Predictions (2015) show a spatial evolution of nitrates concentration varying with the thickness of unsaturated layer. The integrated model constitutes an efficient tool for predicting the evolution of the groundwater quality. This approach is important to control the application of the new European laws in the water field.

  18. Relationships between Extractable Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus Saturation after Long-Term Fertilizer or Manure Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett L. Allen; Antonio P. Mallarino

    2006-01-01

    Total soil P (TP), soil-test P (STP), and the degree of soil P saturation are affected by long-term P application but relationships between these measurements need to be established for grain production cropping systems to improve P management guidelines. This research studied these relationships from samples collected from 11 long-term (4-23 yr) Iowa P trials. Mean soil clay content and

  19. Performance-Based Evaluations of Guidelines for Nitrogen Fertilizer Application after Animal Manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Hansen; Alfred M. Blackmer; Antonio P. Mallarino; Mark A. Wuebker

    2004-01-01

    showed that 34% of the observed variability in response could be NH3 volatilization soon after application and for per- explained by inorganic N concentrations whereas less than 5% of this centages of organic N expected to be mineralized. variability could be explained by the general-guideline approach. The soil-testing approach, therefore, had greater ability to integrate the Soil testing for inorganic

  20. Food benefit and climate warming potential of nitrogen fertilizer uses in China

    E-print Network

    Tian, Hanqin

    Chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer has long been used to help meet the increasing food demands in China, the top N fertilizer consumer in the world. Growing concerns have been raised on the impacts of N fertilizer uses on ...

  1. STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center Women's Lifestyle Center The Women's Lifestyle with the improved lifestyle. Also, we work together with the Strong Fertility Center to coordinate your fertility fertility treatments. · A complete nutritional consultation with our registered dietician, Tracy Cherry, RD

  2. The impact of long-term nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon in a dryland cereal cropping system of the Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.

    2011-12-01

    Concerns over food security and global climate change require an improved understanding of how to achieve optimal crop yields whilst minimizing net greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. In the semi-arid Loess Plateau region of China, as elsewhere, fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs are necessary to increase yields and improve local food security. In a dryland annual cropping system, we evaluated the effects of N fertilizers on crop yield, its long term impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations and stock sizes, and the distribution of carbon (C) within various aggregate-size fractions. A current version (RothC) of the Rothamsted model for the turnover of organic C in soil was used to simulate SOC measurements. Five N application rates [0 (N0), 45 (N45), 90 (N90), 135 (N135), and 180 (N180) kg N ha-1] were applied to plots for 25 years (1984-2009) on a loam soil (Cumulic Haplustoll) at the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, China. Crop yield varied with year, but increased over time in the fertilized plots. Average annual grain yields were 1.15, 2.46, 3.11, 3.49, and 3.55 Mg ha-1 with the increasing N application rates, respectively. Long-term N fertilizer application significantly (P<0.05) increased SOC concentrations and stocks in the 0-20 cm horizon. Using RothC, the calculated annual inputs of plant C (in roots, stubble, root exudates, etc.) to the soil were 0.61, 0.74, 0.78, 0.86, and 0.97 t C ha-1 year-1 in N0, N45, N90, N135 and N180 treatments, respectively. The modeled turnover time of SOC (excluding inert organic C) in the continuous wheat cropping system was 26 years. The SOC accumulation rate was estimated to be 40.0, 48.0, 68.0, and 100.0 kg C ha-1 year-1 for the N45, N90, N135 and N180 treatments over 25 years, respectively. As aboveground biomass was removed, the increases in SOC stocks with higher N application are attributed to increased inputs of root biomass and root exudates. Increasing N application rates significantly improved C concentrations in the macroaggregate fractions (>1 mm). The increase in SOC with N fertilizer applications contributed to improved soil quality as well as crop productivity.

  3. Marine derived polysaccharides for biomedical applications: chemical modification approaches.

    PubMed

    d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Malinconico, Mario; Laurienzo, Paola

    2008-01-01

    Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp) and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems. PMID:18830142

  4. Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Aerospace Fire Detection Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Fralick, Gustave; Thomas, Valarie; Makel, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Wu, Q. H.

    2001-01-01

    The detection of fires on-board commercial aircraft is extremely important for safety reasons. Although dependable fire detection equipment presently exists within the cabin, detection of fire within the cargo hold has been less reliable and susceptible to false alarms. A second, independent method of fire detection to complement the conventional smoke detection techniques, such as the measurement of chemical species indicative of a fire, will help reduce false alarms and improve aircraft safety. Although many chemical species are indicative of a fire, two species of particular interest are CO and CO2. This paper discusses microfabricated chemical sensor development tailored to meet the needs of fire safety applications. This development is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The individual sensor being developed and their level of maturity will be presented.

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL ONTOGENY : A. CHICKEN EMBRYOS. II. CATABOLISM. CHEMICAL CHANGES IN FERTILE EGGS DURING INCUBATION. SELECTION OF STANDARD CONDITIONS.

    PubMed

    Murray, H A

    1925-09-20

    As this paper goes to press a complete review of the chemistry of the fertile egg will be appearing (19). The author, Mr. J. Needham, was kind enough to allow me to inspect his manuscript and thus avail myself of the comprehensive bibliography and discussion. It is surprising that no biochemists have estimated the changing water content of the egg during incubation. Many of the analyses reported in Needham's review were expressed in per cent of total weight or per cent of dry solid, and consequently are of questionable value, since these latter functions are themselves changing; the former due to water evaporation and the latter through the addition of shell constituents and the burning of oxidizable organic compounds. Moreover, there has been no statistical treatment of the results, and the reliability of the average, figures obtained has consequently been difficult to estimate. Tangl's work, quoted throughout this paper, except for its lack of statistical treatment is more enlightening. However, his concept of the so called "Energy of Embryogenesis" which he propounds, seems to me misleading and unwarranted. What Tangl measured was the amount and the caloric value of the solid material burned and thus the quantity of energy lost during the embryonic period. The latter is equivalent to the usual measurements of catabolism. In the case of the embryo it is not basal metabolism which is being estimated, since the conditions are not basal. The embryo is absorbing and assimilating nutriment all the while at a relatively rapid rate. The calorific value of the oxidized solid, which is in truth the amount of energy lost during a certain chosen interval, in Tangl's judgment stands for the energy of embryogenesis; i.e., the energy of development (growth + differentiation). We believe that this conception is erroneous. The two processes, anabolism and catabolism, occur together and undoubtedly have some relationship, but surely one is not a measure of the other. In a starving animal, and so probably in a starving embryo, there is a considerable amount of so called basal metabolism. Thus if the "Embryogenetic Energy" were measured under these conditions a figure would be obtained for which there was no growth to correspond, or in other words there would be a value for something which did not exist. It will be seen in our later communications that the changes with age of metabolic rate and growth rate do not coincide. The amount of catabolism under certain circumstances does not accelerate growth or anabolism, but seems rather to be a limiting factor. It is as if when the absorbed energy were constant an increase of catabolism would make inroads upon the amount of energy which otherwise would remain for storage (growth). If, as Pembrey's (20) experiments would tend to show, there is an increase of metabolism in the oldest embryos when the outside temperature is lowered, one would find at the end of incubation in such cases that there was a greater amount of so called "Energy of Development" but smaller embryo. It seems that the potential energy amassed as growth comes from that remaining after the needs of the body have been satisfied. The results of the experiments described in this paper have formed the basis for judgment in the selection of suitable standard conditions for the incubation of hen's eggs. Standardization was necessary so that in future experiments the more important environmental factors might be kept uniform within a certain appropriate range and therefore not be held accountable for deviations observed in the embryos. Henceforth in this series of papers the term "standard incubation conditions" will signify that (1) the temperature was constantly at 38.8 +/- 0.4 degrees C., (2) the humidity at 67.5 +/- 2.5 per cent, (3) there was a continuous flow of warm air into the incubator to provide the necessary circulation, and (4) the eggs were rolled once a day within the constant temperature room. The incubator, a double-walled copper cabinet, stands in a constant temperature room

  6. Influence of Nitrogen - Phosphorus Fertilization and Time of Harvest on the Growth, Yield and Oil Content of Mentha spicata L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Jahangir; K. Nada; F. Begum; M. Hossain; M. A. M. Sarker; M. Moniruzzaman

    2008-01-01

    Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of application of nitrogen- phosphorus fertilizer and harvesting time on growth, yield, oil content and physio- chemical properties of M. spicata L. oil. Eight treatment consists of different N-P fer- tilizer dose and four harvesting period were used for the study. Maximum plant height was found at N2P2 treatment. N2P3 fertilizer treatment

  7. N 2 O, NO, and NH 3 Emissions from Soil after the Application of Organic Fertilizers, Urea and Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Akiyama; Iain P. McTaggart; Bruce C. Ball; Albert Scott

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural soil is a major source of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3). Little information is available on emissions of these gases from soils amended with organic fertilizers at different soil water contents. N2O, NO and NH3 emissions were measured in large-scale incubations of a fresh sandy loam soil and amended with four organic fertilizers, [poultry litter

  8. State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

  9. Net Mineralization Response to Fertilizer Application and Site-Specific Setting in a No-Till Dryland Wheat Agroecosystem in the Pacific Northwest (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruner, Emily A.; Brown, David J.; Carpenter-Boggs, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    Application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers is pivotal to maintaining agricultural productivity. Nutrient management is typically guided by a combined assessment of crop yield requirements, residual soil inorganic N concentration, and predicted N supply from organic matter. However, laboratory assays employed to forecast mineralization potential do not reflect in situ processes occurring in soils, processes that can vary spatially within a field. Furthermore, fertilizer application alters biogeochemical cycles through a variety of mechanisms including priming effects and microbial community alterations. This study investigates in-situ ammonification/nitrification rates utilizing mineralization cores as part of a five-year Site-Specific Climate-Friendly Farming (SCF) project. In-depth accounting of nitrate and ammonium production and flux was possible via a six bag mixed-bed ion exchange resin system. Soil cores (7.5 cm diameter by 15 cm deep) were isolated from the surrounding soil by three resin bags sealed in the top and bottom of individual plastic cylinders. Fifteen locations were selected across a commercial direct-seed wheat field based on statistical clustering of primary and secondary topographic variables. In each location surface soil-resin cores were installed in fertilized and unfertilized plots immediately after spring planting and removed before harvest. In situ ammonification/nitrification rates will be analyzed as a function of both fertilizer application and site-specific environmental characteristics as determined from soil moisture monitoring, soil characterization, and crop analysis at each measurement location. This site-specific information on N transformations and availability can then be used to guide site-specific crop management.

  10. Cooperative Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton, Corn, Sweet Potatoes and Irish Potatoes, 1908-1917. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1918-01-01

    .................. - ........ Nitrate Agencies Company of Texas .................... Palestine Oil and Manufacturing Company .............. Pelican Fertilizer Works .............................. Planters Fertilizer and Chemical Company .............. Shreveport Fertilizer m... ........................................ Fidelity Poiato Special Fertilizer-Guarantee ......... ........................................ Analysis ......... Fidelity Rice Planters' Fertilizer-Guarantee Analy . 's ~idelity 7~~er'kkbt'~~id Fhd&hz&&~;8;;hi&: : : : Analysls...

  11. Optimizing Natural Fertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... during the fertile window. What is the fertile window? The fertile window is the time in a cycle when pregnancy ... know when I am ovulating? Because the fertile window is defined by the date of ovulation, it ...

  12. A case study of a precision fertilizer application task generation for wheat based on classified hyperspectral data from UAV combined with farm history data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Kleemola, Jouko; Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Honkavaara, Eija; Saari, Heikki; Mäkynen, Jussi; Rajala, Ari

    2013-10-01

    Different remote sensing methods for detecting variations in agricultural fields have been studied in last two decades. There are already existing systems for planning and applying e.g. nitrogen fertilizers to the cereal crop fields. However, there are disadvantages such as high costs, adaptability, reliability, resolution aspects and final products dissemination. With an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based airborne methods, data collection can be performed cost-efficiently with desired spatial and temporal resolutions, below clouds and under diverse weather conditions. A new Fabry-Perot interferometer based hyperspectral imaging technology implemented in an UAV has been introduced. In this research, we studied the possibilities of exploiting classified raster maps from hyperspectral data to produce a work task for a precision fertilizer application. The UAV flight campaign was performed in a wheat test field in Finland in the summer of 2012. Based on the campaign, we have classified raster maps estimating the biomass and nitrogen contents at approximately stage 34 in the Zadoks scale. We combined the classified maps with farm history data such as previous yield maps. Then we generalized the combined results and transformed it to a vectorized zonal task map suitable for farm machinery. We present the selected weights for each dataset in the processing chain and the resultant variable rate application (VRA) task. The additional fertilization according to the generated task was shown to be beneficial for the amount of yield. However, our study is indicating that there are still many uncertainties within the process chain.

  13. Mercury in soils of three agricultural experimental stations with long-term fertilization in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuan-Ming; Liu, Yu-Rong; Hu, Hong-Qing; He, Ji-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the agricultural ecosystem is a global concern because of its high potential toxicity. The objectives of this study were to determine the concentration and distribution of Hg in soils from three long-term experimental stations, i.e., Taoyuan (TY) and Qiyang (QY) in Hunan Province and Fengqiu (FQ) in Henan Province of China, and thus to assess the possible food and health risk of long-term applications of fertilizers. Soil samples at each site were collected from different fertilization plots and also from soil profiles with depths 0-100 cm. There were significant differences in soil Hg concentrations in 0-20 cm (A) or 20-40 cm (B) horizon among the three experimental stations. QY station showed significantly higher Hg concentrations than TY and FQ stations. However, there were no significant differences in soil Hg concentrations between A and B horizons at each station. It was concluded that the soil Hg concentrations at the three sites were mainly controlled by the parent materials. Moreover, chemical fertilizer, especially phosphorous fertilizers, could influence the soil Hg concentrations to some extent at the station with lower soil Hg concentrations, for example, at TY station. There were minimal amounts of Hg resulting from applications of the other chemical fertilizers and organic manure, and thus the fertilization had very low risk to the food security of the agro-ecosystems in the terms of Hg inputs and contamination. PMID:18541285

  14. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop. Global Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Publication Date: 1/24/2011 Copyright 2011. The Trustees of Columbia University

  15. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Publication Date: 1/24/2011 Copyright 2011. The Trustees of Columbia University

  16. 77 FR 70188 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ...Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33...that on September 25, 2012, Cayman Chemical Company, 1180 East Ellsworth Road...for distribution to their research and forensics customers conducting drug testing...

  17. 77 FR 16263 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ...Substances, Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33...notice that on February 27, 2012, Cayman Chemical Company, 1180 East Ellsworth Road...supply these materials to the research and forensics community for drug testing and...

  18. Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shu-Cai; Chen, Bei-Guang; Jiang, Cheng-Ai; Wu, Qi-Tang

    2007-01-01

    Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China was causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications were of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increased the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which were increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution. PMID:17966870

  19. Chemical evaluation of HBED/Fe(3+) and the novel HJB/Fe(3+) chelates as fertilizers to alleviate iron chlorosis.

    PubMed

    López-Rayo, Sandra; Hernández, Diana; Lucena, Juan J

    2009-09-23

    Iron chelates such as ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (o,o-EDDHA) and their analogues are the most efficient soil fertilizers to treat iron chlorosis in plants growing in calcareous soil. A new chelating agent, HJB (N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)ethylendiamine-N,N'-diacetic acid) may be an alternative to o,o-EDDHA since its synthesis yields a purer product, but its chemical behavior and efficiency as chlorosis corrector should be evaluated. In this research, a known analogous HBED (N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethylendiamine-N,N'-diacetic acid) has also been considered. First, an ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been tested for the HJB/Fe(3+) and HBED/Fe(3+) determination. The ability of HJB and HBED to maintain Fe in solution has been compared with respect to o,o-EDDHA. Theoretical modelization for HBED and HJB in agronomic conditions has been done after the determination of the protonation and Ca(II), Mg(II), Fe(III), and Cu(II) stability constants for HJB. Also, batch interaction experiments with soils and soil materials have been conducted. According to our results, HJB/Fe(3+) and HBED/Fe(3+) present high stability, even when competing cations (Cu(2+), Ca(2+)) are present, and have low reactivity with soils and soil components. The chelating agent HJB dissolves a higher amount of Fe than o,o-EDDHA, and it seems as effective as o,o-EDDHA in keeping Fe in solution. These results indicate that these chelates may be very efficient products to correct Fe chlorosis, and additional plant experiments should demonstrate plants' ability to assimilate Fe from HJB/Fe(3+) and HBED/Fe(3+). PMID:19689133

  20. Soil with a short history of poultry litter fertilization remains superior to normally fertilized soil for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown poultry litter is a superior fertilizer for cotton and other row crops. The productivity of soil that had received poultry litter as a fertilizer is not known after cessation of litter application and returning to conventional fertilization with inorganic fertilizers. This study ...

  1. [Effects of controlled release nitrogen fertilizer application on dry matter accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize].

    PubMed

    Si, Dong-Xia; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Chen, Xin-Ping; Lü, Fu-Tang

    2014-06-01

    Effects of four controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers, including two kinds of polyester coated urea (Ncau, CRU) and phosphate (NhnP) and humic acid (NhnF) coated urea on assimilates accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize were investigated in a mode of one-time fertilization at the regional N recommended rate. The results showed that the N release curves of the two controlled release fertilizers CRU and Ncau matched well with the summer maize N uptake. Compared with the regional N recommendation rate, CRU could increase maize yield by 4.2% and Ncau could maintain the same yield level. CRU significantly increased the dry matter accumulation rate after anthesis of summer maize, but Ncau markedly increased the dry matter accumulated ratio before anthesis. Meanwhile, CRU could reduce the apparent N losses by 19 kg N x hm(-2) in the case of large precipitation. However, NhnF and NhnP caused the yield losses by 0.1%-8.9%, and enhanced the apparent N losses. Therefore, both CRU and Ncau with one-time fertilization could be a simplified alternative to the "total control, staging regulation" fertilization technique at the regional N recommended rate for summer maize production. PMID:25223033

  2. Fertilizer Facts: May 1998, Number 19 Fertilizing Spring Wheat with Phosphorus

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Fertilizer Facts: May 1998, Number 19 Fertilizing Spring Wheat with Phosphorus Grant Jackson, Gregg and north-central Montana spring wheat producers have applied phosphorus (P) with the seed while planting intensified during the 1990s to relate spring wheat response to P fertilizer applications and the Olsen

  3. Application of chemical graph theory for automated mechanism generation.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, Artur; Truong, Thanh N

    2003-01-01

    We present an application of the chemical graph theory approach for generating elementary reactions of complex systems. Molecular species are naturally represented by graphs, which are identified by their vertices and edges where vertices are atom types and edges are bonds. The mechanism is generated using a set of reaction patterns (sub-graphs). These subgraphs are the internal representations for a given class of reaction thus allowing for the possibility of eliminating unimportant product species a priori. Furthermore, each molecule is canonically represented by a set of topological indices (Connectivity Index, Balaban Index, Schulz TI Index, WID Index, etc.) and thus eliminates the probability for regenerating the same species twice. Theoretical background and test cases on combustion of hydrocarbons are presented. PMID:12546535

  4. Chemical Compound Targets for SHIP - Production, Properties, and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Kindler, B.; Ackermann, D.; Gembalies-Datz, D.; Hartmann, W.; Hessberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.; Klemm, J.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Steiner, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2003-08-26

    The use of metallic lead or bismuth targets is limited at high beam currents due to their low melting point. In order to increase the intensity for irradiation, we investigated chemical compound targets with higher melting temperature. The properties of these targets are promising for further increase of the sensitivity in experiments searching for superheavy elements. The target material is controlled in each step of the production process as well as after the irradiation by optical microscopy, weighing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). In some cases also wavelength dispersive x-ray analysis (WDX), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are applied. We report on the synthesis of the target material, the production of the targets and their application in heavy-ion experiments.

  5. Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models in chemical risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting "in silico" tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application-health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The "human PBPK model toolkit" is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures. PMID:22523493

  6. Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

    2009-01-01

    A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

  7. Effects of conventional and organic fertilization on spinach ( Spinacea oleracea L.) growth, yield, vitamin C and nitrate concentration during two successive seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sedat Citak; Sahriye Sonmez

    2010-01-01

    Current experiment was laid out in order to compare different kinds of organic manure and chemical fertilizer application in growing spinach under the open-field conditions in two successive seasons. Matador type spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) was cultivated organically and conventionally and spinach growth, yield, vitamin C and nitrate concentrations were checked throughout two successive seasons (autumn and winter). Commercial chemical

  8. Comparison of sludge and fertilizer applications on establishment and growth of seedlings of two sweetgum ecotypes endomycorrhizal with Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatus. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kormanik, P.P.

    1982-01-01

    A 3 part study was conducted. Part 1 investigated the effects of sludge or fertilizer applications on the development of sweetgum progeny from two mother trees. Significant differences were found between the genetically different half-sib progeny. Non fertilized control seedlings had significantly better survival rates than treated trees. This can be directly correlated to competition between trees and grass. In a second study the grass was controlled, and only fertilizer and endomycorrhizal symbionts were used. Trees in this study are significantly taller than the previous study which demonstrates the importance of grass control. At the time of planting, nonmycorrhizal trees were 15% taller than mycorrhizal trees. Nonmycorrhizal trees received 800 ppM P while mycorrhizal trees received 30 ppM P. Most significant is that all trees were mycorrhizal at the end of the second year. A third outplanting experiment was installed to compare root collar diameters of progeny from two genotypic lines of sweetgum. Data suggest that root collar diameters of nonmycorrhizal seedlings grown under low soil phosphorus regimes are a good indicator of future vigor.

  9. Changes in the biological activity of chestnut soils upon the long-term application of fertilizers in a rotation with oil-bearing crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleshev, R. E.; Bakenova, Z. B.

    2012-11-01

    Experimental studies showed that irrigated chestnut soils on the piedmont of the Zailiiskiy Alatau Range are characterized by the moderate activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. The use of these soils in the crop rotation system increases the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes (invertase, urease, and ATP synthase) by 30% in comparison with the monoculture; at the same time, it does not have a significant impact on the changes in the biological activity of the redox enzymes (catalase and dehydrogenase). The hydrolytic activity of the soils is activated to a greater extent in the crop rotation and in the monoculture against the background application of organic fertilizers. In this case, the recommended rates of mineral fertilizers do not inhibit the activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. An increase in the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes directly affects the yield of oilseed flax. Therefore, indices of the hydrolytic activity of soils can be used as a test for the diagnostics of the efficiency of fertilizers both in crop rotation and monoculture systems.

  10. Emission factors for organic fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from Japanese agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, T.; Nishina, K.; Sudo, S.

    2013-12-01

    1. Introduction Agricultural fields are significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is one of the important greenhouse gases with a contribution of 7.9% to the anthropogenic global warming (IPCC, 2007). Direct fertilizer-induced N2O emission from agricultural soil is estimated using the emission factor (EF). National greenhouse gas inventory of Japan defines direct EF for N2O associated with the application of chemical and organic fertilizers as the same value (0.62%) in Japanese agricultural fields. However, it is necessary to estimate EF for organic fertilizers separately, because there are some differences in factors controlling N2O emissions (e.g. nutrient content) between chemical and organic fertilizers. The purpose of this study is to estimate N2O emissions and EF for applied organic fertilizers in Japanese agricultural fields. 2. Materials and Methods We conducted the experiments at 10 prefectural agricultural experimental stations in Japan (Yamagata, Fukushima, Niigata, Ibaraki, Aichi, Shiga, Tokushima, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, and Kagoshima) to consider the variations of cultivation and environmental conditions among regions. Field measurements had been conducted for 2-2.5 years during August 2010-April 2013. Each site set experimental plots with the applications of composted manure (cattle, swine, and poultry), chemical fertilizer, and non-nitrogen fertilizer as a control. The annual amount of applied nitrogen ranged from 16 g-N m-2 y-1 to 60 g-N m-2 y-1 depending on cropping system and cultivated crops (e.g. cabbage, potato) at each site. N2O fluxes were measured using a closed-chamber method. N2O concentrations of gas samples were measured with gas chromatography. The EF value of each fertilizer was calculated as the N2O emission from fertilizer plots minus the background N2O emission (emission from a control plot), and was expressed as a percentage of the applied nitrogen. The soil NH4+ and NO3-, soil temperature, precipitation, and WFPS (water filled pore space) were also measured. 3. Results and Discussion The large N2O emissions from soils were mainly observed after the rain following fertilizer application from spring through fall. However, N2O emissions were limited at some sites where crops were cultivated during winter because of low soil temperature. The mean annual N2O emissions and EFs for sites varied depending on the type of applied fertilizers. The mean annual N2O emission (× standard deviation) for non-nitrogen fertilizer was the smallest (110 × 140 mg-N m-2), followed in order by those for cattle manure (280 × 327 mg-N m-2), swine manure (454 × 463 mg-N m-2), chemical fertilizer (464 × 587 mg-N m-2), and poultry manure (480 × 523 mg-N m-2). Hence, mean EF for cattle manure was 0.31 × 0.28%, followed in order by those for swine manure (0.56 × 0.77%), poultry manure (0.88 × 1.04%), and chemical fertilizer (0.89 × 1.22%), while significant differences in EFs were not found among fertilizers. The N2O emissions and EFs differed among sites. The N2O emissions from Andosol soil were found to be smaller than those from other soil types. There were no significant correlation between annual N2O emission and annual mean air temperature or precipitation. The differences in soil physical and chemical properties would result in variations in N2O emissions and EFs among regions.

  11. Spatial variability of soil total and DTPA-extractable cadmium caused by long-term application of phosphate fertilizers, crop rotation, and soil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jafarnejadi, A R; Sayyad, Gh; Homaee, M; Davamei, A H

    2013-05-01

    Increasing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in agricultural soils is undesirable due to its hazardous influences on human health. Thus, having more information on spatial variability of Cd and factors effective to increase its content on the cultivated soils is very important. Phosphate fertilizers are main contamination source of cadmium (Cd) in cultivated soils. Also, crop rotation is a critical management practice which can alter soil Cd content. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term consumption of the phosphate fertilizers, crop rotations, and soil characteristics on spatial variability of two soil Cd species (i.e., total and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) in agricultural soils. The study was conducted in wheat farms of Khuzestan Province, Iran. Long-term (27-year period (1980 to 2006)) data including the rate and the type of phosphate fertilizers application, the respective area, and the rotation type of different regions were used. Afterwards, soil Cd content (total or DTPA extractable) and its spatial variability in study area (400,000 ha) were determined by sampling from soils of 255 fields. The results showed that the consumption rate of di-ammonium phosphate fertilizer have been varied enormously in the period study. The application rate of phosphorus fertilizers was very high in some subregions with have extensive agricultural activities (more than 95 kg/ha). The average and maximum contents of total Cd in the study region were obtained as 1.47 and 2.19 mg/kg and DTPA-extractable Cd as 0.084 and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The spatial variability of Cd indicated that total and DTPA-extractable Cd contents were over 0.8 and 0.1 mg/kg in 95 and 25 % of samples, respectively. The spherical model enjoys the best fitting and lowest error rate to appraise the Cd content. Comparing the phosphate fertilizer consumption rate with spatial variability of the soil cadmium (both total and DTPA extractable) revealed the high correlation between the consumption rate of P fertilizers and soil Cd content. Rotation type was likely the main effective factor on variations of the soil DTPA-extractable Cd contents in some parts (eastern part of study region) and could explain some Cd variation. Total Cd concentrations had significant correlation with the total neutralizing value (p < 0.01), available P (p < 0.01), cation exchange capacity (p < 0.05), and organic carbon (p < 0.05) variables. The DTPA-extractable Cd had significant correlation with OC (p < 0.01), pH, and clay content (p < 0.05). Therefore, consumption rate of the phosphate fertilizers and crop rotation are important factors on solubility and hence spatial variability of Cd content in agricultural soils. PMID:22948289

  12. Organic and inorganic inputs and losses in an irrigated corn field after inorganic fertilizer or manure application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon (OC) and inorganic C (IC) losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. In 2003 and 2004, we measured dissolved organic and inorganic C (DOC, DIC), particulate OC an...

  13. Effects of swine lagoon effluent relative to commercial fertilizer applications on warm-season forage nutritive value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of variable rates of swine lagoon effluent and fertilizer on the quality parameters of forage grasses grown on an acid Vaiden silty clay (very fine, montmorillonitic, thermic, Vertic Hapludalf) and an alkaline Okolona silty clay (fine, montmor...

