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1

Inorganic chemical fertilizer application on US farms increased from very low levels to relatively high levels during the two to three decades after World War II.  

E-print Network

Inorganic chemical fertilizer application on US farms increased from very low levels to relatively high levels during the two to three decades after World War II. Increased fertilizer use greatly. It was apparent well before the rapid expansion in fertilizer use that inexpensive ways to evaluate the fertility

2

Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria Allow Reduced Application Rates of Chemical Fertilizers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Efforts to reduce fertilizer rates while increasing nutrient uptake to maintain high yields are very important due to the increasing cost of fertilizers and their potential negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer cou...

3

Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1  

E-print Network

Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values Fertilizer Application and Manure Production. Data distributed by the NASA Socioeconomic Data

Columbia University

4

Africa Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1  

E-print Network

Africa Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values are expressed of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop. ´Projection: Africa

Columbia University

5

Effects of organic manure and chemical fertilizer on soil fertility and productivity of plant and ratoon crops of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of integrated use of some organic manures and chemical fertilizers on soil fertility and productivity in plant and the subsequent ratoon crops of sugarcane. The manures included press mud, farmyard manure (FYM) and green manure (Crotalaria juncea) and the fertilizers were urea, TSP, MOP, gypsum and zinc sulphate. Application of organic manure

SM Bokhtiar; K Sakurai

2005-01-01

6

Differences in Chemical Composition of Soil Organic Carbon Resulting From Long-Term Fertilization Strategies  

PubMed Central

Chemical composition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is central to soil fertility. We hypothesize that change in SOC content resulting from various long-term fertilization strategies accompanies the shift in SOC chemical structure. This study examined the effect of fertilization strategies along with the time of fertilizer application on the SOC composition by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The soils (Aquic Inceptisol) subjected to seven fertilizer treatments were collected in 1989, 1999 and 2009, representing 0, 10 and 20 years of fertilization, respectively. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1–3) balanced fertilization with application of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) including organic compost (OM), half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (1/2OM), and pure chemical NPK fertilizer (NPK); (4–6) unbalanced chemical fertilization without application of one of the major elements including NP fertilizer (NP), PK fertilizer (PK), and NK fertilizer (NK); and (7) an unamended control (CK). The SOC content in the balanced fertilization treatments were 2.3–52.6% and 9.4–64.6% higher than in the unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999 and 2009, respectively, indicating significant differences in SOC content with time of fertilizer application between the two treatment groups. There was a significantly greater proportion of O-alkyl C and a lower proportion of aromatic C in the balanced fertilization than in unbalanced fertilization/CK treatments in 1999, but not in 2009, because their proportions in the former treatments approached the latter in 2009. Principal component analysis further showed that the C functional groups from various fertilization strategies tended to become compositionally similar with time. The results suggest that a shift in SOC chemical composition may be firstly dominated by fertilization strategies, followed by fertilization duration. PMID:25884713

Li, Zengqiang; Zhao, Bingzi; Wang, Qingyun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jiabao

2015-01-01

7

APPLICATION of INORGANIC FERTILIZERS LOWER FRASER VALLEY  

E-print Network

Application by Crop and AWMZ D.2 Estimated Unit Fertilizer Costs D.3 Components of Total Fertilizer and Lime) which were considered in this study. This study addressed only the major plant nutrients; nitrogen (N and fertilizers were applied, total expenditures on fertilizer and lime, and area farmed by crop was tabulated

8

RESEARCH ARTICLE Benefits of organic residues and chemical fertilizer  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Benefits of organic residues and chemical fertilizer to productivity of rain may improve the efficiency of fertilizer use, on-farm residues, for example farmyard manure (FYM of fertilizer use at four sites. Rice yield without fertilizer but with addition of residues ranged from 1

van Kessel, Chris

9

Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large amount of chemicals is annually applied at the agricultural soils as fertilizers and pesticides. Such applications\\u000a may result in the increase of heavy metals particularly Cd, Pb, and As. The objective of this study was to investigate the\\u000a variability of chemical applications on Cd, Pb, and As concentrations of wheat-cultivated soils. Consequently, a study area\\u000a was designed and

Zahra Atafar; Alireza Mesdaghinia; Jafar Nouri; Mehdi Homaee; Masoud Yunesian; Mehdi Ahmadimoghaddam; Amir Hossein Mahvi

2010-01-01

10

[Effects of different fertilizer application on soil active organic carbon].  

PubMed

The variation characteristics of the content and components of soil active organic carbon under different fertilizer application were investigated in samples of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil from a field experiment growing winter wheat and summer maize in rotation in the North China Plain. The results showed that RF (recommended fertilization), CF (conventional fertilization) and NPK (mineral fertilizer alone) significantly increased the content of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon by 24.92-38.63 mg x kg(-1) and 0.94-0.58 mg x kg(-1) respectively compared to CK (unfertilized control). The soil dissolved organic carbon content under OM (organic manure) increased greater than those under NPK and single fertilization, soil easily oxidized organic carbon content under OM and NPK increased greater than that under single chemical fertilization. OM and NPK showed no significant role in promoting the soil microbial biomass carbon, but combined application of OM and NPK significantly increased the soil microbial biomass carbon content by 36.06% and 20.69%, respectively. Soil easily oxidized organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon accounted for 8.41% - 14.83%, 0.47% - 0.70% and 0.89% - 1.20% of the total organic carbon (TOC), respectively. According to the results, the fertilizer application significantly increased the proportion of soil dissolved organic carbon and easily oxidized organic carbon, but there was no significant difference in the increasing extent of dissolved organic carbon. The RF and CF increased the proportion of soil easily oxidized organic carbon greater than OM or NPK, and significantly increased the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. OM or RF had no significant effect on the proportion of microbial biomass carbon. Therefore, in the field experiment, appropriate application of organic manure and chemical fertilizers played an important role for the increase of soil active organic carbon content and the effective control of its key components. PMID:23487951

Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Gui-Long; Ji, Yan-Yan; Li, Gang; Chang, Hong; Yang, Dian-Lin

2013-01-01

11

Emissions of NO and NH3 from a Typical Vegetable-Land Soil after the Application of Chemical N Fertilizers in the Pearl River Delta  

PubMed Central

Cropland soil is an important source of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3). Chinese croplands are characterized by intensive management, but limited information is available with regard to NO emissions from croplands in China and NH3 emissions in south China. In this study, a mesocosm experiment was conducted to measure NO and NH3 emissions from a typical vegetable-land soil in the Pearl River Delta following the applications of 150 kg N ha?1 as urea, ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC), respectively. Over the sampling period after fertilization (72 days for NO and 39 days for NH3), mean NO fluxes (± standard error of three replicates) in the control and urea, AN and ABC fertilized mesocosms were 10.9±0.9, 73.1±2.9, 63.9±1.8 and 66.0±4.0 ng N m?2 s?1, respectively; mean NH3 fluxes were 8.9±0.2, 493.6±4.4, 144.8±0.1 and 684.7±8.4 ng N m?2 s?1, respectively. The fertilizer-induced NO emission factors for urea, AN and ABC were 2.6±0.1%, 2.2±0.1% and 2.3±0.2%, respectively. The fertilizer-induced NH3 emission factors for the three fertilizers were 10.9±0.2%, 3.1±0.1% and 15.2±0.4%, respectively. From the perspective of air quality protection, it would be better to increase the proportion of AN application due to its lower emission factors for both NO and NH3. PMID:23527173

Li, Dejun

2013-01-01

12

Maintaining the Fertility of Rice Soils : A Chemical Study.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL BAPERIMENT STATIONS. 8 BULLETIN NO. 82. Chemical Xection,-January, 1906. * MAINTAINING THE FERTILITY OF RICE SOILS; A CHEMICAL . STUDY. BY (3. S. FRAPS, PH. D., Acting Chemi,st. POSTOFFICE .-' COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS... ...................................................... Total loss or gain by'rice soils 17 ........................... ............... Composition of the irrigation waters .% 18 ......................... ...................... Chemical composition of rice soils ..! i.?. 19...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1906-01-01

13

[Effects of fertilizer application on greenhouse vegetable yield: a case study of Shouguang].  

PubMed

Data collected from 51 representative greenhouses of Shouguang through questionnaire survey were analyzed to investigate the effect of chemical fertilizers on vegetable yield, relationship between application of organic manure and yield, and influence factors and evolution rule of fertilizer application rate. The results showed that averages of 3338 kg N x hm(-2), 1710 kg P2O5 x hm(-2) 3446 kg K2O x hm(-2) were applied to greenhouse vegetables annually in Shouguang, 6-14 times as that in the local wheat-maize rotation system. The application rates of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers accounted for about 35%, 49% and 42% of the total input. Increasing application of chemical fertilizers had no significant effect on vegetable yields, while organic manure input significantly increased the vegetable yields. With the increase of greenhouse cultivating time, no significant changes in the input of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers were observed in greenhouse vegetable production while organic manure input decreased significantly. Differences in vegetable species, planting pattern and cultivating time of greenhouses was one of the reasons for large variations in nutrient application rate. In recent more than ten years, organic manure nutrient input increased significantly, chemical N and P fertilizer input presented a downward trend, chemical K fertilizer input increased significantly, and the N/P/K ratio became more and more reasonable in greenhouse vegetable production in Shouguang. PMID:25223034

Liu, Ping; Li, Yan; Jiang, Li-Hua; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Gao, Xin-Hao; Lin, Hai-Tao; Zheng, Fu-Li; Shi, Jing

2014-06-01

14

Corn grain yield and nutrient uptake from application of enhanced-efficiency nitrogen fertilizers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing demand for food and agricultural products directly impact the use of chemical fertilizers particularly nitrogen (N). This study examined corn grain yield and nutrient uptake resulting from applications of different N fertilizer sources, urea (U), urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN), ammonium nitr...

15

Nitrification and acidification from urea application in red soil (Ferralic Cambisol) after different long-term fertilization treatments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Purpose. Long-term manure applications can prevent or reverse soil acidification by chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer. However, the resistance to re-acidification from further chemical fertilization is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of urea application on nitrification and a...

16

Annual nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for different lawngrass species for Florida. The fertilizer should be applied in multiple (2-6) applications yearly. With each fertilizer  

E-print Network

Annual nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for different lawngrass species for Florida. The fertilizer should be applied in multiple (2-6) applications yearly. With each fertilizer application, ½ to 1 lb. of N should be applied. To find out how much of the common fertilizer types this relates to, go

Hill, Jeffrey E.

17

Five-year growth response of western red cedar, western hemlock, and amabilis fir to chemical and organic fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that growth responses of conifers to application of organic fertilizers are of longer duration than responses to chemical fertilizers was tested in two trials on northern Vancouver Island. Both trials were in 10-year-old plantations of conifers on a salal-dominated cutover known to have poor N supply. In Trial 1, western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don),

C. E. Prescott; S. M. Brown

1998-01-01

18

Effect of bio-regulator and foliar fertilizers on chemical composition and yield of soybean.  

PubMed

Current study evaluates the effects of bio-regulator associated with foliar fertilizers on the yield components, productivity and chemical composition of soybean. The experimental design was entirely randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments consisted of: T1-absolute control, T2-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate in R1 stage of development, T3-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1, T4-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1; T5-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1, T6-application of 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1 and T7-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R1. Application of Sett and Mover is a potentially efficient handling as it favors the soybean agronomic performance in R1 stage. Chemical composition of processed grains has influence with applying bio-regulator and foliar fertilizers. PMID:24511692

Piccinin, Gleberson Guillen; Braccini, Alessandro Lucca; da Silva, Luiz Henrique; Mariucci, Giovanna Emanuêlle Gonçalves; Suzukawa, Andréia Kazumi; Dan, Lilian Gomes de Morais; Tonin, Telmo António

2013-11-15

19

Fertilizer application methods for Irish potatoes compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in eastern Virginia on a Sassafras fine sandy loam soil to determine whether fertilizer for Irish\\u000a potatoes could be broadcast before planting instead of band-placed at planting. Band placement is considered the most efficient\\u000a method; however, use of the broadcast method involves less labor and speeds up the planting process.\\u000a \\u000a Two rates of fertilizer were used,

E. M. Dunton

1971-01-01

20

Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH4H2PO4 solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200° C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca7Mg2P6O24) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid—phosphorus.

Myojin, Sachi; Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi

2010-11-01

21

Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application  

SciTech Connect

In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) was successfully tested against additional observations of soil pH and N{sub 2}O emissions after fertilization and irrigation, and before plant emergence. We used TOUGHREACT-N to explain the significantly different N gas emissions and nitrate leaching rates resulting from the different N fertilizer types, application methods, and soil properties. The N{sub 2}O emissions from NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N fertilizer were higher than from urea and NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N fertilizers in coarse-textured soils. This difference increased with decreases in fertilization application rate and increases in soil buffering capacity. In contrast to methods used to estimate global terrestrial gas emissions, we found strongly non-linear N{sub 2}O emissions as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil calcite content. Speciation of predicted gas N flux into N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} depended on pH, fertilizer form, and soil properties. Our results highlighted the need to derive emission and leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil properties.

Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.J.; Hornberger, G.M.; Xu, T.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Spycher, N.; Miller, N.L.; Venterea, R.T.; Steefel, C.

2009-01-15

22

[Effects of different organic manure sources and their combinations with chemical fertilization on soil nematode community structure in a paddy field of East China].  

PubMed

A comparative study was conducted to investigate the effects of different fertilization modes on the soil nematode community structure in a paddy field with paddy rice and wheat rotation in Jintan County (31 degrees 39'41.8" N, 119 degrees 28'23.5" E) of Jiangsu Province, East China. Six treatments were installed, i. e., no fertilization (CK), 100% chemical NPK fertilization (F), pig manure compost plus 50% chemical fertilization (PF), straw returning plus 100% chemical fertilization (SF), pig manure compost and straw returning plus 50% chemical fertilization (PSF), and application of commercial pig manure-inorganic complex fertilizer (PMF). The soil samples were collected from the field after the paddy rice harvested in autumn. The two continuous years study showed that the soil nematode community structure varied with fertilization treatments and years. The combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures increased the total number of soil nematodes, decreased the abundance of soil bacterivorous nematodes, and made the abundance of predator- and omnivore nematodes increased significantly. No significant differences were observed in the abundance of soil fungivorous nematodes among all the treatments. Chemical fertilization alone and the application of commercial pig manure-inorganic complex fertilizer had no obvious suppression effect on the soil phytophagous nematodes. The abundance of soil bacteriavorous nematodes under the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures was relatively increased in the second year, as compared with that in the first year, while the abundance of soil phytophagous nematodes (Hirschmanniella) was relatively decreased in the second year. From the aspect of nematode ecological indices, the Margalef diversity index (H) under the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manures in the second year had an increasing trend, while the NCR index had less change. The Wasilewka index had a relative increase in the second year, while the plant-parasitic index had a relative decrease. It was suggested that the application of organic manure could increase the abundance of soil microbivorous nematodes, and made the soil environment tend to be healthy. PMID:24697072

Liu, Ting; Ye, Cheng-Long; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qi-Rong; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-Xin

2013-12-01

23

Fertilizer summary data 1990  

SciTech Connect

Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

1991-05-01

24

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CHEMICAL AND FERTILIZER MINERAL INDUSTRY, STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

Air and water pollutants are generated during the conversion of naturally occurring minerals into suitable forms for use in chemical and fertilizer production. These minerals are barite, borates, fluorspar, lithium minerals, mineral pigments, phosphate rock, potash, salt, sodium ...

25

Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200 deg. C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca{sub 7}Mg{sub 2}P{sub 6}O{sup 24}) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid--phosphorus.

Myojin, Sachi; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi [Research Institute of Aqua Science and Technology 107 Ko, Sakawa-cho, Takaoka-gun, Kochi 789-1201 (Japan); Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru [Research Institute of Technology, Konoshima Chemical Co., Ltd. 80 Koda, Takuma-cho, Mitoyo-city, Kagawa 769-1103 (Japan)

2010-11-24

26

Ground-water flow and effects of agricultural application of sewage sludge and other fertilizers on the chemical quality of sediments in the unsaturated zone and ground water near Platteville, Colorado, 1985-89  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From fall 1985 through 1989, 6,431 dry tons of anaerobic, digested, sewage sludge were applied as a fertilizer on about 1 square mile of sandy farm- land near Platteville, Colorado. Mean nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the surficial aquifer increased during the period of sewage- sludge application. However, the effects of municipal sewage sludge applied to the soil in section 16 are difficult to ascertain because anhydrous ammonia and cattle and chicken manure were applied to section 16 prior to sewage-sludge application and anhydrous ammonia was applied during the period of sewage-sludge application. Mostly ammonia plus organic nitrogen was detected in the unsaturated zone while nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen predominated in the surficial aquifer. The areas of largest concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen were in the northeastern and southwestern quarter sections os section 16. Changes in nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations with depth and time were detected in water samples from the multilevel ground-water sampling devices in the surficial aquifer. Nitrogen probably entered the saturated zone in the irrigated areas and low temporarily ponded areas and moved to the northeast with water in the surficial aquifer.

Gaggiani, N.G.

1995-01-01

27

Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.  

PubMed

In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality. PMID:25236242

Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

2015-02-15

28

DGT estimates cadmium accumulation in wheat and potato from phosphate fertilizer applications  

PubMed Central

Cadmium is a common impurity in phosphatic fertilizers and may contribute to soil Cd accumulation. Changes in total and bioavailable Cd burdens to agricultural soils and the potential for plant Cd accumulation resulting from fertilizer input was investigated. Three year field studies were conducted using three dose levels of cadmium-rich, commercial, phosphate fertilizers applied at four agricultural sites. Labile Cd concentrations, measured using the passive sampling device Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (CdDGT), increased with increasing fertilizer application rates. Cd also accumulated in the edible portion of wheat and potato crops grown at the sites, and showed strong positive dose response with fertilizer treatment. Regression models were calculated for each site, year, and for individual crops. Model comparisons indicated that soil physical and chemical parameters in addition to soil Cd fractions, were important determinants of CdDGT. Significant factors contributing to CdDGT concentrations were Cd from fertilizer input (Cdfertilizer), pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and total recoverable Cd (Cdtotal). Important factors used to determine Cd concentrations in wheat grain (Cdwheat) and in potato (Cdpotato) were as follows: Cdwheat:Cdfertilizer, and CdDGT; and Cdpotato:Cdfertilizer, CdDGT, % O.M. The effective concentration, CE, calculated from DGT did not correlate well with Cdwheat or with Cdpotato. Direct measurements of CdDGT correlated better with Cd found in edible plant tissue. The modeling approach presented in this study helps to estimate Cd accumulation in plant tissue over multiple years and in distinct agricultural soil systems. PMID:19552942

Pérez, Angela L.; Anderson, Kim A.

2014-01-01

29

Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize ( Zea mays L.), sunflower ( Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean ( Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

2009-08-01

30

A segmented regression model for event history data: an application to the fertility  

E-print Network

A segmented regression model for event history data: an application to the fertility patterns in- dividual data for Italian women from the Second National Survey on Fertility. The model provides insights into dramatic decrease of fertility experienced in Italy, in that it detects a 'common' tendency

Gerkmann, Ralf

31

Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as: soil pH< available phosphorus < humus content < exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ < exchangeable K+. Inorganic fertilizers in high and temperate rates decrease 137Cs transfer to crops in 2.3-5.5 times. Organic fertilizers are less efficient, but its application can decrease 137Cs accumulation by farm crops during 2-3 years. Correlation analysis shows inversely proportional dependence between organic matter content and exchangeable form of 137Cs in soil (r2 = 0.81). A linear relation between 137Cs transfer factors (TF) to plants and exchangeable radionuclide content has been found (r2=0.68). Inversely proportional relation between the mobility level of potassium, its mobile form content and TF 137Cs was detected (r2 = 0.78).

Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

2012-04-01

32

Fertilizer/Chemical Sales and Service Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for fertilizer/chemical sales and service workers. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

33

MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

34

The Rengen Grassland experiment: bryophytes biomass and element concentrations after 65 years of fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rengen Grassland Experiment in Germany, established in 1941, consists of the following fertilizer treatments applied under\\u000a a two cut management: control, Ca, CaN, CaNP, CaNP-KCl, and CaNP-K2SO4. The aim of this study was (1) to identify effects of fertilizer application on biomass and species composition of bryophytes\\u000a and (2) to investigate the impact of fertilizer application on macro- (N,

Michal Hejcman; Ji?ina Száková; Jürgen Schellberg; Petr Šrek; Pavel Tlustoš; Ji?í Balík

2010-01-01

35

Development of a Semi-controller for a Variable Rate Fertilizer Applicator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, aiming at the current development of domestic agricultural production, introduced a variable fertilizer controller which suits for a domestic food-producing areas to promote output. The variable rate fertilization controller combined with the current Chinese made fertilizer equipment; mechanism of metering system for the applicator uses a flute wheel. The amount of fertilizer is determined by the rotation speed of flute wheel. The use of the control system can be inconsistent in soil fertility, pre-division of plots with different fertilizer way through the process of moving the driver automatically adjusts the amount of fertilizer direction buttons to precision variable fertilization. Papers on the electronic structure of the controller and software design in detail. In addition, we have examined the performance of this new product in the field by using different fertilizer and requirement. The results reveal that semi-automatic controller work well by controlling the quantity of fertilizer precisely. Specifically, coefficient of variation of fertilizing is controlled to be less than 5%. That means this new type semi-automatic controller worth developing in further.

Ji, Jianbin; Wang, Xiu; Mao, Yijin; Chen, Liping; Hu, Lingyan

36

Precipitated impurities in monoammonium phosphate and their effect on chemical and physical properties of suspension fertilizers  

SciTech Connect

The TVA processes for the production of granular ammonium phosphate fertilizers use a preneutralizer or pipe reactor; a rotary drum ammoniator-granulator; accessory equipment for scrubbing off-gases; and equipment for drying, cooling, and sizing the product. Although the main interest in the processes has been in taking advantage of full ammoniation of the phosphoric acid for production of 18-46-0, there has been considerable interest in adapting these processes for production of monoammonium phosphate (MAP). This laboratory study was conducted to identify the solid-phase components in granular MAP, especially the forms of precipitated impurities. The first phase of the laboratory study concerned the identification of solid phases in granular MAP. The second phase of this laboratory study was conducted to correlate physical properties (viscosity and pourability) of 11-33-0 suspensions with the chemical and solid-phase composition of the original MAP from which these suspensions were prepared. The identification of these fertilizer compounds by the use of polarizing light microscopy (PLM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) for detailed solid-phase characterization and chemical analysis has provided a more thorough understanding of the composition of MAP fertilizer. 14 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

Dillard, E.F.; Frazier, A.W.

1986-01-01

37

Calculation of Effective Gas Flux from Soil following Band Application of Manure or Fertilizer  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Greenhouse gases are emitted following application of manure and nitrogen-containing fertilizers to soil. Manure and fertilizers are often applied in subsurface bands in the soil, or in bands on the soil surface. This article presents a method that has been developed for calculating the effective ...

38

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

39

Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.  

PubMed

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

2012-01-01

40

Germ cell toxicity: significance in genetic and fertility effects of radiation and chemicals  

SciTech Connect

The response of the male and female to radiation and chemicals is different. Any loss of oocytes in the female cannot be replaced, and if severe enough, will result in a shortening of the reproductive span. In the male, a temporary sterile period may be induced owing to destruction of the differentiating spermatogonia, but the stem cells are the most resistant spermatogonial type, are capable of repopulating the seminiferous epithelium, and fertility usually returns. The response of both the male and female changes with development of the embryonic to the adult gonad, and with differentiation and maturation in the adult. The primordial germ cells, early oocytes, and differentiating spermatogonia of the adult male are unusually sensitive to the cytotoxic action of noxious agents, but each agent elicits a specific response owing to the intricate biochemical and physiological changes associated with development and maturation of the gametes. The relationship of germ cell killing to fertility is direct, and long-term fertility effects can be predicted from histological analysis of the gonads. The relationship to genetic effects, on the other hand, is indirect, and acts primarily by limiting the cell stages available for testing, by affecting the distribution of mitotically active stem cells among the different stages of the mitotic cycle, and thereby, changing both the type and frequency of genetic effects observed. 100 references, 38 figures, 7 tables.

Oakberg, E.F.

1983-01-01

41

AN AMMONIA EMISSION INVENTORY FOR FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. (R826371C006)  

EPA Science Inventory

Fertilizer application represents a significant fraction of ammonia emissions from all sources in the United States. Previously published ammonia inventories have generally suffered from poor spatial and temporal resolution, erroneous activity levels, and highly uncertain emis...

42

Site-Specific Phosphorus Application Based on the Kriging Fertilizer-Phosphorus Availability Index of Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT,is also dependent upon the P-fixation tendency of soil. An alternative approach,to soil testing that considers Site-specific phosphorus management is done to optimize crop the recovery,rate of P application to improve,fertilizer production and minimize P loss from soils. The spatial variability of the recommendations has been proposed (McLean et al., available P prior to fertilizer application and the P-fixation tendency

Kai-Wei Juang; Day-Chyng Liou; Dar-Yuan Lee

2002-01-01

43

THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS FERTILIZERS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES OF EIGHT MODULES, IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SUBJECT MATTER AREAS ARE (1) CHEMICAL NUTRITION OF PLANTS, (2) PLANT GROWTH, (3) TERMINOLOGY,…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

44

Use Phosphorus Free Fertilizer Beginning January 1, 2012, Michigan law restricts phosphorus fertilizer applications on lawns.  

E-print Network

homeowners and commercial applicators must follow the phosphorus application restrictions. Where can I find on lawns. However, there are a couple of exceptions: · Phosphorus applications for agriculture, gardens (composted manure). The application rate is limited to 0.25 pounds of phosphorus per 1,000 square feet

45

Aqeuous and Gaseous Nitrogen Losses Induced by Fertilizer Application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to nitrate (NO3-) water pollution and atmospheric pollution of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH3). Characterizing the amount and species of N losses is therefore essential in developing a strat...

46

Effects of nitrogen source and rate and method of fertilizer application on yield and fruit size in 'Bluecrop' highbush blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was done to determine the effects of N source and rate and two common methods of fertilizer application on yield and fruit size in a maturing field of highbush blueberry. Plants were fertilized by drip fertigation or with granular fertilizer using urea or ammonium sulfate applied at a rate o...

47

Fertilizer trends  

SciTech Connect

This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

Donaldson, R.

1992-12-31

48

Fertilizer trends  

SciTech Connect

This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

Donaldson, R.

1992-01-01

49

The influence of split applications of complete fertilizer on the yield of Irish potatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  It is evident from the data listed in tables 1 and 2 that the longer the fertilizer application was delayed after planting,\\u000a within the limits used in this experiment, the lower the yield. This indicates that the response from the fertilizer applied\\u000a after planting was not so great as from that applied at planting time. These data also tend to

E. P. Brasher

1941-01-01

50

Control of Fusarium wilt disease of cucumber plants with the application of a bioorganic fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of organic fertilizer application either with or without antagonistic\\u000a bacteria (Bacillus subtilis SQR-5 and Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR-21) on the control of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum J. H. Owen wilt disease in cucumber. The incidence of Fusarium wilt disease was 5.3–13.5% for cucumber plants treated with\\u000a bioorganic fertilizer, while it was

Shusheng Zhang; Waseem Raza; Xingming Yang; Jiang Hu; Qiwei Huang; Yangchun Xu; Xinghai Liu; Wei Ran; Qirong Shen

2008-01-01

51

Chemical attributes of soil fertilized with cassava mill wastewater and cultivated with sunflower.  

PubMed

The use of waste arising from agroindustrial activities, such as cassava wastewater, has been steadily implemented in order to reduce environmental pollution and nutrient utilization. The aim of this study is that the changes in chemical properties of dystrophic red-yellow latosol (oxisol) were evaluated at different sampling times after reuse of cassava wastewater as an alternative to mineral fertilizer in the cultivation of sunflower, hybrid Helio 250. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (IPA), located in Vitória de Santo Antão. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6 × 5 subplots; six doses of cassava wastewater (0; 8.5; 17.0; 34.0; 68.0; and 136 m(3) ha(-1)); and five sampling times (21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days after applying the cassava wastewater), with four replications. Concentrations of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, pH, and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract were evaluated. Results indicate that cassava wastewater is an efficient provider of nutrients to the soil and thus to the plants, making it an alternative to mineral fertilizers. PMID:25610900

Dantas, Mara Suyane Marques; Rolim, Mário Monteiro; Duarte, Anamaria de Sousa; de Silva, Ênio Farias de França; Pedrosa, Elvira Maria Regis; Dantas, Daniel da Costa

2014-01-01

52

On the Optimization of the Doses of Chemical Fertilizers for Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mono-factorial model, which gives the relation between the yield and the dose of chemical fertilizers, is based on the Mitscherlich function f1(x) = f1(0)+a1(1-e-11x). In addition to this function, we can consider f2(x) = f2(0)+a2 tanh(b2x), to be the basis for a new mathematical model, where tanh(b2x) represents the hyperbolic tangent. In the case of a bi-factorial model: f(x,y) = f(0,0)+a1 tanh(b1x)+a2 tanh(b2y)+a3 tanh(b1x)tanh(b2y) represents a generalization of the last relation. The constants that are involved in these functions are determined with the least squares method, by comparison with the experimental data. Taking into account both the market value of the products and the cost of fertilizers, we can find the optimal doses for maximizing certain economic indicators, such as revenue or profitability.

Sala, Florin; Boldea, Marius

2011-09-01

53

Chemical Attributes of Soil Fertilized with Cassava Mill Wastewater and Cultivated with Sunflower  

PubMed Central

The use of waste arising from agroindustrial activities, such as cassava wastewater, has been steadily implemented in order to reduce environmental pollution and nutrient utilization. The aim of this study is that the changes in chemical properties of dystrophic red-yellow latosol (oxisol) were evaluated at different sampling times after reuse of cassava wastewater as an alternative to mineral fertilizer in the cultivation of sunflower, hybrid Helio 250. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (IPA), located in Vitória de Santo Antão. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6 × 5 subplots; six doses of cassava wastewater (0; 8.5; 17.0; 34.0; 68.0; and 136?m3?ha?1); and five sampling times (21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days after applying the cassava wastewater), with four replications. Concentrations of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, pH, and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract were evaluated. Results indicate that cassava wastewater is an efficient provider of nutrients to the soil and thus to the plants, making it an alternative to mineral fertilizers. PMID:25610900

Dantas, Mara Suyane Marques; Monteiro Rolim, Mário; Duarte, Anamaria de Sousa; de Silva, Ênio Farias de França; Maria Regis Pedrosa, Elvira; Dantas, Daniel da Costa

2014-01-01

54

Bioinoculants: a sustainable approach to maximize the yield of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata L.) under low input of chemical fertilizers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to find out the effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) either alone or in combination with different doses of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Brassica carinata (L.) cv. Peela Raya. PGPR were applied as seed inoculation at 10(6) cells/mL(-1) so that the number of bacterial cells per seed was 2.6 × 10(5) cells/seed. The chemical fertilizers, namely, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were applied in different doses (full dose (urea 160 kg ha(-1) + DAP 180 kg ha(-1)), half dose (urea 80 kg ha(-1) + DAP 90 kg ha(-1)), and quarter dose (urea 40 kg ha(-1) + DAP 45 kg ha(-1)). The chemical fertilizers at full and half dose significantly increased the chlorophyll, carotenoids, and protein content of leaves and the seed yield (in kilogram per hectare) but had no effect on the oil content of seed. The erucic acid (C22:1) content present in the seed was increased. Azospirillum performed better than Azotobacter and its effect was at par with full dose of chemical fertilizers (CFF) for pigments and protein content of leaves when inoculated in the presence of half dose of chemical fertilizers (SPH). The seed yield and seed size were greater. Supplementing Azospirillum with SPH assisted Azospirillum to augment the growth and yield, reduced the erucic acid (C22:1) and glucosinolates contents, and increased the unsaturation in seed oil. It is inferred that A. brasilense could be applied as an efficient bioinoculant for enhancing the growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Ethiopian mustard at low fertilizer costs and sustainable ways. PMID:24097367

Nosheen, Asia; Bano, Asghari; Ullah, Faizan

2013-10-01

55

Macronutrients use efficiency and changes in chemical properties of an oxisol as influenced by phosphorus fertilization and tropical cover crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cover crops are important components of copping systems due to their beneficial effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties. A green house experiment was conducted to evaluate influence of phosphorus (P) fertilization on nutrient use efficiency of 14 tropical cover crops. The P leve...