  14. Accumulation of chromium from fertilizers in cultivated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hisao Watanabe

    1984-01-01

    Studies to determine whether chromium originating from fertilizers increases to toxic concentrations as a result of common applications of fertilizers were carried out in fields with a well-documented record of fertilizer application. Chromium contents ranged from 10-150 µg Cr\\/g soil in the 41 fields with long-term applications of N, P, and K fertilizers, silicate, and liming materials in seven agricultural

  15. Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

    2013-06-01

    Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions. PMID:23562689

  16. Formal Modelling of Dynamic Coalitions, with an Application in Chemical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    architecture under development for the chemical engineering industry. Tool-supported analysis of this formal this goal, illustrating this with an application in the chemical engineering industry. It is worth briefly- related coalitions. Other colleagues in the chemical engineer- ing industry (via the GOLD project1

  17. 17BnG-1999-01 Field Emitter Arrays for Chemical and Biological Warfare Applications

    E-print Network

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    17BnG-1999-01 Field Emitter Arrays for Chemical and Biological Warfare Applications Problematic of many of the current schemes for biological and chemical defense (BWD and CWD) is that both defense systems are specific to certain chemicals or pathogens. Schemes that provide a more general defense

  18. Chemical consolidation for roadway surrounding rock - it`s theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jinhua Wang; Wei Chen [Beijing Mining Research Institute, Hepingli (China); Jiling Feng [Xinwen Coal Mining Adminstration, Xintai, Shandong Province (China)

    1996-12-01

    Based on engineering examples and theoretical analysis, the mechanism of chemical consolidation for fractured roadway surrounding rock was discussed. The chemical consolidating materials and three consolidating methods, that is, capsule, forced infusion and spraying, were introduced. Finally the application effects of the chemical consolidating technique to reinforce the fractured surrounding rock of roadways were analyzed.

  19. Commercial Fertilizers in 1914-15. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1915-01-01

    -Guarantee ........................ ........................................ Anslys~s / Crockett Onion Grower-Guarantee.. ............... ....................................... 26049 Analysis ....................................... 26193 Analysis Crockett Planter's Triumph.... ........................ Analysis. ........................ ........ Peruvian Guano-Guarantee. Analysis ......................... Analysis. ..............'.......... Analysis. ........................ 'io 11 11 10 26218 Planters Fertilizer and Chemical Co., New Orleans La...

  20. Tree Fertilization Soil Analysis

    E-print Network

    Tree Fertilization #12;Soil Analysis vs. Foliar Analysis #12;Macronutrients N P K Mg S Ca Micronutrients Fe Mn Zn Mo Cu Cl B #12;Complete fertilizer N P K #12;Fertilizer Analysis Percentages of N P K #12;ANSI A-300 Fertilizer Standard Standards are used to develop contract specifications. Fertilize

  1. Effects of Fertilization on Tomato Growth and Soil Enzyme Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Zhen; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-qing

    2015-04-01

    To study the effects of different fertilizer applications on soil enzyme activity, tomato plant growth and tomato yield and quality, a field experiment on tomato cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai. Three fertilizer treatments, chemical fertilizer (CF) (N, 260 g/kg; P, 25.71g/kg; K, 83.00g/kg), rapeseed cake manure (CM) (N, 37.4 g/kg; P, 9.0 g/kg; K, 8.46 g/kg), crop-leaf fermenting manure (FM) (N, 23.67 g/kg; P, 6.39 g/kg; K 44.32 g/kg), and a control without using any fertilizers (CK), were designed. The total amounts of fertilizer application to each plot for the CF, CM, FM and CK were 0.6 kg, 1.35 kg, 3.75 kg and 0 kg, respectively, 50% of which were applied as base fertilizer, and another 50% were applied after the first fruit picking as top dressing. Each experimental plot was 9 m2 (1 m × 9 m) in area. Each treatment was replicated for three times. No any pesticides and herbicides were applied during the entire period of tomato growth to prevent their disturbance to soil microbial activities. Soil enzyme activities at each plot were constantly tested during the growing period; the tomato fruit quality was also constantly analyzed and the tomato yield was calculated after the final harvesting. The results were as follows: (1) Urease activity in the soils treated with the CF, CM and FM increased quickly after applying base fertilizer. That with the CF reached the highest level. Sucrase activity was inhibited by the CF and CM to some extent, which was 32.4% and 11.2% lower than that with the CK, respectively; while that with the FM was 15.7% higher than that with the CK. Likewise, catalase activity with the CF increased by 12.3% - 28.6%; that with the CM increased by 87.8% - 95.1%; that with the FM increased by 86.4% - 93.0%. Phosphatase activity with the CF increased rapidly and reached a maximum 44 days after base fertilizer application, and then declined quickly. In comparison, that with the CM and FM increased slowly and reached a maximum 66 days after base fertilizer application, but maintained the high level for a long time. In short, the application of organic manure, especially the fermenting manure, is more beneficial to maintain high levels of soil enzyme activities and biodiversity. (2) The tomato yield treated with the CF, CM, FM and CK was 50055 kg/ha, 37814 kg/ha, 36965 kg/ha and 29937 kg/ha, respectively. The yield increasing rates of the CF, CM and FM were 67.2%, 26.3% and 23.5%, respectively. The application of chemical fertilizer could raise the tomato yield more effectively. The use of organic manure, especially the fermenting manure, however, could improve the fruit quality more effectively, especially increase soluble sugar and vitamin C contents and reduce nitrate content in tomato fruit significantly. The application of biological fermenting manure is beneficial to promote the recycling agriculture in China. It could also be used in the organic farming promisingly.

  2. Developments in the application of chemical technologies to wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Tünay

    Increasing demand for high degree of treatment as well as existence of highly resistant organics in wastewaters such as micropollutants has caused wider and ever increasing use of chemical treatment processes. In this paper developments in the chemical treatment as applied to mostly industrial wastewater in the last two decades are summarized and discussed. Two purely chemical means of treatment,

  3. Biocatalysis: applications and potentials for the chemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart M Thomas; Robert DiCosimo; Vasantha Nagarajan

    2002-01-01

    The chemical industry is exploring the use of renewable feed stocks to improve sustainability, prompting the exploration of bioprocesses for the production of chemicals. Attractive features of biological systems include versatility, substrate selectivity, regioselectivity, chemoselectivity, enantioselectivity and catalysis at ambient temperatures and pressures. However, a challenge facing bioprocesses is cost competitiveness with chemical processes because capital assets associated with the

  4. Application of TRIZ creativity intensification approach to chemical process safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junghwan Kim; Jinkyung Kim; Younghee Lee; Wonsub Lim; Il Moon

    2009-01-01

    This study develops a modified method of TRIZ to improve safety in chemical process design. This method is modified by the theory of TRIZ, which is inventive problem solving theory, for retrofit design of chemical process considering safety.The original TRIZ is difficult to access to chemical process safety due to inapplicability and ambiguity of terminology in classification of these parameters.

  5. Chemical-Help Application for Classification and Identification of Stormwater Constituents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Driskell, Timothy R.; Nunes, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A computer application called Chemical Help was developed to facilitate review of reports for the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The application provides a tool to quickly find a proper classification for any constituent in the NDAMS review sheets. Chemical Help contents include the name of each water-quality property, constituent, or parameter, the section number within the NDAMS review sheet, the organizational levels within a classification hierarchy, the database number, and where appropriate, the chemical formula, the Chemical Abstract Service number, and a list of synonyms (for the organic chemicals). Therefore, Chemical Help provides information necessary to research available reference data for the water-quality properties and constituents of potential interest in stormwater studies. Chemical Help is implemented in the Microsoft help-system interface. (Computer files for the use and documentation of Chemical Help are included on an accompanying diskette.)

  6. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection Amount of phosphorus in manure produced. Source: Potter, P., and N. Ramankutty, et al. (2010). Global Fertilizer Application and Manure Production. Data distributed by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer

  7. Application of chemical geothermometers to some Tunisian hot springs

    SciTech Connect

    Dhia, H.B. (Ecole Nationale d'Ingenieurs de Sfax (TN)); Meddeb, N. (Office National des Mines, 26 Rue d'Angleterre, Tunis (TN))

    1990-01-01

    Forty-five Tunisian hot springs are studied as geothermal indicators. Several chemical geothermometers are applied in this sedimentary geological environment. Hot springs are selected among 70 existing within the country. Selection is based on complete water analyses with a good ionic balance. Measured temperature ranges from 21 to 73{degrees}C and discharge rates range from 0.1 to 40 l/s. Studied springs show mainly chloride type waters. Geothermometers applied are: silica, Na/K, Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Ca-Mg, Na/Li and Mg/Li. Temperatures estimated by those geothermometers are plotted against the measured values to evaluate the applicability of the geothermometers used. The Na/K and Na/Li geothermometers appear to give unreliable results, as water composition seems to be greatly affected by interaction with the evaporitic and dolomitic rocks that are ubiquitous in Tunisia. The Na-K-Ca-Mg, Mg/Li and silica geothermometers seem to give plausible values, emphasizing the role played by Mg and its importance for Tunisian hot waters.

  8. Autonomous microfluidic control by chemically actuated micropumps and its application to chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Atsushi; Kojima, Kenichi; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    2010-08-15

    Autonomous control of microfluidic transport was realized through the use of chemically actuated diaphragm micropumps connected to a network of controlling flow channels. A hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) solution was transported in the controlling flow channel by capillary action. Upon the solution's arrival at the lower compartment of a micropump filled with manganese dioxide (MnO(2)) powder, a volume change that accompanied the production of oxygen caused by the catalytic decomposition of H(2)O(2) induced inflation of the diaphragm. This in turn caused the movement of a solution in another network of flow channels formed in the upper layer. Micropumps that only exert pressure were also fabricated. By positioning the micropumps at appropriate locations in conjunction with additional flow-delaying components, the ejection of solutions from the reservoir of each micropump could be initiated at coordinated times. Furthermore, the solutions could be transported by the application of pressure from other micropumps. In other words, the information for switching from one micropump to another could be described on the chip in the form of a network of flow channels. This autonomous processing of solutions was demonstrated for enzymatic analyses of H(2)O(2), glucose, and lactate. PMID:20669895

  9. Sustainability under combined application of mineral and organic fertilizers in a rainfed soybean–wheat system of the Indian Himalayas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjan Bhattacharyya; S. Kundu; Ved Prakash; H. S. Gupta

    2008-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation is one of the profitable cropping systems under rainfed conditions in the sub-temperate agro-ecosystem of the Indian Himalayas. We measured the long-term sustainability of the system for farmyard manuring and mineral fertilizer input practices utilizing the trends in grain yield, partial factor productivity (PFP), agronomic efficiency (AE), benefit:cost ratio (B:C ratio), soil

  10. Discriminative application of string similarity methods to chemical and non-chemical names for biomedical abbreviation clustering

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Term clustering, by measuring the string similarities between terms, is known within the natural language processing community to be an effective method for improving the quality of texts and dictionaries. However, we have observed that chemical names are difficult to cluster using string similarity measures. In order to clearly demonstrate this difficulty, we compared the string similarities determined using the edit distance, the Monge-Elkan score, SoftTFIDF, and the bigram Dice coefficient for chemical names with those for non-chemical names. Results Our experimental results revealed the following: (1) The edit distance had the best performance in the matching of full forms, whereas Cohen et al. reported that SoftTFIDF with the Jaro-Winkler distance would yield the best measure for matching pairs of terms for their experiments. (2) For each of the string similarity measures above, the best threshold for term matching differs for chemical names and for non-chemical names; the difference is especially large for the edit distance. (3) Although the matching results obtained for chemical names using the edit distance, Monge-Elkan scores, or the bigram Dice coefficients are better than the result obtained for non-chemical names, the results were contrary when using SoftTFIDF. (4) A suitable weight for chemical names varies substantially from one for non-chemical names. In particular, a weight vector that has been optimized for non-chemical names is not suitable for chemical names. (5) The matching results using the edit distances improve further by dividing a set of full forms into two subsets, according to whether a full form is a chemical name or not. These results show that our hypothesis is acceptable, and that we can significantly improve the performance of abbreviation-full form clustering by computing chemical names and non-chemical names separately. Conclusions In conclusion, the discriminative application of string similarity methods to chemical and non-chemical names may be a simple yet effective way to improve the performance of term clustering. PMID:22759617

  11. Soil-fertility management and host preference by European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), on Zea mays L.: A comparison of organic and conventional chemical farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Phelan; J. F. Mason; B. R. Stinner

    1995-01-01

    It has long been argued by proponents of organic agriculture that crop losses to insects and diseases are reduced by this farming method, and that reduced susceptibility to pests is a reflection of differences in plant health, as mediated by soil-fertility management. These reports although widespread are mostly anecdotal and largely without experimental foundation. In this study, the effects of

  12. Chemical markup, XML, and the World Wide Web. 5. Applications of chemical metadata in RSS aggregators.

    PubMed

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Rzepa, Henry S; Williamson, Mark J; Willighagen, Egon L

    2004-01-01

    Examples of the use of the RSS 1.0 (RDF Site Summary) specification together with CML (Chemical Markup Language) to create a metadata based alerting service termed CMLRSS for molecular content are presented. CMLRSS can be viewed either using generic software or with modular opensource chemical viewers and editors enhanced with CMLRSS modules. We discuss the more automated use of CMLRSS as a component of a World Wide Molecular Matrix of semantically rich chemical information. PMID:15032525

  13. Definition and applications of a versatile chemical pollution footprint methodology.

    PubMed

    Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; van de Meent, Dik

    2014-09-16

    Because of the great variety in behavior and modes of action of chemicals, impact assessment of multiple substances is complex, as is the communication of its results. Given calls for cumulative impact assessments, we developed a methodology that is aimed at expressing the expected cumulative impacts of mixtures of chemicals on aquatic ecosystems for a region and subsequently allows to present these results as a chemical pollution footprint, in short: a chemical footprint. Setting and using a boundary for chemical pollution is part of the methodology. Two case studies were executed to test and illustrate the methodology. The first case illustrates that the production and use of organic substances in Europe, judged with the European water volume, stays within the currently set policy boundaries for chemical pollution. The second case shows that the use of pesticides in Northwestern Europe, judged with the regional water volume, has exceeded the set boundaries, while showing a declining trend over time. The impact of mixtures of substances in the environment could be expressed as a chemical footprint, and the relative contribution of substances to that footprint could be evaluated. These features are a novel type of information to support risk management, by helping prioritization of management among chemicals and environmental compartments. PMID:25111657

  14. Application of the Raven UAV for chemical and biological detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Altenbaugh; Jeff Barton; Christopher Chiu; Ken Fidler; Dan Hiatt; Chad Hawthorne; Steven Marshall; Joe Mohos; Vince McHugh; Bill Nicoloff

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the plume tracking algorithms developed for a series of outdoor chemical-stimulant testing conducted at Dugway Proving Ground in 2008 and 2009 employing a Raven UAV equipped with a real-time chemical sensor. The flights were conducted as part of the a program under the sponsorship of the Army JPM NBC Contamination Avoidance and in conjunction with the Army

  15. Slow chemical reactions in power plant plumes: application to sulfates

    SciTech Connect

    Forney, L.J.; Giz, Z.G.

    1980-01-01

    Slow chemical reactions in which plume travel time is short compared with characteristic chemical reaction times are incorporated into the MIT buoyant plume theory. Conservation equations are written for a buoyant plume in a crosswind. Approximate solutions to the conservation equations are derived and compared with numerical results. Approximate solutions compared favorably with representative field data. (1 diagram, 4 graphs, 29 references, 1 table)

  16. A new strategy for ranking chemical hazards. Framework and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Livia Tosato; Luigi Vigano; Bert Skagerberg; Sergio Clementi

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines a strategy, based on statistical design, for assessing and ranking the hazards of chemicals for which little or no useful data on toxic effects are available. Missing data of series of chemicals are predicted on the basis of test data generated for a minimum number of specific compounds that are adequate representatives of the relevant series: such

  17. Commercial fertilizers 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

    1990-12-01

    US plant nutrient consumption increased 5.5% in 1989--1990 reaching 20.62 million tons. The total for all fertilizer materials was 47.71 million tons, the highest level of distribution since 1984--1985. Nitrogen consumption was 11.08 million tons compared to 10.59 million tons last year--a gain of 4.6 percent. Urea and nitrogen solution use increased by more than 10 percent while the direct application of ammonia remained the same as last year. Phosphate use rose 5.5 percent to 4.34 million tons of P[sub 2]O[sub 5]. Significant increases were recorded for all phosphate materials except concentrated superphosphate. Potash consumption recovered sharply from last year registering a 7.5 percent increase in use to 5.20 million tons of K[sub 2]O. With few exceptions, the gain in fertilizer use in 1989-90 encompassed the entire country. Only 11 states indicated minor declines in consumption while 20 states increased use by more than 10 percent. The six states that comprise the midwest cornbelt and account for 30 percent of total US fertilizer consumption, increased use by 10.5 percent to over 14.4 million tons of material.

  18. Commercial fertilizers 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

    1990-12-01

    US plant nutrient consumption increased 5.5% in 1989--1990 reaching 20.62 million tons. The total for all fertilizer materials was 47.71 million tons, the highest level of distribution since 1984--1985. Nitrogen consumption was 11.08 million tons compared to 10.59 million tons last year--a gain of 4.6 percent. Urea and nitrogen solution use increased by more than 10 percent while the direct application of ammonia remained the same as last year. Phosphate use rose 5.5 percent to 4.34 million tons of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Significant increases were recorded for all phosphate materials except concentrated superphosphate. Potash consumption recovered sharply from last year registering a 7.5 percent increase in use to 5.20 million tons of K{sub 2}O. With few exceptions, the gain in fertilizer use in 1989-90 encompassed the entire country. Only 11 states indicated minor declines in consumption while 20 states increased use by more than 10 percent. The six states that comprise the midwest cornbelt and account for 30 percent of total US fertilizer consumption, increased use by 10.5 percent to over 14.4 million tons of material.

  19. Study of the uptake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs in wheat and soybean after application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Cortés, José Manuel; Larsson, Estelle; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2013-04-01

    Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently occurring in sludge and waters from sewage treatment plants (STPs). Sludge obtained from sewage treatment is often applied as a fertilizer in agriculture and not many studies about the uptake of pharmaceuticals into crops can be found. In this paper, we present a greenhouse experiment to study the presence of four NSAIDs (naproxen, ketoprofen, diclofenac and ibuprofen) in two different crops (soybean and wheat) after application of sludge as a fertilizer. Two different amounts of sludge were added to the soil; the recommended amount (with respect to phosphorus content) and the double recommended amount. One treatment without sludge was also included as a blank. The crops were harvested after 60 as well as 110 days. Only diclofenac and ibuprofen were detected in the sludge in concentrations of 22 and 217 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. None of the NSAIDs were detected in the crops from any of the treatments. Compared to the amounts applied to the soil, detection limits correspond to an uptake of less than 2% for diclofenac and 0.8% for ibuprofen. PMID:23454699

  20. Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

    1987-10-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

  1. Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ce-Hui Mo; Quan-Ying Cai; Yun-Hui Li; Qiao-Yun Zeng

    2008-01-01

    The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely

  2. Application of Reversible Chemical Reactions for Temperature Amplification 

    E-print Network

    Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Suciu, D. F.

    1985-01-01

    temperature thermal energy, mechanical and absorption type heat pumps have been proposed and developed so far. This paper addresses itself to the concept of a heat reaction chemical heat pump (HRCHP). The HRCHP concept is aimed to upgrade low temperature...

  3. Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications

    E-print Network

    Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

    2009-01-01

    Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

  4. Beta-methylcysteines: synthesis and application in native chemical ligation 

    E-print Network

    Lai, Zhi

    2000-01-01

    Native chemical ligation has emerged as a powerful method in peptide synthesis. In this method, an initial transthioesterification step involves a chemoselective reaction that occurs between a peptide fragment containing ...

  5. Nanoscale chemicals and materials Applications and market overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Schlag; Bala Suresh; Vivien Yang; Masahiro Yoneyama

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers the markets of materials and chemicals that are produced in the size range of a few nanometers to about 100 nanometers, including carbon based nanomaterials, nanosize metallic materials, ceramic materials, polymeric nanomaterials, and solid polymeric nanospheres

  6. Application of Reversible Chemical Reactions for Temperature Amplification

    E-print Network

    Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Suciu, D. F.

    temperature thermal energy, mechanical and absorption type heat pumps have been proposed and developed so far. This paper addresses itself to the concept of a heat reaction chemical heat pump (HRCHP). The HRCHP concept is aimed to upgrade low temperature...

  7. Application of chemical engineering to large scale solar energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Chubb; J. J. Nemecek; D. E. Simmons

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes the Solchem concept, according to which sunlight is converted to chemical energy in dispersed solar furnaces. The Solchem power station consists of the following components: (1) an energy orchard containing dispersed solar-furnace-heated chemical reactors, (2) an assemblage of demand responsive energy storage-boiler tanks, in which large quantities of energy are stored as latent heat-of-fusion, and (3) a

  8. Structure–property relationships of polymer-filled nonwoven membranes for chemical protection applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung-Hye Jung; Liwen Ji; Behnam Pourdeyhimi; Xiangwu Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Polymer membranes with selective permeabilities are excellent material candidates for chemical protection applications. For example, poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) membranes have high water permeability, and at the same time, they can block some harmful chemicals. However, PAMPS membranes are mechanically weak and their vapor selectivities need to be further improved for practical chemical protection. In this study, nonwoven fabrics were employed

  9. Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R

    2007-07-01

    This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica.

  10. REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS OF LUMINESCENCE TO MONITORING OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent analytical literature on the application of luminescence techniques to the measurement of various classes of environmentally significant chemicals has been reviewed. uminescent spectroscopy based methods are compared to other current techniques. lso, examples of recent...

  11. Application of CFD to Predict and Control Chemical and Biological Agent Dispersion in Buildings

    E-print Network

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    , while inhaling as little as 0.9, 10, and 15 milligrams of VX gas - a lethal nerve agent according to U1 Application of CFD to Predict and Control Chemical and Biological Agent Dispersion in Buildings Z, West Lafayette, IN 47907 Abstract Terrorist attack in buildings by chemical and biological agents (CBAs

  12. Application of the ICE-PIC method for the dimension reduction of chemical kinetics

    E-print Network

    Application of the ICE-PIC method for the dimension reduction of chemical kinetics Zhuyin Ren the computational burden imposed by the direct use of detailed chemical kinetics in reactive flow calculations- ful (and which can be used in combination) are: the devel- opment of skeletal mechanisms from large

  13. Rapid computation of chemical equilibrium composition - An application to hydrocarbon combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. D.; Prabhu, R. K.

    1986-01-01

    A scheme for rapidly computing the chemical equilibrium composition of hydrocarbon combustion products is derived. A set of ten governing equations is reduced to a single equation that is solved by the Newton iteration method. Computation speeds are approximately 80 times faster than the often used free-energy minimization method. The general approach also has application to many other chemical systems.

  14. Making a Chemical Application Record in FarmLogic Contact Information

    E-print Network

    Making a Chemical Application Record in FarmLogic Contact Information ARDEC: Chris Fryrear record in FarmLogic, contact Chris Fryrear (christopher.fryrear@colostate.edu) or Brenda Williams out a spray record. Your chemicals need to be added to the FarmLogic database. If you or another

  15. [Effects of long-term fertilization on water-stable aggregates in calcic kastanozem of Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Huo, Lin; Wu, Tian-Yun; Lin, Hai-Ming; Cao, Shi-Yu; Tang, Wen-Xue

    2008-03-01

    The study on the size distribution of water-stable aggregates (WSAs) in calcic kastanozem of Loess Plateau after 27 years fertilization showed that compared with those of natural soil, the contents of > 0.25 mm WSAs in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm layers of cultivated soil decreased by 21.35% and 38.82%, respectively, and those of > or = 0.5 mm WSAs also had a decreasing trend, with the greatest decrement of > 5 mm and 5-2 mm WSAs. On the contrary, the contents of 0.5-0.25 mm WSAs in the two soil layers increased by 104.75% and 23.13%, respectively. All sizes WSAs had higher contents in 0-10 cm than in 10-20 cm soil layer. Fertilization had remarkable effects on the formation of WSAs. Under the applications of organic manure and its combination with chemical fertilizers, the content of 5-2 mm WSAs increased most, followed by that of > 5 mm WSAs. After applying organic manure, organic manure plus chemical fertilizers, and straws, the contents of larger sizes WSAs increased significantly, being beneficial to the improvement of soil structure. In all fertilization treatments, the mean mass diameter (MMD) of WSAs was larger in 0-10 cm than in 10-20 cm soil layer. Compared with non-fertilization, long-term fertilization increased the MMD of WSAs, and organic manure was superior to chemical fertilizers. The MMD of WSAs was positively correlated with the amount of > 0.25 mm WSAs. PMID:18533523

  16. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments. PMID:21848295

  17. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer types on nitrous oxide emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The factors controlling nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after fertilizer nitrogen (N) applications are well studied. This information can be used to choose appropriate fertilizer sources and placement methods in order to minimize direct fertilizer-induced N2O emissions in cropping systems. Several fie...

  18. A summary overview Controlled-release fertilizer and

    E-print Network

    1 A summary overview Controlled-release fertilizer and Oregon's agricultural industry: Challenges January 2011 Introduction Soil fertility is a critical determinant of agricultural productivity in Oregon on the regular application of some type of fertilizer to the soil. Research by the OSU College of Agricultural

  19. Application of the Raven UAV for chemical and biological detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbaugh, Ryan; Barton, Jeff; Chiu, Christopher; Fidler, Ken; Hiatt, Dan; Hawthorne, Chad; Marshall, Steven; Mohos, Joe; McHugh, Vince; Nicoloff, Bill

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the plume tracking algorithms developed for a series of outdoor chemical-stimulant testing conducted at Dugway Proving Ground in 2008 and 2009 employing a Raven UAV equipped with a real-time chemical sensor. The flights were conducted as part of the a program under the sponsorship of the Army JPM NBC Contamination Avoidance and in conjunction with the Army PM-Unmanned Aircraft Systems, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. This test demonstrated the Raven's ability to autonomously detect and track a chemical plume during a variety of atmospheric conditions. During the testing, the Raven conducted over a dozen flights, tracking outdoor releases of simulated chemical weapons over significant distances. The Raven was cued to the releases with standoff detection systems through Cursor on Target messages. Upon reaching the plume, the Raven used on-board sensors and on-board meteorological data to track the plume autonomously and determine the extent of the plume. Results were provided in real-time to the UAV operator.

  20. Lodgepole Pine Nutrition and Fertilization

    E-print Network

    2000) 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Pre-fertilization foliar sulphate-S sulphate-S (ppm) Relativecumulativefrequency #12;Effect of N application rate with and without added S on 3

  1. Utilization of biosensors and chemical sensors for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    There will be a need for a wide array of chemical sensors for biomedical experimentation and for the monitoring of water and air recycling processes on Space Station Freedom. The infrequent logistics flights of the Space Shuttle will necessitate onboard analysis. The advantages of biosensors and chemical sensors over conventional analysis onboard spacecraft are manifold. They require less crew time, space, and power. Sample treatment is not needed. Real time or near-real time monitoring is possible, in some cases on a continuous basis. Sensor signals in digitized form can be transmitted to the ground. Types and requirements for chemical sensors to be used in biomedical experimentation and monitoring of water recycling during long-term space missions are discussed.

  2. Cysteine analogs with a free thiol group promote fertilization by reducing disulfide bonds in the zona pellucida of mice.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Toru; Horikoshi, Yuka; Nakao, Satohiro; Sakoh, Kazuhito; Ishizuka, Yuta; Tsutsumi, Aki; Fukumoto, Kiyoko; Kondo, Tomoko; Haruguchi, Yukie; Takeshita, Yumi; Nakamuta, Yuko; Tsuchiyama, Shuuji; Nakagata, Naomi

    2015-04-01

    Archives of cryopreserved sperm harvested from genetically engineered mice, in mouse resource centers, are a readily accessible genetic resource for the scientific community. We previously reported that exposure of oocytes to reduced glutathione (GSH) greatly improves the fertilization rate of frozen-thawed mouse sperm. Application of GSH to in vitro fertilization techniques is widely accepted as a standard protocol to produce sufficient numbers of mice from cryopreserved sperm. However, the detailed mechanism of the enhancement of fertilization mediated by GSH in vitro is not fully understood. Here we focused on the chemical by determining the effects of its amino acid constituents and cysteine analogs on the fertilization of oocytes by frozen-thawed sperm. Furthermore, we determined the stability of these compounds in aqueous solution. We show here that l-cysteine (l-Cys), d-cysteine (d-Cys), or N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) increased the rate of fertilization when added to the medium but did not adversely affect embryo development in vitro or in vivo. The levels of thiol groups of proteins in the zona pellucida (ZP) and the expansion of the ZP were increased by l-Cys, d-Cys, and NAC. These effects were abrogated by the methylation of the thiol group of l-Cys. NAC was the most stable of these compounds in the fertilization medium at 4°C. These results suggest that the thiol groups of cysteine analogs markedly enhance the fertilization rate of mouse oocytes. PMID:25715791

  3. Application of Cavity-ring Down Spectroscopy to Quantify NH3 Fluxes from Fertilizer Application in the Midwestern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, J. A.; Sibble, D.; Heuer, M.; Johnson, E.; Rood, M. J.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Myles, L.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from managed agriculture in the Midwestern region of the U.S. contribute to increased levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere and detrimental ecological changes. To better understand the exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and biosphere and identify the drivers of these processes, measurements of NH3 flux were conducted over a 200 m2 fertilized maize field in Illinois. A flux-gradient system paired with a cavity-ring down spectrometer measured fluxes from pre-cultivation through senescence of the crop. The use of a custom automated exchange mechanism allowed for continuous sampling, both above-canopy and in-canopy. Results indicated diurnal cycling of NH3 with higher concentrations in the early afternoon, although the pattern was not consistent. As expected, fertilization of the field at planting produced a marked increase in NH3 emission from the field.

  4. THE LONG-TERM VEGETABLE PRODUCTION EXPERIMENT: PLANT GROWTH AND SOIL FERTILITY COMPARISONS BETWEEN FERTILIZER AND COMPOST-AMENDED SOILS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Warman

    A paired comparative study of compost versus conventionally-fertilized vegetable plots has been conducted for 11 years in a sandy loam soil near Truro, Nova Scotia; likely the longest study of its kind in Canada. The fertility treatments have been applied annually to six rotation plots planted with six to eight different vegetable crops. Compost and fertilizer applications have been based

  5. Baseflow and peakflow chemical responses to experimental applications of ammonium sulphate to forested watersheds in north-central West Virginia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Pamela J.; Wood, Frederica; Kochenderfer, James N.

    2002-08-01

    Stream water was analysed to determine how induced watershed acidification changed the chemistry of peakflow and baseflow and to compare the relative timing of these changes. Two watersheds in north-central West Virginia, WS3 and WS9, were subjected to three applications of ammonium sulphate fertilizer per year to induce acidification. A third watershed, WS4, was the control. Samples were collected for 8 years from WS9 and for 9 years from WS3. Prior to analyses, concentration data were flow adjusted, and the influence of natural background changes was removed by accounting for the chemical responses measured from WS4. This yielded residual values that were evaluated using robust locally weighted regression and Mann-Kendall tests. On WS3, analyte responses during baseflow and peakflow were similar, although peakflow responses occurred soon after the first treatment whereas baseflow responses lagged 1-2 years. This lag in baseflow responses corresponded well with the mean transit time of baseflow on WS3. Anion adsorption on WS3 apparently delayed increases in SO4 leaching, but resulted in enhanced early leaching losses of Cl and NO3. Leaching of Ca and Mg was strongly tied, both by timing and stoichiometrically, to NO3 and SO4 leaching. F-factors for WS3 baseflow and peakflow indicated that the catchment was insensitive to acid neutralizing capacity reductions both before and during treatment, although NO3 played a large role in reducing the treatment period F-factor. By contrast, the addition of fertilizer to WS9 created an acid sensitive system in both baseflow and peakflow. On WS9, baseflow and peakflow responses also were similar to each other, but there was no time lag after treatment for baseflow. Changes in concentrations generally were not as great on WS9 as on WS3, and several ions showed no significant changes, particularly for peakflow. The lesser response to treatment on WS9 is attributed to the past abusive farming and site preparation before larch planting that resulted in poor soil fertility, erosion, and consequently, physical and chemical similarities between upper and lower soil layers. Even with fertilizer-induced NO3 and SO4 leaching increases, base cations were in low supplies and, therefore, unavailable to leach via charge pairing. The absence of a time lag in treatment responses for WS9 baseflow indicates that it has substantially different flow paths than WS3. The different hydrologies on these nearby watersheds illustrates the importance of understanding watershed hydrology when establishing a monitoring programme to detect ecosystem change. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The application of virtual reality to (chemical engineering) education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Bell; H. C. Fogler

    2004-01-01

    Virtual reality, VR, offers many benefits to technical education, including the delivery of information through multiple active channels, the addressing of different learning styles, and experiential-based learning. This poster presents work performed by the authors to apply VR to engineering education, in three broad project areas: virtual chemical plants, virtual laboratory accidents, and a virtual UIC campus. The first area

  7. Chemical Recycling of Polyurethanes and Applications for the Recyclates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. You; D. T. Durocher; P. Ch. Kierkus; T. L. Fishback

    1998-01-01

    The recycling of thermoset materials, including polyurethane, has always posed unique challenges. Traditional approaches to recycling such materials include mechanical regrinding and the use of the regrind as filler. Chemical recycling of polyurethanes by such means as hydrolysis, aminolysis, and glycolysis, is for the most part considered economically uncompetitive compared to formulating with virgin raw materials. To protect our environment

  8. Application of chemical technology to reduce boiler fouling and corrosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Proctor; B. Kasen; G. Bosinger

    1981-01-01

    Fuel oil additives containing aluminum, supplied as a dispersion of magnesium, manganese and aluminum, have been used effectively to control boiler fouling and corrosion. This paper reviews the chemistry of sodium\\/vanadium deposits and discusses the use of chemical additives in dealing with the problem. It presents the results of a fuel treatment program to solve combustion problems at Sierra Pacific

  9. Chemical Allergy: Considerations for the Practical Application of Cytokine Profiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Dearman; Catherine J. Betts; Neil Humphreys; Brian F. Flanagan; Nicola J. Gilmour; David A. Basketter; Ian Kimber

    2003-01-01

    Chemical respiratory allergy is an important occupational health problem, but there are currently available no validated methods for hazard identification. This is due in part to the fact that the relevant cellular and molecular mechanisms of sensitiza- tion of the respiratory tract have been unclear, with particular controversy regarding the role of IgE. There is now increasing evidence that respiratory

  10. Quantum-chemical studies of metal oxides for photoelectrochemical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Persson; R. Bergström; L. Ojamäe; S. Lunell

    2002-01-01

    A review of recent research, as well as new results, are presented on transition metal oxide clusters, surfaces, and crystals. Quantum-chemical calculations of clusters of first row transition metal oxides have been made to evaluate the accuracy of ab initio and density functional calculations. Adsorbates on metal oxide surfaces have been studied with both ab initio and semi-empirical methods, and

  11. Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

    2013-04-01

    Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased Corganic and Pextractable concentrations, compared to treatments without plants, reaching the highest values in the treatments combining amendments and plants. After one month of incubation, the dehydrogenase activities in wastes were more than twice in the amended treatments (1.71-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate and sampling period). Nevertheless, wastes from treatments with plants had higher dehydrogenase activities (9.66-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate) than in treatments using only amendments (4.98-22.30 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1), but both were higher than control. The plants in control presented lower fresh biomass than in amended treatments. Plants growth in control was not sufficient to enhance dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes (1.51 and 1.72 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, with/without plants, respectively). The extractable nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn) increased with amendment application, an advantage for remediation purposes. Although extractable Al, As, Na also increased in the same treatments, they remained small. In contrast, extractable Cu and Pb were, generally, lower in amended treatments than in control. The presence of the plant did not increase the concentration of elemental in the extractant solution.

  12. Chemical calibration, performance, validation and applications of the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in aquatic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Keywords: Calibration; Environmental monitoring; Performance and reference compound; POCIS; Polar organic28, Polar organic chemical integrative sampler; PRC, Performance and reference compound; PSE,34 Pressurized concentrations and if phase-water partition52 coefficients of the studied compounds are known [2-4]. In the case

  13. The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyborova, Oxana

    2010-05-01

    The fertility of soil is a capacity for ensuring plants by water, nutrients, air and capacity for making optimal conditions for growth and development of plants. The result of it is a yield. The main characteristic of fertility of soil is maintenance of humus. The humus is important part of organic matter. The supporting of soil fertility is impossible by traditional methods. The amount of receiving mineral fertilizers in agriculture will not increase in future, because mineral fertilizers are very expensive. The mineral fertilizers don't influence on maintenance of total amount of humus in soil and improve the circulation of nutrients. Every hectare of fields have to receive no less than 8-10 tons of organic fertilizers, therefore we will have self-supporting balance of humus and the fertility of soils will be increasing. Consequently we are looking for new types of organic materials and we include them in modern agro technologies. One of them is an organomineral fertilizer (lignitic materials). The humic chemicals in the form of lignitic materials of natrium, potassium and ammonium are permitted for using them in agriculture at the beginning of 1984. The Department of agriculture in Russian Federation considered the problem of using humic chemicals and made a decision to use them on the fields of our country, because the lignitic materials can restore the fertility of our fields. The lignitic materials increase the amount of spore-forming bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycete. Therefore the organic decomposition occurs more strongly, the processes of humification increase the speed and the amount of humus rises in the soil. The new forming humus has a high biological activity and it improves chemical and physical soil properties. The addition of lignitic materials in soil activates different groups of microorganisms, which influence on mobilization of nutrients and transformation from potential to effective fertility. The inclusion of humic fertilizers improves physical, physicochemical properties of soils, its air, water and thermal rate. Humic acids with mineral and organomineral particles of soil form the soil absorbent complex. The inclusion of humic fertilizers promotes the process when humic substances form a very valuable water-stable clumpy-granular structure, which improves water-carrying and water-holding capacity, its air permeability by agglutination of mineral particles with each other. The soils, where humic fertilizers are carried in soils regularly, are more stable for influence of chemical polluting substances (for example, radioactive nuclides, heavy metals, pesticides) than poor soils. The inclusion of humic fertilizers is very important in period of urbanization and cropping on the plough-lands not far from a big industrial area. The lignitic materials tie together the detrimental compounds formed the insoluble complex in soil solution. The detrimental compounds don't go into plants, subsoil waters and atmosphere. The lignitic watering of soils (in concentration from 0.1 to 0.01%) increases biological activity of soil in a man-caused zones and it promotes to stability of plants to detrimental emission of enterprises. Today the problem of processing of sugar-beet industry is very important. In the result of storing sugar-beet wastes the pollution of environment is occurred, examples of this pollution are gassing, salinization of soils and ground waters by filtrational sediments. One of these wastes is defecation sludge. The defecation sludge consists of CaCO3, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and microelements. The technology of receiving N-Ca fertilizer based on defecate was developed because of impossibility of using this waste in pure form. For available data, using of these fertilizers improves the soil fertility and degree of pollution by heavy metals don't exceed an acceptance limits.

  14. A Coaxial Microwave Applicator for Direct Heating of Liquids Filling Chemical Reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Biffi Gentili; Mariano Linari; Iginio Longo; Andrea Simone Ricci

    2009-01-01

    A coaxial microwave applicator radiating in a liquid medium contained inside a chemical reactor is described. The applicator consists of an insulated asymmetrical dipole antenna that radiates almost isotropically. Hence, it appears well suited to directly heat the medium that fills the vessel, making it unnecessary to use a microwave oven as currently done in microwave assisted chemistry. The electromagnetic

  15. APPLICABILITY OF PASSIVE MONITORING DEVICES TO MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN AMBIENT AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Commercial passive monitoring devices for volatile organic chemicals were evaluated to determine their potential application to ambient air concentrations (0.1 to 50 ppbv). A high-performance passive device was developed for short-term, low-level monitoring applications. The stai...

  16. Quantum-chemical studies of metal oxides for photoelectrochemical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, P.; Bergström, R.; Ojamäe, L.; Lunell, S.

    A review of recent research, as well as new results, are presented on transition metal oxide clusters, surfaces, and crystals. Quantum-chemical calculations of clusters of first row transition metal oxides have been made to evaluate the accuracy of ab initio and density functional calculations. Adsorbates on metal oxide surfaces have been studied with both ab initio and semi-empirical methods, and results are presented for the bonding and electronic interactions of large organic adsorbates, e.g. aromatic molecules, on Ti02 and ZnO. Defects and intercalation, notably of H, Li, and Na in Ti02 have been investigated theoretically. Comparisons with experiments are made throughout to validate the calculations. Finally, the role of quantum-chemical calculations in the study of metal oxide based photoelectrochemical devices, such as dyesensitized solar cells and electrochromic displays. is discussed.

  17. Toilet compost and human urine used in agriculture: fertilizer value assessment and effect on cultivated soil properties.

    PubMed

    Sangare, D; Sou Dakoure, M; Hijikata, N; Lahmar, R; Yacouba, H; Coulibaly, L; Funamizu, N

    2015-01-01

    Toilet compost (TC) and human urine are among natural fertilizers, which raise interest due to their double advantages to combine sanitation and nutrient recovery. However, combination of urine and TC is not so spread probably because the best ratio (urine/TC) is still an issue and urine effect on soil chemical properties remains poorly documented. This study aims to determine the best ratio of urine and TC in okra cultivation, by targeting higher fertilization effect combined with lower impact on soil chemical properties. Based on Nitrogen requirement of okra, seven treatments were compared: (T0) no fertilizer, (T1) chemical fertilizer (NPK: 14-23-14), (T2) 100% urine, (T3) 100% TC, (T4) ratio of 75% urine+25% TC, (T5) 50% urine+50% TC and (T6) 25% urine+75% TC. Results indicated that T4 (75% urine+25% TC) gave the highest plant height and yield. In contrast, T2 (100% urine) gave the lowest results among all treatments, indicating toxicity effects on plant growth and associated final yield. Such toxicity is confirmed by soil chemical properties at T2 with soil acidification and significant increase in soil salinity. In contrast, application of urine together with TC mitigates soil acidification and salinity, highlighting the efficiency of urine and TC combination on soil chemical properties. However, further investigation is necessary to refine better urine/TC ratio for okra production. PMID:25371046

  18. Chemical vapor deposition coating of fibers using microwave application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Hoover, Gordon (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition coating is carried out in a cylindrical cavity. The fibers are heated by a microwave source that is uses a TM0N0 mode, where O is an integer, and produces a field that depends substantially only on radius. The fibers are observed to determine their heating, and their position can be adjusted. Once the fibers are uniformly heated, a CVD reagent is added to process the fibers.

  19. Application of chemical engineering to large scale solar energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Chubb; J. J. Nemecek; D. E. Simmons

    1978-01-01

    The Solchem power station concept is described. The components include an energy collection field containing dispersed solar-furnace-heated chemical reactors, an assemblage of demand-responsive energy storage-boiler tanks in which large quantities of energy are stored as latent heat-of-fusion, and a conventional dry-steam turboelectric generating facility. A eutectic salt is used for energy storage, and heat pipe boilers provide on-demand power plant

  20. Chemical temperature indicators for geothermal applications. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Jr. Gaven; C. S. Bak; V. V. Jones; B. Grow

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this program was the development of a simple, reliable method for temperaure measurement in geotherml wells duing drilling operations. The method of choice involves the use of a series of chemical temperature indicator materials, with sharply defined melting temperatures over the temperature range 80°C less than or equal to T less than or equal to 350°C. The

  1. Chemical Applications of Graph Theory: Part II. Isomer Enumeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Peter J.; Jurs, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of graph theory to aid in the depiction of organic molecular structures. Gives a historical perspective of graph theory and explains graph theory terminology with organic examples. Lists applications of graph theory to current research projects. (ML)

  2. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Leonard; Matthew Stephen Tezak; John E. Brockmann; Brandon Servantes; Andres L. Sanchez; Mark David Tucker; Ashley N. Allen; Mollye C. Wilson; Daniel A. Lucero; Rita G. Betty

    2010-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during

  3. Variation of rhizosphere bacterial community in watermelon continuous mono-cropping soil by long-term application of a novel bioorganic fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Ling, Ning; Deng, Kaiying; Song, Yang; Wu, Yunchen; Zhao, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    The application method for a novel bioorganic fertilizer (BIO) was developed to improve its biocontrol efficacy of Fusarium wilt (Ling et al. 2010). However, its efficacy on controlling Fusarium wilt and the variations of microbial community after long-term application for watermelon production had not been elucidated. To clarify, a 4-years pot experiment of mono-cropping watermelon was conducted. The results revealed that though the disease incidences were increased in all treatments with the increase of continuous cropping years, the treatment of BIO application both in nursery and pot soil always maintained the lowest disease incidence. The real-time PCR results showed that the population of Paenibacillus polymyxa was decreased with continuous cropping years, but in all seasons, the treatment with BIO application both in nursery and pot soil had a highest population of P. polymyxa than the other treatments. On the other hand, the abundance of the pathogen FON was increased with the increase of continuous cropping years and the lowest rate of increase was found by BIO application in both nursery and pot soil. DGGE patterns showed that the bacterial diversity was weakened after mono-cropping of watermelon for 4 years, but the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage resulted in the minimal change of bacterial diversity. More detailed differences on bacterial diversity between control and double application of BIO treatment after 4-years monoculture were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing, which showed the dominant phyla found in both samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the consecutive applications of BIO recruited more beneficial bacteria than control, such as Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Haliangium, Streptomyces. Overall, these results, to a certain extent, approved that the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage could effectively suppress watermelon Fusarium wilt by regulating the rhizosphere bacterial diversity. These results could give some clues that how to regulate the soil microbial community to an appropriate level which can keep the plant healthy and thus control the soil-borne diseases. PMID:24263158

  4. Long-term fertilization of organic manure led to the succession of Bacillus community in an alluvial-aquic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruirui; Lin, Xiangui; Feng, Youzhi; Hu, Junli; Wang, Ruirui

    2014-05-01

    Long-term fertilization inevitably influences soil physic-chemical and biological properties. Our previous studies with a long-term fertilization experiment on an alluvial-aquic have revealed that specific Bacillus spp. was observed in organic manure-fertilized soils. The current study investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on the succession of Bacillus community in soils and their functions. The experiment included three fertilizer treatments: organic manure (OM), mineral fertilizers (NPK) and the control (without fertilizers). The results showed that long-term application of chemical fertilizers didn't increase the quantity of soil microbial population as much as organic fertilizers did, but it played an important role in maintaining the diversity and community structure of indigenous Bacilli. Correspondingly, long-term application of organic manure significantly increased the quantity while significantly decreased the diversity of Bacilli community. The ratio of Bacilli/bacteria was more constant in OM treatment than NPK indicating the stability of the response to long-term organic fertilizers. PCR-DGGE and clone library revealed the succession of Bacillus community after long-term application of organic manure and the dominant Bacillus spp occurred in the treatmen OM was Bacillus asahii. Our results also proved that Bacillus asahii was not derived from exogenous organic manure, but one of indigenous bacteria in the soil. Bacillus asahii was induced by the substrate after the application of organic manure, and gradually evolved into dominant Bacillus after 4 to 5 years. With an enzyme assay test of pure species and a soil incubation experiment, we came to a preliminary judgment, that the dominant Bacillus asahii didn't significantly influence the decomposition rate of cellulose and protein in the soil, but it promoted the decomposition of lipids, and could also improve the transformation process from fresh organic matter to humus. Applied organic manure led to the succession of soil microbial community, as a response, the changed microbial community and their activities influenced the turnover of exogenous and native soil organic matter, as well as the residuals of decomposition and microbial metabolisms.

  5. Equine in vitro fertilization

    E-print Network

    Vasquez C., Juan Carlos

    1992-01-01

    ZONA PELLUCIDA 96 HOURS AFTER FERTILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 12 A 32-CELL EMBRYO 96 HOURS AFTER IN-VITRO FERTILIZATION 13 MORULA 96 HOURS AFTER IN-VITRO FERTILIZATION 70 14 A BLASTOCYST LIKE STRUCTURE 72 HOURS AFTER FERTILIZATION 71... of the oocyte to develop to the blastocyst stage after IVM/IVF). It has been observed that at least the corona radiata in direct contact with the zona pellucida is needed for the oocyte to be capable of acquiring developmental competence during maturation...

  6. Long-Term Fertilization Modifies the Structures of Soil Fulvic Acids and Their Binding Capability with Al

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Wu, Minjie; Li, Chunping; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The binding characteristics of organic ligands and minerals in fulvic acids (FAs) with Al are essential for understanding soil C sequestration, remain poorly understood. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) analysis was applied for the first time to explore the binding of Al with organic ligands and minerals in soil FAs. For these analyses, two contrasting treatments were selected from a long-term (i.e., 22-year) fertilization experiment: chemical (NPK) fertilization and swine manure (SM) fertilization. The results showed that the long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers to soils had little effect on the compositions of the fluorescent substances and organic ligands in the soil FAs. However, long-term SM fertilization increased the weathered Al and Si concentrations in the soil FAs compared with long-term chemical fertilization. Furthermore, organic ligands in the soil FAs were mainly bound with Al in the NPK treatment, whereas both organic ligands and minerals (Al-O-Si, Si-O) were bound with Al under the M fertilization conditions. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction spectra demonstrated that amorphous and short-range-ordered nanominerals were abundant in the soil FAs from the SM plot in contrast to the soil FAs from the NPK plot. This result illustrates the role nanominerals play in the preservation of soil FAs by during long-term organic fertilization. In summary, the combination of FTIR and 2D correlation spectroscopy is a promising approach for the characterization of the binding capability between soil FAs and Al, and a better understanding FA-Al binding capability will greatly contribute to global C cycling. PMID:25137372

  7. Assisted oocyte activation following ICSI fertilization failure.

    PubMed

    Vanden Meerschaut, Frauke; Nikiforaki, Dimitra; Heindryckx, Björn; De Sutter, Petra

    2014-05-01

    The capacity of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to permit almost any type of spermatozoa to fertilize oocytes has made it the most successful treatment for male factor infertility. Despite its high success rates, fertilization failure following ICSI still occurs in 1-3% of couples. Assisted oocyte activation (AOA) is being increasingly applied in human assisted reproduction to restore fertilization and pregnancy rates in couples with a history of ICSI fertilization failure. However, controversy still exists mainly because the artificial activating agents do not mimic precisely the initial physiological processes of mammalian oocyte activation, which has led to safety concerns. This review addresses the mechanism of human oocyte activation and the relatively rare phenomenon of fertilization failure after ICSI. Next, it describes the current diagnostic approaches and focuses on the application, efficiency and safety of AOA in human assisted reproduction. PMID:24656559

  8. Syntheses and some applications of chemically defined multivalent glycoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Roy, R

    1996-10-01

    Classical multivalent neoglycoproteins have been widely used to study a great number of carbohydrate-protein interactions. The synthesis of other neoglycoconjugates with various shapes, valencies, and conformations has reached considerable levels of sophistication and holds promise as a new tool for glycobiology and biomedical applications. Within the last few years, advances have been made towards both the syntheses and understanding of the antigenic properties of water-soluble glycopolymers. Some of these glycopolymers are finding applications as inhibitors of microbial adhesins and as carriers for drug delivery to specific cells. Novel dendritic carbohydrate structures are emerging as potent ligands for carbohydrate-binding proteins. PMID:8913693

  9. Deep 16S rRNA pyrosequencing reveals a bacterial community associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt disease suppression induced by bio-organic fertilizer application.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zongzhuan; Wang, Dongsheng; Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

  10. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 91 (2002) 233243 Combining fertilizer and organic inputs to synchronize N

    E-print Network

    van Kessel, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 91 (2002) 233­243 Combining fertilizer and organic inputs such cropping systems substitute intensive application of synthetic fertilizer with organic inputs, such as N2 was conducted within conventional (fertilizer), low-input (fertilizer and organic N), and organic (organic N

  11. Geoengineering, Ocean Fertilization,

    E-print Network

    Neff, Jason

    Geoengineering, Ocean Fertilization, and the Problem of Permissible Pollution Benjamin Hale1.'' In this paper, we explore this problem by taking up ocean fertilization and advan- cing an argument that rests fertilization, and other related geoengineering technologies, propose not strictly to clean up carbon emissions

  12. Toxicity of pesticide and fertilizer mixtures simulating corn production to eggs of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).

    PubMed

    de Solla, Shane Raymond; Martin, Pamela Anne; Mikoda, Paul

    2011-09-15

    Many reptiles oviposit in soils associated with agricultural landscapes. We evaluated the toxicity of a pesticide and fertilizer regime similar to those used in corn production in Ontario on the survivorship of exposed snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs. The herbicides atrazine, dimethenamid, and glyphosate, the pyrethroid insecticide tefluthrin, and the fertilizer ammonia, were applied to clean soil, both as partial mixtures within chemical classes, as well as complete mixtures. Eggs were incubated in the soil in a garden plot in which these mixtures were applied at a typical field application rate, and higher rates. Otherwise, the eggs were unmanipulated and were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. Eggs were also exposed at male producing temperatures in the laboratory in covered bins in the same soil, where there was less opportunity for loss through volatilization or leaching. Egg mortality was 100% at 10× the typical field application rate of the complete mixture, both with and without tefluthrin. At typical field application rates, hatching success ranged between 91.7 and 95.8%. Eggs exposed only to herbicides were not negatively affected at any application rates. Although fertilizer treatments at typical field application rates did not affect eggs, mortality was remarkably higher at three times this rate, and 100% at higher rates. The frequency of deformities of hatchlings was elevated at the highest application rate of the insecticide tefluthrin. The majority of the toxicity of the mixture was not due to the herbicides or insecticide, but was due to the ammonia fertilizer. At typical field application rates, the chemical regime associated with corn production does not appear to have any detrimental impacts upon turtle egg development; however toxicity dramatically increases if this threshold is passed. PMID:21831407

  13. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique in chemical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Lizon, D.; Hasse, R.

    1996-09-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range completely noninvasively from outside a container (e.g., pipe, tank, reactor vessel, etc.,). These acoustic parameters, along with their frequency-dependence, can be used to identify various chemicals. This technique can be adapted for a range of chemical diagnostic applications, particularly, in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals may provide appropriate feedback information. Both experimental data and theoretical modeling are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are discussed.

  14. Agronomy Facts 51 Starter Fertilizer

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    Agronomy Facts 51 Starter Fertilizer Starter Fertilizer BeneFitS Starter fertilizers are most fertility. Using a starter is especially important in conservation tillage systems. Crops planted in late spring or early fall generally do not require a starter fertilizer unless soil fertility levels are low

  15. Toxicokinetic modeling and its applications in chemical risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin E. Andersen

    2003-01-01

    In recent years physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has found frequent application in risk assessments where PBPK models serve as important adjuncts to studies on modes of action of xenobiotics. In this regard, studies on mode of action provide insight into both the sites\\/mechanisms of action and the form of the xenobiotic associated with toxic responses. Validated PBPK models permit

  16. [Effects of long-term fertilization on pH buffer system of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Dong; Qi, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Ai-Jun; Ning, Yun-Wang; Xu, Xian-Ju; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Hong-Bo

    2012-04-01

    Soil samples (0-80 cm) were collected from a 30-year fertilization experimental site in Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province of East China to study the variations of the pH, calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, and pH buffer capacity of sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil under different fertilization treatments. Thirty-year continuous application of different fertilizers accelerated the acidification of topsoil (0-20 cm), with the soil pH decreased by 0.41-0.70. Under different fertilization, the soil pH buffer capacity (pHBC) varied from 15.82 to 21.96 cmol x kg(-1). As compared with no fertilization, single N fertilization decreased the pHBC significantly, but N fertilization combined with organic fertilization could significantly increase the pHBC. The soil pHBC had significant positive correlations with soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents, but less correlation with soil organic matter content and soil cation exchange capacity, suggesting that after a long-term fertilization, the sandy loam calcareous fluvor-aquic soil was still of an elementary calcium carbonate buffer system, and soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity contributed little to the buffer system. The soil calcium carbonate and active calcium carbonate contents were greater in 0-40 cm than in 40-80 cm soil layer. Comparing with soil calcium carbonate, soil active calcium carbonate was more sensitive to reflect the changes of soil physical and chemical properties, suggesting that the calcium carbonate buffer system could be further classified as soil active calcium carbonate buffer system. PMID:22803470

  17. Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Hanseth; Y. S. Won; L. P. Seibowitz

    1980-01-01

    Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2\\/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the

  18. Chemical Theory and Computation Special Feature: Ab initio quantum chemistry: Methodology and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Friesner

    2005-01-01

    This Perspective provides an overview of state-of-the-art ab initio quantum chemical methodology and applications. The methods that are discussed include coupled cluster theory, localized second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, multireference perturbation approaches, and density functional theory. The accuracy of each approach for key chemical properties is summarized, and the computational performance is analyzed, emphasizing significant advances in algorithms and implementation over

  19. DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND APPLICATION OF THE TRIMETHOPRIM-BASED CHEMICAL TAG FOR LIVE CELL IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Chaoran; Cornish, Virginia W.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade chemical tags have been developed to complement the use of fluorescent proteins in live cell imaging. Chemical tags retain the specificity of protein labeling achieved with fluorescent proteins through genetic encoding, but provide smaller, more robust tags and modular use of organic fluorophores with high photon-output and tailored functionalities. The trimethoprim-based chemical tag (TMP-tag) was initially developed based on the high affinity interaction between E.coli dihydrofolatereductase and the antibiotic trimethoprim and subsequently rendered covalent and fluorogenic via proximity-induced protein labeling reactions. To date, the TMP-tag is one of the few chemical tags that enable intracellular protein labeling and high-resolution live cell imaging. Here we describe the general design, chemical synthesis, and application of TMP-tag for live cell imaging. Alternative protocols for synthesizing and using the covalent and the fluorogenic TMP-tags are also included. PMID:23839994

  20. [Changes in fertility].