56

Organic and synthetic fertility amendments influence soil microbial, physical and chemical properties on organic and conventional farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted to examine the effects of organic and synthetic soil fertility amendments on soil microbial communities and soil physical and chemical properties at three organic and three conventional vegetable farms in Virginia and Maryland in 1996 and 1997. Two treatments, including either an alternative organic soil amendment (composted cotton-gin trash, composted yard waste, or cattle manure) or

L. R. Bulluck; M. Brosius; G. K. Evanylo; J. B. Ristaino

2002-01-01

57

Manufacture of gasification briquettes from meager-lean coal for use in chemical fertilizer-plant gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Chinese fertilizer plants, especially middle or small fertilizer plants, feed lump anthracite to atmospheric fixed bed gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. However, the available lump coal meets less than one half the demand for fertilizer production, and the price of good lump anthracite has risen. Most good anthracite is produced in Shanxi Province. Chemical fertilizer plants in other areas pay high transportation costs and leave Shanxi mines with waste fine coal and slime that cause environmental pollution. So, it is important to fully utilize fine anthracite coal or bituminous coal to produce the industrial gasification briquettes. That may mitigate the disparity between supply and demand of lump coal, reduce the fertilizer production cost, and decrease the degree of environmental pollution. The briquettes don`t require heat-drying in their production and have the characteristics of high strength and water resistance. This technology is very important for local fertilizer plants where only meager-lean coal is produced. This paper discusses the processing technique and parameters, the quality standards and testing methods of briquettes made from meager-lean coal.

Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Zhao Yinrong; Wang Xingou; Hu Kunmo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School; Wang Shiquan; Tao Xilo; Wang Guangnan; Meng Zhongze [Hebi Coal Mine Bureau, Beijing (China). The Fourth Coal Mine

1998-12-31

58

Bayesian Inference of Baseline Fertility and Treatment Effects via a Crop Yield-Fertility Model  

PubMed Central

To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) on maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer. PMID:25405353

Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

2014-01-01

59

New industrial heat pump applications to phosphate fertilizer production  

SciTech Connect

In this study Process Integration techniques based on Pinch Technology have been applied to Chevron's fertilizer complex in Rock Springs, Wyoming. The objectives of the study were to: identify heat pump opportunities and to determine the cost effectiveness of heat pumping compared to other process improvements. Significance of this Work Chevron's fertilizer complex is an example of an exothermic process. The sulfuric acid plant produces more heat than is needed for the rest of the site. The complex has, therefore, no need for a heating utility. The heat created in the sulfuric acid plant is used to produce high pressure steam, which is let down through a turbo generator satisfying most of the site's electrical needs. This type of process would normally not be considered for heat pumping because there is no heating utility load to reduce. However, reducing the requirements for extraction steam will liberate more steam for power generation. Heat recovery and heat pumping, therefore, have the unusual effect of an increase in electricity production, resulting in a reduction in electricity import, rather than a reduction in fuel consumption. Heat recovery opportunities show promise at both the sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid plants. No economically attractive opportunities were found for heat pumps in the process units when they were considered individually; however, the study identified that significant energy savings can be achieved by heat integration between the sulfuric acid plant and the phosphoric acid plant. 16 figs.

Not Available

1990-06-01

60

Reducing fertilizer-derived N2O emission: Point injection vs. surface application of ammonium-N fertilizer at a loamy sand site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N2O emitted from soil originates either from denitrification of nitrate and/or nitrification of ammonium. N fertilization can have an important impact on N2O emission rates. Injection of nitrate-free ammonium-N fertilizer, in Germany also known as CULTAN (Controlled Uptake Long-Term Ammonium Nutrition), results in fertilizer depots with ammonium concentrations of up to 10 mg N g-1 soil-1. High concentrations of ammonium are known to inhibit nitrification. However, it has not yet been clarified how N2O fluxes are affected by CULTAN. In a field experiment, two application methods of nitrogen fertilizer were used at a loamy sand site: Ammonium sulphate was applied either by point injection or by surface application. 15N-ammonium sulphate was used to distinguish between N2O originating from either fertilizer-N or soil-N. Unfertilized plots and plots fertilized with unlabeled ammonium sulphate served as control. N2O emissions were measured using static chambers, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were determined in soil extracts. Stable isotope analysis of 15N in N2O, nitrate and ammonium was used to calculate the contribution of fertilizer N to N2O emissions and the fertilizer turnover in soil. 15N analysis clearly indicated that fertilizer derived N2O fluxes were higher from surface application plots. For the period of the growing season, about 24% of the flux measured in surface application treatment and less than 10% from injection treatment plots originated from the fertilizer. In addition, a lab experiment was conducted to gain insight into processes leading to N2O emission from fertilizer depots. One aim was to examine whether the ratio of N2O to nitrate formation differs depending on the ammonium concentration. Loamy sand soil was incubated in microcosms continuously flushed with air under conditions favouring nitrification. 15N-labeled nitrate was used to differentiate between nitrification and denitrification. Stable isotope analyses of 15N were performed on N2O in the gas phase and on ammonium and nitrate extracted from soil samples.

Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Kücke, Martin; Flessa, Heinz

2013-04-01

61

A literature review of biological treatment and bioremediation technologies which may be applicable at fertilizer\\/agrichemical dealer sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide and fertilizer products, as well as petroleum fuels and oils, are handled by several thousand fertilizer\\/agrichemical dealers in the United States. Incidental spillage of these products, as well as improper disposal or recycling of equipment and container rinsewaters, can result in contamination of soil, surface, and groundwaters with hazardous chemicals. Past accidental spills and previously acceptable disposal and management

V. M. Norwood; M. E. Randolph

1990-01-01

62

Nutrient and Estrogenic Activity of Runoff Post–Application of Animal Waste-Based Fertilizer to Frozen Fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While nutrient loading of surface waters from agricultural use of fertilizer has long been an environmental concern, recently attention has focused on hormonal contamination of waters from application of animal wastes as fertilizer. Application of manure to frozen fields may further increase the env...

63

Poultry Littler Application Increases Nitrogen Cycling Compared with Inorganic Nitrogen Fertilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Poultry litter, an inexpensive source of nutrients and available in abundant amounts in the southeastern USA, may increase N cycling and reduce N losses compared with inorganic N fertilization if applied in crop production. We evaluated the effect of long-term application of poultry litter and inorg...

64

Nitrous Oxide Gas Fluxes in a Potato Field Following Application of Urea and Coated Urea Fertilizers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Application of urea and other forms of nitrogen (N) fertilizer can generate atmospheric emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a potent greenhouse gas. Field experiments were conducted on a loamy sand soil in Becker, Minnesota to evaluate the effects of soluble and coated forms of urea on N2O fl...

65

Soil and Plant Response to Applications of Municipal Solid Waste Compost and Fertilizer to Willamette Raspberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was initiated in 1997 to compare two application rates of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost with commercial fertilizer for the cultivation of “Willamette” raspberries. Mehlich 3 extractable soil elements, plant leaf tissue, and fruit elemental analysis were assessed from 2000 to 2002. The lower rate of compost was applied to provide the same amount of N used for

P. R. Warman

2009-01-01

66

Trace metal concentration in durum wheat from application of sewage sludge and commercial fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive application of commercial fertilizer continually introduces potentially toxic trace metals to the soil. Such metallic elements are not biodegradable, accumulate in the soil, and are subsequently taken up by food crops. Sewage sludge, often disposed of in landfills, contains high nutrient and organic contents and is now being recycled and beneficially applied to agricultural land worldwide in increasing amounts.

Heather L Frost; Lloyd H Ketchum

2000-01-01

67

NITROGEN FERTILIZER RECOVERY IN NO-TILLAGE WHEAT: INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS CROP, TERRAIN AND APPLICATION METHOD.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen use efficiency depends on the synchronization between nitrogen supply and demand by the crop. The objective of this research is to quantify the influence of application method, landscape position, and preceding crop on nitrogen use efficiency of no-till spring wheat. Nitrogen fertilizer lab...

68

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2010-07-01

69

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2011-07-01

70

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2014-07-01

71

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2013-07-01

72

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2012-07-01

73

Rice Response to Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Rate and Timing on Alkaline Soils in Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

may increase after flooding when the soil pH decreases due to CO2 accumulation and Ca 2 ions are complexed Phosphorus deficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Arkansas occurs responsive sites with yield increases of 24 to 41%. Application of P fertilizer PRE, PF, and POF were superior to MS applications, alkaline soils, soil pH has shown to be a

Nathan A. Slaton; Charles E. Wilson; Richard J. Norman; Sixte Ntamatungiro; Donna L. Frizzell

2002-01-01

74

Agricultural Chemical and Fertilizer Storage Rules: Costs and Benefits for Insuring Cleaner Water for Indiana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis of public goods is presented with a discussion of the rules for fertilizer and pesticide storage units in Indiana. A basic rule summary is presented with descriptions of the types of dikes that might be considered for containment. Estimated costs are projected along with the number of contained liquid fertilizer spills by size in…

Welch, Mary A., Ed.

1991-01-01

75

Effect of organic matter and chemical fertilizers on the degradation of benthiocarb and mcpa herbicides in the soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of herbicides in soils amended with rice straw, compost and NPK chemical fertilizers was investigated in the laboratory under upland, oxidative-flooded (aerobic-flooded) and reductive-flooded (anaerobic-flooded) conditions using C-benthiocarb and C-MCPA labelled at the phenyl ring. Rice straw, compost and NPK amendments promoted the degradation of these herbicides under upland and oxidative-flooded conditions and large amounts of CO2 were

Stephen Duah-Yentumi; Shozo Kuwatsuka

1980-01-01

76

CHANGES IN SNAP BEAN YIELD, NUTRIENT COMPOSITION, AND SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS WHEN USING BROILER LITTER AS FERTILIZER SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concern surrounding phosphorus (P)-enrichment of surface waters has lead several states to adopt P-based nutrient management planning strategies regarding land-application of broiler litter. When litter is applied on a P-basis, as much as five times more receiving cropland may be needed compared with nitrogen (N)-based applications. Additionally, many crops have N fertilizer requirements greater than what can be applied

S. B. Phillips; G. L. Mullins; S. J. Donohue

2002-01-01

77

Short-Term Increase of Nitrogen Leaching in a Tea Field after Heavy Application of Organic Fertilizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1999, the annual amount of fertilizer applied to tea fields has been restricted to 50 kgN/10a as much as possible to avoid nitrate pollution of groundwater; however, the nitrogen application tends to be similar to the previous high fertilizer levels to sustain high yields and superior tea quality in recent years. We investigated how this restoration of the previous heavy application affects nitrogen leaching and the forms of nitrogen in the soil. According to our measurements, the increase in the application of organic fertilizer from 50 to 87-100 kgN/10a increased the concentration of nitrate leaching into underdrainage after ten months of heavy application. After another month, the nitrate concentration in the underdrainage reached the levels obtained previously under heavy application of organic fertilizer. This period (11 months) was six months shorter than the period required for the reduction of nitrate concentration to a prescribed plateau following the restriction of nitrogen application. Protein-like organic nitrogen in the soil increased one year after the heavy application of organic fertilizer with little increase in total nitrogen content. These results show that restoration of reduced nitrogen application to areas with previous heavy application rapidly increases nitrate leaching from the tea field with little increase in nitrogen accumulation in the soil. Our results suggest that restoration of the previous heavy application of organic fertilizer has the effect of rapidly increasing nitrogen loading to groundwater in tea cultivation areas.

Miura, Nobuyuki; Uchimura, Koji; Nakamura, Takahisa; Karasuyama, Mitsuaki; Ae, Noriharu

78

Scheduling fertilizer applications as a simple mitigation option for reducing N2O emission in intensively managed mown grassland systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general principle in all proposed N2O mitigation options is the fertilization according to plants' requirements. Meanwhile the amount of N fertilization allowed is regulated in many countries. Due to the high pressure from food security and the need for economic efficiency the given limits are generally used up. In mown grassland systems a simple mitigation option is to optimize the timing of the fertilizer applications. Application of fertilizer, both organic manure and mineral fertilizer, is generally scheduled after each cut in a narrow time window. In practice, the delay between cut and fertilizer application is determined by weather conditions, management conditions and most important by the planning and experience of the individual farmer. Many field experiments have shown that enhanced N2O emissions tend to occur after cuts but before the application of fertilizer, especially when soils are characterized by a high WFPS. These findings suggest that the time of fertilizer application has an important implications for the N2O emission rate and that scheduling fertilization according to soil conditions might be a simple, cheap and efficient measure to mitigate N2O emissions. In this paper we report on results from a sensitivity analysis aiming at quantifying the effects of the timing of the fertilizer applications on N2O emissions from intensively managed, mown grasslands. Simulations for different time schedules were carried out with the comprehensive ecosystem model "ECOSYS" . To our knowledge this aspect has not been systematically investigated from a scientific point of view, but might have been always there within the experiences of attentive environmentally concerned farmers.

Neftel, Albrecht; Calanca, Pierluigi; Felber, Raphael; Grant, Robert; Conen, Franz

2014-05-01

79

Net nitrogen mineralization from past year's manure and fertilizer applications.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Manure from the semiarid West’s dairy industries is a rich nutrient source, but its use for crops can be problematic because soil N availability from manure may vary substantially depending on the year of application. Experimental plots established in Idaho on a Portneuf silt loam (coarse silty, mi...

80

Spatial Optimization of Fertilizer Application by Centrifugal Spreading  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study an approach for the optimization of spreading performed by centrifugal spreaders in order to minimize environmental effects due to application errors. Faced with a large scale problem, we divide the domain of study into subdomains so that each tramline is individually dealt with. In order to take into account the mechanical limits of the device, some inequality constraints

T. Virin; J. Koko; E. Piron; P. Martinet; M. Berducat; Blaise Pascal

81

A conserved fertility signal despite population variation in the cuticular chemical profile of the trap-jaw ant Odontomachus brunneus.  

PubMed

Contact pheromones in the form of cuticular hydrocarbons are widespread among insects. Eusocial insects present a special challenge for understanding the evolution of the cuticular hydrocarbon profile because this blend is responsible for multiple distinct roles such as nestmate recognition and signalling fertility status. This study investigates these two signalling roles of the hydrocarbon profile in the trap-jaw ant Odontomachus brunneus. We demonstrate that the cuticular hydrocarbon profile is highly variable across populations and provide evidence that these differences are used for nestmate discrimination. Through manipulative experiments we also show that (Z)-9-nonacosene (Z9:C29) is used as a fertility signal and its role is conserved across populations. Our data demonstrate that both fertility and nestmate signalling influence the cuticular hydrocarbon profile and specifically the relative abundance of Z9:C29 on the cuticle of O. brunneus. Our study suggests that natural selection works on the cuticular chemical profile through multiple regulatory pathways, diversifying nestmate signals while conserving fertility signals. PMID:23868840

Smith, Adrian A; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Suarez, Andrew V

2013-10-15

82

Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

2013-01-01

83

Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

1998-01-01

84

The Rengen Grassland experiment: bryophytes biomass and element concentrations after 65 years of fertilizer application.  

PubMed

The Rengen Grassland Experiment in Germany, established in 1941, consists of the following fertilizer treatments applied under a two cut management: control, Ca, CaN, CaNP, CaNP-KCl, and CaNP-K(2)SO(4). The aim of this study was (1) to identify effects of fertilizer application on biomass and species composition of bryophytes and (2) to investigate the impact of fertilizer application on macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg), micro- (Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn), and toxic (As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni) element concentrations in bryophyte biomass. In June 2006, Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus was the only bryophyte species recorded in the control. In treatment Ca, R. squarrosus was the dominant bryophyte species whereas Brachythecium rutabulum occurred sporadically only in a single plot of that treatment. The latter was the only bryophyte species collected in CaN, CaNP, CaNP-KCl, and CaNP-K(2)SO(4) treatments. Dry matter accumulation of bryophytes was highest in the control (180 g m(-2)) followed by Ca (46 g m(-2)), CaNP (25 g m(-2)), CaNP-KCl (15 g m(-2)), CaNP-K(2)SO(4) (9 g m(-2)), and CaN (2 g m(-2)) treatments. A negative correlation between biomass production of bryophytes and dry matter production of vascular plants was revealed up to a threshold value of 400 g m(-2). Above this limit, biomass production of bryophytes remained obviously unaffected by further increase in biomass production of vascular plants. A significant effect of treatment on As, Cd, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, P, Ca, Mg, K, and N concentrations was revealed. Concentrations of these elements were a function of amount of elements supplied with fertilizers. Bryophytes seem to be promising bio-indicators not only for airborne deposition of toxic element but also for fertilizer introduced as well. PMID:19543996

Hejcman, Michal; Száková, Jirina; Schellberg, Jürgen; Srek, Petr; Tlustos, Pavel; Balík, Jirí

2010-07-01

85

Agricultural chemical application practices to reduce environmental contamination.  

PubMed

Current practices of applying agricultural chemicals play a major role in the environmental health concerns of agriculture. Those who mix, load, and handle the concentrated formulations run the greatest risk of exposure but field hands and others can encounter significant levels of pesticides. Drift can be a major source of contamination to residents, wildlife, and water sources. Improved methods of application and ways of reducing the total amount of pesticide applied can help reduce environmental contamination. Chemigation, direct injection, closed system handling, and fertilizer impregnation are examples of technology that affect the efficiency of applying agricultural chemicals. An area of beneficial research is related to leak and spill technology. Current surveys indicate that point sources such as spills, mixing and loading areas, back-siphoning, and direct routes for surface water movement into the ground are often a major cause of pesticides reaching groundwater. The commercial dealer/applicator provides storage, handling, mixing, and loading for large amounts of chemicals and has received limited guidance regarding the products. Education remains an important element of any rural environmental health strategy. With appropriate information about pesticide risks and groundwater, people will be better equipped to address environmental concerns. By design, agricultural chemicals are biologically active and, in most cases, toxic. Thus, they pose potential risks to humans, wildlife, water, and the environment in general. The magnitude of the risks depends to some degree on the methods and techniques used to apply the chemicals. Pesticides are applied by persons possessing a variety of skills, using equipment ranging from hand-operated systems to aircraft. PMID:2248252

Bode, L E

1990-01-01

86

21 CFR 1310.13 - Exemption of chemical mixtures; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. 1310.13...JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.13 Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. (a)...

2010-04-01

87

Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates* #  

PubMed Central

Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased ?-, ?-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of ?-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and ?-/?-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi

2014-01-01

88

Increase of As release and phytotoxicity to rice seedlings in As-contaminated paddy soils by Si fertilizer application.  

PubMed

Silicon (Si) was shown to be able to reduce arsenic (As) uptake by rice in hydroponic culture or in low As soils using high Si application rates. However, the effect of Si application on As uptake of rice grown in As-contaminated soils using Si fertilizer recommendation rate has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of Si application using Si fertilizer recommendation rate on As release and phytotoxicity in soils with different properties and contents of As was examined. The results show that the concentrations of As in soil solutions increased after Si applications due to competitive adsorption between As and Si on soil solids and the Si concentrations in soil solutions were also elevated to beneficial levels for rice growth. The rice seedlings accumulated more As and its growth was inhibited by Si application in As contaminated/spiked soils. The results indicate that there is an initial aggravation in As toxicity before the beneficial effects of Si fertilizing to rice were revealed when Si application based on fertilizer recommendation rate to As-contaminated paddy soils. Therefore, for As-contaminated paddy soils with high levels of As, the application of Si fertilizer could result in increasing As phytotoxicity and uptake by rice. PMID:24892775

Lee, Chia-Hsing; Huang, Hsuan-Han; Syu, Chien-Hui; Lin, Tzu-Huei; Lee, Dar-Yuan

2014-07-15

89

Effect of direct nitrogen and potassium and residual phosphorus fertilizers on soil chemical properties, microbial components and maize yield under long-term crop rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted in a long-term field experiment initiated in 1939 at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. The aim was to assess the long-term effect of direct N and K and residual P fertilizers on chemical and microbial properties of soil and grain yield of maize in rotation with field pea. Long-term fertilization resulted in decreased total organic

A. Belay; A. Claassens; F. Wehner

2002-01-01

90

Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on greenhouse gas emissions and economics of corn production.  

PubMed

Nitrogen fertilizer plays an important role in corn cultivation in terms of both economic and environmental aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer positively affects corn yield and the soil organic carbon level, but it also has negative environmental effects through nitrogen-related emissions from soil (e.g., N20, NOx, NO3(-) leaching, etc.). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain are investigated via life cycle assessment. Ecoefficiency analysis is also used to determine an economically and environmentally optimal nitrogen application rate (NAR). The ecoefficiency index in this study is defined as the ratio of economic return due to nitrogen fertilizer to the greenhouse gas emissions of corn cultivation. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain decrease as NAR increases at a lower NAR until a minimum greenhouse gas emission level is reached because corn yield and soil organic carbon level increase with NAR. Further increasing NAR after a minimum greenhouse gas emission level raises greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. Increased greenhouse gas emissions of corn grain due to nitrous oxide emissions from soil are much higher than reductions of greenhouse gas emissions of corn grain due to corn yield and changes in soil organic carbon levels at a higher NAR. Thus, there exists an environmentally optimal NAR in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. The trends of the ecoefficiency index are similar to those of economic return to nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. Therefore, an appropriate NAR could enhance profitability as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. PMID:18767661

Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

2008-08-15

91

Crop yields and phosphorus fertilizer transformations after 25 years of applications to a subtropical soil under groundnut-based cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In subtropical regions where two crops are grown each year, effects of fertilizer P applications to summer, winter or both crops each year were evaluated on the basis of crop yields and transformations of fertilizer P into different soil P pools. Summer-grown groundnut showed small and inconsistent response to fertilizer P. Winter-grown crops responded significantly and consistently suggesting 40 and

Milkha S. Aulakh; Bachitter S. Kabba; H. S. Baddesha; Gulshan S. Bahl; M. P. S. Gill

2003-01-01

92

Slug responses to grassland cutting and fertilizer application under plant functional group removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current studies on trophic interactions in biodiversity experiments have largely relied on artificially sown gradients in plant diversity, but removal experiments with their more natural plant community composition are more realistic. Slugs are a major part of the invertebrate herbivore community, with some species being common pests in agriculture. We therefore investigated how strongly slugs are influenced by grassland management, plant biodiversity and composition. Here we analysed the effects of cutting frequency, fertilizer application and plant functional group composition on slug densities and their contribution to herbivory on Rumex acetosa in a removal experiment within a >100-year old grassland in Northern Germany. The experiment was laid out as a Latin rectangle with full factorial combinations of (i) plant functional group removal (3 levels) using herbicides, (ii) fertilizer application (2 levels) and (iii) cutting frequency (2 levels). The resulting 12 treatment combinations were replicated 6 times, resulting in 72 plots. We collected a total of 1020 individuals belonging to three species Arion distinctus (60.4% of individuals), Deroceras reticulatum (34.7%) and Arion lusitanicus (4.9%) using a cover board technique and additionally measured herbivore damage to R. acetosa. We found the highest slug abundance on plots with a low cutting frequency and high food resource availability (increased cover of forbs and taller vegetation). Fertilizer application had no significant effect on slug abundance, but caused higher herbivore damage to on R. acetosa, possibly as a result of increased tissue quality. The negative effect of higher cutting frequency on slug abundance was lowest in control plots with their naturally developed graminoid-forb communities (cutting reduced slug density by 6% in the control vs. 29% in herbicide plots). Our experiments therefore support the idea that more natural plant species compositions reduce the impact of disturbances (e.g. through cutting or grazing) on invertebrates.

Everwand, Georg; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja

2013-04-01

93

Distributions of rare earths and heavy metals in field-grown maize after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earths are widely applied in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition through the use of fertilizers, yet little is known of their accumulation in field-grown crops. We have studied the distribution of 16 rare earths (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanide elements) in field-grown maize and the concentration of heavy metals in the grains after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer.

Xingkai Xu; Wangzhao Zhu; Zijian Wang; Geert-Jan Witkamp

2002-01-01

94

Integrated approach for disease management and growth enhancement of Sesamum indicum L. utilizing Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2 and chemical fertilizer.  

PubMed

Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2, an isolate of wheat rhizosphere displayed plant growth promoting attributes including indole acetic acid, HCN, siderophore production, solubilization of inorganic phosphate and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. In addition, it showed strong antagonistic effect against Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum. It also caused degradation and digestion of cell wall components, resulting in hyphal perforations, empty cell (halo) formation, shrinking and lysis of fungal mycelia along with significant degeneration of conidia. Fertilizer adaptive variant strain of A. chroococcum TRA2 was studied with Tn5 induced streptomycin resistant transconjugants of wild type tetracycline-resistant TRA2 (designated TRA2(tetra+strep+)) after different durations. The strain was significantly competent in rhizosphere, as its population increased by 15.29 % in rhizosphere of Sesamum indicum. Seed bacterization with the strain TRA2 resulted in significant increase in vegetative growth parameters and yield of sesame over the non-bacterized seeds. However, application of TRA2 with half dose of fertilizers showed sesame yield almost similar to that obtained by full dose treatment. Moreover, the oil yield increased by 24.20 %, while protein yield increased by 35.92 % in treatment receiving half dose of fertilizer along with TRA2 bacterized seeds, as compared to untreated control. PMID:22828791

Maheshwari, D K; Dubey, R C; Aeron, Abhinav; Kumar, Bhavesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Tewari, Sakshi; Arora, Naveen Kumar

2012-10-01

95

The effects of a single application of fertilizer on the fish population of Postoak Lake  

E-print Network

, left mandible Center chin, right mandible cutaneous injection of National Fast Blue 8GXM dye at a concentration of 65 mg/ml (Kelly, 1967) . Any previously marked fish captured in a census period were not given additional date and size marks...THE EFFECTS OF A SINGLE APPLICATION OF FERTILIZER ON THE FISH POPUIATION OF POSTOAK LAKE A Thesis by DAVID BENNIS RAMSEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...

Ramsey, David Bennis

1973-01-01

96

Return to fertility after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist  

PubMed Central

Background Antagonistic analogues of GnRH for the treatment of prostate cancer may be used clinically in persons for whom return to fertility after such treatment is important or desirable. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effects of a long term treatment with orntide, a GnRH antagonist, on testosterone levels and fertility in male rats. Methods Two groups of male rats received either 120-day orntide microspheres (8.8 mg orntide/kg/120 days) or vehicle alone (control group). Serum orntide and testosterone levels in both groups were monitored at certain intervals for 9 months from the initiation of treatment. After recovery of normal serum testosterone levels in the treated animals, each rat was housed with two proven breeder, but drug-naive, females. Results All mates of treated rats achieved pregnancy as rapidly as the mates of control rats although two of the control rats did not sire a litter with either female and one sired only one litter. The mean size of the litters of treated (12.3 offspring per litter) and control (10.6 offspring per litter) were similar. All offspring were grossly normal morphologically and behaviorally during the time to weaning. Conclusions These results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression is reversible after cessation of treatment with this GnRH antagonist. PMID:11710965

Kostanski, Janusz W; Jiang, Ge; Dani, Bhas A; Murty, Santos B; Qiu, Wei; Schrier, Bruce; Thanoo, B C; DeLuca, Patrick P

2001-01-01

97

Arsenic in Ironite fertilizer: The absorption by hamsters and the chemical form  

SciTech Connect

We determined the gastrointestinal absorption of the arsenic in Ironite, a readily available fertilizer, for male hamsters (Golden Syrian), considered to be an excellent model for how the human processes inorganic arsenic. Urine and feces were collected after administering an aqueous suspension of Ironite by stomach tube. In addition, we studied the forms and oxidation states of arsenic in Ironite by synchrotron spectroscopic techniques. The absorption of the arsenic in Ironite (1-0-0) was 21.2% and the absorption relative to sodium arsenite was 31.0%. Our results using XANES spectra determinations indicate that Ironite contains scorodite (AsV) as well as previously reported arsenopyrite (As(-1)). Since the 1-0-0 Ironite is readily available for purchase, its risk assessment for children by professionals is recommended. This is especially important because it is used to fertilize large areas of grass in playgrounds and parks where children play. The absorption of the arsenic in it, the hand to mouth activity of children, and the potential of ground water contamination makes the use of 1-0-0 Ironite as a fertilizer a potential environmental hazard.

Aposhian, M.M.; Koch, I.; Avram, M.D.; Chowdhury, U.K.; Smith, P.G.; Reimer, K.J.; Aposhian, H.V.; (Ariz); (Royal)

2009-09-11

98

Effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers plus nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen runoff loss in vegetable soils.  

PubMed

The application of nitrogen fertilizers leads to various ecological problems such as large amounts of nitrogen runoff loss causing water body eutrophication. The proposal that nitrification inhibitors could be used as nitrogen runoff loss retardants has been suggested in many countries. In this study, simulated artificial rainfall was used to illustrate the effect of the nitrification inhibitor DMPP (3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate) on nitrogen loss from vegetable fields under combined organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer application. The results showed that during the three-time simulated artificial rainfall period, the ammonium nitrogen content in the surface runoff water collected from the DMPP application treatment increased by 1.05, 1.13, and 1.10 times compared to regular organic and inorganic combined fertilization treatment, respectively. In the organic and inorganic combined fertilization with DMPP addition treatment, the nitrate nitrogen content decreased by 38.8, 43.0, and 30.1% in the three simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. Besides, the nitrite nitrogen content decreased by 95.4, 96.7, and 94.1% in the three-time simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. A robust decline in the nitrate and nitrite nitrogen surface runoff loss could be observed in the treatments after the DMPP addition. The nitrite nitrogen in DMPP addition treatment exhibited a significant low level, which is near to the no fertilizer application treatment. Compared to only organic and inorganic combined fertilizer treatment, the total inorganic nitrogen runoff loss declined by 22.0 to 45.3% in the organic and inorganic combined fertilizers with DMPP addition treatment. Therefore, DMPP could be used as an effective nitrification inhibitor to control the soil ammonium oxidation in agriculture and decline the nitrogen runoff loss, minimizing the nitrogen transformation risk to the water body and being beneficial for the ecological environment. PMID:25081006

Yu, Qiaogang; Ma, Junwei; Zou, Ping; Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Yin, Jianzhen; Fu, Jianrong

2015-01-01

99

[Responses of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in upland red soil].  

PubMed

Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P < 0.01). The total nematode abundance decreased in the order of PK > NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem. PMID:25509090

Zhang, Wei; Liu, Man-Qiang; He, Yuan-Qiu; Fan, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yan

2014-08-01

100

[Application of ICP-mS and AFS to detecting heavy metals in phosphorus fertilizers].  

PubMed

In order to investigate heavy metals in phosphorus fertilizers in China, 159 samples of phosphorus fertilizers including imported fertilizers and domestic fertilizers were collected from fertilizer markets, and the contents of heavy metals were determined by ICP-MS and AFS after microwave digestion. The results showed that the phosphorous fertilizers contained certain amount of heavy metals, and there was great variability in the contents of heavy metals. The mean contents of Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, As and Hg were 0. 77, 35.6, 102.7, 24. 1, 16.6, 15.4, 19.4 and 0. 08 mg kg-1 fertilizer, respectively; based on the calculation of P2O5, the mean contents of above heavy metals were 4. 48, 258. 4, 767. 4, 190. 0, 151.3, 134. 5, 155. 8 and 8. 79 mg kg-1 P2 O5, respectively. The contents of heavy metals Cd, Cr, Pb, As and Hg in the tested samples accord with the ecological index of arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury for fertilizers (GB/T 23349-2009), with the exception of Cd in one imported sample of diammonium phosphate and As in one sample of mono-ammonium phosphate. Analyzing the contents of heavy metals in imported fertilizers, the Cd contents in imported fertilizers was ranged from 0. 02 to 27. 2 mg kg-1 fertilizer, the mean and median Cd contents in imported fertilizers were 3. 20 and 0. 41 mg kg-1 fertilizer, respectively. And the Cu, Cr and Hg contents in the imported fertilizers were higher than that of domestic fertilizers, the mean contents of Cu, Cr and Hg in imported fertilizers were 39. 4, 26. 6 and 0. 47 mg kg-1 fertilizer, respectively. PMID:25095447

Huang, Qing-Qing; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Qian; Qiao, Yu-Hui; Su, De-Chun; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Rui, Yu-Kui; Li, Hua-Fen

2014-05-01

101

Phosphorus Fertilization of Late-Planted Winter Wheat after Chemical Fallow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is planted in low precipitation areas of the Columbia Plateau after 14 months of fallow. Tillage is conducted during the fallow period to retain seed- zone moisture and control weeds. Chemical fallow is an alternative to the tillage-based method. The disadvantage of chemical fallow is the loss of seed-zone moisture and inability to plant early.

Larry Lutcher; William Schillinger; Don Wysocki; Stewart Wuest; Neil Christensen

102

Impact of fertilizer phosphorus application on phosphorus release kinetics in some calcareous soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate reactions and retention in the soil are of paramount importance from the perspective of plant nutrition and fertilizer\\u000a use efficiency. The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of phosphorus (P) desorption in different soils of Hamadan\\u000a in fertilized and unfertilized soils. Soils were fertilized with 200 mg P kg?1. Fertilized and unfertilized soils were incubated at 25 ± 1°C for 6 months.

A. R. Hosseinpur; F. S. Biabanaki

2009-01-01

103

Impact of tillage and fertilizer application method on gas emissions in a corn cropping system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from soil. This study was conducted to determine the impact of fertilizer sources, land management practices, and fertilizer placement methods on greenhouse gas emissions. A new prototype i...

104

DGT estimates cadmium accumulation in wheat and potato from phosphate fertilizer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium is a common impurity in phosphatic fertilizers and may contribute to soil Cd accumulation. Changes in total and bioavailable Cd burdens to agricultural soils and the potential for plant Cd accumulation resulting from fertilizer input was investigated. Three year field studies were conducted using three dose levels of cadmium-rich, commercial, phosphate fertilizers applied at four agricultural sites. Labile Cd

Angela L. Pérez; Kim A. Anderson

2009-01-01

105

Effects of the long-term application of inorganic fertilizers on microbial community diversity in rice-planting red soil as studied by using PCR-DGGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the long-term application of inorganic fertilizers on microbial community diversity were investigated in a rice-planting soil derived from quaternary red clay in the Ecological Experimental Station of Red Soil, Chinese Academy of Sciences. After 13 years' application of different inorganic fertilizers for double rice crops, the community structure of bacteria, archaea, actinomycetes and fungi in the soil

Zhong Wenhui; Cai Zucong; Yin Lichu; Zhang He

2007-01-01

106

Sugarcane yields and soil chemical properties due to mill mud application to a sandy soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mill mud is a potentially beneficial by-product from the sugar milling process. An experiment was conducted to assess sugarcane yield and nutrient movement into subs after mill mud application in sandy soil. Treatments consisted of fertilizer (low fertilizer (LF) and adequate fertilizer (AF)), and m...

107

[Effects of different organic fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco].  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying different organic fertilizers (refined organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) and their combination with 20% reduced chemical fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco, the resistance of the tobacco against bacterial wilt, and the tobacco yield and quality. As compared with conventional chemical fertilization (CK), applying refined organic fertilizer (ROF) or bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization increased the bacterial number and the total microbial number in the rhizospheric soil significantly. Applying BIO in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization also increased the actinomyces number in the rhizospheric soil significantly, with an increment of 44.3% as compared with that under the application of ROF in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization, but decreased the fungal number. As compared with CK, the ROF and BIO increased the carbon use capacity of rhizospheric microbes significantly, and the BIO also increased the capacity of rhizospheric microbes in using phenols significantly. Under the application of ROF and BIO, the disease incidence and the disease index of bacterial wilt were decreased by 4% and 8%, and 23% and 15.9%, and the proportions of high grade tobacco leaves increased significantly by 10.5% and 9.7%, respectively, as compared with those in CK. BIO increased the tobacco yield and its output value by 17.1% and 18.9% , respectively, as compared with ROF. PMID:24417114

Zhang, Yun-Wei; Xu, Zhi; Tang, Li; Li, Yan-Hong; Song, Jian-Qun; Xu, Jian-Qin

2013-09-01

108

Use of Spectroradiometers to Guide In-season Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Irrigated Cotton in West Texas  

E-print Network

1 Use of Spectroradiometers to Guide In-season Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Irrigated Cotton in West Texas Following water, nitrogen (N) is the most important constraint to upland cotton production. Most of the cotton in the semiarid western U.S.A. is irrigated, and in areas like the Southern High

Behmer, Spencer T.

109

The effect of nitrogen and boron fertilizer applications on leaf levels, yield and fruit size of the red raspberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A factorial fertilizer experiment with four N and two B levels was conducted on red raspberry over a 5 year period to determine the effects on leaf element content, fruit size and fruit yields and to determine standard leaf levels for N and B. Nitrogen application increased leaf N, reduced leaf B, increased fruit size and had no effect on

Michael H. Chaplin; Lloyd W. Martin

1980-01-01

110

Development of a web-based runoff forecasting tool to guide fertilizer and manure application in the Chesapeake Bay watershed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Managing the land application of fertilizers and manures is critical to protecting water quality in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. While modern nutrient management tools are designed to help farmers with their long-term field management planning, they do not support daily decisions such as when to a...

111

Effects of fertilizer rate, application timing and plant spacing on yield and nutrient content of bell pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var annuum L.), cv Pip, transplants were established at 31 and 46 cm in?rows on bare soil and drip irrigated on a twice weekly schedule. A base rate of fertilizer was applied either in one preplant application or in two (preplant and first flower set) or three (preplant, first flower set, after the midseason harvest) split

V. M. Russo

1991-01-01

112

Application of Excess Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Fertilizers Leads to Lowering of Grain Iron Content in High Yielding Tropical Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influences of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizer doses were assessed on iron (Fe) accumulation in leaves and grains of three high yielding rice cultivars differing in grain Fe concentration. Effect of these treatments were also measured on grain yield, leaf area and plant biomass of the cultivars. Nitrogen, P and K applications improved plant biomass and grain

Binay Bhusan Panda; Srigopal Sharma; Pravat Kumar Mohapatra; Avijit Das

2012-01-01

113

Soil Aggregates and Organic Carbon Distribution in Red Soils after Long-term Fertilization with Different Fertilizer Treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red soils, a typical Udic Ferrosols, widespread throughout the subtropical and tropical region in southern China, support the majority of grain production in this region. The red soil is naturally low in pH values, cation exchange capacity, fertility, and compaction, resulting in low organic matter contents and soil aggregation. Application of chemical fertilizers and a combination of organic-chemical fertilizers are two basic approaches to improve soil structure and organic matter contents. We studied the soil aggregation and the distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in red soils with a long-term fertilization experiment during 1988-2009. We established treatments including 1) NPK and NK in the chemical fertilizer plots, 2) CK (Control), and 3) CK+ Peanut Straw (PS), CK+ Rice Straw (RS), CK+ Fresh Radish (FR), and CK + Pig Manure (PM) in the organic-chemical fertilizer plots. Soil samples were fractionated into 6 different sized aggregate particles through the dry-wet sieving method according to the hierarchical model of aggregation. Organic carbon in the aggregate/size classes was analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of mechanically stable aggregates in red soils after long-term fertilization decreased with the size, from > 5mm, 5 ~ 2 mm, 2 ~ 1 mm, 1~ 0.25 mm, to < 0.25 mm, but the distribution of water-stable aggregates did not follow this pattern. Compared with the chemical fertilizer application alone, the addition of pig manure and green manure can significantly improve the distribution of aggregates in the 5-2 mm, 2-1 mm and 1-0.25 mm classes. The organic carbon (OC) contents in red soils were all increased after the long-term fertilization. Compared with Treatment NK, soil OC in Treatment NPK was increased by 45.4%. Compared with Treatment CK (low chemical fertilizer), organic fertilizer addition increased soil OC. The OC in the different particle of water-stable aggregates were all significantly increased after long-term fertilization. OC mainly existed in the macroaggregate (> 0.25 mm) of red soils after the long-term fertilization, and the organic matter was the most important colloid material for macroaggregates. We conclude that the long-term, appropriate application of chemical fertilizer and the combination with organic manure were the most effective measures to improve soil structure and organic carbon contents in red soil regions.

Tang, J.; Wang, Y.

2013-12-01

114

Applications of microfluidics in chemical biology Douglas B Weibel1  

E-print Network

Applications of microfluidics in chemical biology Douglas B Weibel1 and George M Whitesides2 This review discusses the application of microfluidics in chemical biology. It aims to introduce the reader to microfluidics, describe characteristics of microfluidic systems that are useful in studying chemical biology

Prentiss, Mara

115

Effects of exposure to four endocrine disrupting-chemicals on fertilization and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17?-estradiol (E2), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT), to sperm motility, fertilization rate, hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study. The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT, 1 ?g L-1 for NP and 100 ?g L-1 for DDE, respectively. The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 ?g L-1 for DDE and NP, respectively. Of the tested properties of S. curriculus, larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 ?g L-1. Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ng L-1 for E2, 10 ng L-1 for TBT and 1 ?g L-1 for NP, respectively. Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations, the hatching rate and larval survival rate of S. curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs. The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S. curriculus. Overall, E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE, while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters. Thus, the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S. curriculus. Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2, DDE, NP and TBT.

Niu, Cuijuan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Ying; Li, Li

2013-09-01

116

FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS  

E-print Network

contributions to our understanding of plant nutrition and the development of fertilizer rec ommendations. WeH AND LIME RECOMMENDATIONS..................................................3 WEAKLY BUFFERED SOILS

Holland, Jeffrey

117

[Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].  

PubMed

An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24483072

Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

2013-10-01

118

21 CFR 1310.13 - Exemption of chemical mixtures; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...manufacturer of an exempted chemical mixture shall notify DEA in writing, of any change in the quantitative or qualitative composition of a chemical mixture that has been granted an exemption by application. Changes include those greater...

2011-04-01

119

Soil micronutrient availability to crops as affected by long-term inorganic and organic fertilizer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micronutrient status in soils and crops can be affected by different fertilization practices during a long-term field experiment. This paper investigated the effects of different fertilization treatments on total and DTPA-extractable micronutrients in soils and micronutrients in crops after 16 year fertilization experiments in Fengqiu County, Henan Province, China. The treatments of the long-term experiment included combinations of various rates

B. Y. Li; D. M. Zhou; L. Cang; H. L. Zhang; X. H. Fan; S. W. Qin

2007-01-01

120

The application of biosorption for production of micronutrient fertilizers based on waste biomass.  

PubMed

In the present paper, new environmental-friendly fertilizer components were produced in biosorption process by the enrichment of the biomass with zinc, essential in plant cultivation. The obtained new preparations can be used as controlled release micronutrient fertilizers because microelements are bound to the functional groups present in the cell wall structures of the biomass. It is assumed that new fertilizing materials will be characterized by higher bioavailability, gradual release of micronutrients required by plants, and lower leaching to groundwater. The biological origin of the material used in plant fertilization results in the elimination of toxic effect towards plants and groundwater mainly caused by low biodegradability of fertilizers. Utilitarian properties of new formulations enable to reduce negative implications of fertilizers for environmental quality and influence ecological health. In this work, the utilitarian properties of materials such as peat, bark, seaweeds, seaweed post-extraction residues, and spent mushroom substrate enriched via biosorption with Zn(II) ions were examined in germination tests on Lepidium sativum. Obtained results were compared with conventional fertilizers-inorganic salt and chelate. It was shown that zinc fertilization led to biofortification of plant in these micronutrients. Moreover, the mass of plants fertilized with zinc was higher than in the control group. PMID:25108517

Tuhy, Lukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

2014-10-01

121

Application of ultrasonics to chemical analysis  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonics has found a wide utility in chemistry, making available energy densities of the order of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 6} W/cm{sup 3}, which is 3-5 orders of magnitude greater than the energy densities used in some physical methods like radiolysis and photolysis. The paper overviews several techniques of ultrasound to chemical analysis with the greatest effect obtained by using a wide range of ultrasound frequencies. The methods described include: using different ultrasound properties like velocity of propagation, decay rate, acoustic resistance, and relaxational absorption as analytical signals; the use of sonoluminescence; applications for oxidation, coagulating, and dispersion by ultrasound methods; use of ultrasound for sample preparation; and the use of ultrasound for widening the scope of the atomic spectroscopy and electrochemcial methods of analysis.

Chmilenko, F.A.; Baklanov, A.N.; Sidorova, L.P.; Piskun, Yu.M. [Dnepropetrovsk State Univ. (Ukraine)

1994-06-01

122

Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report  

SciTech Connect

The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1989-04-01

123

Commercial Fertilizers in 1934-35.  

E-print Network

......... Farmers Cotton Oil Company ............ Federal Chemical Company .............. Fidelity Chemical Corporation ........... Ford Motor Company ................... Gilmer Cotton Oil & Fertilizer Company ... City of Houston... Cost of Plant Food 9 Relation of Cost to Concentration of Fertilizer ._----_-__------------------ 11 Comparing Costs of Fertilizer ._----___------------------- 12 Free Analysis 12 Fertilizer Analyses to be Sold in 19 3 5-3 6...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

1935-01-01

124

In Vitro Fertilization of Mons Ova Obtained By Three Ways and Their Cleavage in Commercially and Chemically Defined Media (*)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study ova were collected from the regularly mated, pseudopregnant, and superovulated females Balblc or C57\\/J6 mice. The ova were in vitro fertilized by sperms collected from the vas deferens and epididymis of male mice in fertilization medium (FM). The fertilized ova were cultured in four types of media (MI6, M2, MCM, KSOM). The results have shown that in

125

Preplant SlowRelease Nitrogen Fertilizers Produce Similar Bell Pepper Yields as Split Applications of Soluble Fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

applications of urea (Brown et al., 1988). Highest fruit yield of bell pepper grown on plastic mulch was obtained Slow-release N materials are used to reduce N leaching losses from with broadcast-applied SCU or isobutylidene diurea sandy soils and extend N availability over a growing season. The objective of this research was to examine the effectiveness of preplant (IBDU), when

Elizabeth A. Guertal

2000-01-01

126

21 CFR 1308.23 - Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application. 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Chemical Preparations § 1308.23 Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application....

2010-04-01

127

Fertilizer Application Timing Influences Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Over a Growing Season  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial production and consumption of greenhouse gases (GHG) is influenced by temperature and nutrients, especially during the first few weeks after agricultural fertilization. The effect of fertilization on GHG fluxes should be sensitive to environmental conditions during and shortly after appli...

128

Analysis of broadcast and banded fertilizer applications for corn production on reconstructed coal mine soil  

SciTech Connect

Multiple-regression analysis was used to analyze the data from a fertility experiment conducted on reconstructed soil at the Iowa Coal Project Demonstration Mine in Mahaska County, Iowa. In this experiment, the effects of broadcast and row-applied fertilizer on corn yield were compared. The corn yield responses to the fertilizer treatments were masked by variability caused by uncontrolled reclamation conditions and environmental factors. Only 12% of the yield variation (with block effects removed) could be explained by the fertilizer treatments with use of conventional analysis of variance procedures. When the regression technique was used with selected covariables, about 72% of the yield variation could be explained, and the effect of each fertility treatment on corn yield could be determined. The response of yield to each fertility treatment was influenced by the date of corn silking. At early silking, broadcast phosphorus and banded nitrogen fertilizer increased yield, but at late silking, they decreased yield. However, banded phosphorus fertilizer decreased and increased yield at early and late silking, respectively.

Lamb, J.A.; Dumenil, L.C.; Henning, S.J.

1980-12-01

129

Uniform and variable-rate application of potassium fertilizers in Louisiana sugarcane production systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

If sugar and cane yields are to be optimized and profitability improved, it is critical that a sugarcane crop receive the proper levels of plant nutrients. Under-fertilization can result in reduced cane yields, while over-fertilization can reduce sugar recovery. Potassium (K) has been associated wit...

130

PHOSPHORUS LOSS TO RUNOFF WATER 24 HOURS AFTER APPLICATION OF MANURE OR FERTILIZER: I. EFFECTS OF POST-APPLICATION TILLAGE AND RATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) added to soil from fertilizer and manure application could pose a threat to water quality even if best management practices (BMPs) are followed. The objective of this study was to compare concentrations and losses of total suspended solids (TSS) and various P forms in runoff water wh...

131

Changes in soil chemical and microbiological properties during 4 years of application of various organic residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-year field trial was established in eastern Sweden to evaluate the effects of organic waste on soil chemical and microbiological variables. A simple crop rotation with barley and oats was treated with either compost from household waste, biogas residue from household waste, anaerobically treated sewage sludge, pig manure, cow manure or mineral fertilizer. All fertilizers were amended in rates

M. Odlare; M. Pell; K. Svensson

2008-01-01

132

Microheater as an alternative to lasers for in-vitro fertilization applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade various lasers have been applied to drilling of the micrometer-sized holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes for in-vitro fertilization applications. In this paper we describe an alternative approach to laser instrumentation based on microfabricated device capable of precise drilling of uniform holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes. This device consists of a thin (1 micrometer) film microheater built on the tip of glass capillary with a diameter varying between a few to a few tens of micrometers. Duration of the pulse of heat produced by this microheater determines the spatial confinement of the heat wave in the surrounding liquid medium. We have demonstrated that gradual microdrilling of the zona pellucida can be accomplished using a series of pulses with duration of about 300 microseconds when the microheater was held in contact with the zona pellucida. Pulse energy applied to 20 micrometer tip was about 4 (mu) J. In vitro development and hatching of 127 micromanipulated embryos was compared to 103 non-drilled control embryos. The technique was found to be highly efficient in creating round, uniform, well defined holes with a smooth wall surface, matching the size of the heating source. The architecture of the surrounding zona pellucida was unaffected by the drilling, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Micromanipulated embryos presented no signs of thermal damage under light microscopy. The rate of blastocyst formation and hatching was similar in the micromanipulated and control groups. Following further testing in animal models, this methodology may be used as a cost- effective alternative to laser-based instrumentation in clinical applications such as assisted hatching and embryo biopsy.

Palanker, Daniel V.; Turovets, Igor; Glazer, Rima; Reubinoff, Benjamin E.; Hilman, Dalia; Lewis, Aaron

1999-06-01

133

Application of Rare Earth Phosphate Fertilizer in Western Area of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earth phosphate fertilizer (REPF) as base fertilizer (750 kg per hm2) was applied in the western area of China during the “Tenth Five-Year Plan”, and the results show as follows: compared with calcium superphosphate (CK), REPF increases crops yields for maize by 17.0%, for rice by 10.5%, for wheat by 24.2%, for potato by 18.5%, for cabbage by 16.3%,

Liu Xiangsheng; Wang Jiachen; Yang Jun; Fan Yubin; Wu Yanping; Zhang He

2006-01-01

134

Commercial Fertilizers in 1931-32 and Their Uses.  

E-print Network

.............................. Fidelity Chemical Corporation Ford Motor Company .............................................. Gilmer Cotton Oil & Fertilizer Company .......... Gulf States Chemical Company .......................... International Agricultural Corporation... Fertilizer COI 1Ietin. I ns statistics regarding fertilizers sold in Texas, information re- garding the fertilizer law, and analysis of samples of fertilizer sold by different manufacturers. The extent to which the various manufacturers are coming up...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

1932-01-01

135

Nutritional Applications of the Chemical Senses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship of taste and smell to ingestion, digestion, and metabolism. Indicates that the response of these physiological systems can be chemical specific and that chemical senses may play different roles in regulating diet during nutrient deficiency and during nutrient surplus situations. (JN)

Naim, Michael; Kare, Morley R.

1984-01-01

136

A novel mobile dual-wavelength laser altimetry system for improved site-specific Nitrogen fertilizer applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing fertilizer inputs while maintaining yield would increase farmer's profits and similarly lessen the adverse environmental effects of production agriculture. The development of technologies that allow precise, site-specific application of Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has thus been an important research goal over the past decades. Remote sensing of foliar crop properties and function with tractor-mountable optical sensors has thought to be useful to optimize N fertilizer applications. However, on-the-go sensing of foliar crop properties and function has proven difficult, particularly during early crop growth stages when fertilizer decisions are often made. This difficulty arises from the fact that the spectral signal measured by on-the-go sensors is dominated by soil reflectance during early crop growth stages. Here, we present the basic principles behind a novel, dual-wavelength, tractor mountable laser altimetry system that measures the laser return intensity of the reflected green and red laser light. The green (532 nm) and the red (660 nm) wavelength combination allows calculation of a modified Photochemical Reflectance Index (mPRI) that have shown to be sensitive to both crop function and foliar chemistry. The small field of view of the laser points (diameter: 4 mm) combined with its high sampling rate (1000 points sec-1) allows vegetation returns to be isolated from ground returns by using simple thresholds. First tests relating foliar N of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with laser derived mPRI are promising (r2 = 0.72). Further research is needed to test the relationship between laser derived spectral indices and crop function.

Eitel, J.; Magney, T. S.; Vierling, L. A.; Brown, T. T.; Huggins, D. R.

2012-12-01

137

Computational Toxicology: Application in Environmental Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter provides an overview of computational models that describe various aspects of the source-to-health effect continuum. Fate and transport models describe the release, transportation, and transformation of chemicals from sources of emission throughout the general envir...

138

Membrane fouling and chemical cleaning in water recycling applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fouling and subsequent chemical cleaning are two important issues for sustainable operation of nanofiltration (NF) membranes in water treatment and reuse applications. Fouling strongly depends on the feed water quality, especially the nature of the foulants and ionic composition of the feed water. Consequently, appropriate selection of the chemical cleaning solutions can be seen as a critical factor for effective

Monique Beyer; Burkhard Lohrengel; Long D. Nghiem

2010-01-01

139

40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.20 Section...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.20...

2010-07-01

140

Improvement of preimplantation development of in vitro-fertilized bovine zygotes by glucose supplementation to a chemically defined medium.  

PubMed

The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented to the medium at the specific stage of embryo culture may be useful for the production of bovine blastocysts. PMID:24976585

Sakagami, Nobutada; Nishino, Osamu; Adachi, Satoshi; Umeki, Hidenobu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

2014-10-01

141

Soil phosphorus fractions after 111 years of animal manure and fertilizer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulated soil P in agricultural soils is a major source of soluble and particulate forms of P entering water resources and degrading water quality. However, few research sites are currently available to evaluate the long-term effects of different cropping systems and fertility practices on soil inorganic and organic P accumulation. The objectives of this study were: (1) to compare the

P. P. Motavalli; R. J. Miles

2002-01-01

142

A Comparison of Continuous Nitrogen Fertigation to Conventional Granular Fertilizer Application in Highbush Blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen fertigation practices are currently being evaluated and compared to conventional fertilizer aplication on 0.6 acres of 'Bluecrop' blueberry planted April 2006 in Corvallis, OR. Plants are spaced 2.5 x 10 ft. apart and growing on mulched, raised beds. Treatments include two methods of fert...

143

Reducing rice field algae and cyanobacteria abundance by altering phosphorus fertilizer applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In California’s water seeded rice systems algal/cyanobacterial biomass can be a problem during rice establishment. Algal/cyanobacterial growth may be stimulated by phosphorus (P) additions in freshwater habitats, so we set up experiments to evaluate the effects of fertilizer P management on algal/cy...

144

Neural subtype specification of fertilization and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells and application in parkinsonian mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing protocols for the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells require extended in vitro culture, yield variable differentiation results or are limited to the generation of selected neural subtypes. Here we provide a set of coculture conditions that allows rapid and efficient derivation of most central nervous system phenotypes. The fate of both fertilization- and nuclear transfer–derived ES

Tiziano Barberi; Peter Klivenyi; Noel Y Calingasan; Hyojin Lee; Hibiki Kawamata; Kathleen Loonam; Anselme L Perrier; Juan Bruses; Maria E Rubio; Norbert Topf; Viviane Tabar; Neil L Harrison; M Flint Beal; Malcolm A S Moore; Lorenz Studer

2003-01-01

145

EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON GROWTH YIELD AND PESTS OF VEGETABLE CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field experiments were conducted to measure the yield response of Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to an organic fertilizer derived from hydrolyzed feather, meat, bone, and blood meal, sulfate of potash and langeinite (Nature Safe 10-2-8). Th...

146

Comparing Application Methods for Boron Fertilizer on the Yield and Quality of Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is based on the hypothesis that different methods of supplying boron (B) may have different effects on the yield and quality performance of tobacco crop. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different methods of B fertilization on the yield, quality, and leaf composition of flue-cured Virginia tobacco (cv. K-399) in 2007 at the

Muhammad Tariq; Ali Akbar; Lataf-ul-Haq; Amanullah Khan

2010-01-01

147

Phosphorus leaching risk assessment with manure fertilizer application in south China.  

PubMed

To investigate the phosphorus (P) leaching risk caused by applying manure fertilizer, six different manure fertilizers, namely, 0 (CK), 3,000 (F200), 4,500 (F300), 7,500 (F500), 10,500 (F700), and 15,000 kg ha(-2) (F1000), were applied to the surface soil (0-20 cm) prior to vegetable planting. The maximum Olsen P decreased with increasing amounts of the manure fertilizer. Total P did not change with treatments below 7,500, but decreased in the higher manure treatments. Water dissolved P (WDP) was highest in the upper (0-20 cm soil) layer, intermediate in the middle (20-40 cm soil) layer, and lowest in the lower (40-60 cm soil) layer. The 7,500, 10,500, and 15,000 treatments increased the WDPs in both the middle and lower soil layers and enhanced the degree of P saturation in the lower layer. This indicates that vertical leachate movement of P accumulation in the middle soil layer may be underestimated and the P leaching risk is enhanced using manure fertilizer levels >7,500 kg ha(-2). PMID:24718499

Ding, Xiaodong; Wei, Changbin; Wang, Rongping; Liao, Xinrong; Li, Shuyi

2014-07-01

148

Derivation of a Variable Rate Nitrogen Application Model for In-Season Fertilization of Corn  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen fertilizers used in crop production contribute to pollution of groundwater by nitrate and occurrence of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Economic and environmental pressures are forcing producers to improve nitrogen use efficiency. The objective of this study was to develop a production-based...

149

Impact of lime and mineral fertilizers on mechanical strength for various soil pHs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of lime and fertilizers might impact soil properties by affecting their physico-chemical parameters. The focus of the Versailles 42-plots experiment that was started in 1929 has always been to determine in fallow conditions the impact of mineral fertilization over time on the physico-chemical properties of a loamy soil. This paper's aim is to assess the impact of long-term mineral

Véronique Chaplain; Pauline Défossez; Ghislaine Delarue; Jean Roger-Estrade; Anthony R. Dexter; Guy Richard; Daniel Tessier

150

The Effects of Manure and Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a High-Input Cropping System  

PubMed Central

With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure. PMID:24830463

Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

2014-01-01

151

Effect of fertilizer application on Urtica dioica and its element concentrations in a cut grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the effects of nutrient availability in cut grasslands on growth characteristics of Urtica dioica and its aboveground chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of N, P and K application on the growth of U. dioica were studied over five years in a Dactylis glomerata grassland cut twice per year under unfertilized control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments (300, 80 and 200 kg of N, P and K ha-1 per year). Nitrogen application in the form of NH4NO3 over five years decreased the soil pH, while P and K application increased P and K availability in the soil. Over five years, cover of U. dioica increased from 1% initially to 7, 9, 58, 83 and 99% in the control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments, respectively. Concentrations of N, P and Ca in the aboveground biomass of U. dioica were very high in comparison to other species and concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were comparable with other grassland species. N and P limitation of U. dioica growth was expected if concentrations of N and P in the aboveground biomass were lower than 25 g N kg-1 and 4 g P kg-1 in the phenological stage of flowering. We concluded that two cuts per year are not sufficient to suppress expansion of U. dioica under high N, P and K availability. This probably explains why U. dioica survive also in frequently cut intensive grasslands under adequately high nutrient supply.

Müllerová, Vladimíra; Hejcman, Michal; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Pavl?, Vilém

2014-08-01

152

SOIL NITROGEN FERTILIZATION OF 'HASS' AVOCADO IN CALIFORNIA: TIME OF APPLICATION AFFECTS YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first research on avocado nitrogen fertilization in California was with the 'Fuerte' variety (Embleton et al., 1955, 1959). The optimal nitrogen range for maximum 'Fuerte' yield was demonstrated to be 1.6 to 2.0% nitrogen in spring flush leaves sampled between mid-August and October. Yield decreased when leaf nitrogen concentration was below or above this range (Embleton and Jones, 1965).

Carol J. Lovatt

153

Fresh dairy manure as a substitute for chemical fertilization in growing wheat forage; effects on soil properties, forage yield and composition, weed contamination, and hay intake and digestibility by sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted in two consecutive years. Exp. 1 (2008) was aimed at examining the effects of fertilizing three 1-ha fields with fresh dairy manure that was either weed contaminated (CM) or non-contaminated (NCM), as compared to chemical fertilization (CF). Five 10-m2 subplots in each field treatment were analyzed for yield, composition, and in vitro digestibility of forage mass,

J. Miron; E. Yosef; M. Nikbachat; A. Zenou; E. Zuckerman; R. Solomon; A. Nadler

2011-01-01

154

Estimating NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China using the bi-directional CMAQ model coupled to an agro-ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. China is one of the largest NH3 emitting countries with the majority of NH3 emissions coming from the agricultural practices, such as fertilizer application and livestock. The current NH3 emission estimates in China are mainly based on pre-defined emission factors that lack the temporal or spatial details, which are needed to accurately predict NH3 emissions. In this study, we estimate, for the first time, the NH3 emission from the agricultural fertilizer application in China online using an agricultural fertilizer modeling system coupling a regional air quality model (the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality model, CMAQ) and an agro-ecosystem model (the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, EPIC), which improves the spatial and temporal resolution of NH3 emission from this sector. Cropland area data of 14 crops from 2710 counties and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land use data are combined to determine the crop distribution. The fertilizer application rate and method for different crop are collected at provincial or agriculture-regional level. The EPIC outputs of daily fertilizer application and soil characteristics are inputed into the CMAQ model and the hourly NH3 emission are calculated online with CMAQ running. The estimated agricultural fertilizer NH3 emission in this study is about 3 Tg in 2011. The regions with the highest modeled emission rates are located in the North China Plain. Seasonally, the peak ammonia emissions occur from April to July.Compared with previous researches, this method considers more influencing factors, such as meteorological fields, soil and the fertilizer application, and provides improved NH3 emission with higher spatial and temporal resolution.

Fu, X.; Wang, S. X.; Ran, L. M.; Pleim, J. E.; Cooter, E.; Bash, J. O.; Benson, V.; Hao, J. M.

2015-01-01

155

Integrated Microreactor for Chemical and Biochemical Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A completely integrated microreactor was developed that allows for the processing of very small amounts of chemical solutions. The entire system comprises several pumps and valves arranged in different branches as well as a mixing unit and a reaction chamber. The streaming path of each branch contains two valves and one pump each. The pumps are driven by piezoelectric elements mounted on thin glass membranes. Each pump is about 3.5 mm x 3.5 mm x 0.7 mm. A pumping rate up to 25 microliters per hour can be achieved. The operational voltage ranges between 40 and 200 V. A volume stroke up to 1.5 millimeter is achievable from the membrane structures. The valves are designed as passive valves. Sealing is by thin metal films. The dimension of a valve unit is 0.8 x 0.8. 07 mm. The ends of the separate streaming branches are arranged to meet in one point. This point acts as the beginning of a mixer unit which contains several fork-shaped channels. The arrangement of these channels allows for the division of the whole liquid stream into partial streams and their reuniting. A homogeneous mixing of solutions and/or gases can be observed after having passed about 10 of the fork elements. A reaction chamber is arranged behind the mixing unit to support the chemical reaction of special fluids. This unit contains heating elements placed outside of the chamber. The complete system is arranged in a modular structure and is built up of silicon. It comprises three silicon wafers bonded together by applying the silicon direct bonding technology. The silicon structures are made only by wet chemical etching processes. The fluid connections to the outside are realized using standard injection needles glued into v-shaped structures on the silicon wafers. It is possible to integrate other components, like sensors or electronic circuits using silicon as the basic material.