    PubMed

    Welti, C

    1997-01-01

    Mexican fertility levels did not change dramatically in the years 1988-97, but maintained a gradual downward trend. In the late 1960s and the entire decade of the 1970s, the fertility decline was spectacular. National fertility surveys beginning in 1976 have provided rich information on fertility trends and their determinants, which along with census data reveal the history of the past 3 decades of fertility change. The 1995 total fertility rate of 2.9 was less than one-half of the 1965 total fertility rate of 7.1. The age pattern of fertility has also changed, with the proportion of births to younger mothers progressively increasing. The average age at childbirth declined from 29.2 in 1965 to 27.4 in 1995. The 1995 age-specific fertility rate for women over 35 was one-fourth that of 1965. Sterilization is the most widely used contraceptive method among women over 30, and, at present, 70% of women over 35 are sterilized. The decline in adolescent fertility is due primarily to the rise in average age at first marriage. The marital fertility rate among women 15-19 years old remains at about 400/1000, a high level explained by the frequency of marriages to legitimize prenuptial conceptions. Comparison of fertility data for 5-year periods shows the impact of contraceptive usage and of the family planning program, especially during 1975-80, when the public family planning program was most active. The age pattern of fertility decline suggests that women used contraception more to limit than to space fertility. Fluctuations in fertility after 1980 appear to be linked to the relaxation of public sector family planning activities. The average number of children born by age 40 declined from 5.68 for women born in 1941-45 to 3.46 for those born in 1955-60. PMID:12158083

  1. Application of Surface Chemical Analysis Tools for Characterization of Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Techane, Sirnegeda D.; Castner, David G.

    2010-02-01

    The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS); low energy ion scattering (LEIS); and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), are briefly summarized. Examples describing the characterization of engineered nanoparticles are provided. Specific analysis considerations and issues associated with using surface analysis methods for the characterization of nanoparticles are discussed and summarized, along with the impact that shape instability, environmentally induced changes, deliberate and accidental coating, etc., have on nanoparticle properties.

  2. Application of Quotient Rings for Stability Analysis in Chemical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauerbrei, Sonja; Sensse, Anke; Eiswirth, Markus

    2011-04-01

    Concepts from algebraic geometry (polynomial rings) can be used to determine analytically the stationary solutions in chemical reactions systems, more generally, systems of ordinary differential equations of polynomial form. The stability analysis via the Jacobian matrix often leads to complicated expressions which can hardly be analyzed. It is shown that these expressions can be simplified by forming quotient rings of the corresponding polynomial ring. The coefficients in the characteristic equation of the Jacobian can be represented by the normal forms obtained by generating the quotient rings so that their sign changes in dependence of a kinetic parameter and, hence, the stability can be determined. The procedure is illustrated using a well-known surface reaction.

  3. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

    2011-03-01

    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos. PMID:21269884

  4. Recent applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence in chemical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karsten A Fähnrich; Miloslav Pravda; George G Guilbault

    2001-01-01

    Analytical applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) are reviewed with emphasis on the years 1997–2000. Recent developments are described for the ECL of organics, metal complexes and clusters, cathodic ECL on oxide covered electrodes, ECL based immunosensors, DNA-probe assays and enzymatic biosensors. Mechanisms are given for polyaromatic hydrocarbons, luminol\\/hydrogen peroxide, some cathodic ECL reactions and ruthenium complexes with and without co-reactants.

  5. Enhancement of municipal wastewater treatment plants by chemical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Park; S. Y. Lee; Y. H. Kim

    1999-01-01

    The enhancement of municipal wastewater treatment plant was investigated at the two model plants by full scale and semi-pilot scale experiments. The simple application of 20 0 60p1\\/1 of Hi-PAX(Po1y Aluminum Chloride Silicate, A1203 17%) to the inlet of the influent pump of the primary sewage treatment plant(250,OOO m3\\/day) showed enhanced removal eficiencies in all contaminants. The removal rate of

  6. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

  7. Immunochemical tests of potential fertility.

    PubMed

    Collins, W P

    1992-02-01

    There are many methods of determining the physiological basis of cyclical periods of potential fertility: calculations, sensations, or physical or chemical biosensors. This article reviews the development of self-tests of potential fertility using immunoassay of hormone metabolites in urine. Indices of potential fertility in urine are the concentration of principal metabolites of steroid hormones and luteinizing hormone (LF). The ovaries produce an estimated 50-800 mcg of estradiol/day, the most active estrogen which is concentrated in the peripheral circulation during the preovulatory period of rapid follicular growth. Measurements may be taken from the blood, saliva, or cervico-vaginal fluid, and urine as estrogen-3 or 17 beta-glucuronide. The metabolism of progesterone shows changes at carbon atoms 3, 11, 17, and 20. Urine contains lower concentrations of 5 beta-pregnanediol-3 alpha-glucuronide (P3G), followed by 5 beta-pregnanediol glucuronide and 5 alpha-pregnanediol glucuronide. Methods of measurement are presented, including the mean changes in the urinary concentrations of estrogen 3-glucuronide (E3G) and P3G and their concentration ratio in relation to day 1 of menses, the day of luteinizing hormone LH peak, and the time limits for ovulation during menstrual cycle. A laboratory test of E3G in early morning urine (EMU) from 38 subjects showed that delineating a defined fertile period (day of maximum follicular diameter minus 3 to day plus 2) was possible in 89% of cases. New methods with immunotubes or immunostrips, novel antibodies, and idiometric assay attempt to improve the signal/background ratio; each method is described. Immunotubes for measuring steroid glucuronide may be light absorbing, light emitting (fluorescence polarization), and light emitting with time resolved fluorescence. Each procedure is described. The present technology demonstrates that immunoassays can be performed as self-tests, and what remains to be done is ascertaining the most appropriate one for determining potential fertility. PMID:1633952

  8. Formulation of engineered particulate systems for chemical mechanical polishing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basim, Gul Bahar

    Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is widely used in the microelectronics industry to achieve planarization and patterning of metal and dielectric layers for microelectronic device manufacturing. Rapid advances in the microelectronics industry demand a decrease in the sizes of the devices, resulting in the requirement of a very thin layer of material removal with atomically flat and clean surface finish by CMP. Furthermore, new materials, such as copper and polymeric dielectrics, are introduced to build faster microprocessors, which are more vulnerable to defect formation and also demand more complicated chemistries. These trends necessitate improved control of the CMP that can be achieved by studying the slurry chemical and particulate properties to gain better fundamental understanding on the process. In this study, the impacts of slurry particle size distribution and stability on pad-particle-surface interactions during polishing are investigated. One of the main problems in CMP is the scratch or pit formation as a result of the presence of larger size particles in the slurries. Therefore, in this investigation, impacts of hard and soft (transient) agglomerates on polishing performance are quantified in terms of the material removal rate and the quality of the surface finish. It is shown that the presence of both types of agglomerates must be avoided in CMP slurries and robust stabilization schemes are needed to prevent the transient agglomerate formation. To stabilize the CMP slurries at extreme pH and ionic strength environments, under applied shear and normal forces, repulsive force barriers provided by the self-assembled surfactant structures at the solid/liquid interface are utilized. A major finding of this work is that slurry stabilization has to be achieved by controlling not only the particle-particle interactions, but also the pad-particle-substrate interactions. Perfect lubrication of surfaces by surfactants prevented polishing. Thus, effective slurry formulations are developed by studying the frictional forces, which are representative of the particle-substrate interactions, while achieving stability by introducing adequate interparticle repulsion. Finally, optimal slurry particulate properties are examined by analyzing the material removal mechanisms for silica-silica polishing. Based on the reported findings, a slurry design criterion is developed to achieve optimal polishing performance.

  9. Simulation of fertilizer requirement for irrigated wheat in eastern India using the QUEFTS model.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Debtanu; Das, D K; Pathak, H

    2006-01-01

    Crop modeling can provide us with information about fertilizer dose to achieve the target yield, crop conditions, etc. Due to conventional and imbalanced fertilizer application, nutrient use efficiency in wheat is low. Estimation of fertilizer requirements based on quantitative approaches can assist in improving yields and nutrient use efficiency. Field experiments were conducted at 20 sites in eastern India (Nadia district of West Bengal) to assess the soil supply, requirement, and internal efficiency of N, P, K, and Zn in wheat. The data were used to calibrate the QUEFTS (Quantitative Evaluation of the Fertility of Tropical Soils) model for site-specific, balanced fertilizer recommendations. The parameters of maximum accumulation (a) and maximum dilution (d) in wheat were calculated for N (35, 100), P (129, 738), K (17, 56), and Zn (21502, 140244). Grain yield of wheat showed statistically significant correlation with N (R2 = 0.937**), P (R2 = 0.901**), and K uptake (R2 = 0.801**). The NPK ratio to produce 1 tonne grain yield of wheat was calculated to be 4.9:1.0:8.9. The relationships between chemical properties and nutrient-supplying capacity of soils were also established. The model was validated using the data from four other experiments. Observed yields with different amounts of N, P, K, and Zn were in good agreement with the predicted values, suggesting that the validated QUEFTS model can be used for site-specific nutrient management of wheat. PMID:16501825

  10. Stochastic models in floral biology and its application to the study of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fertility

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stochastic models in floral biology and its application to the study of oilseed rape (Brassica physiological processes that can be modeled with stochastic laws. Experiments were made on oilseed rape is the first step towards a dynamic model taking into account the complexity of the oilseed rape architecture

  11. Application of Key Events Analysis to Chemical Carcinogens and Noncarcinogens

    PubMed Central

    BOOBIS, ALAN R.; DASTON, GEORGE P.; PRESTON, R. JULIAN; OLIN, STEPHEN S.

    2009-01-01

    The existence of thresholds for toxicants is a matter of debate in chemical risk assessment and regulation. Current risk assessment methods are based on the assumption that, in the absence of sufficient data, carcinogenesis does not have a threshold, while noncarcinogenic endpoints are assumed to be thresholded. Advances in our fundamental understanding of the events that underlie toxicity are providing opportunities to address these assumptions about thresholds. A key events dose-response analytic framework was used to evaluate three aspects of toxicity. The first section illustrates how a fundamental understanding of the mode of action for the hepatic toxicity and the hepatocarcinogenicity of chloroform in rodents can replace the assumption of low-dose linearity. The second section describes how advances in our understanding of the molecular aspects of carcinogenesis allow us to consider the critical steps in genotoxic carcinogenesis in a key events framework. The third section deals with the case of endocrine disrupters, where the most significant question regarding thresholds is the possible additivity to an endogenous background of hormonal activity. Each of the examples suggests that current assumptions about thresholds can be refined. Understanding inter-individual variability in the events involved in toxicological effects may enable a true population threshold(s) to be identified. PMID:19690995

  12. Crataegus pinnatifida: chemical constituents, pharmacology, and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiaqi; Peng, Wei; Qin, Rongxin; Zhou, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Crataegus pinnatifida (Hawthorn) is widely distributed in China and has a long history of use as a traditional medicine. The fruit of C. pinnatifida has been used for the treatment of cardiodynia, hernia, dyspepsia, postpartum blood stasis, and hemafecia and thus increasing interest in this plant has emerged in recent years. Between 1966 and 2013, numerous articles have been published on the chemical constituents, pharmacology or pharmacologic effects and toxicology of C. pinnatifida. To review the pharmacologic advances and to discuss the potential perspective for future investigation, we have summarized the main literature findings of these publications. So far, over 150 compounds including flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, lignans, hydroxycinnamic acids, organic acids and nitrogen-containing compounds have been isolated and identified from C. pinnatifida. It has been found that these constituents and extracts of C. pinnatifida have broad pharmacological effects with low toxicity on, for example, the cardiovascular, digestive, and endocrine systems, and pathogenic microorganisms, supporting the view that C. pinnatifida has favorable therapeutic effects. Thus, although C. pinnatifida has already been widely used as pharmacological therapy, due to its various active compounds, further research is warranted to develop new drugs. PMID:24487567

  13. 2007 STEEP PROGRESS (FINAL) REPORT PROJECT TITLE: Phosphorus and Sulfur Fertilization of Late-Seeded Winter Wheat in a Chemical Fallow System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Lutcher; Morrow County; William Schillinger; Stewart Wuest; Don Wysocki; Neil Christensen; Irv Rauch; Chris Rauch; Leon Reese; Ken Nelson; Joe Rietmann; Joe McElligott; Bill Jepsen

    OF RESEARCH FINDINGS: Phosphorus and S application had a small, but significant effect on early-season tissue nutrient concentration. Phosphorus application increased early-season dry matter and nutrient uptake. The most significant dry matter and nutrient uptake response occurred in Adams County, Washington when the bioavailability of P (in untreated control plots) was lower than that measured at any other site during

  14. Vaccines for immunological control of fertility in animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Hardy; A. L. Braid

    Summary Fertility control has gained considerable momentum as a management tool to regulate populations of captive and wild animals and to control aggressive behaviour or improve meat quality in livestock. Anti-fertility vaccination (immunocontraception and immunocastration) is a humane alternative to methods that rely on surgical or chemical sterilisation and lethal control. Two types of experimental immunocontraceptive vaccine have been registered

  15. Heavy metal contaminants in inorganic and organic fertilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Mortvedt

    1995-01-01

    Commercial phosphate (P) fertilizers contain small amounts of heavy-metal contaminants which were minor constituents in phosphate rock (PR). Animal manures and sewage sludges (biosolids) are the main organic fertilizers and the latter also may contain heavy-metal contaminants. Heavy metals in biosolids may be found in the inorganic form or may be organically complexed, which could affect their chemical reactions in

  16. Global Government applications of analogues, SAR s and QSAR s to predict aquatic toxicity, chemical or physical properties, environmental fate parameters and health effects of organic chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Walker; L. Carlsen; E. Hulzebos; B. Simon-Hettich

    2002-01-01

    Faced with the need to predict physical and chemical properties, environmental fate, ecological effects and health effects of organic chemicals in the absence of experimental data, several Government organizations have been applying analogues, Structure Activity Relationships (SARs) and Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) to develop those predictions. To establish some benchmarks for monitoring future increases in applications of analogues, SARs

  17. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometer for nonintrusive detection and identification of chemical warfare compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Han, W.; Lizon, D.; Kogan, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronic Materials and Devices Group

    1997-12-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying chemical warfare (CW) compounds inside sealed munitions. The SFAI technique can rapidly (less than 20 seconds) and accurately determine sound speed and sound attenuation of a liquid inside a container over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 MHz). From the frequency-dependent sound attenuation measurement, liquid density is determined. These three physical properties are used to uniquely identify the CW compounds. In addition, various chemical relaxation processes in liquids and particle size distribution in emulsions can also be determined from the frequency-dependent attenuation measurement. The SFAI instrument is battery-operated and highly portable (< 6 lb.). The instrument has many potential application in industry ranging from sensitive detection (ppm level) of contamination to process control. The theory of the technique will be described and examples of several chemical industry applications will be presented.

  18. Designs and applications of surface acoustic wave sensors for biological and chemical sensing and sample handling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Cular

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic wave sensors have proven useful in many fields as primarily mass sensitive devices capable of responding to small environmental perturbations. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a new type of surface acoustic wave device with application to material property measurement, and biological and chemical sensing. This device is a combination of three independent acoustic wave devices

  19. Process integration technology review: background and applications in the chemical process industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell F Dunn; Mahmoud M El-Halwagi

    2003-01-01

    Process integration is a holistic approach to process design and operation which emphasizes the unity of the process. Process integration design tools have been developed over the past two decades to achieve process improvement, productivity enhancement, conservation in mass and energy resources, and reductions in the operating and capital costs of chemical processes. The primary applications of these integrated tools

  20. APPLICABILITY OF U.S. EPA RISK ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES FOR CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA published Guidelines for the health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures in September, 1986. To facilitate the application of Guidelines procedures the Agency has developed a data base on known toxicological interactions (synergism, etc.). This unique resource allos ...

  1. Reliable Modeling and Optimization for Chemical Engineering Applications: Interval Analysis Approach

    E-print Network

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    Reliable Modeling and Optimization for Chemical Engineering Applications: Interval Analysis of phase equilibrium, including the implications of using locally vs. globally optimal parameters and bifurcations of equilibria in ecosystem models used to assess the risk associated with the introduction of new

  2. Phyto-chemical and pharmacological applications of Berberis aristata.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Dipti; Hirwani, R R; Dhulap, Sivakami

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, the interest and research in medicinal plants have increased in a great deal. Ayurvedic medicines and formulations developed from ancient Indian herbal systems are renowned for their various important applications. Berberis aristata - an Indian medicinal plant, which belongs to the family Berberidaceae is an ayurvedic herb used since ancient times. It is also known as Indian berberi, Daruharidra, Daruhaldi, Darvi and Chitra. The plant is useful as anti-pyretic, anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-lipidemic agent. B. aristata extracts and its formulations are also useful in the treatment of diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, gynaecological disorders, HIV-AIDS, osteoporosis, diabetes, eye and ear infections, wound healing, jaundice, skin diseases and malarial fever. This review aims to highlight the ethnobotany, pharmacognosy and pharmacological uses of B. aristata which will give insights in developing potentially new bioactives from the plant scaffolds. This review will also highlight the patenting trends, the new compositions developed using the actives from B. aristata and the different assignees involved in filing patents. PMID:22808523

  3. Role, metabolism, chemical modifications and applications of hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Nicola; Schiller, Juergen; Stern, Robert; Soltés, Ladislav

    2009-01-01

    Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) is a linear naturally occurring polysaccharide formed from repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate. Despite its relatively simple structure, HA is an extraordinarily versatile glycosaminoglycan currently receiving attention across a wide front of research areas. It has a very high molar mass, usually in the order of millions of Daltons, and possesses interesting visco-elastic properties based on its polymeric and polyelectrolyte characteristics. HA is omnipresent in the human body and in other vertebrates, occurring in almost all biological fluids and tissues, although the highest amounts of HA are found in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues. HA is involved in several key processes, including cell signaling, wound repair and regeneration, morphogenesis, matrix organization and pathobiology. Clinically, it is used as a diagnostic marker for many disease states including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, liver pathologies, and as an early marker for impending rejection following organ transplantation. It is also used for supplementation of impaired synovial fluid in arthritic patients, following cataract surgery, as a filler in cosmetic and soft tissue surgery, as a device in several surgical procedures, particularly as an anti-adhesive following abdominal procedures, and also in tissue engineering. This review will provide an overview of the structure and physiological role of HA, as well as of its biomedical and industrial applications. Recent advances in biotechnological approaches for the preparation of HA-based materials, and as a component of tissue scaffolding for artificial organs will also be presented. PMID:19442142

  4. Chemical Applications of a Programmable Image Acquisition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogren, Paul J.; Henry, Ian; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Kelly, Ian

    2003-06-01

    Image analysis is widely used in chemistry, both for rapid qualitative evaluations using techniques such as thin layer chromatography (TLC) and for quantitative purposes such as well-plate measurements of analyte concentrations or fragment-size determinations in gel electrophoresis. This paper describes a programmable system for image acquisition and processing that is currently used in the laboratories of our organic and physical chemistry courses. It has also been used in student research projects in analytical chemistry and biochemistry. The potential range of applications is illustrated by brief presentations of four examples: (1) using well-plate optical transmission data to construct a standard concentration absorbance curve; (2) the quantitative analysis of acetaminophen in Tylenol and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin using TLC with fluorescence detection; (3) the analysis of electrophoresis gels to determine DNA fragment sizes and amounts; and, (4) using color change to follow reaction kinetics. The supplemental material in JCE Online contains information on two additional examples: deconvolution of overlapping bands in protein gel electrophoresis, and the recovery of data from published images or graphs. The JCE Online material also presents additional information on each example, on the system hardware and software, and on the data analysis methodology.

  5. Applications of Mass Spectrometry in Investigations of Alleged Use of Chemical Warfare Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Robert W.

    Chemical warfare agents were used extensively throughout the twentieth century. Many such uses are well documented; however some allegations of use of chemical warfare agents were not easily confirmed. During the early 1980s interest developed into investigation of alleged use by analytical techniques, particularly mass spectrometry. Since that time, many combined chromatographic - mass spectrometric methods have been developed, both for application to the analysis of environmental and biomedical samples and for investigation of physiological interactions of chemical warfare agents. Examples are given of some of the investigations in which the author has been involved, including those into Yellow Rain and uses of chemical warfare agents in Iraq and Iran. These examples illustrate the use of combined chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods and emphasise the importance of controls in analytical investigations.

  6. Assistant Professor (Tenure-Track) The Department of Chemical Engineering at McGill University invites applications for a tenure-

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    will be expected to participate in teaching Chemical Engineering courses at the undergraduate and graduate levelsAssistant Professor (Tenure-Track) The Department of Chemical Engineering at McGill University applicants with a background in Chemical Engineering and conducting research in Biochemical Engineering

  7. Effect of organic fertilizer and biochar application on soil macro-aggregate formation and organic carbon turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, Dennis; Kaiser, Michael; Ludwig, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Macro-aggregates are important for the organic matter dynamic and thus the productivity of sustainably managed soils. To date, less is known about the influence of biochar in comparison to other commonly used organic soil additives on the formation of macro-aggregates and organic carbon turnover. Here we aimed to analyze the effects of biochar applied individually and in combination with slurry versus the effects of the individual application of slurry and manure on macro-aggregate yield, the associated organic carbon concentration, and the organic carbon mineralization. For this, we crushed the macro-aggregate fraction (>250 ?m) of two different soils that were then mixed with biochar (combustion temperature: 550° C, feedstock: woodchips) and/or cattle-slurry or cattle-manure and incubated within a microcosm experiment at 5° C, 15° C, and 25° C. We monitored the CO2 evolution during the incubation experiment. After four and eight weeks, we determined the dry mass and the carbon concentration of the newly formed macro-aggregates (>250 ?m) and the microbial biomass carbon concentration. Carbon mineralization was modelled assuming first-order kinetics and using a rate modifying factor for the temperature (taken from the RothC-26.3 model). Two pools were considered (mineralization of the native organic matter from the control soils and mineralization of the substrates added) in each treatment and the models were calibrated to the C mineralization data at 25° C, whereas the data for 15° C and 5° C were used for validation. Independent from the incubation temperature and the duration of the experiment, the individual application of biochar did not show significant effects on the macro-aggregate yield, the associated carbon concentration, or the CO2 emission rate compared to the control sample receiving no amendments. For the application of biochar in combination with slurry, we observed only for the 15° C treatment higher CO2 emission rates in combination with higher macro-aggregate yields and microbial biomass carbon concentrations compared to the control sample. Among the analyzed treatments, the individual application of slurry resulted at 15° C in the largest increase in the macro-aggregate yield and associated carbon concentration compared to the control sample. However, this did not coincide with respective differences regarding the microbial biomass and the CO2 emission rate. The CO2 emissions for the control and biochar treatments were well estimated by the chosen model approach indicating a strong positive temperature influence on the C mineralization kinetic. The CO2 emissions in the treatments with application of slurry (with and without biochar) and manure were well to satisfactorily described (25° C) and estimated (15° C and 5° C). No adjustment of maximum mineralizable C amounts or rate constants were required at the different temperatures, indicating the usefulness of the rate-modifying factor for temperature for the different amendments. Our results further suggest that the biochar studied here is only beneficial for soil macro-aggregate formation if applied in combination with a further organic additive such as slurry. The formation of macro-aggregates seems to be influenced by the temperature with the largest positive effect observed here at 15° C compared to 5° C and 25° C incubation temperature.

  8. Evaluate Effectiveness of Bio and Mineral Fertilization on the Growth Parameters and Marketable Cut Flowers of Matthiola incana L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rawia Eid; M. Nemat Awad; H. A. Hamouda

    2009-01-01

    3 Abstract: Biofertilizer has been identified as an alternative to chemical fertilizer to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming. The objective of this greenhouse study was to evaluate the effects of chemical fertilizers (N and P) against two biofertilizers containing N-fixer bacteria (Azotobacter chroococcum) and P solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus megaterium) and ATP (adinosine tri-phosphate) on the growth

  9. Nitrate leaching in an Andisol treated with different types of fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Morihiro; Zhao, Bingzi; Ozaki, Yasuo; Yoneyama, Tadakatsu

    2003-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3) leaching was studied in an Andisol treated with four N fertilizers (SC: swine compost, CU: coated urea, AN: ammonium N, or NF: no fertilizer) for 7 years. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) was grown in summer, followed by Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. amplexicaulis) or cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) in autumn each year. In chemical fertilizer plots treated with AN or CU, NO(3)-N concentrations in soil water at 1-m depth increased markedly in the summer of the second year and fluctuated between 30 and 60 mg l(-1). In the SC plot, NO(3)-N concentration started increasing in the fourth year, reaching the same level as in the AN and CU plots in the late period of the experiment. In the NF plot, NO(3)-N concentration was about 10 mg l(-1) for the first 4 years and decreased to 5 mg l(-1). The potential NO(3)-N concentrations by an N and water balance equation satisfactorily predicted NO(3)-N concentration in the AN and CU plots, but substantially overestimated that in the SC plot, presumably because a large portion of N from SC first accumulated in soil in the organic form. Our results indicate that, under the Japanese climate (Asian monsoon), excessive N from chemical fertilizers applied to Andisols can cause substantial NO3 leaching, while compost application is promising to establish high yields and low N leaching during a few years but would cause the same level of NO3 leaching as in chemically fertilized plots over longer periods. PMID:12685774

  10. CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.

    2001-08-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of x-rays in high Z elements.

  11. Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jennifer Doherty

    Students use model chromosomes to simulate the processes of mitosis, meiosis and fertilization, and they answer questions designed to promote understanding of these processes. To demonstrate the principle that genes are transmitted from parents to offspring through the processes of meiosis and fertilization, students follow two alleles of a gene through gametes to zygotes as they model meiosis and fertilization. Students also learn how a mistake in meiosis can result in Down Syndrome.

  12. Effects of Biochar Addition on CO2 and N2O Emissions following Fertilizer Application to a Cultivated Grassland Soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoo, Gayoung

    2015-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration potential of biochar should be considered together with emission of greenhouse gases when applied to soils. In this study, we investigated CO2 and N2O emissions following the application of rice husk biochars to cultivated grassland soils and related gas emissions tos oil C and nitrogen (N) dynamics. Treatments included biochar addition (CHAR, NO CHAR) and amendment (COMPOST, UREA, NO FERT). The biochar application rate was 0.3% by weight. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions differed according to biochar addition and amendments. CO2 emissions from the COMPOST soils were significantly higher than those from the UREA and NO FERT soils and less CO2 emission was observed when biochar and compost were applied together during the summer. Overall N2O emission was significantly influenced by the interaction between biochar and amendments. In UREA soil, biochar addition increased N2O emission by 49% compared to the control, while in the COMPOST and NO FERT soils, biochar did not have an effect on N2O emission. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain the higher N2O emissions upon biochar addition to UREA soil than other soils. Labile C in the biochar may have stimulated microbial N mineralization in the C-limited soil used in our study, resulting in an increase in N2O emission. Biochar may also have provided the soil with the ability to retain mineral N, leading to increased N2O emission. The overall results imply that biochar addition can increase C sequestration when applied together with compost, and might stimulate N2O emission when applied to soil amended with urea. PMID:26020941

  13. Effects of Biochar Addition on CO2 and N2O Emissions following Fertilizer Application to a Cultivated Grassland Soil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingjing; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoo, Gayoung

    2015-01-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration potential of biochar should be considered together with emission of greenhouse gases when applied to soils. In this study, we investigated CO2 and N2O emissions following the application of rice husk biochars to cultivated grassland soils and related gas emissions tos oil C and nitrogen (N) dynamics. Treatments included biochar addition (CHAR, NO CHAR) and amendment (COMPOST, UREA, NO FERT). The biochar application rate was 0.3% by weight. The temporal pattern of CO2 emissions differed according to biochar addition and amendments. CO2 emissions from the COMPOST soils were significantly higher than those from the UREA and NO FERT soils and less CO2 emission was observed when biochar and compost were applied together during the summer. Overall N2O emission was significantly influenced by the interaction between biochar and amendments. In UREA soil, biochar addition increased N2O emission by 49% compared to the control, while in the COMPOST and NO FERT soils, biochar did not have an effect on N2O emission. Two possible mechanisms were proposed to explain the higher N2O emissions upon biochar addition to UREA soil than other soils. Labile C in the biochar may have stimulated microbial N mineralization in the C-limited soil used in our study, resulting in an increase in N2O emission. Biochar may also have provided the soil with the ability to retain mineral N, leading to increased N2O emission. The overall results imply that biochar addition can increase C sequestration when applied together with compost, and might stimulate N2O emission when applied to soil amended with urea. PMID:26020941

  14. Loss of Fertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Bridge 4 Life Clinical Trials Guides Newsletters Nutrition & Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Loss of Fertility Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel ...