Schwesinger, N.; Dressler, L.; Frank, Th.; Wurmus, H.

1995-01-01

156

Comparative effects of nitrogen fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil nitrogen during establishment of highbush blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Bluecrop’). Treatments included four methods of N application (split fertigation, ...

157

Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs.

Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

1993-05-01

158

Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL`s Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs.

Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

1993-05-01

159

N2O emissions due to nitrogen fertilizer applications in two regions of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), N2O has the highest global warming potential. N2O emission is mainly connected to agricultural activities, increasing as nitrogen concentrations increase in the soil with nitrogen fertilizer application. We evaluated N2O emissions due to application of increasing doses of ammonium nitrate and urea in two sugarcane fields in the mid-southern region of Brazil: Piracicaba (São Paulo state) and Goianésia (Goiás state). In Piracicaba, N2O emissions exponentially increased with increasing N doses and were similar for urea and ammonium nitrate up to a dose of 107.9 kg ha-1 of N. From there on, emissions exponentially increased for ammonium nitrate, whereas for urea they stabilized. In Goianésia, N2O emissions were lower, although the behavior was similar to that at the Piracicaba site. Ammonium nitrate emissions increased linearly with N dose and urea emissions were adjusted to a quadratic equation with a maximum amount of 113.9 kg N ha-1. This first effort to measure fertilizer induced emissions in Brazilian sugarcane production not only helps to elucidate the behavior of N2O emissions promoted by different N sources frequently used in Brazilian sugarcane fields but also can be useful for future Brazilian ethanol carbon footprint studies.

Signor, D.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Conant, R.

2013-03-01

160

Chemical sensor based on nonlinearity: principle and application.  

PubMed

Novel chemical sensors based on a time-dependent nonlinear response are reviewed. The strategy is to artificially mimic information transduction in living organisms. In taste and olfaction, information of chemical structure and concentration is transformed into nervous impulses in the nervous cell, i.e., time-dependent multi-dimensional information. Because the excitation and pulse generation in the nervous cell are typically nonlinear phenomena, it may be worthwhile to utilize the nonlinearity as the multi-dimensional information for molecular recognition. The principle of a "nonlinear" sensor is that a sinusoidal modulation is applied to a system, and the output signal is analyzed. The output signal of the sensor is characteristically deformed from the sinusoidal input depending on the chemical structure and concentration of the chemical stimuli. The characteristic nonlinear responses to chemical stimuli are discussed in relation to the kinetics of chemical compounds on the sensor surface. As a practical application, we introduced electrochemical sensors based on the differential capacitance, semiconductor gas sensors under the application of sinusoidal temperature or diffusion change, and a chemical sensor based on the spatio-temporal information. We demonstrated that mutli-dimensional information based on nonlinearity can provide quite useful information for the analysis of chemical species, even in the presence of another analyte or an interference with a single detector. PMID:11990611

Nakata, S; Takemura, K; Neya, K

2001-03-01

161

Comparison of sludge and fertilizer applications on establishment and growth of seedlings of two sweetgum ecotypes endomycorrhizal with Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatus. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Three different field trails are ongoing. The first study involves effects of sludge and fertilizer applications on the development of sweetgum progeny from 2 mother trees, each representing a different ecotype. Differences in overall survival exist between the 2 ecotypes (56.7% and 71.3%). Survival differences among the seedlings of both ecotypes in the fertilizer treatment were 58%, sludge 66% and control 73%. These figures are due to the differences in grass competition that developed across treatments. In study 2, grass competition was controlled and one level of fertilizer was used for all ecotypes and VAM symbionts. Pooling of data showed that VA seedlings were taller than non-VA seedlings. The third experiment compares root-collar diameter of progeny of 2 different sweetgum mother trees under uniform fertilizer treatment. Data suggest that root-collar diameter of mycorrhizal seedlings is a good indicator of future vigor. (MF)

Kormanik, P.P.

1981-01-01

162

Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

163

Optimizing Economic Indicators in the Case of Using Two Types of State-Subsidized Chemical Fertilizers for Agricultural Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We admit that the mathematical relation between agricultural production f(x, y) and the two types of fertilizers x and y is given by function (1). The coefficients that appear are determined by using the least squares method by comparison with the experimental data. We took into consideration the following economic indicators: absolute benefit, relative benefit, profitableness and cost price. These are maximized or minimized, thus obtaining the optimal solutions by annulling the partial derivatives.

Boldea, M.; Sala, F.

2010-09-01

164

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

2011-07-01

165

40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

166

21 CFR 1309.25 - Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants. 1309.25...DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Requirements for Registration § 1309...Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants....

2011-04-01

167

40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

168

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

2010-07-01

169

40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory. 414.70 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.70 Applicability;...

2010-07-01

170

21 CFR 1309.25 - Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants. 1309.25...DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Requirements for Registration § 1309...Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants....

2010-04-01

171

40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

172

40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

173

40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11...CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES General Provisions § 721...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. (a)...

2010-07-01

174

40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations...Facilities § 63.747 Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations...operator of a new or existing chemical milling maskant operation...

2012-07-01

175

40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations...Facilities § 63.747 Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations...operator of a new or existing chemical milling maskant operation...

2013-07-01

176

40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations...Facilities § 63.747 Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations...operator of a new or existing chemical milling maskant operation...

2011-07-01

177

40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations...Facilities § 63.747 Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations...operator of a new or existing chemical milling maskant operation...

2010-07-01

178

40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations...Facilities § 63.747 Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations...operator of a new or existing chemical milling maskant operation...

2014-07-01

179

Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application  

PubMed Central

Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process. PMID:25861358

Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Olczyk, Pawel; Ka?mierczak, Justyna; Olczyk, Krystyna

2015-01-01

180

High Temperature Materials for Chemical Propulsion Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation or passively cooled thrust chambers are used for a variety of chemical propulsion functions including apogee insertion, reaction control for launch vehicles, and primary propulsion for planetary spacecraft. The performance of these thrust chambers is limited by the operating temperature of available materials. Improved oxidation resistance and increased operating temperatures can be achieved with the use of thermal barrier coatings such as zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hafnium oxide (HfO2). However, previous attempts to include these materials showed cracking and spalling of the oxide layer due to poor bonding. Current research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has generated unique, high temperature material options for in-space thruster designs that are capable of up to 2500 C operating temperatures. The research is focused on fabrication technologies to form low cost Iridium,qF_.henium (Ir/Re) components with a ceramic hot wall created as an integral, functionally graded material (FGM). The goal of this effort is to further de?celop proven technologies for embedding a protective ceramic coating within the Ir/Re liner to form a robust functional gradient material. Current work includes the fabrication and testing of subscale samples to evaluate tensile, creep, thermal cyclic/oxidation, and thermophysical material properties. Larger test articles have also being fabricated and hot-fire tested to demonstrate the materials in prototype thrusters at 1O0 lbf thrust levels.

Elam, Sandra; Hickman, Robert; O'Dell, Scott

2007-01-01

181

Applications of direct chemical oxidation to demilitarization  

SciTech Connect

Research is reported concerning an aqueous process for oxidative destruction of solid- and liquid organic wastes, including ongoing work relevant to demilitarization This process uses acidified ammonium- or sodium peroxydisulfate and operates at ambient pressure and at temperatures of 80- 100 C The oxidant may be regenerated by electrolysis of the sulfate by- product at Pt anodes at roughly 80% coulombic efficiency, even in the presence of inorganic contaminants (e g , nitrate, phosphate or chloride) found in the original waste and entrained in the recycle stream Integral rate constants have been determined for the oxidation of diverse organic compounds at low concentrations (50 ppm, C), with rate constants (based on equivalents) of 0 004-O 02 miri Higher concentrations generally react at a 2-4X higher rate. The process has been carried through full- scale laboratory tests and initial pilot plant tests on chlorinated solvents, using a hydrolysis pretreatment Integral rate data indicate throughput rates of about 200 kg- C/m3-day The process may benefit the demilitarization efforts in various specialized applications destruction of solvents; destruction of trace propellants and explosives in shell casings remaining after bulk removal, destruction of red and pink waters, in situ remediation of soils at open pit burning/detonation sites; and as a regenerative filter for offgas carrying toxic or explosive substances.

Cooper, J.F., LLNL

1998-06-01

182

Commercial Fertilizers 1924-25.  

E-print Network

Cotton Oil and Fertilizer Company .... Davenport and Berryman ................. Douglas Fertilizer Company ............... Farmers Cotton Oil Company .............. Fidelity Chemical Corporation ............. Ford Motor Company... ................................... 18.171. ..... Analysis ................................... 1 15.761. ..... Fidelity Sulphate of Ammonia-Guarantee .......... 20 ; 00 6 Analysis ................................... I .... .120.98 Ford Motcr Company. Detroit. Mich.- Ford Ammonium...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach; Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

1925-01-01

183

Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

2014-01-01

184

Understanding emissions of ammonia from buildings and application of fertilizers: an example from Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Europe-wide dynamic ammonia (NH3) emissions model has been applied for one of the large agricultural countries in Europe, and its sensitivity on the distribution of emissions among different agricultural functions was analysed by comparing with observed ammonia concentrations and by implementing all scenarios in a chemical transport model (CTM). The results suggest that the dynamic emission model is most sensitive to emission from animal manure, in particular how animal manure and its application on fields is connected to national regulations. In contrast, the model is most robust with respect to emission from buildings and storage. To incorporate the national regulations, we obtained activity information on agricultural operations at the sub-national level for Poland, information about infrastructure on storages, and current regulations on manure practice from Polish authorities. The information was implemented in the existing emission model and was connected directly with the NWP calculations from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-ARW). The model was used to calculate four emission scenarios with high spatial (5 km × 5 km) and temporal resolution (3 h) for the entire year 2010. In the four scenarios, we have compared the Europe-wide default model settings against (1) a scenario that focuses on emission from agricultural buildings, (2) the existing emission method used in WRF-Chem in Poland, and (3) a scenario that takes into account Polish infrastructure and agricultural regulations. The ammonia emission was implemented into the CTM FRAME and modelled ammonia concentrations was compared with measurements. The results suggest that the default setting in the dynamic model is an improvement compared to a non-dynamical emission profile. The results also show that further improvements can be obtained on the national scale by replacing the default information on manure practice with information that is connected with local practice and national regulations. Implementing a dynamical approach for simulation of ammonia emission is a viable objective for all CTM models that continue to use fixed emission profiles. Such models should handle ammonia emissions in a similar way to other climate-dependent emissions (e.g. biogenic volatile organic compounds). Our results, compared with previous results from the DEHM and the GEOS-CHEM models, suggest that implementing dynamical approaches improves simulations in general, even in areas with limited information about the location of the agricultural fields, livestock and agricultural production methods such as Poland.

Werner, M.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Kryza, M.; Dore, A. J.

2015-01-01

185

Effects of biosolids application on soil chemical properties in peri-urban agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of biosolids as a fertilizer in agricultural cultivation are common practices in many countries. This study investigates the effects of such practices in field experiments on Fluvisol and Acrisol soils in peri-urban Hanoi City. We compared biosolid- fertilized vegetable\\/rice-dominated systems (biosolids applied as chicken manure (Acrisol in Vinh Phuc Province) or composted pig manure mixed with rice straw

Nguyen Manh Khai; Pham Quang Ha; Nguyen Cong Vinh; Jon Petter Gustafsson; Ingrid Öborn

2008-01-01

186

The influence of harvest management and fertilizer application on seasonal yield, crude protein concentration and N offtake of grasses in northeast Saskatchewan  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCartney, D. H., Bittman, S. and Nuttall, W. F. 2004. The influence of harvest management and fertilizer application on seasonal yield, crude protein concentration and N offtake of grasses in northeast Saskatchewan. Can. J. Plant Sci. 84: 205-212. The goal of pasture management is to match quantity and quality of herbage to the requirement of the grazing animal. The objective

D. H. McCartney; S. Bittman; W. F. Nuttall

2004-01-01

187

Responses of grassland soil nematodes and protozoa to multi-year and single-year applications of dairy manure slurry and fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve understanding of how long-term use of manure affects nitrogen cycling processes, the effects of multiple years of manure applications on abundance of protozoa and nematode community structure were assessed. Plots of a grass sward in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia were either left untreated or were treated with dairy manure slurry or fertilizer, each at

T. A. Forge; S. Bittman; C. G. Kowalenko

2005-01-01

188

GROWTH OF EIGHT-YEAR-OLD AMERICAN GINSENG IN A RED MAPLE FOREST AS INFLUENCED BY LIME AND ORGANIC FERTILIZER APPLICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Québec, the suitability of nutrient-depleted, acidic soils of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) forests to American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) production is an area of concern. Thus, an eight-year experiment has been conducted in such a forest in order to evaluate the effects of lime and organic fertilizer application on survival and growth parameters of American ginseng. Although no

Alain Olivier; Isabelle Nadeau; Hakim Ouzennou; Guy Régis Bibang

2005-01-01

189

The influence of host plant, nitrogen fertilization and fungicide application on the abundance and seasonal dynamics of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in arable soils of northern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation examines whether the crop plant, increased nitrogen (N) fertilization and fungicide application influence the pattern of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (VAM) populations. For this purpose, two arable field locations in Lower Saxony (Hotteln and Langreder) were chosen and the formation of mycorrhiza, spore density, number of infectious propagules (MPN) and frequency of spore types within VAM populations were

S. Land; H. Alten; F. Schönbeck

1993-01-01

190

Stochastic mapping for chemical plume source localization with application to autonomous hydrothermal vent discovery  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a stochastic mapping framework for autonomous robotic chemical plume source localization in environments with multiple sources. Potential applications for robotic chemical plume source localization ...

Jakuba, Michael Vavrousek, 1976-

2006-01-01

191

Comparison of sludge and fertilizer applications on establishment and growth of seedlings of two sweetgum ecotypes endomycorrhizal with glomus mosseae and glomus etunicatus. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

A study of sludge and fertilizer applications on the development of sweetgum progeny from two different mother trees. There are significant differences in survival between the genetically different half-sib progeny. Half-sib progeny from mother tree 76-11 had 72% survival, while those from 76-9 had only 56% survival. A second study had only one level of a commercial fertilizer which was used for all genetic tree lines. The third outplanting experiment was installed to compare root coolar diameters of progeny from two genotypic lines of sweetgum.

Kormanik, P.P.

1983-11-01

192

Controlling Fertility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

Donnay, France

1991-01-01

193

Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2012-04-16

194

[Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth. PMID:24417126

Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

2013-09-01

195

[Effects of long-term fertilization on organic carbon functional groups in black soil as revealed by synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy].  

PubMed

A 20 years (1984-2004) stationary field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term application of chemical fertilizers (N or NPK) alone or in combination with low (0.125 kg x hm(-2)) or high dose of corn stalk (0.25 kg x hm(-2)) on organic carbon functional groups in black soil using synchrotron radiation soft X-ray near-edge absorption spectroscopy (C-1s NEXAFS). Compared with the control (CK) treatment, the aromatic C and the carboxyl C of soil increased, whereas the aliphatic C, the carbonyl C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio decreased after the application of chemical fertilizer alone. After the application of chemical fertilizations in combined with corn stalk, the aromatic C decreased while the aliphatic C and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio increased as compared to N or NPK fertilizer treatment. And the change tendency was more obvious with the increase in the dose of corn stalk applied. Regardless of corn stalk application, the aromatic C, the aliphatic C, and the aliphatic C/aromatic C ratio were all higher for NPK than for N fertilizer treatment. The above results indicated that, compared with the no-fertilizer control treatment, the application of chemical fertilizers alone resulted in the relative proportion of aromatic compounds increased whereas that of aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds decreased. On the other hand, the relative proportion of the aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds was higher after the application of chemical fertilizers with than without corn stalk, with high than with low dose of corn stalk, and with NPK than with N fertilization. C-1s NEXAFS spectroscopy could characterize in situ the changes of organic carbon functional groups in soil under long-term stationary fertilization. PMID:23285902

Wang, Nan; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Qing-He; Dong, Pei-Bo; Li, Cui-Lan; Zhang, Jin-Jing; Gao, Qiang; Zhao, Yi-Dong

2012-10-01

196

Effects of fertilizer and pesticide use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When used properly, fertilizer and pesticide application can help protect crops and encourage their growth. However, fertilizers and pesticides can run off into bodies of water and contaminate water sources.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-25

197

Nitrogen and phosphorus losses in surface runoff and drainage water after application of slurry and mineral fertilizer to perennial grass ley  

Microsoft Academic Search

), but the respective P losses (0.7-0.9 kg ha -1 ) were not affected. During the ley years (1993-96) the N and P losses were increased by surface application of fertilizers and by abun- dance of surface runoff (83-100% of the total runoff). Nutrient losses were extremely high after slurry application in autumn and winter, accounting for 11% and 33%

Eila Turtola; Erkki Kemppainen

198

Estrogenic Activity in Runoff – Effect of Animal Waste-Based Fertilizer Application to Frozen Fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The potential for contamination of surface waters with estrogenic activity from agricultural animal waste has been of recent concern. Application of manure to frozen fields is currently permitted in some states, but requires a 100 ft vegetative buffer between application area and any waterway or til...

199

Changes in Soil Test Phosphorus Concentration After Application of Manure or Fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

the year of application. This is based on the fact that swine manure typically contains 10 to 30% organic P The availability of P from injected manure application has received and 70 to 90% inorganic P (Gerritse and Zugec, 1977; limited study. The objectives of this study were to determine the

Carrie A. M. Laboski; John A. Lamb

2003-01-01

200

Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liong-Yu; Neudeck, Phil G.; Knight, Dale; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Zhou, H. J.; Makel, Darby; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.

1998-01-01

201

Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeronautic and Space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of most interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring emission monitoring and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensor is based on progress two types of technology: 1) Micro-machining and micro-fabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this micro-fabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

Hunter, G. W.; Chen, L. Y.; Neudeck, P. G.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Zhou, H. J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.

1998-01-01

202

Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautics and Space Applications III  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. Y.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, Z.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.; Hall, G.

1999-01-01

203

Allele-specific chemical genetics: concept, strategies, and applications.  

PubMed

The relationship between DNA and protein sequences is well understood, yet because the members of a protein family/subfamily often carry out the same biochemical reaction, elucidating their individual role in cellular processes presents a challenge. Forward and reverse genetics have traditionally been employed to understand protein functions with considerable success. A fundamentally different approach that has gained widespread application is the use of small organic molecules, known as chemical genetics. However, the slow time-scale of genetics and inherent lack of specificity of small molecules used in chemical genetics have limited the applicability of these methods in deconvoluting the role of individual proteins involved in fast, dynamic biological events. Combining the advantages of both the techniques, the specificity achieved with genetics along with the reversibility and tunability of chemical genetics, has led to the development of a powerful approach to uncover protein functions in complex biological processes. This technique is known as allele-specific chemical genetics and is rapidly becoming an essential toolkit to shed light on proteins and their mechanism of action. The current review attempts to provide a comprehensive description of this approach by discussing the underlying principles, strategies, and successful case studies. Potential future implications of this technology in expanding the frontiers of modern biology are discussed. PMID:25436868

Islam, Kabirul

2015-02-20

204

Developments and Applications of Membranes in Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membranes are increasingly being used in the chemical and bioprocess industries replacing more conventional separation techniques and as a means of producing high purity intermediates for further processing. Application of membranes in the water industry and waste treatment is also becoming increasingly important as water shortage and environmental problems need to be addressed. An outline of the materials used for the production of membranes and their applications are described. Some of the research into the development of more selective membranes for vapour separations and pervaporation is discussed. An example of the latest work on the development of ceramic hollow fibre membranes is also given.

England, Richard

205

Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

1998-01-01

206

Applications of neural networks in chemical engineering: Hybrid systems  

SciTech Connect

Expert systems are known to be useful in capturing expertise and applying knowledge to chemical engineering problems such as diagnosis, process control, process simulation, and process advisory. However, expert system applications are traditionally limited to knowledge domains that are heuristic and involve only simple mathematics. Neural networks, on the other hand, represent an emerging technology capable of rapid recognition of patterned behavior without regard to mathematical complexity. Although useful in problem identification, neural networks are not very efficient in providing in-depth solutions and typically do not promote full understanding of the problem or the reasoning behind its solutions. Hence, applications of neural networks have certain limitations. This paper explores the potential for expanding the scope of chemical engineering areas where neural networks might be utilized by incorporating expert systems and neural networks into the same application, a process called hybridization. In addition, hybrid applications are compared with those using more traditional approaches, the results of the different applications are analyzed, and the feasibility of converting the preliminary prototypes described herein into useful final products is evaluated. 12 refs., 8 figs.

Ferrada, J.J.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Grizzaffi, P.A. (Southwestern Louisiana Inst., Lafayette, LA (USA))

1990-01-01

207

Chemical modification of silicon surfaces for biological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) to porous Si surfaces via Si-C bonds using simple chemical techniques and commercially available starting materials is described. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is often used to prevent nonspecific binding for a variety of biological applications. The covalent attachment of a short-chain PEG linker leads to a hydrophilic surface that is capable of admitting sucrose and bovine

Michael P. Schwartz; Frédérique Cunin; Ronnie W. Cheung; Michael J. Sailor

2005-01-01

208

40 CFR 414.80 - Applicability; description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability;...

2010-07-01

209

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS: APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. athematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibrated by application to data ...

210

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413.60...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60...wastewaters resulting from the chemical milling or etching of ferrous...

2014-07-01

211

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413.60...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60...wastewaters resulting from the chemical milling or etching of ferrous...

2013-07-01

212

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413.60...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60...wastewaters resulting from the chemical milling or etching of ferrous...

2012-07-01

213

Studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of Rosa micrantha: an alternative antioxidants source for food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications.  

PubMed

Rose species have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. Rosa micrantha is one of the rose species that grow feral in the northeastern Portuguese region so-called Nordeste Transmontano. For the first time, chemical composition and bioactivity of their petals, fertilized flowers, unripe, ripening, and overripe hips were evaluated in order to valorize them as sources of important phytochemicals. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars, by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Ripening and overripe hips showed high nutritional value including proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, energy, sugars, particularly the reducing sugars fructose and glucose, and ascorbic acid (>693 mg/100 g). Fertilized flowers and petals revealed the highest antioxidant activity (EC(50) > 152 microg/mL) and phenolics, flavonoids, and tocopherols contents (>35 mg/100 g). Furthermore, petals, ripening, and overripe hips are important sources of carotenoid pigments (>64 mg/100 g). Because of the diversity and abundance of antioxidants found in this species, some food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications could be explored. PMID:20426454

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2010-05-26

214

Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

2010-06-01

215

Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education1  

PubMed Central

The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal–organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout. PMID:20877495

Battle, Gary M.; Ferrence, Gregory M.; Allen, Frank H.

2010-01-01

216

Fertilizer-derived uranium and sulfur in rangeland soil and runoff: A case study in central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fertilizer applications to rangeland and pastures in central Florida have potential impact on the nutrient-sensitive ecosystems of Lake Okeechobee and the Northern Everglades. To investigate the effects of fertilizer applications, three soil profiles from variably managed and improved rangeland, and four samples of surface runoff from both fertilized and unfertilized pasture were collected. In addition to determining nutrient concentrations, isotopic analyses of uranium (U) and sulfur (S) were performed to provide isotopic evidence for U derived from historically applied phosphate (P)-bearing fertilizer ( 234 U 238U activity ratio =1.0 ?? 0.05), and Sderived from recently applied ammonium sulfate fertilizer(??34 S=3.5permil).The distribution and mobility of fertilizer-derived U in these samples is considered to be analogous to that of fertilizer-derived phosphate.Variations of U concentrations and 234 U/238 U activity ratios in soils indicate contribution of fertilizer-derived U in the upper portions of the fertilized soil (15-}34 percent of total U). The U isotope data for runoff from the fertilized field also are consistent with some contribution from fertilizer-derived U. Parallel investigations of S showed no consistent chemical or isotopic evidence for significant fertilizer-derived sulfate in rangeland soil or runoff. Relatively abundant and isotopically variable S present in the local environment hinders detection of fertilizer-derived sulfate. The results indicate a continuing slow-release of fertilizer-derived U and, by inference, P, to the P-sensitive ecosystem, and a relatively rapid release of sulfate of possible natural origin. ?? Springer 2006.

Zielinski, R.A.; Orem, W.H.; Simmons, K.R.; Bohlen, P.J.

2006-01-01

217

5.0 Application of Chemical Reaction Codes 5.1. Background  

E-print Network

5.1 5.0 Application of Chemical Reaction Codes 5.1. Background Determination of species analyses of water compositions and a competent chemical reaction model. Computerized chemical reaction that may leach from waste, an understanding of the capabilities and application of chemical reaction models

218

Effect of continuous olive mill wastewater applications, in the presence and absence of nitrogen fertilization, on the structure of rhizosphere-soil fungal communities.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is rich in potentially toxic organics precluding its disposal into water receptors. However, land application of diluted OMW may result in safe disposal and fertilization. In order to investigate the effects of OMW on the structure of soil fungal groups, OMW was applied daily to pepper plants growing in a loamy sand and a sandy loam at two doses for a period of 3 months (total OMW equivalents 900 and 1800 m(3) ha(-1)). Nitrogen (N) fertilization alleviated N scarcity and considerably enhanced plant biomass production; however, when applied in combination with the high OMW dose, it induced plant stress. OMW applications resulted in marked changes in the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns of soil basidiomycete communities, while concurrent N fertilization reduced these effects. In contrast, the ascomycete communities required N fertilization to respond to OMW addition. Cloning libraries for the basidiomycete communities showed that Cryptococcus yeasts and Ceratobasidium spp. dominated in the samples treated with OMW. In contrast, certain plant pathogenic basidiomycetes such as Thanatephorus cucumeris and Athelia rolfsii were suppressed. The observed changes may be reasonably explained by the capacity of OMW to enrich soils in organic substrates, to induce N immobilization and to directly introduce OMW-derived basidiomycetous yeasts. PMID:19799632

Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Rousidou, Constantina; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K; Bekris, Fotios; Zervakis, Georgios I; Singh, Brajesh K; Ehaliotis, Constantinos

2009-12-01

219

Biochar application to temperate soils - effects on soil fertility and crop yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar (BC) application to soil as a potential soil amendment is currently intensively explored. Depending on feedstock and highest treatment temperature (HTT), BC application to soil may contribute to the soil nutrient status by directly adding nutrients to the soil as well as by increasing pH, cation exchange and water holding capacity. These parameters are known to play an important role in the soil nutrient status and nutrient availability. A positive effect on plant growth after BC application to tropical soils has been observed repeatedly; however, the effect of BC application to soils in temperate climate regions is much less explored. We investigated the effect of BC to temperate soils and crop yield using a randomized pot experiment in a greenhouse with three agricultural soils (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four BC types (from straw, mixed woodchips and vineyard pruning, all pyrolyzed at 525°C). In order to analyze the effect of pyrolysis temperature, we additionally applied vineyard pruning BC pyrolyzed at 400°C. Selected treatments were planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.), followed by barley (Hordeum vulgare). Soil sampling was carried out after barley harvest. Investigated soil parameters included pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC), CAL-extractable P and K, EDTA extractable Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn as well as nitrogen supplying potential (NSP). Biomass production of the two crops was determined as well as its elemental composition. Biochar application (3% wood-based BC) caused a considerable pH increase for the acidic Planosol. The effect of BC application on CEC was dependent on the original status of the soil, notably soil pH and texture. 3 % BC application (wood) decreased CEC by 3.5 % and 10 % for the Chernozem and Cambisol, respectively, but increased CEC by 35 % for the acidic, sandy Planosol, which may be due to the strong liming effect found for the Planosol. BC application significantly raised CAL-extractable K for all soils. CAL-extractable P only increased in the Planosol and Cambisol at 3% application rate. Mustard yield decreased by 67% for vineyard pruning BC if nitrogen deficiency was not compensated for, straw-derived BC only caused a 2 % decrease of mustard yield. Barley yield was still significantly lower in most BC-treated pots compared to the controls, however, plant yields were less reduced for the second crop. Only straw-derived BC treatments showed a significantly higher barley yield (1955 ± 40 g m-2) compared to the control (1837 ± 70 g m-2). The results of the elemental composition of the barley grains showed that Al uptake in the Planosol significantly decreased after application of wood and straw BC, which may be due to the pH increase after BC application. In addition, Ca uptake in barley grains was significantly higher in the 3% wood BC treatment compared to the control. This may be caused by a higher Ca content of the wood BC as revealed by XRF. Mn uptake, on the other hand, was significantly reduced after BC application.

Kloss, S.; Zehetner, F.; Feichtmair, S.; Wimmer, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Kitzler, B.; Watzinger, A.; Soja, G.

2012-04-01

220

Fertility Awareness  

MedlinePLUS

... when ovulation happens. Couples use a calendar, a thermometer to measure body temperature, the thickness of cervical ... fertility awareness — such as ovulation detection kits and thermometers, for example — are available in drugstores. But they ...

221

Responses of yaupon and associated vegetation to burning, herbicidal application and phosphate fertilization  

E-print Network

acres oi' cexi- fornia 1FRXglang bsvs Cecresseg Ln $!Po/Laotian ~ of Rnveiing brush. Brush ~ such ss controXXeg burningc chemical treat, ments, sntL ~csX manipulation Rue+mess Froguction of forage eng wildlife. g conMnation of methoge generally gives... best results. %ebs uee Of fire ta remOVe bruah hee hmR a lang eag Cantra vsrsial history. Faints of interest ers centemiicL armeR the ef feats of fire oa vegetation ss e comLclea, effects of fire on soil, sn|R mcnsgsiscnt before sng after fire. %he...

Avant, Herman Dale

1960-01-01

222

ASSESSMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perchlorate has been positively detected only in those materials known to be derived from Chilean caliche, which constitute less than 0.2% of U.S. fertilizer application. The data obtained in the preponderance of investigations suggest that fertilizers do not contribute to envir...

223

GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is a primary nutrient necessary for plant growth. When soil P level is below what is needed for plant needs, P is supplied to the soil by the addition of P fertilizer or organic residuals (i.e., manure). Because of P fertilizer use in the past few decades or application of manure, a g...

224

Response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to an application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer grown on Olasiti soils from Minjingu-Manyara, Tanzania.  

PubMed

A screen-house pot experiment was conducted to assess the response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to the application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer (31% P2O5) on Olasiti soil, Manyara Region-Tanzania. This study was prompted by very low or limited use of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer by smallholder farmers in the country while yields turnout of most crops, green gram inclusive, is not promising. The soil was clay with medium pH (pH 5.5-7.0) and neutral reaction (pH 6.6-7.3). The results showed that the number of pods and seeds increased from 3-6 and 7-9, respectively, at 40 to 160 mg per 4 kg soil of fertilizer applied. Similarly, the tissue N and P increased with treatment levels. The number of pods per plant and seeds per pod showed similar increase, signifying the role of these nutrients in protein synthesis in leguminous plants like green gram. Soil properties could be the spearhead to low responses obtained at low (< 80 mg per 4 kg soil) and high (> 320 mg per 4 kg soil) rates of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer applied. It was concluded that to optimize green gram production in Olasiti soil, Minjingu Mazao fertilizer containing 31% P2O5 should be applied at a rate of 160-320 kg ha(-1) while considering other necessary agronomic practices. However, field studies to confirm the findings of this study and verify the usefulness of this fertilizer brand to green gram in Olasiti soil under field conditions could practically be the viable option before its recommendation to the smallholder farmers. PMID:24511709

Kisetu, Eliakira; Teveli, Christina Ngomzee Medutieki

2013-11-15

225

PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF LOSS RISK ASSESSMENT FOR UNINCORPORATED MANURE AND FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wisconsin’s cropland phosphorus loss risk assessment for nutrient management planning (P Index) has been revised to account for the probability and potential volume of runoff events following manure applications. This P Index uses a simplified modeling approach to estimate annual unit area phosphoru...

226

Fertilizer Application Timing Influences Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Over a Growing Season  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial production and consumption of greenhouse gases (GHG) at the soil surface is influenced by temperature and nutrients, so effects of nutrient application on GHG fluxes should be greater as conditions warm during the growing season. We designed a replicated (n=5) field experiment to test for...

227

Relationships between Extractable Soil Phosphorus and Phosphorus Saturation after Long-Term Fertilizer or Manure Application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Total soil P (TP), soil-test P (STP), and the degree of soil P saturation are affected by long-term P application but relationships between these measurements need to be established for grain production cropping systems to improve P management guidelines. This research studied these relationships fr...

228

Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Two areas of particular interest are safety monitoring and emission monitoring. In safety monitoring, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen at potentially low temperatures is important while for emission monitoring the detection of nitrogen oxides, hydrogen, hydrocarbons and oxygen is of interest. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. (2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this general area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

1997-01-01

229

Commercial Fertilizers in 1933-34.  

E-print Network

.- Campbell Fertilizer Company I Chilean Nitrate Sales Corporation / Davlson-Pick E'ertil~zers. Inc., I East Texas Cotton Oil Company I Farmers Cotton Oil Company Federal Chemical Company, Inc 1 Fidelity Chemical Corporation / Ford Motor Company Gilmer... , regarding fertilizers sold in Texas, information regarding 1 tilizer law, and analysis of samples of the fertilizer sold 'erent manufacturers. The extent to which the various ma1 turers are coming up to their gual counties 3 shown. 'he total sales...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

1934-01-01

230

Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the dissertation focuses on chemical sensing and biosensing applications. For chemical sensing, we describe the characteristics of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as a chemical recognition material and integrate it into the quartz crystal resonator arrays to realize chemically selective microsensor arrays. The quartz crystal resonator array integrated with RTIL doped ionomer is then used to detect the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and to qualitatively and quantitatively discriminate the composition of VOC mixtures. For multianalyte discrimination, we explored the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) technique. For biosensing application, nanoporous gold (np-Au) fabricated by selectively dealloying Ag/Au alloy, is integrated onto the sensor array as an active Raman substrate to provide a special structure for enhancement of Raman signal. Using thiol based biomolecular functionalization in combination with the quartz crystal resonator array based gravimetric sensing and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based molecular identification, both quantitative and qualitative (dual-mode) sensing has been achieved. The use of nanoporous gold electrode enables label-free biomolecular fingerprinting via SERS. 24-mer oligonucleotide binding reaction was investigated to prove the usefulness of np-Au for a possible dual mode sensing application using the proposed sensing system and SERS.

Min, Hwall

231

Miniaturised wireless smart tag for optical chemical analysis applications.  

PubMed

A novel miniaturised photometer has been developed as an ultra-portable and mobile analytical chemical instrument. The low-cost photometer presents a paradigm shift in mobile chemical sensor instrumentation because it is built around a contactless smart card format. The photometer tag is based on the radio-frequency identification (RFID) smart card system, which provides short-range wireless data and power transfer between the photometer and a proximal reader, and which allows the reader to also energise the photometer by near field electromagnetic induction. RFID is set to become a key enabling technology of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), hence devices such as the photometer described here will enable numerous mobile, wearable and vanguard chemical sensing applications in the emerging connected world. In the work presented here, we demonstrate the characterisation of a low-power RFID wireless sensor tag with an LED/photodiode-based photometric input. The performance of the wireless photometer has been tested through two different model analytical applications. The first is photometry in solution, where colour intensity as a function of dye concentration was measured. The second is an ion-selective optode system in which potassium ion concentrations were determined by using previously well characterised bulk optode membranes. The analytical performance of the wireless photometer smart tag is clearly demonstrated by these optical absorption-based analytical experiments, with excellent data agreement to a reference laboratory instrument. PMID:24274311

Steinberg, Matthew D; Kassal, Petar; Tkal?ec, Biserka; Murkovi? Steinberg, Ivana

2014-01-01

232

Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

Not Available

1991-07-01

233

Impact of fertilizer application and urban wastes on the quality of groundwater in the Cambrai Chalk aquifer, Northern France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1975, Europe sets up its policy to limit the degradation and the pollution of the aquatic environments through 30 directives and regulations. In the north of France, the nitrate concentrations measured in the groundwater exceed the water drinking limit fixed at 50 mg/L by the European framework directive in the field of water (2000/60/EC). This high concentration is due to intensive agriculture, industrialization and demographic growth. Several programs were launched in order to resolve this situation: “Ferti-better” or the use of fertilizer in moderation and installation and amelioration of wastewater collect and treatment systems. In order to estimate the influence of the anthropic activities on the quality of groundwater in the “Artois-Picardy” basin, a preliminary validation on parcel and district scale were necessary. The impact of these programs in the “Cambrai district” was evaluated using an integrated approach, which is based on the use of four numerical models: AgriFlux, VS2DT, Modflow and MT3D. The results illustrate an improvement due to the “Ferti-Better” program initiated in 1990 and punctual degradation under urbanized areas. Predictions (2015) show a spatial evolution of nitrates concentration varying with the thickness of unsaturated layer. The integrated model constitutes an efficient tool for predicting the evolution of the groundwater quality. This approach is important to control the application of the new European laws in the water field.

Serhal, Hani; Bernard, Daniel; Khattabi, Jamal El; Sabine, Bastin-Lacherez; Shahrour, Isam

2009-06-01

234

The Application of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensor Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing miniature chemical sensors for a variety of applications including fire detection, emissions monitoring, fuel leak detection, and environmental monitoring. Smart Lick and Stick sensor technology which integrates a sensor array, electronics, telemetry, and power into one microsystem are being developed. These microsystems require low power consumption for long-term aerospace applications. One approach to decreasing power consumption is the use of nanotechnology. Nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) carbon monoxide (CO) sensors developed previously by this group have been successfully used for fire detection and emissions monitoring. This presentation will briefly review the overall NASA GRC chemical sensor program and discuss our further effort in nanotechnology applications. New carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing material using doped nanocrystalline SnO2 will be discussed. Nanocrystalline SnO2 coated solid electrolyte CO2 sensors and SnO2 nanorod and nanofiber hydrogen (H2) sensors operated at reduced or room temperatures will also be discussed.

Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.

2007-01-01

235

Suppression of ammonia volatilization from a paddy soil fertilized with anaerobically digested cattle slurry by wood vinegar application and floodwater management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia (NH3) volatilization from animal manure application is detrimental to the environment, crop nutrition and human health and investigations into mitigation strategies are a great challenge among agro-environmental issues. The objective of the present study was to reduce NH3 volatilization in a paddy soil fertilized with anaerobically digested cattle slurry (ADCS). In laboratory experiments, several mitigation methods for NH3 volatilization

Khin Thawda Win; Koki Toyota; Takashi Motobayashi; Masaaki Hosomi

2009-01-01

236

Cottonseed, Protein, Oil Yields and Oil Properties as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization and Foliar Application of Potassium and a Plant Growth Retardant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, at the Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt. The aim was to investigate the effect of N-fertilization rate (95.2 and 142.8 kg of N\\/ha, applied as ammonium nitrate containing 33.5% N in two equal doses at 6 and 8 weeks after sowing), together with foliar application of potassium (applied as potassium sulfate containing

Zakaria M. Sawan; Saeb A. Hafez; Ahmed E. Basyony; Abou-El-Ela R. Alkassas

2006-01-01

237

Effects of irrigation and nitrogen application rates on nitrate nitrogen distribution and fertilizer nitrogen loss, wheat yield and nitrogen uptake on a recently reclaimed sandy farmland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of drinking water has shown an increase in nitrate-nitrogen (NO3?-N) concentration in groundwater in some areas of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China. A combination of careful irrigation\\u000a and nitrogen (N) management is needed to improve N uptake efficiency and to minimize fertilizer N loss. A 2-year experiment\\u000a investigated the effects of different irrigation and N application rates on

Qi Wang; Fengrui Li; Lin Zhao; Enhe Zhang; Shangli Shi; Wenzhi Zhao; Weixin Song; Maureen M. Vance

2010-01-01

238

Bioinspired greigite magnetic nanocrystals: chemical synthesis and biomedicine applications  

PubMed Central

Large scale greigite with uniform dimensions has stimulated significant demands for applications such as hyperthermia, photovoltaics, medicine and cell separation, etc. However, the inhomogeneity and hydrophobicity for most of the as prepared greigite crystals has limited their applications in biomedicine. Herein, we report a green chemical method utilizing ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to synthesize bioinspired greigite (Fe3S4) magnetic nanocrystals (GMNCs) with similar structure and magnetic property of magnetosome in a large scale. ?-CD and PEG is responsible to control the crystal phase and morphology, as well as to bound onto the surface of nanocrystals and form polymer layers. The GMNCs exhibit a transverse relaxivity of 94.8?mM?1s?1 which is as high as iron oxide nanocrystals, and an entrapment efficiency of 58.7% for magnetic guided delivery of chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. Moreover, enhanced chemotherapeutic treatment of mice tumor was obtained via intravenous injection of doxorubicin loaded GMNCs. PMID:24141204

Feng, Mei; Lu, Yang; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Yun-Jun; Gao, Huai-Ling; Dong, Liang; Xu, Wei-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

2013-01-01

239

Bioinspired greigite magnetic nanocrystals: chemical synthesis and biomedicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale greigite with uniform dimensions has stimulated significant demands for applications such as hyperthermia, photovoltaics, medicine and cell separation, etc. However, the inhomogeneity and hydrophobicity for most of the as prepared greigite crystals has limited their applications in biomedicine. Herein, we report a green chemical method utilizing ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to synthesize bioinspired greigite (Fe3S4) magnetic nanocrystals (GMNCs) with similar structure and magnetic property of magnetosome in a large scale. ?-CD and PEG is responsible to control the crystal phase and morphology, as well as to bound onto the surface of nanocrystals and form polymer layers. The GMNCs exhibit a transverse relaxivity of 94.8 mM-1s-1 which is as high as iron oxide nanocrystals, and an entrapment efficiency of 58.7% for magnetic guided delivery of chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. Moreover, enhanced chemotherapeutic treatment of mice tumor was obtained via intravenous injection of doxorubicin loaded GMNCs.

Feng, Mei; Lu, Yang; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Yun-Jun; Gao, Huai-Ling; Dong, Liang; Xu, Wei-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

2013-10-01

240

Marine derived polysaccharides for biomedical applications: chemical modification approaches.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp) and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems. PMID:18830142

d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Malinconico, Mario; Laurienzo, Paola

2008-01-01

241

Incremental Integration Tools for Chemical Engineering: An Industrial Application of Triple Graph  

E-print Network

Incremental Integration Tools for Chemical Engineering: An Industrial Application of Triple Graph a framework which constitutes an industrial application of triple graph grammars. It solves integration structures, and consistency maintenance. This paper reports on an industrial application of triple graph

Westfechtel, Bernhard

242

Food benefit and climate warming potential of nitrogen fertilizer uses in China  

E-print Network

Chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer has long been used to help meet the increasing food demands in China, the top N fertilizer consumer in the world. Growing concerns have been raised on the impacts of N fertilizer uses on ...

Tian, Hanqin

243

A case study of a precision fertilizer application task generation for wheat based on classified hyperspectral data from UAV combined with farm history data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different remote sensing methods for detecting variations in agricultural fields have been studied in last two decades. There are already existing systems for planning and applying e.g. nitrogen fertilizers to the cereal crop fields. However, there are disadvantages such as high costs, adaptability, reliability, resolution aspects and final products dissemination. With an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based airborne methods, data collection can be performed cost-efficiently with desired spatial and temporal resolutions, below clouds and under diverse weather conditions. A new Fabry-Perot interferometer based hyperspectral imaging technology implemented in an UAV has been introduced. In this research, we studied the possibilities of exploiting classified raster maps from hyperspectral data to produce a work task for a precision fertilizer application. The UAV flight campaign was performed in a wheat test field in Finland in the summer of 2012. Based on the campaign, we have classified raster maps estimating the biomass and nitrogen contents at approximately stage 34 in the Zadoks scale. We combined the classified maps with farm history data such as previous yield maps. Then we generalized the combined results and transformed it to a vectorized zonal task map suitable for farm machinery. We present the selected weights for each dataset in the processing chain and the resultant variable rate application (VRA) task. The additional fertilization according to the generated task was shown to be beneficial for the amount of yield. However, our study is indicating that there are still many uncertainties within the process chain.

Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Kleemola, Jouko; Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Honkavaara, Eija; Saari, Heikki; Mäkynen, Jussi; Rajala, Ari

2013-10-01

244

[Effects of controlled release nitrogen fertilizer application on dry matter accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize].  

PubMed

Effects of four controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers, including two kinds of polyester coated urea (Ncau, CRU) and phosphate (NhnP) and humic acid (NhnF) coated urea on assimilates accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize were investigated in a mode of one-time fertilization at the regional N recommended rate. The results showed that the N release curves of the two controlled release fertilizers CRU and Ncau matched well with the summer maize N uptake. Compared with the regional N recommendation rate, CRU could increase maize yield by 4.2% and Ncau could maintain the same yield level. CRU significantly increased the dry matter accumulation rate after anthesis of summer maize, but Ncau markedly increased the dry matter accumulated ratio before anthesis. Meanwhile, CRU could reduce the apparent N losses by 19 kg N x hm(-2) in the case of large precipitation. However, NhnF and NhnP caused the yield losses by 0.1%-8.9%, and enhanced the apparent N losses. Therefore, both CRU and Ncau with one-time fertilization could be a simplified alternative to the "total control, staging regulation" fertilization technique at the regional N recommended rate for summer maize production. PMID:25223033

Si, Dong-Xia; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Chen, Xin-Ping; Lü, Fu-Tang

2014-06-01

245

Abundant and stable char residues in soils: Implications for soil fertility and carbon sequestration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large-scale soil application of biochar might enhance soil fertility and increase crop production, while also sequestering atmospheric carbon. Reaching these outcomes requires an undertanding of the chemical structure of biochar. Using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...

246

P-31 NMR characterization of fertilizer residual P in cotton/corn fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient. However, over application of P to soils has raised concerns because excess P in runoff could result in eutrophication of fresh water bodies. A field experiment of poultry litter (PL) and chemical fertilizer (CF) to a Cecil soil used for cotton and corn...

247

Center-pivot irrigation system for independent site-specific management of water and chemical application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of lateral-move and center-pivot irrigation systems equipped for spatially variable water application and those equipped with an independent chemical application system have largely evolved independently. Integration of independent site-specific water and chemical application with l...

248

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations 1 Table...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63...Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations As...

2010-07-01

249

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop. Global Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Publication Date: 1/24/2011 Copyright 2011. The Trustees of Columbia University

Columbia University

250

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Asia Lambert Conformal  

E-print Network

of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values-and-manure Asia Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Publication Date: 1/24/2011 Kg/ha of Phosphorus FertilizerGlobal Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: Asia Lambert Conformal 0 500 Kilometers Amount

Columbia University

251

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Australia Albers  

E-print Network

of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values-and-manure Oceania Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Publication Date: 1/24/2011 Kg/ha of Phosphorus FertilizerGlobal Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: Australia Albers 0 500 Kilometers Amount

Columbia University

252

The effect of phosphate bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) on the growth of marigold.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to study the individual and combined effect of bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) and chemical phosphate fertilizer on the floral quality of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). A factorial experiment was carried out which consisted of two factors: i) inoculation of seed, root and seed + root with bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) and control; application of chemical phosphorus at 100 mg I(-1), 200 mg l(-1), 300 mg l(-1) and 400 mg l(-1) levels. In this study, flowering time, display life, fresh and dry weight of flower, available soil phosphorus, shoot phosphorus and carotenoid content were evaluated. Results showed that the combined effect of bio- and chemical fertilizer was insignificant (p < 1 and 5%) for most of the characteristics studied except for shoot phosphorus and carotenoid content in petals. The lowest time to flowering (64.67 days) was obtained in seeds and transplant roots inoculation to bio-fertilizer x 400 mg I(-1) P. Maximum display life (25.35), fresh weight (16.20 g), carotenoid content (3.903 mg g(-1) d. wt.) and concentration of P in shoots (0.352%) were observed in transplant roots inoculation to bio-fertilizer x 400 mg I(-1) P. PMID:24665775

Zaredost, Fatemeh; Hashemabadi, Davood; Ziyabari, Maryam Barari; Torkashvand, Ali Mohammadi; Kaviani, Behzad; Solimandarabi, Maryam Jadid; Zarchini, Mohammad

2014-03-01

253

Chemical functionalization of hyaluronic acid for drug delivery applications.  

PubMed

Functionalized hyaluronic acid (HA) derivatives were obtained by ring opening mechanism of maleic anhydride (MA). FTIR and H(1) NMR spectroscopy were used to confirm the chemical linkage of MA on the hyaluronic acid chains. Thermal analysis (TG-DTG and DSC) and GPC data for the new products revealed the formation of new functional groups, without significant changes in molecular weight and thermal stability. New gels based on hyaluronic acid modified derivatives were obtained by acrylic acid copolymerization in the presence of a redox initiation system. The resulted circular and interconnected pores of the gels were visualized by SEM. The release profiles of an ophthalmic model drug, pilocarpine from tested gels were studied in simulated media. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity and cell proliferation properties indicates the potential of the new systems to be used in contact with biological media in drug delivery applications. PMID:24656366

Vasi, Ana-Maria; Popa, Marcel Ionel; Butnaru, Maria; Dodi, Gianina; Verestiuc, Liliana

2014-05-01

254

Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

2009-01-01

255

Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models in chemical risk assessment.  

PubMed

Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting "in silico" tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application-health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The "human PBPK model toolkit" is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures. PMID:22523493

Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

2012-01-01

256

Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models in Chemical Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting “in silico” tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application—health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The “human PBPK model toolkit” is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures. PMID:22523493

Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

2012-01-01

257

Fertilizer Facts: May 1998, Number 19 Fertilizing Spring Wheat with Phosphorus  

E-print Network

Fertilizer Facts: May 1998, Number 19 Fertilizing Spring Wheat with Phosphorus Grant Jackson, Gregg and north-central Montana spring wheat producers have applied phosphorus (P) with the seed while planting intensified during the 1990s to relate spring wheat response to P fertilizer applications and the Olsen

Lawrence, Rick L.

258

Fertilizing Trees and Shrubs Why fertilize?  

E-print Network

to phosphorus or potassium fertilization. Soil tests will determine whether soil phosphorus and potassium levels and pollute ground water. Phosphorus fertilizer particles washed by rainfall into lakes or streams contributeFertilizing Trees and Shrubs Why fertilize? Many trees and shrubs in the home landscape receive

New Hampshire, University of

259

Comparison of sludge and fertilizer applications on establishment and growth of seedlings of two sweetgum ecotypes endomycorrhizal with Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatus. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

A 3 part study was conducted. Part 1 investigated the effects of sludge or fertilizer applications on the development of sweetgum progeny from two mother trees. Significant differences were found between the genetically different half-sib progeny. Non fertilized control seedlings had significantly better survival rates than treated trees. This can be directly correlated to competition between trees and grass. In a second study the grass was controlled, and only fertilizer and endomycorrhizal symbionts were used. Trees in this study are significantly taller than the previous study which demonstrates the importance of grass control. At the time of planting, nonmycorrhizal trees were 15% taller than mycorrhizal trees. Nonmycorrhizal trees received 800 ppM P while mycorrhizal trees received 30 ppM P. Most significant is that all trees were mycorrhizal at the end of the second year. A third outplanting experiment was installed to compare root collar diameters of progeny from two genotypic lines of sweetgum. Data suggest that root collar diameters of nonmycorrhizal seedlings grown under low soil phosphorus regimes are a good indicator of future vigor.

Kormanik, P.P.

1982-01-01

260

Variations in the natural ¹?N abundance of Brassica chinensis grown in uncultivated soil affected by different nitrogen fertilizers.  

PubMed

To further investigate the method of using ?(15)N as a marker for organic vegetable discrimination, the effects of different fertilizers on the ?(15)N in different growing stages of Brassica chinensis (B. chinensis) grown in uncultivated soil were investigated with a pot experiment. B. chinensis was planted with uncultivated soil and different fertilizer treatments and then harvested three times in three seasons consecutively. For the spring experiments in the years of 2011 and 2012, the ?(15)N value of B. chinensis, which increased due to organic manure application and decreased due to chemical fertilizer application, was significantly different (p < 0.05) with manure treatment and chemical treatment. The ?(15)N value of vegetables varied among three growing stages and ranged from +8.6‰ to +11.5‰ for the control, from +8.6‰ to +12.8‰ for the compost chicken manure treatment, from +2.8‰ to +7.7‰ for the chemical fertilizer urea treatment, and from +7.7‰ to +10.9‰ for the compost-chemical fertilizer treatment. However, the ?(15)N values observed in the autumn experiment of 2011 without any fertilizer application increased ranging from +13.4‰ to +15.4‰, + 11.2‰ to +17.7‰, +10.7‰ to +17.1‰, and +10.6‰ to +19.1‰, respectively, for the same treatments mentioned above. This result was not significantly different between manure treatment and chemical treatment. The ?(15)N values of soil obtained in the spring of 2011 during three growing stages were slightly affected by fertilizers and varied in the range of +1.6‰ to +2.5‰ for CK, +4.7‰ to +6.5‰ for compost treatment, +2.1‰ to +2.4‰ for chemical treatment, and +2.7‰ to +4.6‰ for chemical-compost treatment, respectively. High ?(15)N values of B. chinensis were observed in these experiments, which would be useful to supplement a ?(15)N database for discriminating organic vegetables. Although there was a significant difference between manure treatment and chemical treatment, it was still difficult to discriminate whether a labeled organic vegetable was really grown without chemical fertilizer just with a fixed high ?(15)N value, especially for the vegetables planted simultaneously with chemical and compost fertilizer. PMID:25369912

Yuan, Yuwei; Hu, Guixian; Zhao, Ming; Chen, Tianjin; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Qiang

2014-11-26

261

Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences  

PubMed Central

The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission (PET) scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or 1H) including carbon (13C) or phosphorus (31P). In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region of interest (ROI or voxel) or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI). Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using 13C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-13C]-glycine. This is the first report of 13C CSI in a marine organism. PMID:20948912

Lee, Haakil; Tikunov, Andrey; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.

2010-01-01

262

Applications of molecular Rydberg states in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecules in high Rydberg states, in which one electron has been excited into a hydrogenic orbital of large mean radius, have many unusual properties compared to ground state molecules. These properties, which are reviewed in this article, make them suitable for a diverse and growing number of applications in chemical dynamics. The most recent methods for studying molecular Rydberg states using high-resolution spectroscopy and theory, including effects of electric fields, are described here. An important feature is the high susceptibility of Rydberg states to external field perturbation which not only has a profound effect on the observable energy levels, spectroscopic intensities and lifetimes, but is also useful for state-selective detection through field ionization. The large dipole moment that can be created in a field is also useful for controlling the motion of molecules in Rydberg states. The applications reviewed here include: ZEKE (zero kinetic energy), MATI (mass-analyzed threshold ionization) and PIRI (photo-induced Rydberg ionization) spectroscopy; pulsed-field recombination of ions and electrons; the state selection and reaction of molecular ions; collisions of Rydberg states with neutrals, ions and metallic surfaces; Rydberg tagging and imaging of products of photodissociation; and the control of translational motion and orientation via the use of inhomogeneous fields.

Softley, T. P.

263

New industrial heat pump applications to a specialty chemicals refinery  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a study sponsored by US DOE Office of Industrial Programs titled Advanced Heat Pump Application and Evaluation.'' Two energy conservation retrofit options as described below, are identified with a combined total savings of about $245,000/year giving a payback period of 1.3 years. These savings represent about 41% reduction of current energy consumption in the chemical industry. Passive heat integration option calls for increasing the process to process heat exchanger area in the HDS and Main Fractionation Units by 3426 square feet. The semi-open cycle (Mechanical Vapor Recompression -- MVR) heat pump option compresses the overhead vapors of the deisohexanizer (T-7) column and condenses it to partially supply the heat required by the same column reboiler. Several electrically driven MVR heat pump applications were studied. Heat integration alone looks very attractive; however, it cannot satisfy the total reboiler duty of the deisohexanizer column (T-7). A combination of heat integration and MVR heat pump completely satisfies the T-7 reboiler duty and eliminates the fired heater from service. The combined option yields a payback period of 1.3 years, which is well within the period specified by the plant. 9 refs., 35 figs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1990-03-01

264

Intelligent Chemical Sensor Systems for In-space Safety Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future in-space and lunar operations will require significantly improved monitoring and Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) throughout the mission. In particular, the monitoring of chemical species is an important component of an overall monitoring system for space vehicles and operations. For example, in leak monitoring of propulsion systems during launch, inspace, and on lunar surfaces, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen and other fuels is important to avoid explosive conditions that could harm personnel and damage the vehicle. Dependable vehicle operation also depends on the timely and accurate measurement of these leaks. Thus, the development of a sensor array to determine the concentration of fuels such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine as well as oxygen is necessary. Work has been on-going to develop an integrated smart leak detection system based on miniaturized sensors to detect hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine, and oxygen. The approach is to implement Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors incorporated with signal conditioning electronics, power, data storage, and telemetry enabling intelligent systems. The final sensor system will be self-contained with a surface area comparable to a postage stamp. This paper discusses the development of this "Lick and Stick" leak detection system and it s application to In-Space Transportation and other Exploration applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Neudeck, P. G.; Makel, D. B.; Ward, B.; Liu, C. C.

2006-01-01

265

Tillage and Fertilizer Application Methods Effects on Greenhouse Gas Flux (CO2, CH4 and N2O)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from soil. Thus, a field experiment was conducted at the Sand Mountain Research Station located in the Appalachian Plateau region of Northeast Alabama on a Hartsells fine sandy loam. Measure...

266

Organic and inorganic inputs and losses in an irrigated corn field after inorganic fertilizer or manure application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Little is known about inorganic fertilizer or manure effects on organic carbon (OC) and inorganic C (IC) losses from a furrow irrigated field, particularly in the context of other system C gains or losses. In 2003 and 2004, we measured dissolved organic and inorganic C (DOC, DIC), particulate OC an...

267

EFFECTS OF SWINE LAGOON EFLUENT AND COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON PHOSPHORUS STATUS OF AN ACID AND ALKALINE SOIL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two separate field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of swine lagoon effluent relative to inorganic fertilizer on the phosphorus sorption, desorption and soil test P of an acidic Vaiden (very fine, montmorillonitic, thermic, Aquic Dystrudert) and an alkaline Okolona (fine, montmoril...

268

Stochastic models in floral biology and its application to the study of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fertility  

E-print Network

and seed production. In this article, a probabilistic model of plant inflorescence fertility is presented the inflorescence and related them to our model. The model reproduces well the distribution of the number of ovules of opening (early or late) within the inflorescence [1], [3], [4]. During inflorescence development

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

No-Tillage Soybean Response to Banded and Broadcast and Direct and Residual Fertilizer Phosphorus and Potassium Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved P and K management systems for no-tillage soybean significant effect on yield and P uptake. The Ham and (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) may be needed to increase yield and profits. This study evaluated the response of soybean to fertilizer P or K rates Caldwell (1978) paper did not report the tillage system and placement as well as residual and

Samuel S. J. Buah; Thomas A. Polito; Randy Killorn

2000-01-01

270

Zinc Fertilization of Avocado Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for Zn fertilization of 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees were evaluated in a 2-year field experiment on a commercial orchard located on a calcareous soil (pH 7.8) in Ventura County, Calif. The fertilization methods included soil- or irrigation-applied ZnSO4; irrigation-applied Zn chelate (Zn- EDTA); trunk injection of Zn(NO3)2, and foliar applications of ZnSO4, ZnO, or Zn metalosate. Other

David E. Crowley; Woody Smith

271

Commercial Fertilizers in 1945-46.  

E-print Network

, Texas, and belonged to W. C. Sherwood and others of La Feria, Texas. This material was being sold il- legally because the company had not .registered their product in accordance with provisions of the Texas Fertilizer Law. Chemical analysis did... ........................................................................ 13 Relation of Valuation Guaranteed to Valuation Found .............................. 13 How to Get Free Analysis of Fertilizers ........................................................ 14 .......................................... Publications...

Ogier, T. L. (Thomas Louis); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

1946-01-01

272

Commercial Fertilizers in 1948-49.  

E-print Network

.28 Fidelity Chemical Corporation ........................ 28.44 Ford Motor Company ......................... ...... 61.50 Gilmer Cotton Oil &Fertilizer ...................... 29.50 Gorman Peanut Company ................... ... ....... 28.00 International... ........................................................................................ 13 Relation of Valuation Guaranteed to Valuation Found ............................ 15 How to Secure Free Analysis of Fertilizers ........................................ 17 .................................... Publications Dealing with the Use...

Ogier, T. L. (Thomas Louis); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

1949-01-01

273

Effect of Expansion of Fertilization Width on Nitrogen Recovery Rate in Tea Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cultivation of tea plants, large amounts of nitrogen, compared to amounts used for other crops, have been used for fertilization, resulting in degradation of the soil environment between hedges and an increase in concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in surrounding water systems. To reduce the environmental load, new methods of fertilizer application are needed. This report deals with the effect of expansion of fertilization width on nitrogen recovery rate in tea plants. In the test field, 15 N-labeled ammonium sulfate had been applied over custom fertilization by between-hedges fertilization (fertilization width of 15cm) and wide fertilization (fertilization width of 40cm), nitrogen recovery rates were compared. Expansion of fertilization width resulted in an approximately 30% increase in nitrogen recovery rate compared to that in the case of fertilization between hedges. Increases in nitrogen recovery rates were observed with fallapplied fertilization, spring-applied fertilization, pop-up fertilizer application, and summerapplied fertilization.

Nonaka, Kunihiko; Hirono, Yuhei; Watanabe, Iriki

274

Emission factors for organic fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from Japanese agricultural soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction Agricultural fields are significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is one of the important greenhouse gases with a contribution of 7.9% to the anthropogenic global warming (IPCC, 2007). Direct fertilizer-induced N2O emission from agricultural soil is estimated using the emission factor (EF). National greenhouse gas inventory of Japan defines direct EF for N2O associated with the application of chemical and organic fertilizers as the same value (0.62%) in Japanese agricultural fields. However, it is necessary to estimate EF for organic fertilizers separately, because there are some differences in factors controlling N2O emissions (e.g. nutrient content) between chemical and organic fertilizers. The purpose of this study is to estimate N2O emissions and EF for applied organic fertilizers in Japanese agricultural fields. 2. Materials and Methods We conducted the experiments at 10 prefectural agricultural experimental stations in Japan (Yamagata, Fukushima, Niigata, Ibaraki, Aichi, Shiga, Tokushima, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, and Kagoshima) to consider the variations of cultivation and environmental conditions among regions. Field measurements had been conducted for 2-2.5 years during August 2010-April 2013. Each site set experimental plots with the applications of composted manure (cattle, swine, and poultry), chemical fertilizer, and non-nitrogen fertilizer as a control. The annual amount of applied nitrogen ranged from 16 g-N m-2 y-1 to 60 g-N m-2 y-1 depending on cropping system and cultivated crops (e.g. cabbage, potato) at each site. N2O fluxes were measured using a closed-chamber method. N2O concentrations of gas samples were measured with gas chromatography. The EF value of each fertilizer was calculated as the N2O emission from fertilizer plots minus the background N2O emission (emission from a control plot), and was expressed as a percentage of the applied nitrogen. The soil NH4+ and NO3-, soil temperature, precipitation, and WFPS (water filled pore space) were also measured. 3. Results and Discussion The large N2O emissions from soils were mainly observed after the rain following fertilizer application from spring through fall. However, N2O emissions were limited at some sites where crops were cultivated during winter because of low soil temperature. The mean annual N2O emissions and EFs for sites varied depending on the type of applied fertilizers. The mean annual N2O emission (× standard deviation) for non-nitrogen fertilizer was the smallest (110 × 140 mg-N m-2), followed in order by those for cattle manure (280 × 327 mg-N m-2), swine manure (454 × 463 mg-N m-2), chemical fertilizer (464 × 587 mg-N m-2), and poultry manure (480 × 523 mg-N m-2). Hence, mean EF for cattle manure was 0.31 × 0.28%, followed in order by those for swine manure (0.56 × 0.77%), poultry manure (0.88 × 1.04%), and chemical fertilizer (0.89 × 1.22%), while significant differences in EFs were not found among fertilizers. The N2O emissions and EFs differed among sites. The N2O emissions from Andosol soil were found to be smaller than those from other soil types. There were no significant correlation between annual N2O emission and annual mean air temperature or precipitation. The differences in soil physical and chemical properties would result in variations in N2O emissions and EFs among regions.