  15. Commercial Fertilizers in 1915-16. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1916-01-01

    ................... Pelican Truck Grower-Guarantee ........................................ Analys~s ........................................ Analysis ........................................ Analys~s Planters Fertilizer and Chemical Co., Houston, Texas- Planter...'s Ammoniated Phosphate \\Vithout Potash- .................................... Guarantee ........................................ Analysis ................ Analysis . Planter's ~&rnb;ia&d ' iih'ds'phatk' 'NO . 122 Without ........................ Potash...

  16. Solubility assessment for fertilizer containing phosphate rock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Chien

    1993-01-01

    Various methods have been used worldwide for measuring the solubility of phosphate rock (PR) and fertilizers containing PR. In this review, chemical, mineralogical, and physical factors affecting various measurements of PR solubility are discussed. The most important factors are (1) PR solubility expression, (2) mineralogical composition of PR, (3) free carbonate (calcite dolomite) effect, (4) effect of apatite crystallinity and

  17. Detection of herbicides in the urine of pet dogs following home lawn chemical application.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Deborah W; Peer, Wendy A; Conteh, Abass; Diggs, Alfred R; Cooper, Bruce R; Glickman, Nita W; Bonney, Patty L; Stewart, Jane C; Glickman, Lawrence T; Murphy, Angus S

    2013-07-01

    Exposure to herbicide-treated lawns has been associated with significantly higher bladder cancer risk in dogs. This work was performed to further characterize lawn chemical exposures in dogs, and to determine environmental factors associated with chemical residence time on grass. In addition to concern for canine health, a strong justification for the work was that dogs may serve as sentinels for potentially harmful environmental exposures in humans. Experimentally, herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), dicamba] were applied to grass plots under different conditions (e.g., green, dry brown, wet, and recently mowed grass). Chemicals in dislodgeable residues were measured by LC-MS at 0.17, 1, 24, 48, 72 h post treatment. In a separate study, 2,4-D, MCPP, and dithiopyr concentrations were measured in the urine of dogs and in dislodgeable grass residues in households that applied or did not apply chemicals in the preceding 48 h. Chemicals were measured at 0, 24, and 48 h post application in treated households and at time 0 in untreated control households. Residence times of 2,4-D, MCPP, and dicamba were significantly prolonged (P<0.05) on dry brown grass compared to green grass. Chemicals were detected in the urine of dogs in 14 of 25 households before lawn treatment, in 19 of 25 households after lawn treatment, and in 4 of 8 untreated households. Chemicals were commonly detected in grass residues from treated lawns, and from untreated lawns suggesting chemical drift from nearby treated areas. Thus dogs could be exposed to chemicals through contact with their own lawn (treated or contaminated through drift) or through contact with other grassy areas if they travel. The length of time to restrict a dog's access to treated lawns following treatment remains to be defined. Further study is indicated to assess the risks of herbicide exposure in humans and dogs. PMID:23584031

  18. Enhancing crop yield with the use of N-based fertilizers co-applied with plant hormones or growth regulators.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Mohammad; Kurepin, Leonid V; Catto, Warwick; Pharis, Richard P

    2015-07-01

    Crop yield, vegetative or reproductive, depends on access to an adequate supply of essential mineral nutrients. At the same time, a crop plant's growth and development, and thus yield, also depend on in situ production of plant hormones. Thus optimizing mineral nutrition and providing supplemental hormones are two mechanisms for gaining appreciable yield increases. Optimizing the mineral nutrient supply is a common and accepted agricultural practice, but the co-application of nitrogen-based fertilizers with plant hormones or plant growth regulators is relatively uncommon. Our review discusses possible uses of plant hormones (gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) and specific growth regulators (glycine betaine and polyamines) to enhance and optimize crop yield when co-applied with nitrogen-based fertilizers. We conclude that use of growth-active gibberellins, together with a nitrogen-based fertilizer, can result in appreciable and significant additive increases in shoot dry biomass of crops, including forage crops growing under low-temperature conditions. There may also be a potential for use of an auxin or cytokinin, together with a nitrogen-based fertilizer, for obtaining additive increases in dry shoot biomass and/or reproductive yield. Further research, though, is needed to determine the potential of co-application of nitrogen-based fertilizers with abscisic acid, ethylene and other growth regulators. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25267003

  19. Technical guide for applications of gene expression profiling in human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie A; Moffat, Ivy D; Deveau, Michelle; Husain, Mainul; Auerbach, Scott; Krewski, Daniel; Thomas, Russell S; Bushel, Pierre R; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-07-01

    Toxicogenomics promises to be an important part of future human health risk assessment of environmental chemicals. The application of gene expression profiles (e.g., for hazard identification, chemical prioritization, chemical grouping, mode of action discovery, and quantitative analysis of response) is growing in the literature, but their use in formal risk assessment by regulatory agencies is relatively infrequent. Although additional validations for specific applications are required, gene expression data can be of immediate use for increasing confidence in chemical evaluations. We believe that a primary reason for the current lack of integration is the limited practical guidance available for risk assessment specialists with limited experience in genomics. The present manuscript provides basic information on gene expression profiling, along with guidance on evaluating the quality of genomic experiments and data, and interpretation of results presented in the form of heat maps, pathway analyses and other common approaches. Moreover, potential ways to integrate information from gene expression experiments into current risk assessment are presented using published studies as examples. The primary objective of this work is to facilitate integration of gene expression data into human health risk assessments of environmental chemicals. PMID:25944780

  20. Utilization of phosphate rock from Lisina for direct application: release of plant nutrients in the exchange-fertilizer mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mihajlovi?, Marija; Periši?, Nebojša; Pezo, Lato; Stojanovi?, Mirjana; Milojkovi?, Jelena; Lopi?i?, Zorica; Petrovi?, Marija

    2014-10-15

    This study examined the possibility of direct application of phosphate rock (PR) from Lisina deposit, in a mixture with natural clinoptilolite (Cp) and clinoptilolite partially saturated with ammonium ions (NH4-Cp). Solution P concentrations of the NH4-Cp/PR mixtures were sufficient for plant growth and ranged from 0.36 to 0.82 mg L(-1). The median NH4-Cp/PR ratio and the longest proposed mixing time had the most positive impact on the P concentration. Solution Ca concentrations of the NH4-Cp/PR mixtures were between 112.5 and 700.5 mg L(-1), indicating that use of the proposed NH4-Cp/PR mixtures solves the potential lack of Ca(2+) in the solution, which is typical for substrates of similar composition. Selected artificial neural networks (ANNs) were able to predict experimental variables for a broad range of the process parameters all through assay. Manifold effects of small changes in composition of the mixtures and time on the observed concentrations of nutrients were shown using the sensitivity analysis. PMID:25229418

  1. Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: N. America Albers Equal Area

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: N. America Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers. Ramankutty, et al. (2010). Global Fertilizer Application and Manure Production. Data distributed by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer

  2. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheib, R.M. (ed.)

    1991-11-01

    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC's Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across' the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  3. Sulfated glycans in sea urchin fertilization.

    PubMed

    Pomin, Vitor H

    2015-02-01

    Fertilization is a controlled cell-cell interaction event that ultimately leads to the union of the gametes involved in reproduction. Fertilization is characterized by three major steps: (i) sperm binding to the extracellular matrix that coats the egg, inducing thereby the acrosome reaction; (ii) penetration of the acrosome-reacted sperm through the egg coat until its contact with the egg plasma membrane; and (iii) adhesion and fusion of the cell membranes of both gametes and the interchange of genetic materials. The acrosome reaction in the first step is important because it ensures that fertilization occurs only between gametes of homologous species. This specificity is primarily driven by the structure of egg jelly coat glycans recognized by a lectin-like binding protein (receptor) in the sperm membrane. Sea urchin fertilization is the best model utilized for understanding carbohydrate-mediated acrosome reactions. This report aims at describing the biochemical basis of regulatory mechanisms exerted by sea urchin sulfated fucans and galactans of well-defined chemical structures on the egg-sperm recognition process during fertilization of this invertebrate. Flagellasialin, a sulfated polysialic acid-containing glycoprotein found in sea urchin sperm flagella, is another sulfated glycan example also involved in fertilization of the echinoderm. PMID:25636273

  4. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Kasum, Miro; Beketi?-Oreškovi?, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Oreškovi?, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established fertility preservation strategy, providing a 25-35% chance of pregnancy. In addition, oocyte freezing can be considered as an alternative in patients who are single and in those who do not wish a sperm donor. Although ovarian tissue harvesting appears to be safe, experience regarding ovarian transplantation is still limited due to low utilization, so the true value of this procedure remains to be determined. Nevertheless, in clinical situations in which chemotherapy needs to be started in young patients facing premature ovarian failure, ovarian tissue preservation seems to be a promising option for restoring fertility, especially in conjunction with other options like immature oocyte retrieval, in vitro maturation of oocytes, oocyte vitrification, or embryo cryopreservation. It seems that in vitro maturation is a useful strategy because it improves oocyte or cryopreservation outcome in breast cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation. PMID:24315568

  5. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May

    2000-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  6. Application of backscatter absorption gas imaging to the detection of chemicals related to drug production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, Thomas J.; Garvis, Darrel G.; Kennedy, Randall B.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1991-08-01

    The application of backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) to the detection of gaseous chemical species associated with the production of illegal drugs is considered. BAGI is a gas visualization technique that allows the imaging of over 70 organic vapors at minimum concentrations of a few to several hundred ppm-m. Present BAGI capabilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Laser Imaging Systems are discussed. Eighteen different species of interest in drug-law enforcement are identified as being detectable by BAGI. The chemical remote sensing needs of law enforcement officials are described, and the use of BAGI in meeting some of these needs is outlined.

  7. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach

    2001-05-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  8. Economic development and fertility.

    PubMed

    Heer, D M

    1966-06-01

    Two schools of theorists have been concerned with the effect of economic development on fertility. One school has contended that economic development has an inhibiting effect on fertility. The demographic transition which has occurred among the non-developed countries confirms their viewpoint. Another school of thought, including in its members Thomas Malthus, has believed that economic development promoted fertility. Much empirical evidence may also be brought to bear to support this viewpoint.The present paper attempts to reconcile these viewpoints. It is hypothesized that the direct effect of economic development is to increase fertility. However, various factors which usually accompany the process of economic development serve to reduce fertility. These include an increase in the level of education and a reduction in infant and childhood mortality. Making use of data for 41 nations pertaining to the decade of the 1950's, it is found that fertility is directly associated with per capita net national product when controls for other relevant variables are in8tituted. On the other hand, per capita newspaper circulation is inversely related to fertility, and infant mortality is directly related.If the hypothesis advanced in this paper is correct, relatively large governmental expenditures on health and education will enhance the reduction in fertility obtainable from an increase in national economic level alone. PMID:21318713

  9. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at moderate levels (67 kg N ha-1). Increasing fertilizer application beyond the point of diminishing returns for grain (67 kg N ha-1) to double the regionally-recommended amount (202 kg N ha-1) resulted in only marginal increases (25%) in crop residue carbohydrate yield, while increasing lignin yields 41%. In the case of at least this ecosystem, high fertilization rates did not result in large carbohydrate yield increases in the crop residue, and instead produced a lower quality feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production.

  10. The application of membrane bioreactors as decentralised systems for removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Le-Minh, N; Coleman, H M; Khan, S J; van Luer, Y; Trang, T T T; Watkins, G; Stuetz, R M

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations of some important endocrine disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals after various stages of wastewater treatment were investigated. The endocrine disrupting chemicals included natural and synthetic estrogenic and androgenic steroids. The pharmaceuticals included a series of sulfonamide antibiotics and trimethoprim. The removal efficiency of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated and compared with a conventional activated sludge (CAS) system. Samples were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that the MBR and CAS systems effectively removed steroidal estrogens and androgens, but only partially eliminated the target antibiotics from wastewater. The MBR was shown to be more effective than the CAS system which was possibly attributed to the high solid retention time and concentration of biosolids in the MBR. The results highlight the potential wider application of MBRs for the removal of trace chemical contaminants in wastewater and their potential for use as decentralised wastewater treatment systems. PMID:20220228

  11. Laser and chemical surface modifications of titanium grade 2 for medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwa?niak, P.; Pura, J.; Zwoli?ska, M.; Wieci?ski, P.; Skar?y?ski, H.; Olszewski, L.; Marczak, J.; Garbacz, H.; Kurzyd?owski, K. J.

    2015-05-01

    The article presents combined, chemical and physical approach to titanium surface functionalization designed for biomedical applications. The topography modification has been obtained by employing the double laser beam interference technique and chemical etching. In the outcome, clean and smooth Ti surface as well as periodic striated topography with the roughness range from nano- to micrometers were created. The obtained structures were characterized in terms of shape, roughness, chemical composition, mechanical properties and microstructures. In order to achieve all information, numerous of research methods have been used: scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical profilometry and microhardness measurements. Demonstrated methodology can be used as an effective tool for manufacturing controlled surface structures improving the bone-implants interactions.

  12. Emission Factors of Nitrous Oxide by Organic Manure Fertilizers in Japanese Upland Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, S.

    2011-12-01

    Preliminary data of field experiments which were conducted to estimate emission factors of nitrous oxide by organic manure fertilizers in 10 Japan-wide experiment sites, 2010 was reported. We compared nitrous oxide emission from urea as chemical fertilizers and cow manure as organic applications, in 1o Japanese prefectures of Yamagata, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Aichi, Shiga, Tokushima, Nagasaki, Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Same amounts of nitrogen were applied in organic and inorganic fertilizers in each field. In each site, 3 replication plots were organized in randomized block design with zero-nitrogen application plots. N2O gas fluxes were measured every one week or more during cultivation seasons. We also measured several soil physical and chemical parameters of inorganic nitrogen species, soil moisture contents or WFPS (Water Filled Pore Space), soil temperatures, bulk densities etc. Gas fluxes ware measured by automated Shimadzu GC-2014 ECD gas chromatograph. Soil moistures were measured by Camplel's Hydrosense in each site. Vegetation of conducting fields were cabbage in 7 fields, wheat in 1, pear orchard and onion in 1. Microorganisms' abundance was also considered to clarify N2O emission processes by the PCR-DGGE method.

  13. A Sodium-Nitrate-Based, Water-Soluble, Granular Fertilizer for Sport Fish Ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yalcin Tepe; Claude E. Boyd

    2001-01-01

    We tested a granular, water-soluble, sodium-nitrate-based fertilizer (8% N, 24% P2O5, 15% K2O, and trace elements; per application rates of 8 and 16 kg\\/ha) for potential use in freshwater sport fish ponds and compared it with a liquid fertilization program commonly used in the United States. At 16 kg\\/ha application, the sodium-nitrate-based fertilizer was as effective as the liquid fertilizer

  14. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability in Ammonia Emissions from Agricultural Fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3), is an important component of the reactive nitrogen cycle and a precursor to formation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Predicting regional PM concentrations and deposition of nitrogen species to ecosystems requires representative emission inventories. Emission inventories have traditionally been developed using top down approaches and more recently from data assimilation based on satellite and ground based ambient concentrations and wet deposition data. The National Emission Inventory (NEI) indicates agricultural fertilization as the predominant contributor (56%) to NH3 emissions in Midwest USA, in 2002. However, due to limited understanding of the complex interactions between fertilizer usage, farm practices, soil and meteorological conditions and absence of detailed statistical data, such emission estimates are currently based on generic emission factors, time-averaged temporal factors and coarse spatial resolution. Given the significance of this source, our study focuses on developing an improved NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization at finer spatial and temporal scales for air quality modeling studies. Firstly, a high-spatial resolution 4 km x 4 km NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization has been developed for Illinois by modifying spatial allocation of emissions based on combining crop-specific fertilization rates with cropland distribution in the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions model. Net emission estimates of our method are within 2% of NEI, since both methods are constrained by fertilizer sales data. However, we identified localized crop-specific NH3 emission hotspots at sub-county resolutions absent in NEI. Secondly, we have adopted the use of the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) Biogeochemistry model to simulate the physical and chemical processes that control volatilization of nitrogen as NH3 to the atmosphere after fertilizer application and resolve the variability at the hourly scale. Representative temporal factors are being developed to capture crop-specific NH3 emission variability by combining knowledge of local crop management practices with high resolution cropland and soil maps. This improved spatially and temporally dependent NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization is being prepared as a direct input to a state of the art air quality model to evaluate the effects of agricultural fertilization on regional air quality and atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen species.

  15. Comparative studies on polymer coated SAW and STW resonators for chemical gas sensor applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Avramov; M. Rapp; A. Voigt; U. Stahl; M. Dirschka

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents and compares experimental data from performance tests on polymer coated 433 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) and 1 GHz surface transverse wave (STW) based two-port resonators for chemical gas sensor applications. The acoustic devices were coated with gas sensitive polymer films of different thickness' and viscoelastic properties as parylene C, poly-(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly-(n-butyl-methacrylate) (PBMA). Then they

  16. Principles of ESCA and applications to metal corrosion, coating and lubrication. [Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    The principles of ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) are described by comparison with other spectroscopic techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of ESCA as compared to other surface sensitive analytical techniques are evaluated. The use of ESCA is illustrated by actual applications to oxidation of steel and Rene 41, the chemistry of lubricant additives on steel, and the composition of sputter deposited hard coatings. Finally, a bibliography of material that is useful for further study of ESCA is presented and commented upon.

  17. Comparison of sludge and fertilizer applications on establishment and growth of seedlings of two sweetgum ecotypes endomycorrhizal with Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatus. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Kormanik, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was installed to compare plantation performance of 4 sweetgum trees using 2 VA mycorrhizal fungi or high phosphorus fertility regimes. The plantation was fertilized with 250 lb/acre of NH/sub 4/ NO/sub 3/ during April and disked twice to control weeds. Two-hundred seedlings were excavated during April and June (1980) and root samples were processed to determine mycorrhizal status. All root systems were heavily endomcorrhizal. Additional root samples will be taken in December for analysis.

  18. Design and functionality of colloidal-crystal-templated materials--chemical applications of inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Stein, Andreas; Wilson, Benjamin E; Rudisill, Stephen G

    2013-04-01

    Templating with colloidal crystals composed of monodisperse spheres is a convenient chemical method to obtain porous materials with well-ordered periodicity and interconnected pore systems. The three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) products or inverse opals are of interest for numerous applications, both for the optical properties related to structural color of these photonic crystal materials and because of their bicontinuous nanostructure, i.e., a continuous nanostructured skeleton with large interfacial area and a three-dimensionally interconnected pore system with low tortuosity. This review outlines various synthetic methods used to control the morphology of 3DOM materials with different compositions. It highlights aspects of the choice of colloidal particles, assembly of the colloidal crystal template, infiltration and processing, template removal, and other necessary modifications to enhance the functionality of the materials. It also considers syntheses within the confinement of 3DOM materials and summarizes characterization methods that are particularly useful in the analysis of 3DOM materials. The review then discusses chemical applications of 3DOM materials, namely sorption and controlled release, optical and electrochemical sensors, solar cells, lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, and environmental and chemical fuel catalysis. A focus is on structural features and materials properties that enable these applications. PMID:23079696

  19. Experience with fertilizer expert systems for balanced fertilizer recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Vandendriessche; J. Bries; M. Geypens

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate soil fertility and to calculate fertilizer recommendations for different soil types and crop rotations, two expert systems were developed and are being used in Belgium and the Northern part of France. The BEMEX expert system (BEMEX, coming from BEMEstingsEXpertsysteem, Dutch for fertilization expert system) calculates field specific fertilizer recommendations for macronutrients and liming recommendations for crop rotations with

  20. The region's most experienced fertility center. Strong Fertility Center

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    The region's most experienced fertility center. Strong Fertility Center In knowledge, there's hope. #12;How we stand apart among fertility centers. Here are some of the important benefits you can only find at the Strong Fertility Center. · We are part of the University of Rochester Medical Center

  1. Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb As gasoline prices at the pump continue to climb above $ 3.00/gallon, fertilizer prices, especially Nitrogen (N) are doing. Just a few years ago we were paying $ 0.21/lb N (Fig. 1). Other sources of N fertilizer have been

  2. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Haffenden; T. Kimmell

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known

  3. [On adolescent fertility].

    PubMed

    Pongracz, T

    1987-10-01

    A comparative analysis of adolescent fertility in Hungary is presented. It is noted that, in comparison to 29 other developed countries, the fertility rate of Hungarian women under age 18 is exceeded only by that of black Americans. Factors related to the high rate of adolescent fertility in Hungary include the high proportion of married women aged 15-19, induced abortion, agricultural employment, conservative attitudes toward sexuality, pronatalist policies, high rates of adolescent economic activity, high alcohol consumption levels, and lack of contraceptive knowledge among the young. PMID:12268786

  4. Improved predictability of fertilizer nitrogen need for corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accounting for alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn reduces fertilizer N costs, over-application of N, and the risk of nitrate loss to ground water. It is equally important, however, to avoid inadequate N supply for corn. We analyzed nearly all previous research on fertilizer N response i...

  5. Fertilizer intensification and its impacts in China's HHH Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The accomplishment of China’s food security by application of high rates of fertilizers has generated several controversies regarding the quality of soil and water resources. Thus, the objective of this article is to assess the effects and causes of the fertilizer intensification in the Huang Huai ...

  6. Grid-based methods for biochemical ab initio quantum chemical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, M.E.; Nelson, J.S.; Mori, E. [and others

    1997-01-01

    A initio quantum chemical methods are seeing increased application in a large variety of real-world problems including biomedical applications ranging from drug design to the understanding of environmental mutagens. The vast majority of these quantum chemical methods are {open_quotes}spectral{close_quotes}, that is they describe the charge distribution around the nuclear framework in terms of a fixed analytic basis set. Despite the additional complexity they bring, methods involving grid representations of the electron or solvent charge can provide more efficient schemes for evaluating spectral operators, inexpensive methods for calculating electron correlation, and methods for treating the electrostatic energy of salvation in polar solvents. The advantage of mixed or {open_quotes}pseudospectral{close_quotes} methods is that they allow individual non-linear operators in the partial differential equations, such as coulomb operators, to be calculated in the most appropriate regime. Moreover, these molecular grids can be used to integrate empirical functionals of the electron density. These so-called density functional methods (DFT) are an extremely promising alternative to conventional post-Hartree Fock quantum chemical methods. The introduction of a grid at the molecular solvent-accessible surface allows a very sophisticated treatment of a polarizable continuum solvent model (PCM). Where most PCM approaches use a truncated expansion of the solute`s electric multipole expansion, e.g. net charge (Born model) or dipole moment (Onsager model), such a grid-based boundary-element method (BEM) yields a nearly exact treatment of the solute`s electric field. This report describes the use of both DFT and BEM methods in several biomedical chemical applications.

  7. Application and further development of diffusion based 2D chemical imaging techniques in the rhizosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefer, Christoph; Santner, Jakob; Borisov, Sergey; Kreuzeder, Andreas; Wenzel, Walter; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Two dimensional chemical imaging of root processes refers to novel in situ methods to investigate and map solutes at a high spatial resolution (sub-mm). The visualization of these solutes reveals new insights in soil biogeochemistry and root processes. We derive chemical images by using data from DGT-LA-ICP-MS (Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and POS (Planar Optode Sensors). Both technologies have shown promising results when applied in aqueous environment but need to be refined and improved for imaging at the soil-plant interface. Co-localized mapping using combined DGT and POS technologies and the development of new gel combinations are in our focus. DGTs are smart and thin (<0.4 mm) hydrogels; containing a binding resin for the targeted analytes (e.g. trace metals, phosphate, sulphide or radionuclides). The measurement principle is passive and diffusion based. The present analytes are diffusing into the gel and are bound by the resin. Thereby, the resin acts as zero sink. After application, DGTs are retrieved, dried, and analysed using LA-ICP-MS. The data is then normalized by an internal standard (e.g. 13C), calibrated using in-house standards and chemical images of the target area are plotted using imaging software. POS are, similar to DGT, thin sensor foils containing a fluorophore coating depending on the target analyte. The measurement principle is based on excitation of the flourophore by a specific wavelength and emission of the fluorophore depending on the presence of the analyte. The emitted signal is captured using optical filters and a DSLR camera. While DGT analysis is destructive, POS measurements can be performed continuously during the application. Both semi-quantitative techniques allow an in situ application to visualize chemical processes directly at the soil-plant interface. Here, we present a summary of results from rhizotron experiments with different plants in metal contaminated and agricultural soils.

  8. Promoting Effects of a Single Rhodopseudomonas palustris Inoculant on Plant Growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under Low Fertilizer Input

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

    2014-01-01

    Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×106 CFU g?1 soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture. PMID:25130882

  9. Fertility recommendations: past and present

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regis Voss

    1998-01-01

    The basis for fertilizer recommendations has progressed from trial and error in the 1940s to an almost total dependence on soil testing at the present. Fertilizer recommendations have progressed over time from small amounts of compound fertilizers to an amount of a nutrient based on a soil test value. Research activity on development of soil testing and fertilizer recommendations was

  10. Chapter VII. Predicting Fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Section 2. Visual and Microscopic Approaches for Differentiating Unfertilized Germinal Discs and Early dead Embryos from Pre-Incubated Blastoderms Section 3. Predicting the Duration of fertility by Counting Sperm in the Outer Perivitelline Layer of Laid Eggs...

  11. Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

  12. Applicability of western chemical dietary exposure models to the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shizhen; Price, Oliver; Liu, Zhengtao; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    A range of exposure models, which have been developed in Europe and North America, are playing an increasingly important role in priority setting and the risk assessment of chemicals. However, the applicability of these tools, which are based on Western dietary exposure pathways, to estimate chemical exposure to the Chinese population to support the development of a risk-based environment and exposure assessment, is unclear. Three frequently used modelling tools, EUSES, RAIDAR and ACC-HUMANsteady, have been evaluated in terms of human dietary exposure estimation by application to a range of chemicals with different physicochemical properties under both model default and Chinese dietary scenarios. Hence, the modelling approaches were assessed by considering dietary pattern differences only. The predicted dietary exposure pathways were compared under both scenarios using a range of hypothetical and current emerging contaminants. Although the differences across models are greater than those between dietary scenarios, model predictions indicated that dietary preference can have a significant impact on human exposure, with the relatively high consumption of vegetables and cereals resulting in higher exposure via plants-based foodstuffs under Chinese consumption patterns compared to Western diets. The selected models demonstrated a good ability to identify key dietary exposure pathways which can be used for screening purposes and an evaluative risk assessment. However, some model adaptations will be required to cover a number of important Chinese exposure pathways, such as freshwater farmed-fish, grains and pork. PMID:25863589

  13. Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton. 

    E-print Network

    Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

    1932-01-01

    LIBRARY. A & M COLLEGE, CAMPUS I TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 469 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE... of seven years experiments with fertilizers on cotton at Troup, Nacogdoches, Angleton, College Station, Beeville, Tem- ple, and Denton, Texas, are reported in this Bulletin. The Kirvin fine sandy loam at Troup and the Nacogdoches and Ruston fine sandy...

  14. International Journal of Ventilation Volume 2 No 3 Application of CFD to Predict and Control Chemical and Biological

    E-print Network

    Zhai, John Z.