Sano, T.; Nishina, K.; Sudo, S.

2013-12-01

275

Development and Application of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors For Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring and control, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. This paper discusses the needs of space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (Nox, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. Demonstration and application these sensor technologies will be described. The demonstrations range from use of a microsystem based hydrogen sensor on the Shuttle to engine demonstration of a nanocrystalline based sensor for NO, detection. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, A.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; Hall, G.

1990-01-01

276

Terahertz spectroscopy for chemicals and biological sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) radiation offers innovative sensing and imaging technologies that can provide information unavailable through other conventional electromagnetic techniques. With the advancement of THz technologies, THz sensing will impact a broad range of areas. This thesis focuses on the use of THz spectroscopy for sensing applications including explosives detection, pharmaceutical identification and biological characterization. Using both a THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system and a Fourier transform far-infrared spectrometer (FT-FIR), a THz spectral database of explosives and related compounds (ERCs) in the range of 0.1-20 THz was established. The transmission measurements show good agreement with the diffuse reflectance measurements, which are more feasible for practical applications. Density Functional Theory was employed to calculate structures and vibrational modes of several important ERCs and the calculated spectra are in good accordance with the experimental data in the 3-20 THz range. The detection and identification of the explosive RDX using diffusely reflected THz waves were also demonstrated. THz-TDS was applied successfully for pharmaceutical study, such as investigating drug interactions, as well as identifying hydrated and anhydrous drugs, based upon the intermolecular vibrational modes of drug substances. Dehydrations and complex solid state reactions of pharmaceutical materials were studied with THz-TDS and the reaction kinetics was successfully probed. These investigations have opened new avenues for using THz technologies in pharmaceutical science and industry. THz spectra of amino acids, purines and other biomolecules were recorded. Most of these solid-state biocompounds have THz spectral features in the 0.1-3.0 THz range. THz spectroscopy of solid-state proteins and bioactive protein micro suspensions in organic media was studied and their THz absorption features may reflect their collective vibrational modes which could be used to probe their functional 3D conformation states. Owing to the high sensitivity of differential THz-TDS, it was successfully used to sense the minute change of biological cell monolayers. The results point to a new way for biosensing applications via differential THz-TDS. As a powerful sensing technique, THz spectroscopy will continue to make profound contribution to the understanding of basic physics, chemistry and biology problems, as well as to the technological applications in chemical and biomedicine sensing areas.

Liu, Hai-Bo

277

Tree Fertilization Soil Analysis  

E-print Network

Tree Fertilization #12;Soil Analysis vs. Foliar Analysis #12;Macronutrients N P K Mg S Ca Micronutrients Fe Mn Zn Mo Cu Cl B #12;Complete fertilizer N P K #12;Fertilizer Analysis Percentages of N P K #12;ANSI A-300 Fertilizer Standard Standards are used to develop contract specifications. Fertilize

278

Adhesion forces controlled by chemical self-assembly and pH, application to robotic  

E-print Network

Adhesion forces controlled by chemical self-assembly and pH, application to robotic microhandling and the gripper surface chemical composition. We propose to control adhesion by using chemical self- assembly the adhesion and to switch from an attractive behaviour to a repulsive behaviour. The pH control can thus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

Application of near infrared spectroscopy to predict chemical composition and energy value  

E-print Network

Application of near infrared spectroscopy to predict chemical composition and energy value for determining the chemical composition and energy value of compound feeds for ruminants. We studied 80 samples equations were developed to determine chemical composition, gross energy (GE), dOM, energy digestibility (d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

17BnG-1999-01 Field Emitter Arrays for Chemical and Biological Warfare Applications  

E-print Network

17BnG-1999-01 Field Emitter Arrays for Chemical and Biological Warfare Applications Problematic of many of the current schemes for biological and chemical defense (BWD and CWD) is that both defense systems are specific to certain chemicals or pathogens. Schemes that provide a more general defense

Mohanty, Saraju P.

281

Biocatalysis: applications and potentials for the chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical industry is exploring the use of renewable feed stocks to improve sustainability, prompting the exploration of bioprocesses for the production of chemicals. Attractive features of biological systems include versatility, substrate selectivity, regioselectivity, chemoselectivity, enantioselectivity and catalysis at ambient temperatures and pressures. However, a challenge facing bioprocesses is cost competitiveness with chemical processes because capital assets associated with the

Stuart M Thomas; Robert DiCosimo; Vasantha Nagarajan

2002-01-01

282

Emissions of ammonia and nitric oxide from an agricultural site following application of different synthetic fertilizers and manures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions were measured by the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) method from a cropland of Chinese cabbage\\u000a over a one and a half month period (September–October, 2006). By applying a combination of three treatment (T) types (comprising\\u000a different proportions of manure, urea, and NPK fertilizer) to the crop field, the effects

Piw Das; Ki-Hyun Kim; Jae-Hwan Sa; W. S. Bae; Jo-Chun Kim; Eui-Chan Jeon

2008-01-01

283

Phosphorus mineralization and microbial biomass in a Florida Spodosol: effects of water potential, temperature and fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus mineralization and microbial biomass were measured in the surface 5?cm of a Spodosol (sandy, siliceous hyperthermic\\u000a Ultic Alaquod) from north-central Florida. Soils from fertilized and unfertilized plantations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were incubated at a range of water potentials (?0, –3, –8, –10 and –1500 kPa) and temperatures (15??C, 25??C and 38??C)\\u000a for 14 days and 42

P. F. Grierson; N. B. Comerford; E. J. Jokela

1999-01-01

284

Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.  

PubMed

Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions. PMID:23562689

Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

2013-06-01

285

Applications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles in the ocean  

E-print Network

Applications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles;#12;University of Washington Abstract Applications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles in the ocean by Roberta Claire Hamme Chair of Supervisory Committee: Professor Steven R

Hamme, Roberta C.

286

Chemical-Help Application for Classification and Identification of Stormwater Constituents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A computer application called Chemical Help was developed to facilitate review of reports for the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The application provides a tool to quickly find a proper classification for any constituent in the NDAMS review sheets. Chemical Help contents include the name of each water-quality property, constituent, or parameter, the section number within the NDAMS review sheet, the organizational levels within a classification hierarchy, the database number, and where appropriate, the chemical formula, the Chemical Abstract Service number, and a list of synonyms (for the organic chemicals). Therefore, Chemical Help provides information necessary to research available reference data for the water-quality properties and constituents of potential interest in stormwater studies. Chemical Help is implemented in the Microsoft help-system interface. (Computer files for the use and documentation of Chemical Help are included on an accompanying diskette.)

Granato, Gregory E.; Driskell, Timothy R.; Nunes, Catherine

2000-01-01

287

Distribution of Phosphorus and Potassium Following Surface Banding of Fertilizer in Conservation Tillage Systems  

E-print Network

phosphorus distribution and sorption in starter fertilizerSoil Phosphorus Movement of available fertilizer P into thephosphorus determined via anion exchange resin membranes in six soil layers following surface band application of liquid fertilizer.

Kovar, John L; Bortolon, Leandro; Karlen, Douglas L

2009-01-01

288

Fertilized water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the most extensive study of nutrients in the nation's water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey finds that the drinking water standard for nitrate, a nutrient commonly derived from fertilizer, was exceeded in 21% of shallow wells in agricultural areas. The standard was exceeded in only 1% of public supply wells and in very few streams.The study indicates that nitrate levels in ground and surface waters are higher in agricultural areas, indicating patterns of contamination related to land use. The highest concentrations of nitrate were in shallow ground water, less than 100 feet below the surface. Concentrations were higher in parts of the Northeast, Midwest, and on the West Coast, with generally lower concentrations in the Southeast.

289

Chemical vapor deposition of nitrides for electronic device applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of boron phosphide (BP), boron nitride (BN), and tungsten nitride (WNx) thin films onto a variety of substrates was investigated. The purpose of the BP and BN studies was to study the viability of depositing and stabilizing the cubic phase of boron nitride (cBN). Tungsten nitride growths were conducted to determine the suitability of novel imido precursors for copper/silicon diffusion barrier applications. Thermodynamic models of various BP, BN, and GaN based systems were developed using BCl3-PCl3-H2, BCl3-NH 3-H2, and Ga-N as reactants, respectively. Results revealed conditions leading to many solid phase domains including BP, cBN, and GaN. Reactant ratios were systematically varied and the influence of HCl and an inert gas (He) was studied. Phase diagrams generated for the strained Ga-N system showed the profound influence of lattice mismatch induced strain energy on a system's thermodynamic equilibrium. The CVD of cubic BP thin films from BCl3, PCl3, and H2 reactants onto silicon, sapphire, diamond, silicon carbide, and nickel substrates revealed a kinetically controlled growth process. Characterization revealed roughly spherical island coalescence growth and little contamination. The BP films were then in-situ nitrided using NH3 diluted in a H2 carrier gas stream in an attempt to obtain cubic BN using the underlying cBP template. Attempts by five other researchers produced contradictory results with film characterization limited mostly to X-ray diffraction (XRD). A much wider array of deposition conditions and analysis techniques were used to characterize films in this study. Results indicate that cBN stabilization may be possible using in-situ cBP nitridation. These are the first results ever confirmed using multiple characterization techniques. Metal-organic CVD (MOCVD) of tungsten nitride thin films was also investigated. Results using a solid-source delivery system were unsuccessful because of the low vapor pressure and poor thermal sublimation profiles of each precursor. Film growths using an ultrasonic delivery system, where the precursors are dissolved into a solvent and injected into the reactor in a nebulized mist, proved to be more successful. Low resistivity WNx films deposited at low temperature were obtained. A U.S. patent application has been submitted as a result of this work.

Johnston, Steven Wayne

290

4.0 Application of Chemical Reaction Models Computerized chemical reaction models based on thermodynamic principles may be used to calculate  

E-print Network

4.0 Application of Chemical Reaction Models Computerized chemical reaction models based. The capabilities of a chemical reaction model depend on the models incorporated into its computer code is an equilibrium chemical reaction model. It was developed with EPA funding by originally combining

291

Characterization of ammonia borane for chemical propulsion applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia borane (NH3BH3; AB), which has a hydrogen content of 19.6% by weight, has been studied recently as a potential means of hydrogen storage for use in fuel cell applications. Its gaseous decomposition products have a very low molecular weight, which makes AB attractive in a propulsion application, since specific impulse is inversely related to the molecular weight of the products. AB also contains boron, which is a fuel of interest for solid propellants because of its high energy density per unit volume. Although boron particles are difficult to ignite due to their passivation layer, the boron molecularly bound in AB may react more readily. The concept of fuel depots in low-earth orbit has been proposed for use in deep space exploration. These would require propellants that are easily storable for long periods of time. AB is a solid at standard temperature and pressure and would not suffer from mass loss due to boil-off like cryogenic hydrogen. The goal of this work is to evaluate AB as a viable fuel in chemical propulsion. Many studies have examined AB decomposition at slow heating rates, but in a propellant, AB will experience rapid heating. Since heating rate has been shown to affect the thermolysis pathways in energetic materials, AB thermolysis was studied at high heating rates using molecular dynamics simulations with a ReaxFF reactive force field and experimental studies with a confined rapid thermolysis set-up using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and FTIR absorption spectroscopy diagnostics. Experimental results showed the formation of NH3, H2NBH2, H2, and at later times, c-(N3B3H6) in the gas phase, while polymer formation was observed in the condensed phase. Molecular dynamics simulations provided an atomistic description of the reactions which likely form these compounds. Another subject which required investigation was the reaction of AB in oxidizing environments, as there were no previous studies in the literature. Oxygen bond descriptions were added to the ReaxFF force field and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to identify important species and reactions in the AB oxidation. Since the thermodynamic properties of many of these species were unknown, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed in the Jaguear 7.8 program using the B3LYP functional and 6-311G**++ basis set to calculate enthalpy and entropy of formation, as well as specific heat as a function of temperature. These results were used to create a gas-phase chemical kinetic mechanism for AB combustion. New elementary reactions (57) were combined with those found in the literature for ammonia and boron oxidation, to form a mechanism of 201 reversible reactions. Results from a simple homogenous, constant pressure and energy calculation are presented in this work. The results show that H2NBH2 can be dehydrogenated via radical attack when temperatures are too low to overcome the hydrogen elimination barrier and pressures are low enough to allow sufficient radicals to form. Molecular dynamics calculations require very high pressures to facilitate reactions over a short simulation time, and show the formation of heavy B/N/H/O molecules, such as HNBOH and H2NB(OH)2. On the other hand, the chemical kinetics calculations at 1 atm show that if the HNBO molecule is further oxidized, the products will likely fission with B-N bond cleavage. The final objective towards the research goal was to study how AB can be effectively integrated into a propulsion application. AB was added to a paraffin wax binder to form a heterogeneous solid fuel matrix. Opposed-flow burner experiments were performed where a flow of gaseous oxygen was impinged on the solid fuel surface and regression rates were measured. Regression rates were shown to increase with small additions of AB, but the condensed phase product build-up at higher AB concentrations limited the solid fuel regression. Solid fuel grains with various amounts of AB were manufactured and tested in a lab scale hybrid rocket engine, where performance parameters such as thrust, chamber pre

Weismiller, Michael

292

Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fission are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for /sup 239/Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

1982-07-07

293

Fertility preservation for age-related fertility decline.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of eggs or ovarian tissue to preserve fertility for patients with cancer has been studied since 1994 with R G Gosden's paper describing restoration of fertility in oophorectomised sheep, and for decades previously by others in smaller mammals. Clinically this approach has shown great success. Many healthy children have been born from eggs cryopreserved with the Kuwayama egg vitrification technique for non-medical (social) indications, but until now very few patients with cancer have achieved pregnancy with cryopreserved eggs. Often, oncologists do not wish to delay cancer treatment while the patient goes through multiple ovarian stimulation cycles to retrieve eggs, and the patient can only start using the oocytes after full recovery from cancer. Ovarian stimulation and egg retrieval is not a barrier for patients without cancer who wish to delay childbearing, which makes oocyte cryopreservation increasingly popular to overcome an age-related decline in fertility. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is an option if egg cryopreservation is ruled out. More than 35 babies have been born so far with cryopreserved ovarian tissue in patients with cancer who have had a complete return of hormonal function, and fertility to baseline. Both egg and ovarian tissue cryopreservation might be ready for application to the preservation of fertility not only in patients with cancer but also in countering the increasing incidence of age-related decline in female fertility. PMID:25283572

Stoop, Dominic; Cobo, Ana; Silber, Sherman

2014-10-01

294

Applications in Synthesis of Commodities and Fine Chemicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channels and cages of microporous and mesoporous materials can be considered as nanoreactors whose properties (topology, morphology, nature of the active site and chemical surroundings) can be finely tuned and fitted to the synthesis of functionalised high-added value molecules, such as commodities and fine chemicals.

Guisnet, Michel; Guidotti, Matteo

295

Application of the Raven UAV for chemical and biological detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the plume tracking algorithms developed for a series of outdoor chemical-stimulant testing conducted at Dugway Proving Ground in 2008 and 2009 employing a Raven UAV equipped with a real-time chemical sensor. The flights were conducted as part of the a program under the sponsorship of the Army JPM NBC Contamination Avoidance and in conjunction with the Army

Ryan Altenbaugh; Jeff Barton; Christopher Chiu; Ken Fidler; Dan Hiatt; Chad Hawthorne; Steven Marshall; Joe Mohos; Vince McHugh; Bill Nicoloff

2010-01-01

296

Commercial fertilizers 1990  

SciTech Connect

US plant nutrient consumption increased 5.5% in 1989--1990 reaching 20.62 million tons. The total for all fertilizer materials was 47.71 million tons, the highest level of distribution since 1984--1985. Nitrogen consumption was 11.08 million tons compared to 10.59 million tons last year--a gain of 4.6 percent. Urea and nitrogen solution use increased by more than 10 percent while the direct application of ammonia remained the same as last year. Phosphate use rose 5.5 percent to 4.34 million tons of P[sub 2]O[sub 5]. Significant increases were recorded for all phosphate materials except concentrated superphosphate. Potash consumption recovered sharply from last year registering a 7.5 percent increase in use to 5.20 million tons of K[sub 2]O. With few exceptions, the gain in fertilizer use in 1989-90 encompassed the entire country. Only 11 states indicated minor declines in consumption while 20 states increased use by more than 10 percent. The six states that comprise the midwest cornbelt and account for 30 percent of total US fertilizer consumption, increased use by 10.5 percent to over 14.4 million tons of material.

Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

1990-12-01

297

Chemical markup, XML, and the World Wide Web. 5. Applications of chemical metadata in RSS aggregators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples of the use of the RSS 1.0 (RDF Site Summary) specification together with CML (Chemical Markup Language) to create a metadata based alerting service termed CMLRSS for molecular content are presented. CMLRSS can be viewed either using generic software or with modular opensource chemical viewers and editors enhanced with CMLRSS modules. We discuss the more automated use of CMLRSS

Peter Murray-rust; Henry S. Rzepa; Mark J. Williamson; Egon L. Willighagen

2004-01-01

298

Selection of chemical products for oilfield applications in Arctic environments  

SciTech Connect

The Kuparuk Oil Field is located on the North Slope of Alaska, well above the Arctic Circle. Kuparuk uses chemicals for a variety of different oil production needs, including corrosion inhibition, emulsion breaking, defoaming, biofouling control, and scale inhibition. The North Slope`s isolated location demands unique logistical support, but it is otherwise accessible by an unpaved road and air service. The Arctic climate provides difficult challenges and requirements for any chemical selection. This article describes some criteria and practical experiences related to selecting the proper chemical products to be used in the Arctic environment.

Powell, D.E.; VanderWende, E. [ARCO, Alaska Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1997-04-01

299

Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds  

SciTech Connect

This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

1991-02-01

300

Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

1987-10-01

301

A portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant.  

PubMed

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisopropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals: nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however, provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protection clothing for its intended use. PMID:3687741

Berardinelli, S P; Rusczek, R A; Mickelsen, R L

1987-09-01

302

Chemically functionalized gold nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on the development and application of gold nanoparticle based detection systems and biomimetic structures. Each class of modified nanoparticle has properties that are defined by its chemical moieties that interface with solution and the gold nanoparticle core. In Chapter 2, a comparison of the biomolecular composition and binding properties of various preparations of antibody oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle conjugates is presented. These constructs differed significantly in terms of their structure and binding properties. Chapter 3 reports the use of electroless gold deposition as a light scattering signal enhancer in a multiplexed, microarray-based scanometric immunoassay using the gold nanoparticle probes evaluated in Chapter 2. The use of gold development results in greater signal enhancement than the typical silver development, and multiple rounds of metal development were found to increase the resulting signal compared to one development. Chapter 4 describes an amplified scanometric detection method for human telomerase activity. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with specific oligonucleotide sequences can efficiently capture telomerase enzymes and subsequently be elongated. Both the elongated and unmodified oligonucleotide sequences are simultaneously measured. At low telomerase concentrations, elongated strands cannot be detected, but the unmodified sequences, which come from the same probe particles, can be detected because their concentration is higher, providing a novel form of amplification. Chapter 5 reports the development of a novel colorimetric nitrite and nitrate ion assay based upon gold nanoparticle probes functionalized with Griess reaction reagents. This assay takes advantage of the distance-dependent plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles and the ability of nitrite ion to facilitate the cross coupling of novel nanoparticle probes. The assay works on the concept of a kinetic end point and can be triggered at the EPA limit for this ion in drinking water. Finally, Chapter 6 describes the synthesis of high density lipoprotein biomimetic nanoparticles capable of binding cholesterol. These structures use a gold nanoparticle core to template the assembly of a mixed phospholipid layer and the adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I. These synthesized structures have the general size and surface composition of natural HDL and bind free cholesterol with a Kd of 4 nM.

Daniel, Weston Lewis

303

Total Fertility Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chart of fertility rates by country showing the very high fertility rates in the least developed countries and the very low fertility rates in the most developed countries as of 2008 according to the CIA world factbook. To maintain stable population, fertility rates must be slightly above 2.

304

HOW DO MANURE AND COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER  

E-print Network

HOW DO MANURE AND COMMERCIAL FERTILIZER PHOSPHORUS SOURCES DIFFER? Larry G. Bundy Department of Soil Science University of Wisconsin-Madison #12;Potential Phosphorus Source Differences · P characteristics · Effects on P losses ­ Runoff ­ Leaching #12;P Source Application Strategies ·Fertilizers applied

Balser, Teri C.

305

Application of Reversible Chemical Reactions for Temperature Amplification  

E-print Network

temperature thermal energy, mechanical and absorption type heat pumps have been proposed and developed so far. This paper addresses itself to the concept of a heat reaction chemical heat pump (HRCHP). The HRCHP concept is aimed to upgrade low temperature...

Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Suciu, D. F.

306

FIELD APPLICATIONS OF CHEMICAL TIME-SERIES SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

Two municipal supply wells in Lakewood, Washington, were found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene, transdichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene. Sequential samples were taken for chemical analyses, in conjunction with drawdown measurement during aquifer (pump) tests desi...

307

Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications  

E-print Network

Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

2009-01-01

308

Impact of the Application Technique on Nitrogen Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Budgets in Case of Energy Maize Fertilized with Biogas Residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite an increasing cultivation of energy maize fertilized with ammonia-rich biogas residues (BR), little is known about the impact of the application technique on gaseous nitrogen (N) losses as well as N budgets, indicative of N use efficiency. To contribute to closing this knowledge gap we conducted a field experiment supplemented by a laboratory incubation study. The field experiment was carried out in Dedelow, located in the Northeastern German Lowlands and characterized by well-drained loamy sand (haplic luvisol). Two treatments with different application technique for BR fertilization - i) trail hoses and ii) injection - were compared to an unfertilized control (0% N). Seventy percent of the applied N-BR was assumed to be plant-available. In 2013, biweekly nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements were conducted during the time period between BR application and maize harvest (18.04.-11.09.2013; 147 days) using non-flow-through non-steady-state chamber measurements. To quantify soil Nmin status, soil samples were taken from 0-30 cm soil depth in the spring (before fertilization) and autumn (after maize harvest). Immediately after BR application, ammonia (NH3) volatilization was measured intensively using the open dynamic chamber Dräger-Tube method. Export of N due to harvest was determined via plant N content (Nharvest). Based on the measured N gas fluxes, N soil and plant parameters, soil N budgets were calculated using a simple difference approach. Values of N output (Nharvest, NN2O_cum and NNH3_cum) are subtracted from N input values (Nfertilizer and Nmin_autumnminus Nmin_spring). In order to correctly interpret N budgets, other N fluxes must be integrated into the budget calculation. Apart from soil-based mobilization and immobilization turnover processes and nitrate leaching, this applies specifically to N2 losses due to denitrification. Therefore, we measured the N2 emissions from laboratory-incubated undisturbed soil cores (250 cm3) by means of the helium incubation approach. With cumulative field emissions of 2.9±0.8 kg N2O-N ha-1 and 3.9±0.4 kg N2O-N ha-1 after trail hose application and injection, respectively, our results showed no clear application effect. NH3-N losses were higher for trail hose application (7.2 kg NH3-N ha-1) compared to injection (5.2 kg NH3-N ha-1). The calculated N budgets showed negative values (accumulative deficit) up to -6 kg N ha-1 and -32 kg N ha-1 for trail hose application and injection, respectively. But differences between treatments were not significant. Overall N budgets were more influenced by plant N uptake (91-96%) than by gaseous N losses (4-9%). However, results from the laboratory incubation indicate that N2 may also be a potentially important pathway of N loss, contributing to 34% of total gaseous N loss, corresponding to 5 kg N2-N ha-1 yr-1.

Andres, Monique; Fränzke, Manuel; Schuster, Carola; Kreuter, Thomas; Augustin, Jürgen

2014-05-01

309

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications  

E-print Network

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

310

REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS OF LUMINESCENCE TO MONITORING OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent analytical literature on the application of luminescence techniques to the measurement of various classes of environmentally significant chemicals has been reviewed. uminescent spectroscopy based methods are compared to other current techniques. lso, examples of recent...

311

Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue  

SciTech Connect

This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica.

Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R

2007-07-01

312

Rapid computation of chemical equilibrium composition - An application to hydrocarbon combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scheme for rapidly computing the chemical equilibrium composition of hydrocarbon combustion products is derived. A set of ten governing equations is reduced to a single equation that is solved by the Newton iteration method. Computation speeds are approximately 80 times faster than the often used free-energy minimization method. The general approach also has application to many other chemical systems.

Erickson, W. D.; Prabhu, R. K.

1986-01-01

313

NEIGHBORHOOD COMPLEXITIES AND SYMMETRY OF CHEMICAL GRAPHS AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantitative measures of molecular complexity are calculated through the application of information-theoretic formalism on chemical graphs. The vertex set of a chemical graph is partitioned into disjoint subsets on the basis of the equivalence of various orders of closed neighbor...

314

Application of the Raven UAV for chemical and biological detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the plume tracking algorithms developed for a series of outdoor chemical-stimulant testing conducted at Dugway Proving Ground in 2008 and 2009 employing a Raven UAV equipped with a real-time chemical sensor. The flights were conducted as part of the a program under the sponsorship of the Army JPM NBC Contamination Avoidance and in conjunction with the Army PM-Unmanned Aircraft Systems, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. This test demonstrated the Raven's ability to autonomously detect and track a chemical plume during a variety of atmospheric conditions. During the testing, the Raven conducted over a dozen flights, tracking outdoor releases of simulated chemical weapons over significant distances. The Raven was cued to the releases with standoff detection systems through Cursor on Target messages. Upon reaching the plume, the Raven used on-board sensors and on-board meteorological data to track the plume autonomously and determine the extent of the plume. Results were provided in real-time to the UAV operator.

Altenbaugh, Ryan; Barton, Jeff; Chiu, Christopher; Fidler, Ken; Hiatt, Dan; Hawthorne, Chad; Marshall, Steven; Mohos, Joe; McHugh, Vince; Nicoloff, Bill

2010-04-01

315

Laser Chemical Processing (LCP)—A versatile tool for microstructuring applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser Chemical Processing (LCP) is presented as a novel microstructuring method for multiple applications. Via the combination\\u000a of a chemical liquid jet and a laser beam, thermochemical and photochemical reactions can be initiated. Due to the free choice\\u000a of the chemistry for the carrier liquid and the laser source, efficient processes can be devised for a large variety of applications.

D. Kray; A. Fell; S. Hopman; K. Mayer; G. P. Willeke; S. W. Glunz

2008-01-01

316

Utilization of biosensors and chemical sensors for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There will be a need for a wide array of chemical sensors for biomedical experimentation and for the monitoring of water and air recycling processes on Space Station Freedom. The infrequent logistics flights of the Space Shuttle will necessitate onboard analysis. The advantages of biosensors and chemical sensors over conventional analysis onboard spacecraft are manifold. They require less crew time, space, and power. Sample treatment is not needed. Real time or near-real time monitoring is possible, in some cases on a continuous basis. Sensor signals in digitized form can be transmitted to the ground. Types and requirements for chemical sensors to be used in biomedical experimentation and monitoring of water recycling during long-term space missions are discussed.

Bonting, S. L.

1992-01-01

317

Nanosized and Nanostructured II-VI Semiconductors: Chemical Sensor Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principles of chemical sensing are considered and examples from the literature of chemical sensors including II-VI semiconductor nanomaterials are given. A new method for improving the discrimination of semiconductor thin-film gas sensors is introduced, which uses the amplitude and phase of the photocurrent response to a modulated light source. Preparation of nanocrystalline CdS and CdSe thin films of various thicknesses (30-200 nm) by physical vapour deposition is described. Data from room temperature studies of the effect of exposure to a set of vapours (water, ethanol, ammonia, acetone) on the film resistance and quartz-crystal microbalance frequency are presented.

Nesheva, Diana

318

Chemical nonequilibrium for interacting bosons: applications to the pion gas  

E-print Network

We consider an interacting pion gas in the regime where thermal but not chemical equilibrium has been reached. Approximate particle number conservation is implemented by a nonvanishing pion chemical potential $\\mu_\\pi$ within a diagrammatic thermal field theory approach, valid in principle for any bosonic field theory in this regime. The resulting Feynman rules are then applied within the context of Chiral Perturbation Theory to discuss thermodynamical quantities of interest for the pion gas such as the free energy, the quark condensate and thermal self-energy. In particular, we derive the $\\mu_\\pi\

D. Fernandez-Fraile; A. Gomez Nicola

2009-08-25

319

Chemical Applications of Electrohydraulic Cavitation for Hazardous Waste Control  

E-print Network

of ultrasound in terms of the total power consumed per mole of p-nitrophenol degraded per liter of water is far superior to UV-photolytic degradation (Kotronarou et aL, 1991). The chemical effects of ultrasound have been explained in terms of reactions...

Hoffmann, M. R.

320

Wet Chemical Synthesis of Aluminum Nanoparticles for UV Plasmonics Applications  

E-print Network

GP-A-12 Wet Chemical Synthesis of Aluminum Nanoparticles for UV Plasmonics, Texas, U.S.A. Aluminum nanoparticles are a promising plasmonic material because aluminum is highly fluorescence, and SERS. In this work, shape and size control of aluminum metal nanoparticles is achieved

321

Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) is an atomically thin sheet of graphite that has traditionally served as a precursor for graphene, but is increasingly attracting chemists for its own characteristics. It is covalently decorated with oxygen-containing functional groups - either on the basal plane or at the edges - so that it contains a mixture of sp2- and sp3-hybridized carbon

Kian Ping Loh; Qiaoliang Bao; Goki Eda; Manish Chhowalla

2010-01-01

322

Metrology and characterization of application specific chemical mechanical polishing pads  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for metrology, characterization, and optimization of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) pad architecture before being put into service. A polishing pad which is made up of polyolefin material instead of conventional polyurethane has been developed. The surface of the pad has been modified to match the hardness of the surface of the material that is being polished.

Parshuram B. Zantye; S. Mudhivarthi; Ashok Kumar; Yaw Obeng

2005-01-01

323

Modified NASA-Lewis chemical equilibrium code for MHD applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A substantially modified version of the NASA-Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Code was recently developed. The modifications were designed to extend the power and convenience of the Code as a tool for performing combustor analysis for MHD systems studies. The effect of the programming details is described from a user point of view.

Sacks, R. A.; Geyer, H. K.; Grammel, S. J.; Doss, E. D.

1979-01-01

324

CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL ASPECTS OF SLUDGE COMPOSTING AND LAND APPLICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A series of six studies was conducted to evaluate selected microbial and chemical aspects of composting and sludge spreading. Ammonia (NH3 was shown to be viricidal at pH 7 to 9). Enzymatic activity was not inhibited when well stabilized or composted sludge containing high concen...

325

Carbon Footprint Calculations: An Application of Chemical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics commonly taught in a general chemistry course can be used to calculate the quantity of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by various human activities. Each calculation begins with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction that produces the CO[subscript 2] gas. Stoichiometry, thermochemistry, the ideal gas law, and dimensional…

Treptow, Richard S.

2010-01-01

326

Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased Corganic and Pextractable concentrations, compared to treatments without plants, reaching the highest values in the treatments combining amendments and plants. After one month of incubation, the dehydrogenase activities in wastes were more than twice in the amended treatments (1.71-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate and sampling period). Nevertheless, wastes from treatments with plants had higher dehydrogenase activities (9.66-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate) than in treatments using only amendments (4.98-22.30 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1), but both were higher than control. The plants in control presented lower fresh biomass than in amended treatments. Plants growth in control was not sufficient to enhance dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes (1.51 and 1.72 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, with/without plants, respectively). The extractable nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn) increased with amendment application, an advantage for remediation purposes. Although extractable Al, As, Na also increased in the same treatments, they remained small. In contrast, extractable Cu and Pb were, generally, lower in amended treatments than in control. The presence of the plant did not increase the concentration of elemental in the extractant solution.

Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

2013-04-01

327

Chemical modification: the key to clinical application of RNA interference?  

PubMed Central

RNA interference provides a potent and specific method for controlling gene expression in human cells. To translate this potential into a broad new family of therapeutics, it is necessary to optimize the efficacy of the RNA-based drugs. As discussed in this Review, it might be possible to achieve this optimization using chemical modifications that improve their in vivo stability, cellular delivery, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, potency, and specificity. PMID:18060019

Corey, David R.

2007-01-01

328

Multidimensional modeling of chemical vapor infiltration: Application to isobaric CVI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidimensional (2D and 3D) chemical vapor infiltration models are formulated and used to simulate densification of isotropic or anisotropic preforms of various geometries using SiC deposition from methyltrichlorosilane. A generalized form of the dusty-gas model for mass transport in anisotropic porous structures is used as a flux model in the pore space, and the multidimensional model equations are solved using

John Y. Ofori; Stratis V. Sotirchos

1997-01-01

329

APPLICABILITY OF PASSIVE MONITORING DEVICES TO MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Commercial passive monitoring devices for volatile organic chemicals were evaluated to determine their potential application to ambient air concentrations (0.1 to 50 ppbv). A high-performance passive device was developed for short-term, low-level monitoring applications. The stai...

330

Cysteine analogs with a free thiol group promote fertilization by reducing disulfide bonds in the zona pellucida of mice.  

PubMed

Archives of cryopreserved sperm harvested from genetically engineered mice, in mouse resource centers, are a readily accessible genetic resource for the scientific community. We previously reported that exposure of oocytes to reduced glutathione (GSH) greatly improves the fertilization rate of frozen-thawed mouse sperm. Application of GSH to in vitro fertilization techniques is widely accepted as a standard protocol to produce sufficient numbers of mice from cryopreserved sperm. However, the detailed mechanism of the enhancement of fertilization mediated by GSH in vitro is not fully understood. Here we focused on the chemical by determining the effects of its amino acid constituents and cysteine analogs on the fertilization of oocytes by frozen-thawed sperm. Furthermore, we determined the stability of these compounds in aqueous solution. We show here that l-cysteine (l-Cys), d-cysteine (d-Cys), or N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) increased the rate of fertilization when added to the medium but did not adversely affect embryo development in vitro or in vivo. The levels of thiol groups of proteins in the zona pellucida (ZP) and the expansion of the ZP were increased by l-Cys, d-Cys, and NAC. These effects were abrogated by the methylation of the thiol group of l-Cys. NAC was the most stable of these compounds in the fertilization medium at 4°C. These results suggest that the thiol groups of cysteine analogs markedly enhance the fertilization rate of mouse oocytes. PMID:25715791

Takeo, Toru; Horikoshi, Yuka; Nakao, Satohiro; Sakoh, Kazuhito; Ishizuka, Yuta; Tsutsumi, Aki; Fukumoto, Kiyoko; Kondo, Tomoko; Haruguchi, Yukie; Takeshita, Yumi; Nakamuta, Yuko; Tsuchiyama, Shuuji; Nakagata, Naomi

2015-04-01

331

Nitrogenous fertilizers: Global distribution of consumption and associated emissions of nitrous oxide and ammonia  

SciTech Connect

The global distribution of nitrogen input via application of chemical nitrogenous fertilizers to agricultural ecosystems is presented. The suite of 1{degrees} (latitude/longitude) resolution data bases includes primary data on fertilizer consumption, as well as supporting data sets defining the distribution and intensity of agriculture associated with fertilizer use. The data were developed from a variety of sources and reflect conditions for the mid-1980s. East Asia, where fertilizer use is increasing at {approximately}10%/year, accounted for {approximately}37% of the total, while North America and western Europe, where fertilizer use is leveling off, accounted for 40% of the world`s total in the mid-1980s. While almost every country consumes urea, {approximately}75% of the large East Asian fertilizer use is supplied by this one fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate, used primarily in the former centrally planned economies of Europe, in West Asia, and in Africa, accounted for about one quarter of global consumption. These data were used to estimate distributions of the annual emission of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) associated with the use of fertilizers. Applying published ranges of emission coefficients for fertilizer types in the data base yields a median emission of 0.1 Tg N{sub 2}O-N, with lower and upper values of 0.03 and 2.0 Tg N{sub 2}O-N in 1984. This equals <1% to {approximately}3% of the total nitrogen applied via commercial fertilizers and represents ,=<1% to 15% of the annual emission of N{sub 2}O from terrestrial sources. Assuming that the {approximately}4% annual increase in consumption of nitrogenous fertilizers during the 1980s corresponds to a {approximately}4% rise in the release of N{sub 2}O-N, yearly increases in emissions from fertilizer use are <0.01 to 0.08 Tg N{sub 2}O-N equal to <1% to 3% of the current growth of atmospheric nitrous oxide. 98 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Matthews, E.

1994-12-01

332

Metrology and characterization of application specific chemical mechanical polishing pads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for metrology, characterization, and optimization of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) pad architecture before being put into service. A polishing pad which is made up of polyolefin material instead of conventional polyurethane has been developed. The surface of the pad has been modified to match the hardness of the surface of the material that is being polished. In this research, we coated the pad with tetraethylorthosilicate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for varying durations of time for optimum pad output. The pad was then extensively characterized using the several standard metrology techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nanoindentation, etc. The CMP performance evaluation of all the candidate pads along with in situ measurement of dynamic coefficients of friction, material removal rate, and acoustic emission was done using CETR CP-4™ bench top CMP tester. There was a correlation and interdependence of the pad coating time and surface chemical, micromechanical, and tribological properties. However, their impact on the pad CMP performance was found to be indirect. Based upon these findings, suggestions were given for final pad architecture for commercialization. The demonstrated methodology can also be implemented for parametric optimization of novel polishing pads in the future.

Zantye, Parshuram B.; Mudhivarthi, S.; Kumar, Ashok; Obeng, Yaw

2005-09-01

333

The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fertility of soil is a capacity for ensuring plants by water, nutrients, air and capacity for making optimal conditions for growth and development of plants. The result of it is a yield. The main characteristic of fertility of soil is maintenance of humus. The humus is important part of organic matter. The supporting of soil fertility is impossible by traditional methods. The amount of receiving mineral fertilizers in agriculture will not increase in future, because mineral fertilizers are very expensive. The mineral fertilizers don't influence on maintenance of total amount of humus in soil and improve the circulation of nutrients. Every hectare of fields have to receive no less than 8-10 tons of organic fertilizers, therefore we will have self-supporting balance of humus and the fertility of soils will be increasing. Consequently we are looking for new types of organic materials and we include them in modern agro technologies. One of them is an organomineral fertilizer (lignitic materials). The humic chemicals in the form of lignitic materials of natrium, potassium and ammonium are permitted for using them in agriculture at the beginning of 1984. The Department of agriculture in Russian Federation considered the problem of using humic chemicals and made a decision to use them on the fields of our country, because the lignitic materials can restore the fertility of our fields. The lignitic materials increase the amount of spore-forming bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycete. Therefore the organic decomposition occurs more strongly, the processes of humification increase the speed and the amount of humus rises in the soil. The new forming humus has a high biological activity and it improves chemical and physical soil properties. The addition of lignitic materials in soil activates different groups of microorganisms, which influence on mobilization of nutrients and transformation from potential to effective fertility. The inclusion of humic fertilizers improves physical, physicochemical properties of soils, its air, water and thermal rate. Humic acids with mineral and organomineral particles of soil form the soil absorbent complex. The inclusion of humic fertilizers promotes the process when humic substances form a very valuable water-stable clumpy-granular structure, which improves water-carrying and water-holding capacity, its air permeability by agglutination of mineral particles with each other. The soils, where humic fertilizers are carried in soils regularly, are more stable for influence of chemical polluting substances (for example, radioactive nuclides, heavy metals, pesticides) than poor soils. The inclusion of humic fertilizers is very important in period of urbanization and cropping on the plough-lands not far from a big industrial area. The lignitic materials tie together the detrimental compounds formed the insoluble complex in soil solution. The detrimental compounds don't go into plants, subsoil waters and atmosphere. The lignitic watering of soils (in concentration from 0.1 to 0.01%) increases biological activity of soil in a man-caused zones and it promotes to stability of plants to detrimental emission of enterprises. Today the problem of processing of sugar-beet industry is very important. In the result of storing sugar-beet wastes the pollution of environment is occurred, examples of this pollution are gassing, salinization of soils and ground waters by filtrational sediments. One of these wastes is defecation sludge. The defecation sludge consists of CaCO3, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and microelements. The technology of receiving N-Ca fertilizer based on defecate was developed because of impossibility of using this waste in pure form. For available data, using of these fertilizers improves the soil fertility and degree of pollution by heavy metals don't exceed an acceptance limits.

Vyborova, Oxana

2010-05-01

334

Variation of rhizosphere bacterial community in watermelon continuous mono-cropping soil by long-term application of a novel bioorganic fertilizer.  

PubMed

The application method for a novel bioorganic fertilizer (BIO) was developed to improve its biocontrol efficacy of Fusarium wilt (Ling et al. 2010). However, its efficacy on controlling Fusarium wilt and the variations of microbial community after long-term application for watermelon production had not been elucidated. To clarify, a 4-years pot experiment of mono-cropping watermelon was conducted. The results revealed that though the disease incidences were increased in all treatments with the increase of continuous cropping years, the treatment of BIO application both in nursery and pot soil always maintained the lowest disease incidence. The real-time PCR results showed that the population of Paenibacillus polymyxa was decreased with continuous cropping years, but in all seasons, the treatment with BIO application both in nursery and pot soil had a highest population of P. polymyxa than the other treatments. On the other hand, the abundance of the pathogen FON was increased with the increase of continuous cropping years and the lowest rate of increase was found by BIO application in both nursery and pot soil. DGGE patterns showed that the bacterial diversity was weakened after mono-cropping of watermelon for 4 years, but the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage resulted in the minimal change of bacterial diversity. More detailed differences on bacterial diversity between control and double application of BIO treatment after 4-years monoculture were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing, which showed the dominant phyla found in both samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the consecutive applications of BIO recruited more beneficial bacteria than control, such as Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Haliangium, Streptomyces. Overall, these results, to a certain extent, approved that the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage could effectively suppress watermelon Fusarium wilt by regulating the rhizosphere bacterial diversity. These results could give some clues that how to regulate the soil microbial community to an appropriate level which can keep the plant healthy and thus control the soil-borne diseases. PMID:24263158

Ling, Ning; Deng, Kaiying; Song, Yang; Wu, Yunchen; Zhao, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

335

Fertility and Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... Kidney Disease Food Allergies Healthy Aging Fertility and Reproduction Top Articles No Image Formula Basics for Healthy ... 2013 Tags Health Pregnancy Weight Loss Fertility and Reproduction Your Health and Your Weight For Women Latest ...

336

Application of surface chemical analysis tools for characterization of nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is\\u000a described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy\\u000a (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), low-energy ion scattering\\u000a (LEIS), and scanning-probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic

Donald R. Baer; Daniel J. Gaspar; Ponnusamy Nachimuthu; Sirnegeda D. Techane; David G. Castner

2010-01-01

337

Application of thermo-chemical models on unstructured meshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical techniques for solving the Euler equations with a generalized thermodynamic and chemistry model on both structured and unstructured meshes are presented. Attention is focused on the use of thermochemical models in the governing equations. In addition, a method for uncoupling the equilibrium chemistry calculations from the flow solver is discussed. For many chemical equilibrium models, multiple roots may exist which causes linear convergence with Newton's method in the uncoupled equilibrium chemistry solver. A technique for accelerating the convergence of a linearly convergent method for equilibrium chemistry calculations is presented.

Applebaum, Michael P.; Mitchell, Curtis R.; Walters, Robert W.; McGrory, William D.

1993-01-01

338

Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application  

PubMed Central

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

339

Deep 16S rRNA pyrosequencing reveals a bacterial community associated with banana Fusarium Wilt disease suppression induced by bio-organic fertilizer application.  

PubMed

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

Shen, Zongzhuan; Wang, Dongsheng; Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

340

Hollow-structured mesoporous materials: chemical synthesis, functionalization and applications.  

PubMed

Hollow-structured mesoporous materials (HMMs), as a kind of mesoporous material with unique morphology, have been of great interest in the past decade because of the subtle combination of the hollow architecture with the mesoporous nanostructure. Benefitting from the merits of low density, large void space, large specific surface area, and, especially, the good biocompatibility, HMMs present promising application prospects in various fields, such as adsorption and storage, confined catalysis when catalytically active species are incorporated in the core and/or shell, controlled drug release, targeted drug delivery, and simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancers when the surface and/or core of the HMMs are functionalized with functional ligands and/or nanoparticles, and so on. In this review, recent progress in the design, synthesis, functionalization, and applications of hollow mesoporous materials are discussed. Two main synthetic strategies, soft-templating and hard-templating routes, are broadly sorted and described in detail. Progress in the main application aspects of HMMs, such as adsorption and storage, catalysis, and biomedicine, are also discussed in detail in this article, in terms of the unique features of the combined large void space in the core and the mesoporous network in the shell. Functionalization of the core and pore/outer surfaces with functional organic groups and/or nanoparticles, and their performance, are summarized in this article. Finally, an outlook of their prospects and challenges in terms of their controlled synthesis and scaled application is presented. PMID:24687906

Li, Yongsheng; Shi, Jianlin

2014-05-28

341

7 CFR 205.203 - Soil fertility and crop nutrient management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soil fertility and crop nutrient management...and Handling Requirements § 205.203 Soil fertility and crop nutrient management...chemical, and biological condition of soil and minimize soil erosion. (b)...

2010-01-01

342

Chemical calibration, performance, validation and applications of the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in aquatic  

E-print Network

-EEQ, Biological estradiol equivalent; BLYES, Bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen; Cal-EEQ,31 Calculated estradiol; YAS, Yeast androgen37 screen; YES, Yeast estrogen screen38 39 1 Introduction40 41 Author and reference compounds...) and to23 critically review the different in situ applications (screening

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

343

Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique in chemical diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range completely noninvasively from outside a container (e.g., pipe, tank, reactor vessel, etc.,). These acoustic parameters, along with their frequency-dependence, can be used to identify various chemicals. This technique can be adapted for a range of chemical diagnostic applications, particularly, in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals may provide appropriate feedback information. Both experimental data and theoretical modeling are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are discussed.

Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Lizon, D.; Hasse, R.

1996-09-01

344

Bioprocessing applications in the management of nuclear and chemical wastes  

SciTech Connect

The projected requirements for waste management and environmental restoration activities within the United States will probably cost tens of billions of dollars annually during the next two decades. Expenditures of this magnitude clearly have the potential to affect the international competitiveness of many US industries and the continued operation of many federal facilities. It is argued that the costs of implementing current technology will be too high unless the standards and schedules for compliance are relaxed. Since this is socially unacceptable, efforts to improve the efficiency of existing technologies and to develop new technologies should be pursued. A sizable research, development, and demonstration effort can be easily justified if the potential for reducing costs can be shown. Bioprocessing systems for the treatment of nuclear and chemically hazardous wastes offer such promise. 11 refs.

Genung, R.K.

1988-01-01

345

Application of Surface Chemical Analysis Tools for Characterization of Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS); low energy ion scattering (LEIS); and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), are briefly summarized. Examples describing the characterization of engineered nanoparticles are provided. Specific analysis considerations and issues associated with using surface analysis methods for the characterization of nanoparticles are discussed and summarized, along with the impact that shape instability, environmentally induced changes, deliberate and accidental coating, etc., have on nanoparticle properties. PMID:20052578

Baer, DR; Gaspar, DJ; Nachimuthu, P; Techane, SD; Castner, DG

2010-01-01

346

Chemical proteomics and its application to drug discovery.  

PubMed

The completion of the human genome sequencing project has provided a flood of new information that is likely to change the way scientists approach the study of complex biological systems. A major challenge lies in translating this information into new and better ways to treat human disease. The multidisciplinary science of chemical proteomics can be used to distill this flood of new information. This approach makes use of synthetic small molecules that can be used to covalently modify a set of related enzymes and subsequently allow their purification and/or identification as valid drug targets. Furthermore, such methods enable rapid biochemical analysis and small-molecule screening of targets thereby accelerating the often difficult process of target validation and drug discovery. PMID:23573640

Jeffery, Douglas A; Bogyo, Matthew

2004-01-15

347

Chemical proteomics and its application to drug discovery.  

PubMed

The completion of the human genome sequencing project has provided a flood of new information that is likely to change the way scientists approach the study of complex biological systems. A major challenge lies in translating this information into new and better ways to treat human disease. The multidisciplinary science of chemical proteomics can be used to distill this flood of new information. This approach makes use of synthetic small molecules that can be used to covalently modify a set of related enzymes and subsequently allow their purification and/or identification as valid drug targets. Furthermore, such methods enable rapid biochemical analysis and small-molecule screening of targets thereby accelerating the often difficult process of target validation and drug discovery. PMID:12566007

Jeffery, Douglas A; Bogyo, Matthew

2003-02-01

348

Long-term fertilization of organic manure led to the succession of Bacillus community in an alluvial-aquic soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term fertilization inevitably influences soil physic-chemical and biological properties. Our previous studies with a long-term fertilization experiment on an alluvial-aquic have revealed that specific Bacillus spp. was observed in organic manure-fertilized soils. The current study investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on the succession of Bacillus community in soils and their functions. The experiment included three fertilizer treatments: organic manure (OM), mineral fertilizers (NPK) and the control (without fertilizers). The results showed that long-term application of chemical fertilizers didn't increase the quantity of soil microbial population as much as organic fertilizers did, but it played an important role in maintaining the diversity and community structure of indigenous Bacilli. Correspondingly, long-term application of organic manure significantly increased the quantity while significantly decreased the diversity of Bacilli community. The ratio of Bacilli/bacteria was more constant in OM treatment than NPK indicating the stability of the response to long-term organic fertilizers. PCR-DGGE and clone library revealed the succession of Bacillus community after long-term application of organic manure and the dominant Bacillus spp occurred in the treatmen OM was Bacillus asahii. Our results also proved that Bacillus asahii was not derived from exogenous organic manure, but one of indigenous bacteria in the soil. Bacillus asahii was induced by the substrate after the application of organic manure, and gradually evolved into dominant Bacillus after 4 to 5 years. With an enzyme assay test of pure species and a soil incubation experiment, we came to a preliminary judgment, that the dominant Bacillus asahii didn't significantly influence the decomposition rate of cellulose and protein in the soil, but it promoted the decomposition of lipids, and could also improve the transformation process from fresh organic matter to humus. Applied organic manure led to the succession of soil microbial community, as a response, the changed microbial community and their activities influenced the turnover of exogenous and native soil organic matter, as well as the residuals of decomposition and microbial metabolisms.

Chen, Ruirui; Lin, Xiangui; Feng, Youzhi; Hu, Junli; Wang, Ruirui

2014-05-01

349

Morphological and chemical characterization of microfabricated fibres for biological applications.  

PubMed

Monodisperse fibres and particulates of different materials with controllable three-dimensional shape, size and chemical composition are of interest in research on toxic respirable fibres as well as wear debris around orthopaedic implants. We have previously demonstrated the production of well-controlled, metal and oxide microfabricated fibres having dimensions 0.1 to 10 microm. While our previous results focused on how controlled fibres can be prepared by microfabrication methods, this paper evaluates property-production relationships for microfabricated fibres. Here we have briefly reviewed the production of 0.1 microm x 0.5 microm x 10 microm microfabricated fibres made by electron beam lithography from evaporated titanium or silicon oxide films using a double lift-off method. We have also analysed the properties of these fibres with respect to morphology and chemical composition, and how they are affected by variations in the production process. Two different solution types have been used to place fibres into liquid suspension and to clean and sterilize them for biological testing. One method involves the use of organic solvents; the other a hydroxide solution and water. While fibre dimensions appear to be material-specific, differences can be corrected for by compensation of the size of the lithographic pattern. Similarly the crystallinity of fibres is material-specific, as is to be expected of evaporated thin films, but should be possible to modify by varying deposition parameters or heat treating, for example. Of the cleaning methods used, the one using an aqueous hydroxide solution is preferred over solvent cleaning, as it is easier to perform and appears to be more effective at removing resist from the fibre suspension. PMID:15348746

Gold, J; Kasemo, B

1997-05-01

350

Recent applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence in chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analytical applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) are reviewed with emphasis on the years 1997–2000. Recent developments are described for the ECL of organics, metal complexes and clusters, cathodic ECL on oxide covered electrodes, ECL based immunosensors, DNA-probe assays and enzymatic biosensors. Mechanisms are given for polyaromatic hydrocarbons, luminol\\/hydrogen peroxide, some cathodic ECL reactions and ruthenium complexes with and without co-reactants.

Karsten A Fähnrich; Miloslav Pravda; George G Guilbault

2001-01-01

351

Fabrication of a monolithic microspectrometer for chemical sensing applications  

SciTech Connect

The development and fabrication of a monolithic spectroscopic micro-sensor for remote, distributed sensing applications is described. A prototype version of this device is being made from PMMA with a volume of 5.7 cm{sub 3} and a weight of less than 7 gm. The design is a modified Czerny-Turner using an immersed 300 lines/mm diffraction grating. All optical surfaces of the spectrometer are on the external surfaces of a solid homogeneous PMMA blank. A combination of diamond turning and ion beam milling were used to fabricate these optical surfaces. The device is designed to operated over a wavelength range from 0.635 to 1.5 {mu}m with a theoretical resolution of 5{angstrom}. The optical signal is introduced into the device by a multi-mode optical fiber from either laser diode or broadband (mini tungsten-halogen) light sources. Both the size and weight of this device lends itself to a variety of remote, distributed sensing applications including environmental monitoring and manufacturing process control. While expensive, ultra-precision fabrication processes such as diamond turning and ion beam milling are being used to fabricate this prototype device; it is recognized that most application will require a number of low cost micro-sensors. Approaches for low cost manufacturing of large quantities of this type of microsensor will be also be considered.

Egert, C.M.; Rajic, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

1994-12-31

352

Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility.  

PubMed

Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos. PMID:21269884

Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P

2011-03-01

353

Commercial fertilizers 1992  

SciTech Connect

Fertilizer consumption information in the USA for 1992 submitted by state regulatory officials is presented. This includes total sales or shipments for farm and non-farm use. Liming materials were excluded. Materials used for manufacture or blending of reported fertilizers or for use in other fertilizers are excluded to avoid double-counting. The consumption of multiple-nutrient and single-nutrient fertilizers is listed. Dry bulk, fluid, and bagged classes are given. Typical fertilizers include: anhydrous ammonia, aqua ammonia, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium nitrates, ammonium sulfates, phosphoric acid, superphosphates, potassium chlorides, and potassium sulfates.

Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

1992-12-01

354

Toxicity of pesticide and fertilizer mixtures simulating corn production to eggs of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).  

PubMed

Many reptiles oviposit in soils associated with agricultural landscapes. We evaluated the toxicity of a pesticide and fertilizer regime similar to those used in corn production in Ontario on the survivorship of exposed snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs. The herbicides atrazine, dimethenamid, and glyphosate, the pyrethroid insecticide tefluthrin, and the fertilizer ammonia, were applied to clean soil, both as partial mixtures within chemical classes, as well as complete mixtures. Eggs were incubated in the soil in a garden plot in which these mixtures were applied at a typical field application rate, and higher rates. Otherwise, the eggs were unmanipulated and were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. Eggs were also exposed at male producing temperatures in the laboratory in covered bins in the same soil, where there was less opportunity for loss through volatilization or leaching. Egg mortality was 100% at 10× the typical field application rate of the complete mixture, both with and without tefluthrin. At typical field application rates, hatching success ranged between 91.7 and 95.8%. Eggs exposed only to herbicides were not negatively affected at any application rates. Although fertilizer treatments at typical field application rates did not affect eggs, mortality was remarkably higher at three times this rate, and 100% at higher rates. The frequency of deformities of hatchlings was elevated at the highest application rate of the insecticide tefluthrin. The majority of the toxicity of the mixture was not due to the herbicides or insecticide, but was due to the ammonia fertilizer. At typical field application rates, the chemical regime associated with corn production does not appear to have any detrimental impacts upon turtle egg development; however toxicity dramatically increases if this threshold is passed. PMID:21831407

de Solla, Shane Raymond; Martin, Pamela Anne; Mikoda, Paul

2011-09-15

355

DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND APPLICATION OF THE TRIMETHOPRIM-BASED CHEMICAL TAG FOR LIVE CELL IMAGING  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade chemical tags have been developed to complement the use of fluorescent proteins in live cell imaging. Chemical tags retain the specificity of protein labeling achieved with fluorescent proteins through genetic encoding, but provide smaller, more robust tags and modular use of organic fluorophores with high photon-output and tailored functionalities. The trimethoprim-based chemical tag (TMP-tag) was initially developed based on the high affinity interaction between E.coli dihydrofolatereductase and the antibiotic trimethoprim and subsequently rendered covalent and fluorogenic via proximity-induced protein labeling reactions. To date, the TMP-tag is one of the few chemical tags that enable intracellular protein labeling and high-resolution live cell imaging. Here we describe the general design, chemical synthesis, and application of TMP-tag for live cell imaging. Alternative protocols for synthesizing and using the covalent and the fluorogenic TMP-tags are also included. PMID:23839994

Jing, Chaoran; Cornish, Virginia W.

2013-01-01

356

Long-Term Fertilization Modifies the Structures of Soil Fulvic Acids and Their Binding Capability with Al  

PubMed Central

The binding characteristics of organic ligands and minerals in fulvic acids (FAs) with Al are essential for understanding soil C sequestration, remain poorly understood. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) analysis was applied for the first time to explore the binding of Al with organic ligands and minerals in soil FAs. For these analyses, two contrasting treatments were selected from a long-term (i.e., 22-year) fertilization experiment: chemical (NPK) fertilization and swine manure (SM) fertilization. The results showed that the long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers to soils had little effect on the compositions of the fluorescent substances and organic ligands in the soil FAs. However, long-term SM fertilization increased the weathered Al and Si concentrations in the soil FAs compared with long-term chemical fertilization. Furthermore, organic ligands in the soil FAs were mainly bound with Al in the NPK treatment, whereas both organic ligands and minerals (Al-O-Si, Si-O) were bound with Al under the M fertilization conditions. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction spectra demonstrated that amorphous and short-range-ordered nanominerals were abundant in the soil FAs from the SM plot in contrast to the soil FAs from the NPK plot. This result illustrates the role nanominerals play in the preservation of soil FAs by during long-term organic fertilization. In summary, the combination of FTIR and 2D correlation spectroscopy is a promising approach for the characterization of the binding capability between soil FAs and Al, and a better understanding FA-Al binding capability will greatly contribute to global C cycling. PMID:25137372

Wu, Jun; Wu, Minjie; Li, Chunping; Yu, Guanghui

2014-01-01

357

Long-term fertilization modifies the structures of soil fulvic acids and their binding capability with Al.  

PubMed

The binding characteristics of organic ligands and minerals in fulvic acids (FAs) with Al are essential for understanding soil C sequestration, remain poorly understood. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) analysis was applied for the first time to explore the binding of Al with organic ligands and minerals in soil FAs. For these analyses, two contrasting treatments were selected from a long-term (i.e., 22-year) fertilization experiment: chemical (NPK) fertilization and swine manure (SM) fertilization. The results showed that the long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers to soils had little effect on the compositions of the fluorescent substances and organic ligands in the soil FAs. However, long-term SM fertilization increased the weathered Al and Si concentrations in the soil FAs compared with long-term chemical fertilization. Furthermore, organic ligands in the soil FAs were mainly bound with Al in the NPK treatment, whereas both organic ligands and minerals (Al-O-Si, Si-O) were bound with Al under the M fertilization conditions. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction spectra demonstrated that amorphous and short-range-ordered nanominerals were abundant in the soil FAs from the SM plot in contrast to the soil FAs from the NPK plot. This result illustrates the role nanominerals play in the preservation of soil FAs by during long-term organic fertilization. In summary, the combination of FTIR and 2D correlation spectroscopy is a promising approach for the characterization of the binding capability between soil FAs and Al, and a better understanding FA-Al binding capability will greatly contribute to global C cycling. PMID:25137372

Wu, Jun; Wu, Minjie; Li, Chunping; Yu, Guanghui

2014-01-01

358

A high-pressure interconnect for chemical microsystem applications.  

PubMed

A PEEK interface for use in microfluidic applications is designed, fabricated and tested. The interface allows for the facile, non-permanent coupling of standard capillary tubing to silicon/glass micromixer chips. Importantly, the interface provides for a secure connection between capillary lines and chip reservoirs without the need for any adhesive materials. Furthermore, when used in conjunction with silicon/glass micromixer chips fluidic transport is stable over a wide range of volumetric flow rates (1-1500 microL min(-1)), and the entire construct can be rapidly assembled and disassembled at any time during the course of experimentation. PMID:15100876

Nittis, V; Fortt, R; Legge, C H; de Mello, A J

2001-12-01

359

Application of Key Events Analysis to Chemical Carcinogens and Noncarcinogens  

PubMed Central

The existence of thresholds for toxicants is a matter of debate in chemical risk assessment and regulation. Current risk assessment methods are based on the assumption that, in the absence of sufficient data, carcinogenesis does not have a threshold, while noncarcinogenic endpoints are assumed to be thresholded. Advances in our fundamental understanding of the events that underlie toxicity are providing opportunities to address these assumptions about thresholds. A key events dose-response analytic framework was used to evaluate three aspects of toxicity. The first section illustrates how a fundamental understanding of the mode of action for the hepatic toxicity and the hepatocarcinogenicity of chloroform in rodents can replace the assumption of low-dose linearity. The second section describes how advances in our understanding of the molecular aspects of carcinogenesis allow us to consider the critical steps in genotoxic carcinogenesis in a key events framework. The third section deals with the case of endocrine disrupters, where the most significant question regarding thresholds is the possible additivity to an endogenous background of hormonal activity. Each of the examples suggests that current assumptions about thresholds can be refined. Understanding inter-individual variability in the events involved in toxicological effects may enable a true population threshold(s) to be identified. PMID:19690995

BOOBIS, ALAN R.; DASTON, GEORGE P.; PRESTON, R. JULIAN; OLIN, STEPHEN S.

2009-01-01

360

Application of chemical vapor composites (CVC) to terrestrial thermionics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial flame fired thermionics took a great leap forward in the earlier 1980's with the development of reliable long-lived hot shells. These results were presented by Goodale (1981). The hot shell protects the fractory emitter from oxidizing in the combustion environment. In earlier efforts with supralloys emitters it was found that superalloys were poor thermionic emitters since they operated at too low a temperature for practical and economical use as discussed by Huffman (1978). With the development of Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) silicon carbide and CVD tungsten, it became possible to fabricate long-lived thermionic converters. These results were shown by Goodale (1980). Further improvements were achieved with the use of oxygen additives on the electrodes. These developments made thermionics attractive for topping a power plant or as the energy conversion part of a cogeneration plant as described by Miskolczy (1982) and Goodale (1983). The feasibility of a thermonic steam boiler and a thermionic topped gas turbine plant become a possibility, as shown by Miskolczy (1980).