    , respectively, while inhaling as little as 0.9, 10, and 15 milligrams of VX gas a lethal nerve agent according ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Application of CFD to Predict and Control Chemical and Biological Agent Dispersion in Buildings Z. Zhai 1 , J Lafayette, IN 47907, USA Abstract Terrorist attack in buildings by chemical and biological agents (CBAs

  15. Evaluation of the CENTURY Model Using Long-Term Fertilization Trials under Corn-Wheat Cropping Systems in the Typical Croplands of China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Rihuan; Wang, Xiujun; Xu, Minggang; Ogle, Stephen M.; Parton, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic matter models are widely used to study soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Here, we used the CENTURY model to simulate SOC in wheat-corn cropping systems at three long-term fertilization trials. Our study indicates that CENTURY can simulate fertilization effects on SOC dynamics under different climate and soil conditions. The normalized root mean square error is less than 15% for all the treatments. Soil carbon presents various changes under different fertilization management. Treatment with straw return would enhance SOC to a relatively stable level whereas chemical fertilization affects SOC differently across the three sites. After running CENTURY over the period of 1990–2050, the SOC levels are predicted to increase from 31.8 to 52.1 Mg ha?1 across the three sites. We estimate that the carbon sequestration potential between 1990 and 2050 would be 9.4–35.7 Mg ha?1 under the current high manure application at the three sites. Analysis of SOC in each carbon pool indicates that long-term fertilization enhances the slow pool proportion but decreases the passive pool proportion. Model results suggest that change in the slow carbon pool is the major driver of the overall trends in SOC stocks under long-term fertilization. PMID:24751981

  16. Chemical Stimulation of Adherent Cells by Localized Application of Acetylcholine from a Microfluidic System

    PubMed Central

    Zibek, Susanne; Hagmeyer, Britta; Stett, Alfred; Stelzle, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Chemical stimulation of cells is inherently cell type selective in contrast to electro-stimulation. The availability of a system for localized application of minute amounts of chemical stimulants could be useful for dose related response studies to test new compounds. It could also bring forward the development of a novel type of neuroprostheses. In an experimental setup microdroplets of an acetylcholine solution were ejected from a fluidic microsystem and applied to the bottom of a nanoporous membrane. The solution traveled through the pores to the top of the membrane on which TE671 cells were cultivated. Calcium imaging was used to visualize cellular response with temporal and spatial resolution. Experimental demonstration of chemical stimulation for both threshold gated stimulation as well as accumulated dose–response was achieved by either employing acetylcholine as chemical stimulant or applying calcein uptake, respectively. Numerical modeling and simulation of transport mechanisms involved were employed to gain a theoretical understanding of the influence of pore size, concentration of stimulant and droplet volume on the spatial-temporal distribution of stimulant and on the cellular response. Diffusion, pressure driven flow and evaporation effects were taken into account. Fast stimulation kinetic is achieved with pores of 0.82??m diameter, whereas sustained substance delivery is obtained with nanoporous membranes. In all cases threshold concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.015 ?M acetylcholine independent of pore size were determined. PMID:21151808

  17. Soil Fertility Status and Numass Fertilizer Recommendation of Typic Hapluusterts in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fassil Kebede; Charles Yamoah

    Nutrient depletion is one of the major causes that contribute to decline in soil productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. It is generally a reversible constraint as long as soil test based fertilizer application is in place. However, Ethiopian subsistence agriculture has suffered for years due to lack of proper knowledge to combat nutrient depletion. To date, blanket application is

  18. Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanseth, E. J.; Won, Y. S.; Seibowitz, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the central receiver Rankine system, with thermal storage, to determine the relative merit of plants employing a thermochemical system. As an assessment criterion, the busbar energy costs were compared. Separate but comparable solar energy cost computer codes were used for distributed receiver and central receiver systems. Calculations were performed for capacity factors ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. The results indicate that SO2/SO3 technology has the potential to be more cost effective in transporting the collected energy than in storing the energy for the storage capacity range studied (2-15 hours)

  19. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer Wallny

    2012-10-15

    Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

  20. Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanseth, E. J.; Won, Y. S.; Seibowitz, L. P.

    1980-08-01

    Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the central receiver Rankine system, with thermal storage, to determine the relative merit of plants employing a thermochemical system. As an assessment criterion, the busbar energy costs were compared. Separate but comparable solar energy cost computer codes were used for distributed receiver and central receiver systems. Calculations were performed for capacity factors ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. The results indicate that SO2/SO3 technology has the potential to be more cost effective in transporting the collected energy than in storing the energy for the storage capacity range studied (2-15 hours)

  1. In situ chemical synthesis of ruthenium oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for electrochemical capacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Kwang-Heon; Yoon, Seung-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Bum

    2013-08-01

    An in situ chemical synthesis approach has been developed to prepare ruthenium oxide/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites. It is found that as the C/O ratio increases, the number density of RuO2 nanoparticles decreases, because the chemical interaction between the Ru ions and the oxygen-containing functional groups provides anchoring sites where the nucleation of particles takes place. For electrochemical capacitor applications, the microwave-hydrothermal process was carried out to improve the conductivity of RGO in RuO2/RGO nanocomposites. The significant improvement in capacitance and high rate capability might result from the RuO2 nanoparticles used as spacers that make the interior layers of the reduced graphene oxide electrode available for electrolyte access. PMID:23765196

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A SEMI-CONTROLLER FOR A VARIABLE RATE FERTILIZER

    E-print Network

    DEVELOPMENT OF A SEMI-CONTROLLER FOR A VARIABLE RATE FERTILIZER APPLICATOR Jianbin Ji 1 , Xiu Wang production, introduced a variable fertilizer controller which suits for a domestic food-producing areas to promote output. The variable rate fertilization controller combined with the current Chinese made

  3. Influence of water solubility of granular zinc fertilizers on plant uptake and growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Amrani; D. G. Westfall; G. A. Peterson

    1999-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) fertilizer application has increased during the past three decades. This increase has created the need for more information regarding the availability and agronomic effectiveness of Zn containing fertilizers because differences of opinions exist relating the relationships between Zn water solubility and plant availability. Plant availability of eight commercialized Zn fertilizer materials having different water solubilities was measured under

  4. Winter Wheat Fertilization: Post Ammonium Nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Byron Irvine; Guy Lafond; Randy Kutcher

    Summary The potential for overwinter losses of nitrogen by denitrification and leaching have led to the recommendation that nitrogen fertilization of winter wheat be done using ammonium nitrate broadcast in the spring. However, spring broadcast application of urea can result in significant loss of nitrogen by volatilization and immobilization by surface residues. Since prilled ammonium nitrate is not available for

  5. Fertilizer Input Costs: Perceptions and Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys of producers attending Extension meetings in February 2009 indicated that their top economic concern is rising fertilizer prices. Two common responses to this concern were to start using precision or variable-rate nutrient application and to start using nutrient placement. Spreadsheets on th...

  6. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-02-20

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable.

  7. [Fluorescence spectroscopic characteristics of fulvic acid from the long-term located fertilization in black soil].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Ping; Wei, Dan; Zhou, Bao-Ku; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Xi-Lin; Wei, Zi-Min; Li, Shu-Ling

    2011-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of long-term located fertilization on soil fulvic acid (FA), in this study, four soil samples were taken from black soil with long-term located fertilization (about 30 year) in Harbin, Heilongjiang province. The fertilization treatments included control (CK), N, P and K fertilization (NPK), horse manure (OM), combination of organic manure and chemical fertilizations (MNPK). Soil FA was extracted from the samples and purified. The excitation, emission, synchronous, and three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3DEEM) characteristics of the FA were determined. The excitation, emission and synchronous scan spectra all indicated that the main peaks of FA in the NPK treatment exhibited a significantly blue shift compared with CK, while those of MNPK, OM treatment caused a red shift to some extent. 3DEEM spectra of FA in all treatments exhibited four peaks (peak a, peak b, peak c, and peak d), compared with FA in CK, the wavelengths shift tendency of peak a, peak b, and peak c of FA 3DEEM in NPK, MNPK and OM treatments were similar to that of traditional spectra in FA. In order to provide quantitative information of FA humification degree in different treatments, we investigated the fluorescence index f450/500 (FI), area integration (A370-600 nm, A1 370-412 nm, A4 538-600 nm). Compared with CK, the f450/500, ratio of A1/A in NPK and A4/A in MNPK treatment increased by 4.62%, 6.12%, 7.22%, respectively. However, the f450/500, the ratio of A1/A in MNPK and A4/A in NPK treatment decreased by 3.86%, 15.31%, and 7.22% respectively. This indicated that NPK application gave a lower degree of FA humification, and combination of organic manure and chemical fertilizations would lead to a greater degree of FA aromatization in black soil with long-term located fertilization than CK. PMID:22250551

  8. Chemically controllable fabrication of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures and their applications in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuqi; Heng, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2014-08-01

    One-dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their interesting optical and electronic properties, which make them suitable for a wide variety of current and future technological applications, including photodetectors, photovoltaics, photocatalysis, field emissions, gas sensors and solar cells. This review gives a comprehensive overview of recent developments in chemically controllable fabrication of 1D ZnO nanomaterials. We will cover the synthetic techniques including chemical vapor deposition (CVD), metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), hydrothermal technique, solvothermal synthesis, sol-gel method, electrochemical deposition, and nanosphere lithography technique. Finally, we will also highlight their application in the energy conversion system. PMID:25935976

  9. Effect of wheat, legume and legume enriched wheat residue and nitrogen application on soil fertility under rice-wheat cropping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SN Sharma

    2004-01-01

    The field experiments were conducted for two crop years of 1997?–?98 and 1998?–?99 at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the effect of wheat, legume and legume enriched wheat residue (WR) on soil fertility under the rice-wheat cropping system. A rice-wheat cropping system without incorporation of residue depleted organic C over initial level by 0.061%, kjeldahl-N by

  10. Carbon sequestration and methane emission from a tropical rice field under intensive rice cultivation with long-term application of compost and inorganic fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Nayak; J. Yeluriapti; T. K. Adhya

    2009-01-01

    The impact of long-term intensive rice-rice cropping system with different managements on soil organic carbon content (SOC) and methane emission was studied using a 36-year-old fertility experiment under tropical climate. Intensive rice production systems are important sinks of carbon but at the same time these are the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4, a major greenhouse gas. A significant increase

  11. Plant-microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizer-use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Adesemoye, Anthony O; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2009-11-01

    The continued use of chemical fertilizers and manures for enhanced soil fertility and crop productivity often results in unexpected harmful environmental effects, including leaching of nitrate into ground water, surface run-off of phosphorus and nitrogen run-off, and eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Integrated nutrient management systems are needed to maintain agricultural productivity and protect the environment. Microbial inoculants are promising components of such management systems. This review is a critical summary of the efforts in using microbial inoculants, including plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for increasing the use efficiency of fertilizers. Studies with microbial inoculants and nutrients have demonstrated that some inoculants can improve plant uptake of nutrients and thereby increase the use efficiency of applied chemical fertilizers and manures. These proofs of concept studies will serve as the basis for vigorous future research into integrated nutrient management in agriculture. PMID:19707753

  12. Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

    2003-03-06

    Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

  13. Influence of animal manure application on the chemical structures of soil organic matter as investigated by advanced solid-state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual application of cattle manure to a farmer's field in eastern Nebraska for 5 yr caused improved soil N and P supply and increased corn (Zea mays L.) yield in less productive portions of the field compared to another field treatment receiving the same amount of N as inorganic fertilizer. As a fi...

  14. Commercial Fertilizers in 1920-21.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

    1921-01-01

    .............................................. Onion Fertilizer No . 7-Guarantee ................... Analysis ........................................ Analysis ........................................ Analysis ........................................ Armour's Big Crop Onion Fertilizer No . 460...- Guarantee ..................................... Analysis ........................................ Analysis ........................................ Armour's Big Crop Onion Fertilizer No . 1032- Guarantee .................................... Analysis...

  15. Commercial Fertilizers in 1923-24. 

    E-print Network

    Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1924-01-01

    .94 25 52 3 31 7 21 3~.dr 30.47 28.47 31.84 24.55 31.97 29.38 25.11 28.96 15.40 27.01 28.77 ................... Pittsburg Cotton Oil Company 1 17 1 30.53 1 29.17 24.95 28.13 14.40 24.35 27.1 6 Planters Fertilizer and Chemical...

  16. Fertilizing Texas Lawns: 10-Point Checklist for Warm-Season Grasses

    E-print Network

    Chalmers, David; McAfee, James

    2007-01-31

    fertilizer. It?s the fi rst step to measured lawn care. Start by measuring each section of your lawn in square feet (Fig.1). Then add up the sections to arrive at the total size of the lawn in square feet. Lawn care products are usually recommended... fertilizer to apply in any single application by using Table 2. 1. Find the fertilizer analyses in the fi rst column. 2. Select an application of ? to 1 pound of fertilizer per 1,000 square feet of lawn. 3. Find the number of pounds of fertilizer...

  17. [Effects of different fertilization measures on N2O emission in oil sunflower field in irrigation area of upper Yellow River].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Yuan-yuan; Gao, Ji; Liu, Ru-liang; Yang, Zheng-li; Zhang, Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural soil has become the largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20). To estimate the impacts of long-term combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on N20 emission in a typical winter wheat-oil sunflower cropping system in the Ningxia irrigation area, we measured N20 fluxes using the static opaque chamber-gas chromatograph method and monitored the seasonal dynamics of related factors. Our results showed that nitrogen addition in the previous crop field significantly stimulated N2O emissions during the following oil-sunflower cultivation, and the mean fluxes of N300-OM, N240-OM1/2, N300 and N240 were (34.16 ± 9.72), (39.69 ±10.70), (27.75 ±9.57) and (26.30 ± 8.52) µg . m-2 . h-1, respectively, which were 4.09, 4.75, 3.32 and 3.15 times of the control groups. The total cumulative N2O emissions of fertilizer treatments in growing season was as high as 796.7 to 1242.5 g . hm-2, which was 2.99 to 4.67 times of the control groups. During the growing season, the rates of N2O emission in each month organic and inorganic fertlizers combined treatments were similar at high levels. N2O emission in chemical fertilizer treatments gradually decreased, and the main period of N2O emission occurred at the beginning of growing season. Taking July for example, N2O emission accounted for 41.3% to 41. 8% of total cumulative amount. The amounts of N20 emission under organic and inorganic fertilizers combined treatments were significantly higher than under chemical fertilizer treatments. The N2O emissions were not significantly different between conventional and optimized applications of nitrogen fertilizer under the same fertilizing method, either between N300-OM and N240-OM1/2, or between N300 and N240. On account of the drought, N2O emission in each treatment was mainly affected by soil moisture. N2O emission had a significant positive correlation with soil ammonium nitrogen content under combined applications of organic and inorganic fertilizers, but was not correlated with soil nitrate nitrogen content under all treatments. This showed that adding organic fertilizer could stimulate the NO2 production via increasing the soil ammonium nitrogen content. PMID:25985663

  18. Plant–microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizer-use efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony O. Adesemoye; Joseph W. Kloepper

    2009-01-01

    The continued use of chemical fertilizers and manures for enhanced soil fertility and crop productivity often results in unexpected\\u000a harmful environmental effects, including leaching of nitrate into ground water, surface run-off of phosphorus and nitrogen\\u000a run-off, and eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Integrated nutrient management systems are needed to maintain agricultural\\u000a productivity and protect the environment. Microbial inoculants are promising components

  19. Perspectives of chemical low thrust rocket engines application for spacecraft attitude control, stabilization and orbit correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, E. G.

    1993-06-01

    The article for AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 29th Joint Propulsion Conference (June 28-30, 1993, Monterey, USA) comprises the results of works on chemical low thrust rocket engines (LTREs) done by R&D Institute of Mechanical Engineering (Nizhniia Salda, Russia). The article gives the characteristics of LTREs, and information about their applications on the former USSR and Russia space vehicles of various scientific and commercial purposes. The principles of designing and ground development works ensuring required manned space vehicles reliability are discussed. The LTRE performance improvement trends are given, and, on the basis of obtained technological level in experimental prototypes and taking into account possible weight characteristics improvement of propellant storage and feed systems, the evaluation of the perspective application of LTREs in space vehicle reactive control systems is given.

  20. The OSHA and EPA programs on preventing chemical accidents and potential applications in the photovoltaic industry

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-08-01

    OSHA issued in 1992, the Process Safety Management (PSM) of Highly Hazardous Substances. This rule requires owners/operators of facilities that handle hazardous chemicals in quantities greater than the listed thresholds to establish all the elements of a PSM. EPA has issued in June 1996, the rules for a Risk Management Program which also refers to specific substances and threshold quantities. These rules are applicable to all the facilities that use or store any of 139 regulated substances at quantities ranging from 100 lb to 10,000 lb. The RMP rule covers off-site hazards, while the OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) rule covers worker safety issues within the plant boundary. Some of the listed substances may be found in photovoltaic manufacturing facilities. This brief report presents the basic elements of these two rules and discusses their potential applicability in the photovoltaic industry.

  1. Wet Chemical Synthesis and Screening of Thick Porous Oxide Films for Resistive Gas Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Frenzer, Gerald; Frantzen, Andreas; Sanders, Daniel; Simon, Ulrich; Maier, Wilhelm F.

    2006-01-01

    A method of wet chemical synthesis suitable for high throughput and combinatorial applications has been developed for the synthesis of porous resistive thick-film gas sensors. This method is based on the robot-controlled application of unstable metal oxide suspensions on an array of 64 inter-digital electrodes positioned on an Al2O3 substrate. SnO2, WO3, ZrO2, TiO2, CeO2, In2O3 and Bi2O3 were chosen as base oxides, and were optimised by doping or mixed oxide formation. The parallel synthesis of mixed oxide sensors is illustrated by representative examples. The electrical characteristics and the sensor performance of the films were measured by high-throughput impedance spectroscopy while supplying various test gases (H2, CO, NO, NO2, propene). Data collection, data mining techniques applied and the best potential sensor materials discovered are presented.

  2. 61 FR 57518 - Pesticide Chemicals Category, Formulating, Packaging and Repackaging Effluent Limitations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-11-06

    ...have high molecular weights or low solubility in water have been found to be...In the ``Environmental Cleanup of Fertilizer and Agricultural Chemical Dealer Sites'' report, the Iowa Fertilizer and Chemical Association...

  3. Optical fibre nanotips fabricated by a dynamic chemical etching for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, A.; Cosi, F.; Giannetti, A.; Pelli, S.; Griffini, D.; Insinna, M.; Salvadori, S.; Tiribilli, B.; Righini, G. C.

    2015-02-01

    Nanoprobe tips are key components in many applications such as scanning probe microscopes, nanoscale imaging, nanofabrication and sensing. This paper describes a dynamic chemical etching method for the fabrication of optical nanoprobes. The tips are produced by mechanically rotating and dipping a silica optical fibre in a chemical etching solution (aqueous hydrofluoric acid) covered with a protection layer. Using different dynamic regimes of the mechanical movements during the chemical etching process, it is possible to vary the cone angle, the shape, and the roughness of the nanoprobes. It is found that the tip profiles are determined by the nonlinear dynamic evolution of the meniscus of the etchant near the fibre. Computational fluid dynamic simulations have been performed, showing that different flow regimes correspond to different shear forces acting on the forming nanotip, in agreement with experimental results. With this method, a high yield of reproducible nanotips can be obtained, thus overcoming the drawbacks of conventional etching techniques. Typical tip features are short taper length (˜200 ?m), large cone angle (up to 40°), and small probe tip dimension (less than 30 nm).

  4. Lawn Fertilization for Texas Warm-Season Grasses 

    E-print Network

    Chalmers, David; McAfee, James; Havlak, Roger

    2007-01-31

    in the spring and, if needed, once again in the fall no later than 6 weeks before the expected fi rst frost. It?s best to split the fertilizer into two smaller applications rather than make one heavy application. If your lawn management level is moderate... it is actively growing and able to take up the fertilizer. The growing season is usually the period between the last spring frost date (Fig. 2) and fi rst autumn frost date (Fig. 3). Longer growing seasons may need more nitrogen fertilizer each year...

  5. Application of quantum-chemical approximations to environmental problems: Prediction of physical and chemical properties of TNT and related species.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Mohammad; Kholod, Yana; Gorb, Leonid; Magers, David; Honea, Patricia; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents accurate predictions of ecologically important properties of nitroaromatic compounds and their derivatives, including vapor pressure, Henry's law constants, water solubility, octanol/water partition coefficients, heats of formation and ionization potentials. The proposed technique of calculations was based on quantum-chemical methods. The relationship between the chemical structure and mentioned physico-chemical parameters of such widespread military produced contaminants as trinitrotoluene and its derivatives was considered. We revealed that the DFT level of theory combined with the COSMO-RS technique is able to predict the studied parameters with an accuracy that results in error bars of less then one logarithmic unit. PMID:17512030

  6. Identification of volatile/semivolatile products derived from chemical remediation of cis-1,3-dichloropropene by thiosulfate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalent use of soil fumigants resulted in air pollution in some agricultural regions. Our previous research showed that application of thiosulfate fertilizers at the soil surface may offer an effective and economical approach to reduce the emission of halogenated fumigants via a chemical remed...

  7. Double Fertilization and Post-fertilization Events: Measuring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

    This pdf includes background information and ideas for lessons involving the processes that occur between fertilization and seed production in Fast Plants. Fertilization is explained and illustrated and an activity for students to observe reproductive development is described.

  8. Chemical-radiation degradation of natural oligoamino-polysaccharides for agricultural application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Migdal, W.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J.; Jakubaszek, U.; Tarnowski, T.

    2007-11-01

    The main objective of the research was to elaborate the method of degradation of natural aminopolysaccharides to obtain a product applicable as biospecimen in protection and stimulation of the plants growth. Depolymerization of chitosan can be carried out by radiation or chemical degradation combined with irradiation method. The efficiency of these methods was verified by viscometric analysis. The chemical-radiation method was much more appropriate from economical point of view. By application of this method it was possible to obtain product with lower crystalline phase content than initial one, what was proved by X-ray diffraction studies. Finally preliminary agricultural tests on spring rape seeds were performed. The results show that the biggest growth was observed for chitosan (molecular weight 47,000 Da) in concentration of 0.1 g/kg of seeds. The higher concentration did not affect plant's growth. The average growth over-ground plant parts was about 16-22%, diameter of roots was about 11-13%, and mass of roots was about 51-65% higher in comparison to the control.

  9. Toxicology of chemically modified graphene-based materials for medical application.

    PubMed

    Nezakati, Toktam; Cousins, Brian G; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-11-01

    This review article aims to provide an overview of chemically modified graphene, and graphene oxide (GO), and their impact on toxicology when present in biological systems. Graphene is one of the most promising nanomaterials due to unique physicochemical properties including enhanced optical, thermal, and electrically conductive behavior in addition to mechanical strength and high surface-to-volume ratio. Graphene-based nanomaterials have received much attention over the last 5 years in the biomedical field ranging from their use as polymeric conduits for nerve regeneration, carriers for targeted drug delivery and in the treatment of cancer via photo-thermal therapy. Both in vitro and in vivo biological studies of graphene-based nanomaterials help understand their relative toxicity and biocompatibility when used for biomedical applications. Several studies investigating important material properties such as surface charge, concentration, shape, size, structural defects, and chemical functional groups relate to their safety profile and influence cyto- and geno-toxicology. In this review, we highlight the most recent studies of graphene-based nanomaterials and outline their unique properties, which determine their interactions under a range of environmental conditions. The advent of graphene technology has led to many promising new opportunities for future applications in the field of electronics, biotechnology, and nanomedicine to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of debilitating diseases. PMID:25234085

  10. Sputtered titanium oxynitride coatings for endosseous applications: Physical and chemical evaluation and first bioactivity assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banakh, Oksana; Moussa, Mira; Matthey, Joel; Pontearso, Alessandro; Cattani-Lorente, Maria; Sanjines, Rosendo; Fontana, Pierre; Wiskott, Anselm; Durual, Stephane

    2014-10-01

    Titanium oxynitride coatings (TiNxOy) are considered a promising material for applications in dental implantology due to their high corrosion resistance, their biocompatibility and their superior hardness. Using the sputtering technique, TiNxOy films with variable chemical compositions can be deposited. These films may then be set to a desired value by varying the process parameters, that is, the oxygen and nitrogen gas flows. To improve the control of the sputtering process with two reactive gases and to achieve a variable and controllable coating composition, the plasma characteristics were monitored in-situ by optical emission spectroscopy. TiNxOy films were deposited onto commercially pure (ASTM 67) microroughened titanium plates by reactive magnetron sputtering. The nitrogen gas flow was kept constant while the oxygen gas flow was adjusted for each deposition run to obtain films with different oxygen and nitrogen contents. The physical and chemical properties of the deposited films were analyzed as a function of oxygen content in the titanium oxynitride. The potential application of the coatings in dental implantology was assessed by monitoring the proliferation and differentiation of human primary osteoblasts.

  11. Novel ZnO nanorod films by chemical solution deposition for planar device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, D.; Narasimulu, A. A.; Garcia-Gancedo, L.; Fu, Y. Q.; Soin, N.; Shao, G.; Luo, J. K.

    2013-07-01

    Smooth and continuous ZnO films consisting of densely packed ZnO nanorods (NRs), which can be used for electronic device fabrication, were synthesized using a hydro-thermo-chemical solution deposition method. Such devices would have the novelty of high performance, benefiting from the inherited unique properties of the nanomaterials, and can be fabricated on these smooth films using a conventional, low cost planar process. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the NR films have much stronger shallow donor to valence band emissions than those from discrete ZnO NRs, and hence have the potential for the development of ZnO light emission diodes and lasers, etc. The NR films have been used to fabricate large area surface acoustic wave devices by conventional photolithography. These demonstrated two well-defined resonant peaks and their potential for large area device applications. The chemical solution deposition method is simple, reproducible, scalable and economic. These NR films are suitable for large scale production on cost-effective substrates and are promising for various fields such as sensing systems, renewable energy and optoelectronic applications.

  12. Novel ZnO nanorod films by chemical solution deposition for planar device applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, D; Narasimulu, A A; Garcia-Gancedo, L; Fu, Y Q; Soin, N; Shao, G; Luo, J K

    2013-07-12

    Smooth and continuous ZnO films consisting of densely packed ZnO nanorods (NRs), which can be used for electronic device fabrication, were synthesized using a hydro-thermo-chemical solution deposition method. Such devices would have the novelty of high performance, benefiting from the inherited unique properties of the nanomaterials, and can be fabricated on these smooth films using a conventional, low cost planar process. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the NR films have much stronger shallow donor to valence band emissions than those from discrete ZnO NRs, and hence have the potential for the development of ZnO light emission diodes and lasers, etc. The NR films have been used to fabricate large area surface acoustic wave devices by conventional photolithography. These demonstrated two well-defined resonant peaks and their potential for large area device applications. The chemical solution deposition method is simple, reproducible, scalable and economic. These NR films are suitable for large scale production on cost-effective substrates and are promising for various fields such as sensing systems, renewable energy and optoelectronic applications. PMID:23743485

  13. Fertility of American Women

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The U.S. Census Bureau prepares numerous papers each year, and they are an important source of information for public policy analysts, geographers, economists, and civic leaders. These reports are based on the biannual Current Population Surveys (CPS) conducted across the country. The reports here date back to 1994, and they look at fertility rates among American women in the noninstitutionalized population. Each report contains a detailed analysis of these biannual trends, along with historical tables and notes of the methodologies used in each report. Also, visitors will note that there are also supplemental fertility tables that break the data down into smaller segments such as "Fertility Indicators for Women in Their Thirties" and "Women 15 to 44 Years Old Who Had a Child in the Last Year and Their Percentage in the Labor Force".

  14. Chemistry of throughfall, stemfall and litterfall in fertilized and irrigated Pinus radiata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockford, R. H.; Khanna, P. K.

    1997-09-01

    The chemical inputs by rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were studied in a pine plantation located in Pierces Creek Forest, Canberra, Australia. Three treatments were included in the study: a control (C) and two fertilizer treatments. The first fertilizer treatment (F) involved two applications of mixed fertilizers at high rates, the second (IL) involved application of a complete liquid fertilizer with irrigation, so as to remove nutrient and water restrictions to growth. The application rates of nutrients were higher for IL than F. Net inputs of elements in throughfall and stemflow, obtained by subtracting the amounts in the rainfall, were compared for different treatments.For cations (the sum of Ca, Mg, Na and K), the treatment effect on leaching by throughfall and stemflow was IL > F > C; but the F to C differences were greater for throughfall than stemflow. The effects were almost entirely due to increases in concentration, rather than the amount of rainfall becoming throughfall or stemflow.The concentration of nitrogen (as NH4 or NO3) in throughfall or stemflow could be lower or higher than in rainfall, indicating net removal or leaching, respectively. Net removal occurred for most rainfall events for the control treatment, for a substantial number of events for treatment F, but for few events for treatment IL. The ammonium ion was preferentially removed from throughfall, and nitrate from stemflow.Transfers of potassium and total nitrogen by litterfall, throughfall and stemflow were also studied. The proportions of potassium and nitrogen being transferred by these processes showed little difference between treatments; the overall values for potassium being 60% by throughfall, 4% by stemflow and 36% by litterfall. In contrast the transfer of nitrogen was dominated by litterfall (81%), with 18% by throughfall and 1% by stemflow.

  15. Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Soy Proteins for New Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arboleda Fernandez, Julio Cesar

    Despite of being environmentally friendly, biocompatible, rich in chemical functionality and abundant as residual materials, soy proteins (SPs) are used for low added value applications. In this work, SPs were studied and used as potentially useful biomacromolecules for different industrial applications with high added value. Initially the effect of acid hydrolysis of soy proteins as a potential route for subsequent surface modification was studied, finding that SP hydrolysates tend to form less aggregates and to adsorb at faster rates compared with unmodified SP; nevertheless, it was also found that the amount of protein adsorbed and water contact angle of the treated surface does not change significantly. Secondly, the gel forming properties of SPs were used to produce aerogels with densities in the order of 0.1 g/cm3. To improve their mechanical properties, the reinforcement of these materials with cellulose nanofibers was studied, obtaining composite aerogels with SP loadings as high as ca. 70% that display a compression modulus of 4.4 MPa, very close to the value obtained from the pure nanofibers aerogels. The composite materials gain moisture (up to 5%) in equilibrium with 50% RH air. Futhermore, their physical integrity is unchanged upon immersion in polar and non-polar solvents, exhibiting sorption rates dependent on the aerogel composition, morphology and swelling abilities. Finally, different soy protein based products and derivatives were used to enhance the dry strength properties of wood fibers in paper production. Experiments using soy flour, soy protein isolate, soy protein isolate hydrolysates, cationized soy flour, and soy flour combined with cationic starch and chitosan were done, obtaining satisfactory results when soy protein flour was utilized in combination with conventional treatments involving cationic polymers. The current results confirm the opportunity to valorize residual soy products that are underutilized today as alternatives to oil derived chemicals used in chemical processes.

  16. Fertility desires and fertility: Hers, his, and theirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Thomson; Elaine McDonald; Larry L. Bumpass

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between desired and achieved fertility may be misspecified by excluding husbands’ fertility desires or by\\u000a confounding effects of shared desires with the resolution of conflicting desires. Using couple data from the classic Princeton\\u000a Fertility Surveys, we find relatively large husband effects on fertility outcomes as well as unique effects of spousal disagreement.\\u000a Wives and husbands were equally likely

  17. Genetics of male fertility.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Nan; Matzuk, Martin M

    2014-01-01

    Early in embryogenesis, cells that are destined to become germ cells take on a different destiny from other cells in the embryo. The germ cells are not programmed to perform "vital" functions but to perpetuate the species through the transfer of genetic materials to the next generation. To fulfill their destiny, male germ cells undergo meiosis and extensive morphogenesis that transforms the round-shaped cells into freely motile sperm propelled by a beating flagellum to seek out their missing half. Apparently, extra genes and additional regulatory mechanisms are required to achieve all these unique features, and an estimated 11 % of genes are involved in fertility in Drosophila (Hackstein et al., Trends Genet 16(12):565-572, 2000). If comparative numbers of male fertility genes are needed in mammals, extra risks of male fertility problems are associated with disruptive mutations in those genes. Among human male infertility cases, approximately 22 % were classified as "idiopathic," a term used to describe diseases of unknown causes, with idiopathic oligozoospermia being the most common semen abnormality (11.2 %) (Comhaire et al., Int J Androl (Suppl 7):1-53, 1987). "Idiopathic" is a widely used adjective that is used to reflect our lack of understanding of the genetics of male fertility. Fortunately, after more than two decades of phenotypic studies using knockout mice and identifying genes disrupted in spontaneous mutant mice, we have unveiled new and unexpected aspects of crucial gene functions for fertility. Other efforts to categorize genes involved in male fertility in mammals have suggested a total of 1,188 genes (Hermo et al., Microsc Res Tech 73(4):241-494, 2010). Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to bypass many fertilization obstacles to achieve fertilization with only a few extracted sperm, the widespread use of ICSI without proper knowledge for genetic testing and counseling could still potentially propagate pleiotropic gene mutations associated with male infertility and other genetic diseases (Alukal and Lamb, Urol Clin North Am 35(2):277-288, 2008). In this chapter, we give a brief account of major events during the development of male germ cells and focus on the functions of several crucial genes that have been studied in mutant mouse models and are potential causes of human male infertility. PMID:24782004

  18. Correlations in fertility across generations: can low fertility persist?

    PubMed

    Kolk, Martin; Cownden, Daniel; Enquist, Magnus

    2014-03-22

    Correlations in family size across generations could have a major influence on human population size in the future. Empirical studies have shown that the associations between the fertility of parents and the fertility of children are substantial and growing over time. Despite their potential long-term consequences, intergenerational fertility correlations have largely been ignored by researchers. We present a model of the fertility transition as a cultural process acting on new lifestyles associated with fertility. Differences in parental and social influences on the acquisition of these lifestyles result in intergenerational correlations in fertility. We show different scenarios for future population size based on models that disregard intergenerational correlations in fertility, models with fertility correlations and a single lifestyle, and models with fertility correlations and multiple lifestyles. We show that intergenerational fertility correlations will result in an increase in fertility over time. However, present low-fertility levels may persist if the rapid introduction of new cultural lifestyles continues into the future. PMID:24478294

  19. Historical trends of hypoxia in Changjiang River estuary: Applications of chemical biomarkers and microfossils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, X.; Bianchi, T.S.; Yang, Z.; Osterman, L.E.; Allison, M.A.; DiMarco, S.F.; Yang, G.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades China has become the largest global consumer of fertilizers, which has enhanced river nutrient fluxes and caused eutrophication and hypoxia in the Yangtze (Changjiang) large river delta-front estuary (LDE). In this study, we utilized plant pigments, lignin-phenols, stable isotopes (?13C and ?15N) and foraminiferal microfossils in 210Pb dated cores to examine the history of hypoxia in the Changjiang LDE. Two sediment cores were collected onboard R/V Dong Fang Hong 2 using a stainless-steel box-corer; one at a water depth of 24.7 m on Jun. 15, 2006 and the other at 52 m on Nov. 20, 2007, both in the hypoxic region off the Changjiang LDE. There has been a significant increase in the abundance of plant pigments after 1979 that are indicators of enhanced diatom and cyanobacterial abundance, which agrees with post-1980 record of increasing nutrient loads in the Changjiang River. The increased inputs of terrestrially derived materials to the LDE are largely woody plant sources and most likely due to deforestation that began in the early 1950s. However, post-1960 lignin data did not reflect enhanced loading of woody materials despite continued deforestation possibly due to increased trapping from greater dam construction, a reduction of deforestation in the drainage basin since the last 1990s, and soil conservation practices. The lack of linkages between bulk indices (stable isotopes, % OC, molar C/N ratios) and microfossil/chemical biomarkers may reflect relative differences in the amount of carbon tracked by these different proxies. Although NO3? is likely responsible for most of the changes in phytoplankton production (post 1970s), historical changes in N loading from the watershed and hypoxia on the LDE shelf may not be as well linked in East China Sea (ECS) sediments due to possible denitrification/ammonification processes; finally, increases in low-oxygen tolerant foraminiferal microfossils indicate there has been an increase in the number of hypoxic bottom water events on the Changjiang LDE over the past 60 years.

  20. Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Stoecker, Andrew; Schatten, Heide

    1995-01-01

    To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on cultures being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle. For analysis of microfilaments, microtubules, centrosomes, and calcium-requiring events, our standard laboratory protocols had to be modified substantially for experimentation on the Space Shuttle. All manipulations were carried out in a closed culture chamber containing 35 ml artificial sea water as a culture fluid. Unfertilized eggs stored for 24 hours in these chambers were fertilized with sperm diluted in sea water and fixed with concentrated fixatives for final fixation in formaldehyde, taxol, EGTA, and MgCl2(exp -6)H2O for 1 cell to 16 cell stages to preserve cytoskeletal structures for simultaneous analysis with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 1.5 percent glutaraldehyde and 0.4 percent formaldehyde for blastula and plueus stages. The fixed samples wre maintained in chambers without degradation for up to two weeks after which the specimens were processed and analyzed with routine methods. Since complex manipulations are not possible in the closed chambers, the fertilization coat was removed from fixation using 0.5 percent freshly prepared sodium thioglycolate solution at pH 10.0 which provided reliable immunofluorescence staining for microtubules. Sperm/egg fusion, mitosis, cytokinesis, and calcium deposition during spicule formatin in early embryogenesis were found to be without artificial alterations when compared to cells fixed fresh and processed with conventional methods.

  1. Methane production from anaerobic soil amended with rice straw and nitrogen fertilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengping Wang; Ronald D. Delaune; Charles W. Lindau; William H. Patrick Jr

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted on the effects of rice straw application and N fertilization on methane (CH4) production from a flooded Louisiana, USA, rice soil incubated under anaerobic conditions. Rice straw application significantly increased CH4 production; CH4 production increased in proportion to the application rate. Urea fertilization also enhanced CH4 production. The maximum production rate was 17% higher, and occurred

  2. Sex and Fertility After SCI

    MedlinePLUS

    Experts \\ Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal ... from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Coping with ...

  3. Energy Conservation in Fertilizer Production

    E-print Network

    Mings, W. J.; Sonnett, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    An energy efficient fertilizer production device called the Pipe Cross Reactor (PCR) was developed by the National Fertilizer Development Center (NFDC) of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The Office of Industrial Programs (OIPI of the United...

  4. Managing Nitrogen Fertilizer in Cotton

    E-print Network

    Hons, F. M.; McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Nichols, Robert L.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Boman, R. K.; Saladino, V. A.; Jahn, R. L.; Stapper, J. R.

    2004-12-09

    To be profitable, cotton producers must manage fertilization efficiently. This publication reports the results of a 5-year study that showed over-fertilization with nitrogen is a common problem. There are specific recommendations for soil testing...

  5. Energy Conservation in Fertilizer Production 

    E-print Network

    Mings, W. J.; Sonnett, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    An energy efficient fertilizer production device called the Pipe Cross Reactor (PCR) was developed by the National Fertilizer Development Center (NFDC) of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The Office of Industrial Programs (OIPI of the United...

  6. Managing Nitrogen Fertilizer in Cotton 

    E-print Network

    Hons, F. M.; McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Nichols, Robert L.; Mazac Jr., F. J.; Boman, R. K.; Saladino, V. A.; Jahn, R. L.; Stapper, J. R.

    2004-12-09

    To be profitable, cotton producers must manage fertilization efficiently. This publication reports the results of a 5-year study that showed over-fertilization with nitrogen is a common problem. There are specific recommendations for soil testing...

  7. Elemental analysis of Egyptian phosphate fertilizer components.

    PubMed

    El-Bahi, S M; El-Dine, N Walley; El-Shershaby, A; Sroor, A

    2004-03-01

    The accumulation of certain elements in vitally important media such as water, soil, and food is undesirable from the medical point of view. It is clear that the fertilizers vary widely in their heavy metals and uranium content. A shielded high purity germanium HPGe detector has been used to measure the natural concentration of 238U, 232Th, and 40K activities in the phosphate fertilizer and its components collected from Abu-Zaabal fertilizers and chemical industries in Egypt. The concentration ranges were 134.97-681.11 Bq kg(-1), 125.23-239.26 Bq kg(-1), and 446.11-882.45 Bq kg(-1) for 238U, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The absorbed dose rate and external hazard index were found to be from 177.14 to 445.90 nGy h(-1) and 1.03 to 2.71 nGy y(-1), respectively. The concentrations of 22 elements (Be, Na, Mg, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ba) in the samples under investigation were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results for the input raw materials (rock phosphate, limestone and sulfur) and the output product as final fertilizer are presented and discussed. PMID:14982231

  8. Fertility of Technosols constructed with urban wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokia, Sarah; Sere, Geoffroy; Deeb, Maha; Fournier, Frantz; Nehls, Thomas; Damas, Olivier; Vidal-Beaudet, Laure; Schwartz, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Growing plants in urban areas requires large amounts of arable earth that is a non-renewable resource. Increase of urban population leads to the production of large qunatities of wastes and by-products that are only partly recycled as a resource and quite systematically exported out of urban areas. To preserve more natural soil resources (forest and agricultural soils), a strategy of waste recycling as fertile substrates is proposed. Eleven wastes are selected for their environmental harmlessness and their contrasted physico-chemical properties for their potential use in pedological engineering. The aim is (i) to demonstrate the feasibility of the construction of fertile substrates exclusively with wastes and by-products and (ii) to model their physico-chemical properties following various types, number and proportions of constitutive wastes. Twenty-five binary and ternary combinations are tested at different ratios for total carbon, Olsen available phosphorus, cation exchange capacity, water pH, water retention capacity and bulk density. Dose-response curves describe the variation of physico-chemical properties of mixtures depending on the type and ratio of selected wastes. Quite all of the mixtures have properties very near to those of natural soils. Some of them present more extreme urban soil features, especially for pH and POlsen. The fertility of the new substrates is modelled by multilinear regressions for the main soil properties. This allows to predict the fertility of constructed Technosols and participates to the development of soil eco-conception in urban and industrial areas (Rokia et al., Modelling agronomic properties of Technosols constructed with urban wastes, Waste Management (2013), 10.1016/j.wasman.2013.12.016). Keywords: constructed Technosol, pedological engineering, agronomic properties

  9. Uncoupling fertility from fertility-associated pheromones in worker honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Malka, Osnat; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Hefetz, Abraham

    2009-03-01

    Fertility-associated pheromones, chemical signals delineating ovarian development, were favourably selected in the course of evolution because it is in the best interest of both the signallers (in recruiting help from other colony members) and the receivers (in assisting them to reach an informed decision of how to maximize fitness). Such signals therefore should constitute honest, deception-proof indicators of ovarian development, suggesting, theoretically, that the processes of ovarian development and signal production are irreversibly coupled. Here we demonstrate that these processes can be uncoupled by treating queenless (QL) honeybee callow workers with methoprene, a juvenile hormone (JH) analog. While methoprene effectively inhibited ovarian development, it neither inhibited Dufour's fertility signal nor the mandibular glands' dominance signal. In fact, there was even a slight augmentation of both in the methoprene-treated bees. Thus, although fertility and fertility signals are tightly associated, they can be uncoupled by experimental manipulation. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that ovarian development and fertility-associated signal production are triggered by a common event/signal (e.g. queen pheromone disappearance) but comprise different regulatory systems. The evolutionary implication is that these two traits have evolved independently and may have been co-opted to emphasize the reproductive status of workers in the competition for reproduction. PMID:19041321

  10. Fertility and Modernity Enrico Spolaore

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Fertility and Modernity Enrico Spolaore Tufts University, NBER, CESIfo and CAGE Romain Wacziarg in fertility in Europe and its relation to measures of cultural and ancestral distance. We test the hypothesis that the decline of fertility was associated with the di¤usion of social and behavioral changes from France

  11. Prediction of porcine male fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. W. J. Broekhuijse

    2012-01-01

    Life starts with fertilisation. Variation in fertility is caused by both farm and sow related parameters and boar and semen related parameters. Therefore, achieving high fertility is not obvious. Predominantly, artificial insemination (AI) is used for breeding pigs. The advantage of AI is that you can dilute semen from high fertile breeding boars and in this way inseminate many sows.

  12. Waste of Fertilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Cooke

    1977-01-01

    Farmers do not use the available technical information sufficiently well to secure maximum efficiency of the fertilizers they buy. Animal and crop wastes contain most of the N, P and K in British crops and these should be used in recycling more efficiently than at present. The amount of nitrogen involved in soil-crop-livestock cycles appears to be twice as much

  13. TCRC Fertility Page

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not have a good answer to this question right now. I expect that if you ask your urologist, they should know the names of one or two places you could go. Nevertheless, it is possible that there may not be a local sperm bank. If you take a look at the Fertility ...

  14. Fertility and Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  15. Short-term effects of fertility management under organic farming in Mediterranean region on soil properties and tomato production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Jarrar, Mohammad; Dumontet, Stefano; Mondelli, Donato

    2014-05-01

    In organic farming, plant production depends almost exclusively on nutrient deriving from the decomposition of exogenous organic matter in soil which is able to provide significant quantities of several important nutrients for the plant growth. However, in the soil the timing and amount of mineralization often does not coincide with crop nutritional need, making in-season fertilization necessary. The Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 on organic farming standards recognizes these needs and allows the use of a limited range fertilizers and soil conditioners (inputs) in order to meet nutritional needs of the plants and to achieve short term economically viable yield. Short-term open field experiment was conducted at the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (MAIB) located in Apulia region (Southern Italy) in order study the effects of different fertilization scenarios based on equilibrated nutritional requirement on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv. San Marzano) production efficiency and soil chemical properties. In soil dressing phase, three months before planting, biochar (BCH), organic fertilizers (OF), combined treatment (BCH+OF), cattle manure and vineyard wood compost (MVC), dairy wastes industry and vineyard wood compost (DVC) and unamended soil as control (CON) were established. In the pre-crop phase, organic and/or mineral fertilizers were incorporated into the previous treatments except CON and BCH in order to achieve balanced N, P and K application rates for tomato plants. Different fertilization scenarios significantly increased the yields over CON and BCH treatments, maintaining fruits quality. In short period of time, most of the soil parameters remained invariable, only available phosphorus significantly increased in the treatments which received organic fertilizers maybe due to the slight reduction in soil pH. However, such results are not surprising, if we consider the quantity of amendments and fertilizers applied in the experiment, as well as a short term study. Future research needs to address the scope for increasing nutrient use efficiency and monitoring of soil nutrient pools in long term studies. Keywords: organic farming, fertility management, tomato crop, Biochar

  16. Anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing using a large-scale pilot plant: methane production and application of digested sludge as fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Baba, Yasunori; Tada, Chika; Watanabe, Ryoya; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Chida, Nobuyoshi; Nakai, Yutaka

    2013-07-01

    This report is the first to consider methane production energy balance from crude glycerol at a practical rather than a laboratory scale. Crude glycerol was added to the plant progressively at between 5 and 75 L glycerol/30 m(3)-day for 1.5 years, and the energy balance was positive at a loading rate of 30 L glycerol/30 m(3)-day (1 ml/L-day). At this loading rate over one year, an energy output equivalent to 106% of the energy input was achieved. The surplus energy was equivalent to transport for 1200 km, so the proper feedstock-transportation distance was within a 12.5-km radius of the biogas plant. In addition, the digested sludge contained fertilizer components (T-N: 0.11%, P2O5: 0.036%, K2O: 0.19%) that increased grass yield by 1.2 times when applied to grass fields. Thus, crude glycerol is an attractive bioresource that can be used as both a feedstock for methane production and a liquid fertilizer. PMID:23708849

  17. [The application of chemical imaging to detection and enhancement of latent fingerprints].

    PubMed

    Xia, Bin-Bin; Yang, Rui-Qin; Wang, Yan-Ji

    2010-05-01

    Chemical imaging (CI) integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy to attain both spectral and spatial components and structural information from an object simultaneously. Vibrational spectroscopic methods, such as infrared and Raman spectroscopy, combined with imaging are particularly useful. In recent years, CI has found important application in the field of forensic science due to its advantage of highly sensitive, rapid, non-destructive features and it can provide qualitative and quantitative information about specimen at one time. There are many methods for detection and enhancement of latent fingerprints. CI is an emerging platform technology with great potential to visualize latent fingerprints on many objects without any pre-treatment. CI can enhance the quality of the fingerprints developed by conventional methods, then form larger contrast with the background. With the advancement of instruments, the application of CI in the field of fingerprint detection will be more widely used. This paper provides an overview of the principal and classification of CI instrumentation, and reviews the application of CI to detection and enhancement of latent fingerprints. Finally, the direction of CI technology development is viewed. PMID:20672635

  18. Chemical Functionalization, Self-Assembly, and Applications of Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Tifeng [Yanshan University; Yan, Xingbin [Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Balan, Lavinia [French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Institute of Materials Science of Mulhouse (IS2M), France; Stepanov, Andrey [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kazan Physical-Technical Institute, Russia; Chen, Xinqing [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This special issue addresses the research studies on chemical functionalization, self-assembly, and applications of nanomaterials and nanocomposites. It contains twentyfour articles including two reviews and twenty-two research articles. It is used to create new functional nanomaterials and nanocomposites with a variety of sizes and morphologies such as Zn/Al layered double hydroxide, tin oxide nanowires, FeOOH-modified anion resin, Au nanoclusters silica composite nanospheres, Ti-doped ZnO sol-composite films, TiO2/ZnO composite, graphene oxide nanocomposites, LiFePO4/C nanocomposites, and chitosan nanoparticles. These nanomaterials and nanocomposites have widespread applications in tissue engineering, antitumor, sensors, photoluminescence, electrochemical, and catalytic properties. In addition, this themed issue includes some research articles about self-assembly systems covering organogels and Langmuir films. Furthermore, B. Blasiak et al. performed a literature survey on the recent advances in production, functionalization, toxicity reduction, and application of nanoparticles in cancer diagnosis, treatment, and treatment monitoring. P. Colson et al. performed a literature survey on the recent advances in nanosphere lithography due to its compatibility with wafer-scale processes as well as its potential to manufacture a wide variety of homogeneous one-, two-, or three-dimensional nanostructures.

  19. 76 FR 31824 - Chemical Mixtures Containing Listed Forms of Phosphorus and Change in Application Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...burden on legitimate industry. Persons who obtain a regulated chemical, but do not distribute...solicit input from industry regarding chemical mixtures containing...identified any chemical mixtures containing...either through industry comments or...

  20. Functionalized polysiloxane thin films deposited by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation for advanced chemical sensor applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J. Houser; D. B. Chrisey; M. Bercu; N. D. Scarisoreanu; A. Purice; D. Colceag; C. Constantinescu; A. Moldovan; M. Dinescu

    2006-01-01

    High-quality thin films of fragile chemoselective polymers with precise and accurate thickness, density and chemical integrity are required for advanced chemical sensor applications. While these attributes are difficult to achieve by conventional methods, we have successfully demonstrated the matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) deposition of thin films of especially synthesized fluoro-alcohol substituted carbo-polysiloxane polymer coatings. The quadrupled output of a

  1. Chemical and radiation crosslinked polymer electrolyte membranes prepared from radiation-grafted ETFE films for DMFC applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhua Chen; Masaharu Asano; Tetsuya Yamaki; Masaru Yoshida

    2006-01-01

    To develop a highly chemically stable polymer electrolyte membrane for application in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), doubly crosslinked membranes were prepared by chemical crosslinking using bifunctional monomers, such as divinylbenzene (DVB) and bis(p,p-vinyl phenyl) ethane (BVPE), and by radiation crosslinking. The membranes were prepared by grafting of m,p-methylstyrene (MeSt) and p-tert-butylstyrene (tBuSt) into poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films and subsequent

  2. Binomial tau-leap spatial stochastic simulation algorithm for applications in chemical kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.; Burrage, Kevin

    2007-09-01

    In cell biology, cell signaling pathway problems are often tackled with deterministic temporal models, well mixed stochastic simulators, and/or hybrid methods. But, in fact, three dimensional stochastic spatial modeling of reactions happening inside the cell is needed in order to fully understand these cell signaling pathways. This is because noise effects, low molecular concentrations, and spatial heterogeneity can all affect the cellular dynamics. However, there are ways in which important effects can be accounted without going to the extent of using highly resolved spatial simulators (such as single-particle software), hence reducing the overall computation time significantly. We present a new coarse grained modified version of the next subvolume method that allows the user to consider both diffusion and reaction events in relatively long simulation time spans as compared with the original method and other commonly used fully stochastic computational methods. Benchmarking of the simulation algorithm was performed through comparison with the next subvolume method and well mixed models (MATLAB), as well as stochastic particle reaction and transport simulations (CHEMCELL, Sandia National Laboratories). Additionally, we construct a model based on a set of chemical reactions in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. For this particular application and a bistable chemical system example, we analyze and outline the advantages of our presented binomial ?-leap spatial stochastic simulation algorithm, in terms of efficiency and accuracy, in scenarios of both molecular homogeneity and heterogeneity.

  3. Surface chemical and biological characterization of flax fabrics modified with silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Paladini, F; Picca, R A; Sportelli, M C; Cioffi, N; Sannino, A; Pollini, M

    2015-07-01

    Silver nanophases are increasingly used as effective antibacterial agent for biomedical applications and wound healing. This work aims to investigate the surface chemical composition and biological properties of silver nanoparticle-modified flax substrates. Silver coatings were deposited on textiles through the in situ photo-reduction of a silver solution, by means of a large-scale apparatus. The silver-coated materials were characterized through X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), to assess the surface elemental composition of the coatings, and the chemical speciation of both the substrate and the antibacterial nanophases. A detailed investigation of XPS high resolution regions outlined that silver is mainly present on nanophases' surface as Ag2O. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were also carried out, in order to visualize the distribution of silver particles on the fibers. The materials were also characterized from a biological point of view in terms of antibacterial capability and cytotoxicity. Agar diffusion tests and bacterial enumeration tests were performed on Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, namely Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro cytotoxicity tests were performed through the extract method on murine fibroblasts in order to verify if the presence of the silver coating affected the cellular viability and proliferation. Durability of the coating was also assessed, thus confirming the successful scaling up of the process, which will be therefore available for large-scale production. PMID:25953533

  4. Development of bismuth tellurium selenide nanoparticles for thermoelectric applications via a chemical synthetic process

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Cham [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of) [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hwan; Han, Yoon Soo [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of)] [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jong Shik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, SangHa [Daegu Machinery Institute of Components and Materials (DMI), 12 Horim-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-240 (Korea, Republic of)] [Daegu Machinery Institute of Components and Materials (DMI), 12 Horim-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-240 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soonheum [Department of Nanomaterial Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seokjang-dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nanomaterial Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seokjang-dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoyoung, E-mail: hoykim@dgist.ac.kr [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of)] [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We synthesized a Bi{sub 2}Te{sub y}Se{sub 3-y} nano-compound via a chemical synthetic process. {yields} The compound was sintered to achieve an average grain size of about 300 nm. {yields} The resulting sintered body showed very low thermal conductivity. It is likely caused by the vigorous phonon scattering of the nano-sized grains. -- Abstract: Bismuth tellurium selenide (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub y}Se{sub 3-y}) nanoparticles for thermoelectric applications are successfully prepared via a water-based chemical reaction under atmospheric conditions. The nanostructured compound is prepared using a complexing agent (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and a reducing agent (ascorbic acid) to stabilize the bismuth precursor (Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) in water and to favor the reaction with reduced sources of tellurium and selenium. The resulting powder is smaller than ca. 100 nm and has a crystalline structure corresponding to the rhombohedral Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.7}Se{sub 0.3}. The nanocrystalline powder is sintered via a spark plasma sintering process to obtain a sintered body composed of nano-sized grains. Important transport properties of the sintered body are measured to calculate its most important characteristic, the thermoelectric performance. The results demonstrate a relationship between the nanostructure of the sintered body and its thermal conductivity.

  5. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, Harris; Kass, Richard; Gan, K.K.

    2014-01-23

    With the LHC upgrades in 2013, and further LHC upgrades scheduled in 2018, most LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require more radiation hard technologies than presently available. At present all LHC experiments now have some form of diamond detector. As a result Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. Moreover CVD diamond is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the HL-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications. Our accomplishments include: • Developed a two U.S.companies to produce electronic grade diamond, • Worked with companies and acquired large area diamond pieces, • Performed radiation hardness tests using various proton energies: 70 MeV (Cyric, Japan), 800 MeV (Los Alamos), and 24 GeV (CERN).

  6. Tracking chemical changes in a live cell: Biomedical applications of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

    2002-07-25

    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). We will then present several examples demonstrating the application potentials of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biomedical research. These will include monitoring living cells progressing through the cell cycle, including death, and cells reacting to dilute concentrations of toxins.

  7. Sustainability of organic fertilization of macadamia with macadamia husk?manure compost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Bittenbender; N. V. Hue; Kent Fleming; Hilary Brown

    1998-01-01

    Macadamia husk?manure compost was evaluated as an organic fertilizer for the production of macadamia in an experiment over four years at irrigated and unirrigated sites on the MacFarms of Hawaii orchard. The treatments were (1) Fertilizer, a combination of solid and liquid chemical fertilizers applied based on leaf and soil analysis, (2) Compost, 10,000 kg ha of a macadamia husk?cattle

  8. Assortative fertilization in?Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Markow, Therese Ann

    1997-01-01

    The concept of gametic isolation has its origins in the 1937 edition of T. Dobzhansky’s Genetics and the Origin of Species. Involving either positive assortative fertilization (as opposed to self-incompatibility) or negative assortative fertilization, it occurs after mating but prior to fertilization. Gametic isolation is generally subsumed under either prezygotic or postmating isolation and thus has not been the subject of extensive investigation. Examples of assortative fertilization in Drosophila are reviewed and compared with those of other organisms. Potential mechanisms leading to assortative fertilization are discussed, as are their evolutionary implications. PMID:9223260

  9. Strategies and Applications for Incorporating Physical and Chemical Signal Gradients in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Milind; Berkland, Cory

    2008-01-01

    From embryonic development to wound repair, concentration gradients of bioactive signaling molecules guide tissue formation and regeneration. Moreover, gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues. Perhaps tissue engineers can take a cue from nature in attempting to regenerate tissues by incorporating gradients into engineering design strategies. Indeed, gradient-based approaches are an emerging trend in tissue engineering, standing in contrast to traditional approaches of homogeneous delivery of cells and/or growth factors using isotropic scaffolds. Gradients in tissue engineering lie at the intersection of three major paradigms in the field—biomimetic, interfacial, and functional tissue engineering—by combining physical (via biomaterial design) and chemical (with growth/differentiation factors and cell adhesion molecules) signal delivery to achieve a continuous transition in both structure and function. This review consolidates several key methodologies to generate gradients, some of which have never been employed in a tissue engineering application, and discusses strategies for incorporating these methods into tissue engineering and implant design. A key finding of this review was that two-dimensional physicochemical gradient substrates, which serve as excellent high-throughput screening tools for optimizing desired biomaterial properties, can be enhanced in the future by transitioning from two dimensions to three dimensions, which would enable studies of cell–protein–biomaterial interactions in a more native tissue–like environment. In addition, biomimetic tissue regeneration via combined delivery of graded physical and chemical signals appears to be a promising strategy for the regeneration of heterogeneous tissues and tissue interfaces. In the future, in vivo applications will shed more light on the performance of gradient-based mechanical integrity and signal delivery strategies compared to traditional tissue engineering approaches. PMID:18803499

  10. The impact of mineral fertilizers and lime on the transformation of humic acids in a soddy-podzolic heavy loamy soil of the Cis-Ural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zav'yalova, N. E.

    2015-06-01

    The composition and structure of humic acids in a soddy-podzolic heavy loamy soil (Retisol) of the Cis-Ural region after the long-term application of mineral fertilizers and lime was studied by the methods of elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry. It was found that mineral fertilizers and lime did not change the ranges of C, H, O, and N contents and general structure typical of humic acids in soddy-podzolic soils. The long-term anthropogenic impact on the soil resulted in some transformation of the composition and properties of humic acids. Clear absorption bands in the area of 1700 cm-1 (C=O of carbonyl group) and 1620 cm-1 (C=C of aromatic rings), which characterize the benzenoid structures of molecules, were found in the infrared spectra of humic acids from the soil treated with lime at the rate to compensate for the total acidity. Soil liming favored the accumulation of thermodynamically stable fragments of the central part of humic acid molecules and the destruction of peripheral radicals. The application of mineral fertilizers resulted in the enrichment of humic acids with aliphatic fragments. The combined application of mineral fertilizers and lime increased the portion of aromatic structures and, at the same time, enriched humic acids in aliphatic fragments less resistant to pyrolysis. These fragments are biologically and chemically active and can be readily involved in the element turnover processes, thus protecting the stable part of humus from the biological destruction.

  11. The fertility decline in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

    1995-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key features of reform appear to be political stability, public sector programs, and supply of contraception through the health service. PMID:12319914

  12. Effects of Manure Compost Application on Soil Microbial Community Diversity and Soil Microenvironments in a Temperate Cropland in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Haitao; Wang, Na; Guo, Liyue; Meng, Jie; Ding, Na; Wu, Guanglei; Jiang, Gaoming

    2014-01-01

    The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, communities, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded cropland soils by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of manure compost and bacteria fertilizers or its combination during maize growth. We investigated dynamic impacts on soil microbial count, biomass, basal respiration, community structure diversity, and enzyme activity using six different treatments [no fertilizer (CK), N fertilizer (N), N fertilizer + bacterial fertilizer (NB), manure compost (M), manure compost + bacterial fertilizer (MB), and bacterial fertilizer (B)] in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of potted soil during various maize growth stages in a temperate cropland of eastern China. Denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting analysis showed that the structure and composition of bacterial and fungi communities in the six fertilizer treatments varied at different levels. The Shannon index of bacterial and fungi communities displayed the highest value in the MB treatments and the lowest in the N treatment at the maize mature stage. Changes in soil microorganism community structure and diversity after different fertilizer treatments resulted in different microbial properties. Adding manure compost significantly increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, thus enhancing soil respiration and enzyme activities (p<0.01), whereas N treatment showed the opposite results (p<0.01). However, B and NB treatments minimally increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, with no obvious influence on community structure and soil enzymes. Our findings indicate that the application of manure compost plus bacterial fertilizers can immediately improve the microbial community structure and diversity of degraded cropland soils. PMID:25302996

  13. Effects of manure compost application on soil microbial community diversity and soil microenvironments in a temperate cropland in China.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zhen; Liu, Haitao; Wang, Na; Guo, Liyue; Meng, Jie; Ding, Na; Wu, Guanglei; Jiang, Gaoming

    2014-01-01

    The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, communities, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded cropland soils by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of manure compost and bacteria fertilizers or its combination during maize growth. We investigated dynamic impacts on soil microbial count, biomass, basal respiration, community structure diversity, and enzyme activity using six different treatments [no fertilizer (CK), N fertilizer (N), N fertilizer + bacterial fertilizer (NB), manure compost (M), manure compost + bacterial fertilizer (MB), and bacterial fertilizer (B)] in the plowed layer (0-20 cm) of potted soil during various maize growth stages in a temperate cropland of eastern China. Denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting analysis showed that the structure and composition of bacterial and fungi communities in the six fertilizer treatments varied at different levels. The Shannon index of bacterial and fungi communities displayed the highest value in the MB treatments and the lowest in the N treatment at the maize mature stage. Changes in soil microorganism community structure and diversity after different fertilizer treatments resulted in different microbial properties. Adding manure compost significantly increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, thus enhancing soil respiration and enzyme activities (p<0.01), whereas N treatment showed the opposite results (p<0.01). However, B and NB treatments minimally increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, with no obvious influence on community structure and soil enzymes. Our findings indicate that the application of manure compost plus bacterial fertilizers can immediately improve the microbial community structure and diversity of degraded cropland soils. PMID:25302996

  14. Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martínez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons. PMID:24747937

  15. Application of soil physical, chemical, and bioassay methods to coal refuse

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.G.; Gnanapragasam, N. [Northwest Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; MacDonell, M.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Waste from coal-cleaning is extremely acid. Unlike soil, in which the colloidal complex controls physical and chemical behavior, coal waste chemistry appears to be controlled largely by strong acid. Soil test procedures can be applied to coal waste, but results cannot always be interpreted in the same manner as for soil. The Mitscherlich-Bray concept for phosphorus and potassium availability is invalid in coal waste due to confounding effects of iron and calcium. Lime requirement methods are not necessarily invalid, but the quantities of limestone eventually applied to the growth media may become ineffective. Extractants for metals in soils should be applied to coal waste with caution, due to changes in pH during the extraction. Particle size analysis by sedimentation, and single-value moisture constants, are generally invalid for coal wastes, but available water concepts have about the same applicability as in solids. Simple convective-dispersive models are applicable to solute transport in coal waste, but the major retardation reaction in the material may not be adsorption, as it is in typical soils.

  16. Long-term effects of fertilizer on soil enzymatic activity of wheat field soil in Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weigang; Jiao, Zhifang; Wu, Fasi; Liu, Yongjun; Dong, Maoxing; Ma, Xiaojun; Fan, Tinglu; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2014-12-01

    The effects of long-term (29 years) fertilization on local agro-ecosystems in the Loess Plateau of northwest China, containing a single or combinations of inorganic (Nitrogen, N; Phosphate, P) and organic (Mature, M Straw, S) fertilizer, including N, NP, SNP, M, MNP, and a control. The soil enzymes, including dehydrogenase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase and glomalin, were investigated in three physiological stages (Jointing, Dough, and Maturity) of wheat growth at three depths of the soil profile (0-15, 16-30, 31-45 cm). We found that the application of farmyard manure and straw produced the highest values of soil enzymatic activity, especially a balanced applied treatment of MNP. Enzymatic activity was lowest in the control. Values were generally highest at dough, followed by the jointing and maturity stages, and declined with soil profile depth. The activities of the enzymes investigated here are significantly correlated with each other and are correlated with soil nutrients, in particular with soil organic carbon. Our results suggest that a balanced application of fertilizer nutrients and organic manure (especially those containing P) has positive effects on multiple soil chemical parameters, which in turn enhances enzyme activity. We emphasize the role of organic manure in maintaining soil organic matter and promoting biological activity, as its application can result in a substantial increase in agricultural production and can be sustainable for many years. PMID:25134679

  17. Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Griffin, Dale W.; Davis, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1??mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30??years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3??m3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64??million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774??ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15??km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2??ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water sample where enteroviruses also were detected, indicating a likely influence from a nearby septic tank.

  18. Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (?? 18O and ??2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have ??18O and ??2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (??15N-NO3) values above 10 ??? in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (??15N-NO3 = 4.6-4.9 ???), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil's Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ichetucknee Springs basin is highly vulnerable to contamination from multiple anthropogenic sources throughout the springs basin. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  19. The effect of mineral fertilization on nutritive value and biological activity of chokeberry fruit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarzyna Skupie?; Jan Oszmia?ski

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether an extra fertilization with manganese, commercial fertilizer Alkalin (N, K and Si), and combined treatment (manganese + Alkalin) affect the chemical composition of chokeberry fruits (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx) Elliot), especially sugar content and the quantity and profile of phenolics. Dry weight, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total sugar, reducing sugar, sucrose, vitamin

  20. Nitrate leaching in an Andisol treated with different types of fertilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morihiro Maeda; Bingzi Zhao; Yasuo Ozaki; Tadakatsu Yoneyama

    2003-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3) leaching was studied in an Andisol treated with four N fertilizers (SC: swine compost, CU: coated urea, AN: ammonium N, or NF: no fertilizer) for 7 years. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) was grown in summer, followed by Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. var. amplexicaulis) or cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) in autumn each year. In chemical

  1. Preliminary assessment of the effects of fertilizers on soil properties in farming areas, southern Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adeeba Al-Hurban

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – The present study aims to determine the residue levels in the soil and water prior to, and after fertilization, as previous soil investigations in Kuwait indicated that different types of fertilizers are used leaving residues in the soil, in order to assist the prospective farmers in choosing environmental sound chemicals for each crop. The importance of the following

  2. Effects of considering greenhouse gas consequences on fertilizer use in loblolly pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jianbang; Smith, C T; Langeveld, J W A

    2012-12-30

    Fertilizer use, widely practiced in forest plantation management to stimulate tree growth, contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We explore how accounting for GHG consequences affects optimal fertilizer application rates of commercial forest plantations. A generic model that maximizes the equivalent annual net benefit of timber production and GHG balance is developed and applied to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations in the southern United States. We find that fertilizer use still is a viable practice for managing loblolly pine plantations in the region although fertilizer application rate should be reduced when GHG consequences are valued. A greater reduction in fertilizer application rate is recommended where wood is used for paper production because life cycle GHG emissions of paper products are much higher than those of solid wood or bioenergy products. A higher fertilizer rate should be applied when forest residues are used for the production of bioenergy that offsets GHG emissions from consuming fossil fuels. PMID:23088934

  3. Solution-gated Field Effect Transistors based on CVD grown Graphene for chemical and bio sensing applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Mailly Giacchetti; Allen Hsu; Han Wang; Ki Kang Kim; Jing Kong; Tomas Palacios

    2011-01-01

    Graphene holds great potential for bioelectronic applications and, more specifically, for fast high-sensitivity pH measurements and biosensing. Its monolayer structure (just one carbon atom thick) in combination with its very high carrier mobility enable very high transconductance, low noise and biocompatibility which are key parameters for chemical sensors with electronic readout. In fact, single molecule detection has already been demonstrated

  4. On using film boiling to thermally decompose liquid organic chemicals: Application to ethyl acetate as a model compound

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    flux (CHF) Leidenfrost point a b s t r a c t Film boiling on a horizontal tube is used to studyOn using film boiling to thermally decompose liquid organic chemicals: Application to ethyl acetate 21 August 2013 Keywords: Film boiling Thermal decomposition Pyrolysis Ethyl acetate Critical heat

  5. Fertilizer and irrigation management effects on nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation and nitrogen (N) fertilizer management are two important factors affecting crop yield, N use efficiency (NUE), and N losses in the form of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrate (NO3-). Split-application of conventional urea (SCU) and/or one-time application of specialized N fertilizers such as ...

  6. Uptake of point source depleted 15N fertilizer by neighboring corn plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ground-based active (self-illuminating) sensors make it possible to collect canopy data that are useful for making on-the-go nitrogen (N) fertilizer application decisions. These technologies raise questions about plant-to-plant competition for targeted fertilizer N applications. This study evaluated...

  7. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISKIN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W.Bogan; V. Trbovic; W. Sullivan

    2003-01-07

    The drilling and operation of gas/petroleum exploratory wells and the operations of natural gas and petroleum production wells generate a number of waste materials that are usually stored and/or processed at the drilling/operations site. Contaminated soils result from drilling operations, production operations, and pipeline breaks or leaks where crude oil and petroleum products are released into the surrounding soil or sediments. In many cases, intrinsic biochemical remediation of these contaminated soils is either not effective or is too slow to be an acceptable approach. This project targeted petroleum-impacted soil and other wastes, such as soil contaminated by: accidental release of petroleum and natural gas-associated organic wastes from pipelines or during transport of crude oil or natural gas; production wastes (such as produced waters, and/or fuels or product gas). Our research evaluated the process designated Chemically-Accelerated Biotreatment (CAB) that can be applied to remediate contaminated matrices, either on-site or in situ. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) had previously developed a form of CAB for the remediation of hydrocarbons and metals at Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites and this research project expanded its application into Exploration and Production (E&P) sites. The CAB treatment was developed in this project using risk-based endpoints, a.k.a. environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE) as the treatment goal. This goal was evaluated, compared, and correlated to traditional analytical methods (Gas Chromatography (GC), High Precision Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (CGMS)). This project proved that CAB can be applied to remediate E&P contaminated soils to EAE, i.e. those concentrations of chemical contaminants in soil below which there is no adverse affect to human health or the environment. Conventional approaches to risk assessment to determine ''how clean is clean'' for soils undergoing remediation have been based on total contaminant concentrations in soil, as determined by laboratory extraction methods that use vigorous physical and chemical procedures. Numerous data collected from bioavailability studies in this study and others carried out by GTI and other organizations conducted on contaminated soils and sediments continue to show that not all contaminants are available to environmental receptors including man or ecologically forms. In short, there exist fractions of contaminants in soil that cannot be released from the soil matrix by normal means. These sequestered contaminant fractions should not be considered a risk to human health or the environment. This project focused on CAB technology to treat soil contaminants to these acceptable levels. Therefore, the primary objective of this project was to determine what these contaminant levels are and to reach or exceed cleanup standards using CAB. These determinations were demonstrated and verified using toxicity and chemical mobility tests. Based on GTI's experience with a form of CAB for the remediation of soils at Manufactured Gas Plant sites, use of the technology demonstrated in this project could save the oil and gas industry an estimated $200 million to $500 million over the next ten years. The merging of CAB with the use of EAE for calibration and evaluation of treatment effectiveness addressed the following research objectives: (1) Determination of the kinetics of contaminant desorption and bioavailability; (2) Further development of CAB technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; (3) Finalization of the methods, procedures and processes needed to apply CAB technology using EAE; and (4) Verification of the applicability of EAE for the remediation of contaminated soils.

  8. The Grass Garden in the Giant Mts. (Czech Republic): Residual effect of long-term fertilization after 62 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V?ra Semelová; Michal Hejcman; Vilém Pavl?; Stanislav Vacek; Vilém Podrázský

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how plant species’ composition, soil parameters and nutrient concentrations in plant biomass differ between fertilized and control plots 62 years after the last fertilizer application on a sub-alpine grassland.A piece of land called the Grass Garden (GG), fertilized with wood ash and manure for at least 200 years, was rediscovered in the

  9. The application of structure-activity relationships (SARs) in the aquatic toxicity evaluation of discrete organic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Clements, R G; Nabholz, J V; Zeeman, M G; Auer, C M

    1995-01-01

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT), United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) routinely uses structure-activity relationships (SAR) for the aquatic hazard assessment of new chemicals submitted under Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). With 15 years of experience and the general acceptance of toxicity predictions based on SARs, OPPT has expanded the use and application of the methodology to include existing chemicals used in printing, dry cleaning, and paint stripping. SAR analysis has also been used in the hazard evaluation of the U.S. and EU/OECD high production volume (HPV) chemicals. This paper describes the assumptions, limitations, and methodology for the use of SARs to evaluate large sets of discrete organic chemicals. PMID:8564855

  10. Functionalized bioinspired microstructured optical fiber pores for applications in chemical vapor sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Jacob A.

    Chemical vapor sensing for defense, homeland security, environmental, and agricultural application is a challenge, which due combined requirements of ppt sensitivity, high selectivity, and rapid response, cannot be met using conventional analytical chemistry techniques. New sensing approaches and platforms are necessary in order to make progress in this rapidly evolving field. Inspired by the functionalized nanopores on moth sensilla hairs that contribute to the high selectivity and sensitivity of this biological system, a chemical vapor sensor based on the micro to nanoscale pores in microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) was designed. This MOF based chemical vapor sensor design utilizes MOF pores functionalized with organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for selectivity and separations and a gold plasmonic sensor for detection and discrimination. Thin well-controlled gold films in MOF pores are critical components for the fabrication of structured plasmonic chemical vapor sensors. Thermal decomposition of dimethyl Au(II) trifluoroacetylacetonate dissolved in near-critical CO2 was used to deposit gold island films within the MOF pores. Using a 3mercatopropyltrimethoxysilane adhesion layer, continuous gold thin films as thin as 20--30 nm were deposited within MOF pores as small as 500 nm in diameter. The gold island films proved to be SERS active and were used to detect 900 ppt 2,4 DNT vapor in high pressure nitrogen and 6 ppm benzaldehyde. MOF based waveguide Raman (WGR), which can probe the air/silica interface between a waveguiding core and surrounding pores, was developed to detect and characterize SAMs and other thin films deposited in micro to nanoscale MOF pores. MOF based WGR was used to characterize an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) SAM deposited in 1.6 mum diameter pores iv to demonstrate that the SAM was well-formed, uniform along the pore length, and only a single layer. MOF based WGR was used to detect a human serum albumin monolayer deposited on the OTS SAM and monitor in-situ the combustion of an OTS SAM in high pressure oxygen. Light scattering, an optical characterization technique that provides ellipsometric data from micro to nanoscale cylinders, was developed in order to characterize highly smooth wires and MOF pores. Clean, bare gold wires etched from MOF pore templates were found to have angle dependent Psi and Delta values that agree with numerically calculated and finite element modeled values over the full angular 340° collection range. Light scattering was shown to be sensitive to ellipticities in the cross-section of silica, gold, and silicon wires down to 1%. Using alkanethiol SAMs deposited on gold wires, light scattering was demonstrated to be able to detect films as thin as 1.5 nm, and able to distinguish between a decanethiol (1.5 nm) and an octadecanethiol SAM (2.7 mn). The high sensitivity of light scattering will allow it to characterize SAMs and thin films on the inner surfaces of MOF pores. WGR and light scattering provide the analytical tools that will allow for the further development of organic SAMs and thin films within MOF pores for analyte selectivity and chromatographic separations. This high selectivity combined with the sensitivity of a 3-dimensional nanostructured gold plasmonic sensor allows for the fabrication of a chemical vapor sensor inspired by the field performance of moth sensilla hairs.

  11. Influence of fertilization on the capability of rice resistance to diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Chang, Yue-Ya; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Organic cultivation of rice requires no use of any agricultural chemicals during the entire period of growth, and so the rice's self-prevention of diseases and pests is vitally important. A field experiment was carried out to study the possible influence of different fertilization on the capability of rice resistance to diseases and pests. A rice variety used for this experiment is Jia-He 218. Four treatments (A, B, C and D) were designed: A is a control, without using any fertilizers; B, after manuring of green azolla, 0.67 kg/m2; C, after manuring of rapeseed cake, 0.30 kg/m2; D, after fertilizing of ammonium bicarbonate, 0.025 kg/m2, and urea, 0.025 kg/m2. The experiment plot is 66.7 m2, with three replicates. The results indicated that the fertilization patterns significantly influence the growth of rice seedlings: The heights by A, B, C and D are 37 cm, 40 cm , 42 cm and 45 cm on average, respectively; the spike numbers, 45, 65, 73 and 75, respectively; chlorophyll contents in leaves, 1.84 mg/g, 2.42 mg/g, 3.02 mg/g and 3.97 mg/g, respectively. The rice with the different fertilization also varies in nutrient concentration in leaves: NH4-N concentration in leaves by A, B, C and D is 47.5 mg/kg, 61.1 mg/kg, 74.7 mg/kg and 135.8 mg/kg on average, respectively; NO3-N in leaves, 138.9 mg/kg, 185.2 mg/kg, 154.3 mg/kg and 293.2 mg/kg, respectively. The fertilization patterns, moreover, show a significant influence on the incidence of diseases and pests to rice seedlings: The incidence of rice cnaphalocrocis medinalis by A, B, C and D is 1.33 %, 1.50 %, 1.75 % and 89.0 % on average, respectively; that of bacterial leaf blight, 0, 1.25 %, 1.75 % and 85.0 %, respectively; number of rice planthopper in each plant, 20, 21, 21 and 30, respectively. As a result, the yield of rice grain by A, B, C and D is 4540 kg/ha, 4606 kg/ha, 4503 kg/ha and 4092 kg/ha on average, respectively. In conclusion, the rice seedlings treated with chemical fertilizers grow large and tender, which makes it more vulnerable to diseases and pests, resulting in low grain yield. In addition, its immune system capability might be significantly reduced by hyper-accumulation of free nutrients in leaves or stems due to excessive application of chemical fertilizers, and thus leaving it more seriously attacked by diseases and pests.

  12. Use of plant residues for improving soil fertility, pod nutrients, root growth and pod weight of okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L).

    PubMed

    Moyin-Jesu, Emmanuel Ibukunoluwa

    2007-08-01

    The effect of wood ash, sawdust, ground cocoa husk, spent grain and rice bran upon root development, ash content, pod yield and nutrient status and soil fertility for okra (Abelmoschus esculentum L NHAe 47 variety) was studied. The five organic fertilizer treatments were compared to chemical fertilizer (400kg/ha/crop NPK 15-15-15) and unfertilized controls in four field experiments replicated four times in a randomized complete block design. The results showed that the application of 6tha(-1) of plant residues increased (P<0.05) the soil N, P, K, Ca, Mg, pH, and SOM; pod N, P, K, Ca, Mg and ash; root length; and pod yield of okra in all four experiments relative to the control treatment. For instance, spent grain treatment increased the okra pod yield by 99%, 33%, 50%, 49%, 65% and 67% compared to control, NPK, wood ash, cocoa husk, rice bran and sawdust treatments respectively. In the stepwise regression, out of the total R(2) value of 0.83 for the soil nutrients to the pod yield of okra; soil N accounted for 50% of the soil fertility improvement and yield of okra. Spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk were the most effective in improving okra pod weight, pod nutrients, ash content, root length and soil fertility whereas the rice bran and sawdust were the least effective. This was because the spent grain, wood ash and cocoa husk had lower C/N ratio and higher nutrient composition than rice bran and sawdust, thus, the former enhanced an increase in pod nutrients, composition for better human dietary intake, increased the root length, pod weight of okra and improved soil fertility and plant nutrition crop. The significance of the increases in okra mineral nutrition concentration by plant residues is that consumers will consume more of these minerals in their meals and monetarily spend less for purchasing vitamins and mineral supplement drugs to meet health requirements. In addition, the increase in plant nutrition and soil fertility would help to reduce the high cost of buying synthetic inorganic fertilizers and maintain the long term productivity of soils for sustainable cultivation of okra. PMID:17336057

  13. OBIS-USA and Ocean Acidification: Chemical and Biological Observation Data, Integrated for Discovery and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornwall, M.; Jewett, L.; Yates, K.; Goldstein, P.

    2012-12-01

    OBIS-USA (usgs.gov/obis-usa), a program of USGS Core Science, Analytics and Synthesis, is the US Regional node of the International Ocean Biogeographic Information System (iobis.org). OBIS data records observations of biological occurrences - identifiable species - at known time and coordinates. Within US research and operational communities, OBIS-USA serves an expanding range of applications by capturing details to accompany each observation: information to understand record quality and suitability for applications, details about observation circumstances such as sampling method and sampling conditions, and biological details such as sex, life stage, behavior and other characteristics. The NOAA Ocean Acidification Program and its associated data management effort (led by National Oceanographic Data Center) aim to enable users to locate, understand and use marine data from multiple sources and of multiple types to address questions related to ocean acidification and it impacts on marine ecosystems. By the nature of researching ocean acidification, data-driven applications require users to find and apply datasets that represent different disciplines as well as different researchers, organizations, agencies, funding models, data management practices and formats, and survey and observation methods. We refer to any collection(s) of data having diverse characteristics on these and other dimensions as "heterogeneous data". However, data management and Internet technologies enable the data itself and many of its diverse characteristics to be discoverable and understandable enough for users to build effective models, applications, and solutions. While it may not be simple to make heterogeneous data uniform or "seamless", current technologies enable at least the data characteristics to be sufficiently well-understood that users can consume data and accommodate its diverse characteristics in their process of generating outputs. Via this abstract and accompanying poster presentation, OBIS-USA and the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program describe proposed methods for obtaining diverse data, such as both chemical observations (those necessary to derive calcium carbonate saturation state) and biological marine observations (species occurrence, abundance), in order to use these sources of information in combined analysis for current and future research on ocean acidification and its relation to observed biology. Current OBIS-USA biological observations represent in-situ observations of marine taxa, and in the context of Ocean Acidification and this poster presentation, OBIS-USA shows a path toward including experimental biology observations as well as in-situ.

  14. 40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...pattern (for inorganic substances), a mass spectrum (for most other substances), or an infrared spectrum of the particular chemical substance...chemical substance, additional or alternative spectra or other data to identify the...

  15. Application of near infrared spectroscopy to predict chemical composition and energy value

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    equations were developed to determine chemical composition, gross energy (GE), dOM, energy digestibility (d.4 % for ADF, 14 % for ADL). The association of certain chemical criteria (NDF, ADF, ADL, fat) affords

  16. APPROACHES FOR MEASUREMENTS OF FIELD BIOACCUMULATION OF POPS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO LESS PERSISTENT CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on where and when field based approaches for assessing bioaccumulation of chemicals in aquatic food webs can be used for predicting bioaccumulation of the thousands of existing chemicals in commerce....

  17. Commercial Fertilizers 1927-28. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

    1928-01-01

    Quantity of sales by grades _-_____-_---_____--.------- i 7 Quantity of cottonseed meal used as a fertilizer ...-.-----------.---.---------.. 8 Cost of plant food 4 * Relation to freight charges Fertilizer analyses to be sold in 1928... as well as a report on the analyses made in enforcing the provisions of the fertilizer law. EXPLANATION OF TERMS Available phosphoric acid is the phosphoric acid which can be taken up immediately by plants. ~hosfhoric acid promotes the fruiting...

  18. Biodegradation of aliphatic vs. aromatic hydrocarbons in fertilized arctic soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braddock, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out to test a simple bioremediation treatment strategy in the Arctic and analyze the influence of fertilization the degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., pristine, n-tetradecane, n-pentadecane, 2-methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, and acenaphthalene. The site was a coarse sand pad that once supported fuel storage tanks. Diesel-range organics concentrations were 250-860 mg/kg soil at the beginning of the study. Replicate field plots treated with fertilizer yielded final concentrations of 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg N/kg soil. Soil pH and soil-water potentials decreased due to fertilizer application. The addition of fertilizer considerably increased soil respiration potentials, but not the populations of microorganisms measured. Fertilizer addition also led to ??? 50% loss of measured aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in surface and subsurface soils. For fertilized plots, hydrocarbon loss was not associated with the quantity of fertilizer added. Losses of aliphatic hydrocarbons were ascribed to biotic processes, while losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were due to biotic and abiotic processes.

  19. Evaluation of pre-crops and organic fertilization program on the subsequent crop under Mediterranean conditions: case of South of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Hmid, Amine; Baysal, Damla; Amer, Nasser; Bitar, Lina Al; Aksoy, Uygun

    2013-04-01

    Organic farming systems rely on soil fertility management to enhance the soil chemical properties for the optimization of crop production and increase food quality. Soil fertility-building crops have been reported as a way to reduce inputs of fertilizers, improve soil fertility and increase the subsequent crop yield. A four-year rotation programme was launched by the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari that aims at identifying the most suitable fertilization strategy in organic farming for Mediterranean countries under the prevailing conditions. The present study was conducted in southern Italy and it consists in evaluating the effects of pre-crops (faba bean, vetch and broccoli) in comparison to a fallow test on the subsequent crop (zucchini, tomato, lettuce and radish) in four consecutive years. Vetch and faba bean were able to satisfy the nutrient requirement of the main crop without any compost application; while commercial compost was applied to broccoli and fallow treatments prior to transplanting the main crop. The main soil chemical parameters: organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium were improved over four years experiment. The trend was consistent; all main chemical parameters displayed a significant increase in all treatments, while no significant differences were obtained between treatments. Based on the results obtained in the first two years, the effect of different pre-crops and fertilizers on zucchini and organic tomato qualitative and quantitative parameters were not significant. While the results obtained in the third and forth years showed that pre-crops and fertilizers had significant effects on lettuce and radish yield and quality. Low nitrate contents were found in fallow and broccoli treatments (70 to 80% lower) in comparison to Vetch and Faba bean treatments and the ascorbic acid contents were (20 to 40% higher) after broccoli and fallow treatments. The low nitrate content in broccoli and fallow treatment can be due to the compost application rich in humified organic matter. Humified organic matter breaks down very slowly in the soil releasing gradually nutrients. Whereas, the high amount of fresh organic matter incorporated with vetch and faba bean may break down quickly in comparison to compost, releasing a flush of nutrients for plant growth. Additionally, nutrient accumulation such as nitrate can lead in a decrease in the vitamin C content. These suggest that the pre-crops, especially vetch and faba bean, can improve main crop yields; while compost improves the quality parameters.

  20. Adequacy between the production of farm fertilizers

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adequacy between the production of farm fertilizers and their potential use to fertilize crops fertilizers and their potential use to fertilize crops and fish farm ponds Introduction The environmental commodity chains. The idea here is to quantify the supply (production of farm fertilizer), the requirements