Miskolczy, Gabor; Reagan, Peter

1995-01-01

361

USE OF THE FUNGICIDE CARBENDAZIM AS A MODEL COMPOUND TO DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF ACUTE CHEMICAL EXPOSURE DURING OOCYTE MATURATION AND FERTILIZATION ON PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN THE HAMSTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Here we use a hamster animal model to identify early pregnancy loss due to an acute chemical exposure to the female during the perifertilization interval. The fungicide carbendazim (methyl 1H-benzimidazole-2-carbamate), a microtubule poison with antimitotic activity, was selected...

362

Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients  

PubMed Central

Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

2013-01-01

363

Molecule database framework: a framework for creating database applications with chemical structure search capability  

PubMed Central

Background Research in organic chemistry generates samples of novel chemicals together with their properties and other related data. The involved scientists must be able to store this data and search it by chemical structure. There are commercial solutions for common needs like chemical registration systems or electronic lab notebooks. However for specific requirements of in-house databases and processes no such solutions exist. Another issue is that commercial solutions have the risk of vendor lock-in and may require an expensive license of a proprietary relational database management system. To speed up and simplify the development for applications that require chemical structure search capabilities, I have developed Molecule Database Framework. The framework abstracts the storing and searching of chemical structures into method calls. Therefore software developers do not require extensive knowledge about chemistry and the underlying database cartridge. This decreases application development time. Results Molecule Database Framework is written in Java and I created it by integrating existing free and open-source tools and frameworks. The core functionality includes: •?Support for multi-component compounds (mixtures) •?Import and export of SD-files •?Optional security (authorization) For chemical structure searching Molecule Database Framework leverages the capabilities of the Bingo Cartridge for PostgreSQL and provides type-safe searching, caching, transactions and optional method level security. Molecule Database Framework supports multi-component chemical compounds (mixtures). Furthermore the design of entity classes and the reasoning behind it are explained. By means of a simple web application I describe how the framework could be used. I then benchmarked this example application to create some basic performance expectations for chemical structure searches and import and export of SD-files. Conclusions By using a simple web application it was shown that Molecule Database Framework successfully abstracts chemical structure searches and SD-File import and export to simple method calls. The framework offers good search performance on a standard laptop without any database tuning. This is also due to the fact that chemical structure searches are paged and cached. Molecule Database Framework is available for download on the projects web page on bitbucket: https://bitbucket.org/kienerj/moleculedatabaseframework. PMID:24325762

2013-01-01

364

Copper chelators: chemical properties and bio-medical applications.  

PubMed

Copper is present in different concentrations and chemical forms throughout the earth crust, surface and deep water and even, in trace amounts, in the atmosphere itself. Copper is one of the first metals used by humans, the first artifacts dating back 10,000 years ago. Currently, the world production of refined copper exceeds 16,000 tons/year. Copper is a micro-element essential to life, principally for its red-ox properties that make it a necessary cofactor for many enzymes, like cytochrome-c oxidase and superoxide dismutase. In some animal species (e.g. octopus, snails, spiders, oysters) copper-hemocyanins also act as carriers of oxygen instead of hemoglobin. However, these red-ox properties also make the pair Cu(+)/Cu(2+) a formidable catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species, when copper is present in excess in the body or in tissues. The treatment of choice in cases of copper overloading or intoxication is the chelation therapy. Different molecules are already in clinical use as chelators or under study or clinical trial. It is worth noting that chelation therapy has also been suggested to treat some neurodegenerative diseases or cardiovascular disorders. In this review, after a brief description of the homeostasis and some cases of dyshomeostasis of copper, the main (used or potential) chelators are described; their properties in solution, even in relation to the presence of metal or ligand competitors, under physiological conditions, are discussed. The legislation of the most important Western countries, regarding both the use of chelating agents and the limits of copper in foods, drugs and cosmetics, is also outlined. PMID:24934357

Tegoni, M; Valensin, D; Toso, L; Remelli, M

2014-01-01

365

Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Application (Phosphorus and Nitrogen ) for Fertilizer and Manure Applied to Crops (Cropsplit), 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set represents the estimated amount of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers applied to selected crops for the year 2002, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is based on 2002 fertilizer data (Ruddy and others, 2006) and tabulated by crop type per county (Alexander and others, 2007). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5, 7 and 9. MRB4, covering the Missouri River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 10-lower and 10-upper. MRB5, covering the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 8, 11 and 12. MRB6, covering the Rio Grande, Colorado and Great Basin River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 13, 14, 15 and 16. MRB7, covering the Pacific Northwest River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 17. MRB8, covering California River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 18.

Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

366

Immunological control of male fertility.  

PubMed

A notable feature of the male gametes is the presence in them of proteins that are "foreign" to the immune system of both male and the female. It is there that are considered responsible for the elicitation of auto- and iso-antibodies in certain natural infertility cases. By virtue of their dual application in both sexes the sperm antigens have interesting potential for exploration as possible agents for control of fertility. PMID:7283528

Talwar, G P; Naz, R K

1981-09-01

367

Application of millimeter-wave radiometry for remote chemical detection.  

SciTech Connect

Passive millimeter-wave systems have been used in the past to remotely map solid targets and to measure low-pressure spectral lines of stratospheric and interstellar gases; however, its application to pressure-broadened spectral line detection of industrial emissions is new. We developed a radiative transfer model to determine feasibility and system requirements for passive millimeter-wave spectral detection of terrestrial gases. We designed and built a Dicke-switched multispectral radiometer in the 146-154-GHz band to detect nitric oxide (NO), a prototypical gas of nuclear fuel processing operations. We first tested the spectral detection capability of the radiometer in the laboratory using a gas cell and then field tested it at the Nevada test site at a distance of 600 m from a stack that released hot plumes of NO and air. With features such as Dicke-switched integration, frequent online calibration, and spectral baseline subtraction, we demonstrated the feasibility of remote detection of terrestrial gases by a ground-based radiometer.

Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Elmer, T. W.; Raptis, A. C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2008-03-01

368

Publication CSES-52P Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizer Materials: Nitrogen Stabilizers  

E-print Network

The recent increase in fertilizer costs, especially nitrogen fertilizers, has resulted in technologies that may improve nitrogen use efficiencies in agronomic cropping systems. Many of these technologies are designed as fertilizer additives to increase fertilizer use efficiencies by increasing plant fertilizer uptake and crop yields. The resulting fertilizer formulations include some type of extra additive within the formulation or applied as a coating and are often referred to as “enhanced efficiency fertilizers ” (EEFs). The Association of American Plant Food Control Officials defines EEFs as products with characteristics that allow increased plant uptake and therefore reduce potential nutrient losses to the environment (e.g., gaseous losses, leaching, or runoff) when compared to an appropriate reference fertilizer that does not contain additives (AAPFCO 2012). When comparing nitrogen EEFs, examples of reference products would be traditional fertilizer such as anhydrous ammonia, granular urea, ammonium sulfate, and urea-ammonium nitrate solutions. The AAPFCO further breaks down EEFs into two distinct subcategories: (1) stabilized fertilizers and (2) controlled or slow-release fertilizers. 1. Stabilized fertilizers – Products claiming stabilization of nutrients must reduce the transformation rate of fertilizer compound(s), extending the time of nutrient availability to the plant by a variety of mechanisms relative to its unamended form. 2. Controlled or slow-release fertilizers – Products that convert and/or release nutrients that are in the plantavailable form at a slower rate relative to a “referencesoluble” product (AAPFCO 2012). When discussing stabilized nitrogen fertilizers, having a basic understanding of the nitrogen cycle is critical. The nitrogen cycle describes the chemical transformations, input processes, loss pathways, and uptake of nitrogen in ecosystems (fig. 1).

369

CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING  

SciTech Connect

Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of x-rays in high Z elements.

HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.

2001-08-01

370

Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb  

E-print Network

increasing at the same rates. Phosphorus fertilizers have been increasing the last few years at a much slower rate. This is because N fertilizer manufacture is dependent on natural gas, while phosphorus fertilizerNitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb As gasoline prices

Mukhtar, Saqib

371

Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometer for nonintrusive detection and identification of chemical warfare compounds  

SciTech Connect

Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying chemical warfare (CW) compounds inside sealed munitions. The SFAI technique can rapidly (less than 20 seconds) and accurately determine sound speed and sound attenuation of a liquid inside a container over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 MHz). From the frequency-dependent sound attenuation measurement, liquid density is determined. These three physical properties are used to uniquely identify the CW compounds. In addition, various chemical relaxation processes in liquids and particle size distribution in emulsions can also be determined from the frequency-dependent attenuation measurement. The SFAI instrument is battery-operated and highly portable (< 6 lb.). The instrument has many potential application in industry ranging from sensitive detection (ppm level) of contamination to process control. The theory of the technique will be described and examples of several chemical industry applications will be presented.

Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Han, W.; Lizon, D.; Kogan, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronic Materials and Devices Group

1997-12-01

372

The Bailey criterion: Statistical derivation and applications to interpretations of durability tests and chemical kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bailey durability criterion, well known in mechanics of materials, has also been used in other flelds of study such as the kinetics of chemical reactions. This paper rationalizes the wide applicability of this criterion in terms of Markovian statistical properties of systems. Two particular cases are discussed as examples of the general approach: durability of a wide class of

A. D. Freeds; A. I. Leonov

2002-01-01

373

Quantum Dots and Nanowires Grown by Metal–Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition for Optoelectronic Device Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the growth of In(Ga)As quantum dots (QDs) and nanowires by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and their application to optoelectronic devices. The performance characteristics of QD lasers and QD photodetectors as well as the selective area growth of QDs for integrated devices are reported

H. H. Tan; K. Sears; S. Mokkapati; Lan Fu; Yong Kim; P. McGowan; M. Buda; Chennupati Jagadish

2006-01-01

374

CYTOKINE PROFILING FOR CHEMICAL SENSITIZERS: APPLICATION OF THE RIBONUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAY AND EFFECT OF DOSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Cytokine Profiling for Chemical Sensitizers: Application of the Ribonuclease Protection Assay and Effect of Dose. L.M. Plitnick1, S.E. Loveless3, G.S. Ladics3, M.P. Holsapple4, M.J. Selgrade2, D.M. Sailstad2 and R.J. Smialowicz2. 1UNC, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC a...

375

Tracking chemical changes in a live cell: Biomedical Applications of SR-FTIR Spectromicroscopy  

E-print Network

Tracking chemical changes in a live cell: Biomedical Applications of SR- FTIR Spectromicroscopy Hoi-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biomedical research. These will include monitoring living cells

376

Jaw electromyographic activity induced by the application of algesic chemicals to the rat tooth pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine if the application of mustard oil (MO), a small-fiber excitant and inflammatory irritant, or other algesic chemicals (capsaicin, CAP, and bradykinin, BK) to the rat maxillary molar tooth pulp induces electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and digastric muscles, and also to determine if endogenous opioid mechanisms may be involved in any

M Sunakawa; C. Y Chiang; B. J Sessle; James W Hu

1999-01-01

377

EVALUATION OF POLYESTER AND METALLIZED-POLYETHYLENE FILMS FOR CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The permeation resistance of thin polyester films and metallized, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films was evaluated to assess their feasibility for use in chemical protective clothing applications. For a 0.002 cm polyester film, permeation tests were conducted with acetone, car...

378

Analysis of Iron in Lawn Fertilizer: A Sampling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is described which uses a real-world sample of lawn fertilizer in a simple exercise to illustrate problems associated with the sampling step of a chemical analysis. A mixed-particle fertilizer containing discrete particles of iron oxide (magnetite, Fe[subscript 3]O[subscript 4]) mixed with other particles provides an excellent…

Jeannot, Michael A.

2006-01-01

379

Medical Drugs Impairing Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human being is one of the least fertile among the mammals, despite the alarming scene of global overpopulation. Human\\u000a fertility is certainly on the decline. There are several historical, demographic, geographic, social, genetic and environmental\\u000a factors contributing to the decline. Medical drugs do contribute to a decline in the fertility of some couples. Iatrogenic\\u000a causes of medical illness are

N. Pandiyan

380

Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use model chromosomes to simulate the processes of mitosis, meiosis and fertilization, and they answer questions designed to promote understanding of these processes. To demonstrate the principle that genes are transmitted from parents to offspring through the processes of meiosis and fertilization, students follow two alleles of a gene through gametes to zygotes as they model meiosis and fertilization. Students also learn how a mistake in meiosis can result in Down Syndrome.

Jennifer Doherty

381

Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 +/- 7.4 nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication.

Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

2014-07-01

382

Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max).  

PubMed

Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 ± 7.4 nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication. PMID:25023201

Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

2014-01-01

383

Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

Reneau, Fred; And Others

384

Fertilizer use and price statistics, 1960-1991. Statistical bulletin  

SciTech Connect

Fertilizer consumption grew rapidly throughout the 1960's and 1970's and peaked at 23.7 million nutrient tons in 1981. After falling to 18.1 million tons in 1983, use has remained relatively stable, ranging from 19.1 million to 21.8 million tons in 1984-91. Use declined from its peak level because of fewer planted acres and stabilizing rates of application. Retail fertilizer prices, while stable or declining during the 1960's, have varied widely since 1973. The bulletin includes quarterly or semiannual time series for retail fertilizer prices, annual retail and wholesale fertilizer price indexes, fertilizer consumption by plant nutrient and major selected products, consumption of mixed fertilizers and secondary and micronutrients, and statistics on fertilizer use per acre by nutrient in the major producing States for corn, cotton, soybeans, and wheat.

Vroomen, H.; Taylor, H.

1992-11-01

385

Repeated topical application of glucocorticoids augments irritant chemical-triggered scratching in mice.  

PubMed

Topical glucocorticoids, widely used for the treatment of a variety of dermatitises, are known to exacerbate atopic dermatitis after long-term or inappropriate use. In some animal models, topical glucocorticoids augment the allergic cutaneous inflammation after repeated application, suggesting a relationship between these and clinical observations. We investigated whether topical glucocorticoids augment itching, rather than inflammation, resulting in the exacerbation of atopic dermatitis. Mice receiving repeated topical application of glucocorticoids, betamethasone valerate or dexamethasone, to the ear for 1 week showed significantly higher scratching frequency after application of an irritant chemical, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) or 12-O-tetradecanoilphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) than those receiving either a glucocorticoid or irritant chemical alone. In contrast, the increase in ear thickness induced by application of TPA was significantly suppressed by dexamethasone. Substance P (SP) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels were higher in the ear receiving betamethasone valerate followed by DNFB application than in that receiving DNFB alone. In addition, histopathological studies revealed an increased density of nerve fibers in the ear receiving betamethasone valerate or dexamethasone followed by DNFB application. Oral administration of betamethasone valerate was not associated with an increase in either scratching frequency or SP or NGF level in the ear. These results suggest that repeated topical application of glucocorticoids may augment irritant chemical-triggered scratching through an increase in SP and NGF levels and nerve fiber density at the application site. These findings might explain the etiology of the exacerbation of atopic dermatitis and other dermatitises, occurring after long-term or inappropriate use of topical glucocorticoids. PMID:20549223

Fujii, Yasutomo; Sengoku, Takanori; Takakura, Shoji

2010-11-01

386

Commercial Fertilizers in 1947-48.  

E-print Network

Pont Company ................................... 126.00 East Texas Products Company ........................ 38.29 Farm Services, Inc .......................................... 43.90 Fidelity Chemical Corporation ...................... 38.78 Ford Motor... of Nitrogen, Available Phosphoric Acid and Potash 12 ............................ Relation of Valuation Guaranteed to Valuation Found 14 ................................................ How to Secure Free Analysis of Fertilizers 16...

Ogier, T. L. (Thomas Louis); Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin)

1948-01-01

387

APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS  

SciTech Connect

The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May

2000-04-01

388

APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS  

SciTech Connect

The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach

2001-05-01

389

Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC`s Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across` the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

Scheib, R.M. [ed.

1991-11-01

390

Applications of LPG fiber optical sensors for relative humidity and chemical-warfare-agents monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-period grating (LPG) fiber optic sensor has been developed for monitoring the relative humidity levels and toxic chemicals, especially the chemical warfare agents. The principle of operation of this sensor is based on monitoring the refractive index changes exhibited by the reactive coating applied to the surface of the LPG region in response to analytes. Specific interaction of the analyte with the thin film polymer coating produces as the output a wavelength shift that can be correlated with the concentration of the analyte. Thin polymer coating for relative humidity sensor is made of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) covalently bound to the surface of the fiber. Coating for chemical warfare agent detection employs metal nanoclusters imbedded in polyethylenimine (PEI) for specific reaction. The relative humidity level can be determined from 0% to 95% and the level of toxic chemicals can be determined is at least on the scale of 1 ppm. This small-size and low-cost LPG fiber optic sensor exhibited high sensitivity, rapid response, repeatability and durability. The goal of developing relative humidity sensor is to produce a fiber optic sensor-based health monitoring system for building, while the chemical sensor has found its application in point detection network for chemical warfare agent monitoring.

Luo, Shufang; Liu, Yongcheng; Sucheta, Artur; Evans, Mishell K.; Van Tassell, Roger

2002-09-01

391

1982 fertilizer summary data. Bulletin Y-180  

SciTech Connect

This report describes historical fertilizer use and crop statistics, application rates, and farm income and expense data for use in production planning and market evaluation. This edition summarizes US consumption (including Puerto Rico) of fertilizer and plant nutrients through the year ended June 30, 1982. It also includes TVA distribution of fertilizer materials in the industry demonstration program for 1979 through 1982. Acres harvested and plant nutrients used on corn for grain, wheat, soybeans, and cotton are reported by state. Statistics on plant nutrient use by crop are from an annual survey made by the ESCS, USDA. Totals are shown for states where these crops are the major farm products. Harvested crop acreage is the total of all principal crops, including commercial vegetables. A brief summary of major fertilizer trends in the US since 1962 is included.

Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

1983-05-01

392

HIV and fertility revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young (2005) argues that HIV related population declines reinforced by the fertility response to the epidemic will lead to higher capital–labor ratios and to higher per capita incomes in the affected countries of Africa. Using household level data on fertility from South Africa and relying on between cohort variations in country level HIV infection, he estimates a large negative effect

Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan; Belgi Turan

2011-01-01

393

HIV and Fertility Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young (2005) argues that HIV related population declines reinforced by the fertility response to the epidemic will lead to higher capital-labor ratios and to higher per capita incomes in the affected countries of Africa. Using household level data on fertility from South Africa and relying on between cohort variation in country level HIV infection, he estimates a large negative effect

Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan; Belgi Turan

2010-01-01

394

Commercial fertilizers 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document contains consumption data for commercial fertilizers in the USA for 1991. Graphical information on the consumption by class is given for the nation. State by state data for consumption of several types of commercial fertilizers are presented. Only numerical data is included.

Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

1991-12-01

395

Geoengineering, Ocean Fertilization,  

E-print Network

Geoengineering, Ocean Fertilization, and the Problem of Permissible Pollution Benjamin Hale1 and Lisa Dilling1 Abstract Many geoengineering projects have been proposed to address climate change fertilization, and other related geoengineering technologies, propose not strictly to clean up carbon emissions

Neff, Jason

396

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: N. America Albers Equal Area  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: N. America Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers. Ramankutty, et al. (2010). Global Fertilizer Application and Manure Production. Data distributed by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer

Columbia University

397

Africa Phosphorus in Manure Production Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1  

E-print Network

Africa Phosphorus in Manure Production Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of phosphorus in the City of New York. Source: Potter, P., and N. Ramankutty, et al. (2010). Global Fertilizer Application and Manure Production. Data distributed by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer

Columbia University

398

Enhancing crop yield with the use of N-based fertilizers co-applied with plant hormones or growth regulators.  

PubMed

Crop yield, vegetative or reproductive, depends on access to an adequate supply of essential mineral nutrients. At the same time, a crop plant's growth and development, and thus yield, also depend on in situ production of plant hormones. Thus optimizing mineral nutrition and providing supplemental hormones are two mechanisms for gaining appreciable yield increases. Optimizing the mineral nutrient supply is a common and accepted agricultural practice, but the co-application of nitrogen-based fertilizers with plant hormones or plant growth regulators is relatively uncommon. Our review discusses possible uses of plant hormones (gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) and specific growth regulators (glycine betaine and polyamines) to enhance and optimize crop yield when co-applied with nitrogen-based fertilizers. We conclude that use of growth-active gibberellins, together with a nitrogen-based fertilizer, can result in appreciable and significant additive increases in shoot dry biomass of crops, including forage crops growing under low-temperature conditions. There may also be a potential for use of an auxin or cytokinin, together with a nitrogen-based fertilizer, for obtaining additive increases in dry shoot biomass and/or reproductive yield. Further research, though, is needed to determine the potential of co-application of nitrogen-based fertilizers with abscisic acid, ethylene and other growth regulators. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25267003

Zaman, Mohammad; Kurepin, Leonid V; Catto, Warwick; Pharis, Richard P

2014-09-30

399

TVA fertilizer patents  

SciTech Connect

Fertilizer research has been an important function of the Tennessee Valley Authority from the time it was established in 1933 to the present. During this period there have been extensive changes in the fertilizer industry. New and improved products have been developed and more efficient manufacturing methods have emerged. Products and processes developed by TVA are in widespread use today in the fertilizer industry. This bulletin is a collection of abstracts of patents granted to TVA on fertilizer technology and related topics over about 45 years. It contains 200 abstracts of patents. The abstracts have been divided into 13 major sections. Each section reflects the improved technology through this period of time. Abstracts of some of the patents issued to TVA since 1968 have already appeared in Fertilizer Abstracts, a journal published monthly since 1968. Inventor and subject indexes are provided in this bulletin.

Mackey, J.J.; Aldridge, J.W.

1980-12-01

400

Surface runoff pollution by cattle slurry and inorganic fertilizer spreading: chemical oxygen demand, ortho-phosphates, and electrical conductivity levels for different buffer strip lengths.  

PubMed

As a way of dealing with the removal of pollutants from farming practices generated wastewater in the EU, we investigate the effect of spreading cattle slurry and inorganic fertiliser on 8 x 5 m2 and 8 x 3 m2 areas, referred to surface runoff chemical oxygen demand (COD), ortho-phosphates (o-P) and electrical conductivity (EC) levels, and the efficiency of grass buffer strips of various lengths in removing pollutants from runoff. The experimental plot was a 15% sloped Lolium perenne pasture. Surface runoff was generated by means of a rainfall simulator working at 47 mm h-1 rainfall intensity. Runoff was sampled by using Gerlach-type troughs situated 2, 4, 6 and 8 m downslope from the amended areas. During the first rainfall simulation, COD, o-P and EC levels were consistently higher in the slurry zone, more evidently in the larger amended area. During the second and third rainfall simulations, concentration and mass levels show a downslope drift into the buffer zones, with no clear buffer strip length attenuation. Correlation between runoff and mass drift is clearly higher in the slurry zone. Percentage attenuation in COD and o-P levels, referred to initial slurry concentrations--including rainfall dilution--were higher than 98%, and higher than 90% for EC. PMID:11496670

Núñez-Delgado, A; López-Periago, E; Quiroga-Lago, F; Díaz-Fierros Viqueira, F

2001-01-01

401

Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at moderate levels (67 kg N ha-1). Increasing fertilizer application beyond the point of diminishing returns for grain (67 kg N ha-1) to double the regionally-recommended amount (202 kg N ha-1) resulted in only marginal increases (25%) in crop residue carbohydrate yield, while increasing lignin yields 41%. In the case of at least this ecosystem, high fertilization rates did not result in large carbohydrate yield increases in the crop residue, and instead produced a lower quality feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production.

Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

2010-12-01

402

Exponential fertilization of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) seedlings: quality assessment, nutrient budgeting, and leaching dynamics  

E-print Network

/7/08. Specific rates applied are outlined in Table 1. The (E) fertilizer rates at each application were). The fertilizer applied was Sulfa CANTM (calcium ammonium nitrate) which contains 26.6% N and 5% Sulphur

403

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELECTROSPRAY MASS SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS  

EPA Science Inventory

An electrospray mass spectrometric method has been developed for application to agricultural and horticultural fertilizers to determine perchlorate. After fertilizers are leached or dissolved in water, the method relies on the formation of stable ion pair complex of the perchlor...

404

Comparison of sludge and fertilizer applications on establishment and growth of seedlings of two sweetgum ecotypes endomycorrhizal with Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatus. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

An experiment was installed to compare plantation performance of 4 sweetgum trees using 2 VA mycorrhizal fungi or high phosphorus fertility regimes. The plantation was fertilized with 250 lb/acre of NH/sub 4/ NO/sub 3/ during April and disked twice to control weeds. Two-hundred seedlings were excavated during April and June (1980) and root samples were processed to determine mycorrhizal status. All root systems were heavily endomcorrhizal. Additional root samples will be taken in December for analysis.

Kormanik, P.P.

1981-01-01

405

Comparative studies on polymer coated SAW and STW resonators for chemical gas sensor applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and compares experimental data from performance tests on polymer coated 433 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) and 1 GHz surface transverse wave (STW) based two-port resonators for chemical gas sensor applications. The acoustic devices were coated with gas sensitive polymer films of different thickness' and viscoelastic properties as parylene C, poly-(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly-(n-butyl-methacrylate) (PBMA). Then they

I. D. Avramov; M. Rapp; A. Voigt; U. Stahl; M. Dirschka

2000-01-01

406

Total-Internal-Reflection Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sensing platforms based on the principle of total internal reflection (TIR) represent a fairly mature yet still expanding\\u000a and exciting field of research. Sensor development has mainly been driven by the need for rapid, stand-alone, automated devices\\u000a for application in the fields of clinical diagnosis and screening, food and water safety, environmental monitoring, and chemical\\u000a and biological warfare agent detection.

Kim E. Sapsford

407

Experience with fertilizer expert systems for balanced fertilizer recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate soil fertility and to calculate fertilizer recommendations for different soil types and crop rotations, two expert systems were developed and are being used in Belgium and the Northern part of France. The BEMEX expert system (BEMEX, coming from BEMEstingsEXpertsysteem, Dutch for fertilization expert system) calculates field specific fertilizer recommendations for macronutrients and liming recommendations for crop rotations with

H. Vandendriessche; J. Bries; M. Geypens

1996-01-01

408

The region's most experienced fertility center. Strong Fertility Center  

E-print Network

· Intrauterine insemination (IUI) · In vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI of the art in vitro fertilization lab. In vitro fertilization is a technologically advanced procedure are assessed to be a good candidate for in vitro fertilization at the center, you pay just once at the start

Goldman, Steven A.

409

Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton.  

E-print Network

only, the cowpeas receiving the residual effects of the fertilizer. The cowpeas have been harvested for seed and the vines plowed under for soil improvement. The average annual rainfall at Nacogdoehes during the 19 years, 1913 to 1931, inclusive... were not fertilized but received the.residual effects of the fertilizer. The average rainfall at Angleton for the 18 years, 1914 to 1931, inclu- sive, was 45.31 inches. The rainfall in 1930 and in 1931 was 43.16 and 40.18 inches, respectively. 16...

Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

1932-01-01

410

SEED YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS RESPONSE OF RAPE (B. NAPUS) VERSUS MUSTARD (B. JUNCEA) TO SULFUR AND POTASSIUM FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN NORTHWEST PAKISTAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improper sulfur (S) and potassium (K) fertilizer management, particularly with continued soil nutrient mining, is one of the major factors contributing to low seed yield of canola in northwestern Pakistan. A field experiment was conducted in 2007?2008 on a S and K deficient clay loam soil at the Research Farm of NWFP (Northwest Frontier Province) Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan, with

Amanullah; Muhammad Hassan; Sukhdev S. Malhi

2011-01-01

411

The Impact of Fertilizer Type and Application Method on the Loss of Greenhouse (CO2, N2O, CH4), and Air Quality (NH3) Gases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An experiment initiated in the Spring of 2007 at the Sand Mountain Agricultural Experiment Station in Crossville, AL will be discussed. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the loss of NH3 from different land management (conventional tillage vs. conservation tillage), fertilizers (urea-a...

412

Tillage and Fertilizer Application Practices Effects on Greenhouse Gas Flux (CO2, CH4 and N2O) and Yield in a Corn Cropping System  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from soil. Thus, a field experiment was conducted at the Sand Mountain Research and Extension Center located in the Appalachian Plateau region of Northeast Alabama on a Hartsells fine sandy ...

413

Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability in Ammonia Emissions from Agricultural Fertilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia (NH3), is an important component of the reactive nitrogen cycle and a precursor to formation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Predicting regional PM concentrations and deposition of nitrogen species to ecosystems requires representative emission inventories. Emission inventories have traditionally been developed using top down approaches and more recently from data assimilation based on satellite and ground based ambient concentrations and wet deposition data. The National Emission Inventory (NEI) indicates agricultural fertilization as the predominant contributor (56%) to NH3 emissions in Midwest USA, in 2002. However, due to limited understanding of the complex interactions between fertilizer usage, farm practices, soil and meteorological conditions and absence of detailed statistical data, such emission estimates are currently based on generic emission factors, time-averaged temporal factors and coarse spatial resolution. Given the significance of this source, our study focuses on developing an improved NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization at finer spatial and temporal scales for air quality modeling studies. Firstly, a high-spatial resolution 4 km x 4 km NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization has been developed for Illinois by modifying spatial allocation of emissions based on combining crop-specific fertilization rates with cropland distribution in the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions model. Net emission estimates of our method are within 2% of NEI, since both methods are constrained by fertilizer sales data. However, we identified localized crop-specific NH3 emission hotspots at sub-county resolutions absent in NEI. Secondly, we have adopted the use of the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) Biogeochemistry model to simulate the physical and chemical processes that control volatilization of nitrogen as NH3 to the atmosphere after fertilizer application and resolve the variability at the hourly scale. Representative temporal factors are being developed to capture crop-specific NH3 emission variability by combining knowledge of local crop management practices with high resolution cropland and soil maps. This improved spatially and temporally dependent NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization is being prepared as a direct input to a state of the art air quality model to evaluate the effects of agricultural fertilization on regional air quality and atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen species.

Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

2013-12-01

414

DERMAL ABSORPTION OF CHEMICALS: EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL AS A SOLID, AQUEOUS PASTE, SUSPENSION OR IN VOLATILE VEHICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to investigate the dermal absorption of chemicals applied to female F344 rats in different physical forms. hese forms included chemical as a solid, aqueous paste, suspension or dissolved in the volatile vehicle ethanol. he chemicals investigated were...

415

Integrated luminescent chemical microsensors based on GaN LEDs for security applications using smartphones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of PCB-integrateable microsensors for monitoring chemical species is a goal in areas such as lab-on-a-chip analytical devices, diagnostics medicine and electronics for hand-held instruments where the device size is a major issue. Cellular phones have pervaded the world inhabitants and their usefulness has dramatically increased with the introduction of smartphones due to a combination of amazing processing power in a confined space, geolocalization and manifold telecommunication features. Therefore, a number of physical and chemical sensors that add value to the terminal for health monitoring, personal safety (at home, at work) and, eventually, national security have started to be developed, capitalizing also on the huge number of circulating cell phones. The chemical sensor-enabled "super" smartphone provides a unique (bio)sensing platform for monitoring airborne or waterborne hazardous chemicals or microorganisms for both single user and crowdsourcing security applications. Some of the latest ones are illustrated by a few examples. Moreover, we have recently achieved for the first time (covalent) functionalization of p- and n-GaN semiconductor surfaces with tuneable luminescent indicator dyes of the Ru-polypyridyl family, as a key step in the development of innovative microsensors for smartphone applications. Chemical "sensoring" of GaN-based blue LED chips with those indicators has also been achieved by plasma treatment of their surface, and the micrometer-sized devices have been tested to monitor O2 in the gas phase to show their full functionality. Novel strategies to enhance the sensor sensitivity such as changing the length and nature of the siloxane buffer layer are discussed in this paper.

Orellana, Guillermo; Muñoz, Elias; Gil-Herrera, Luz K.; Muñoz, Pablo; Lopez-Gejo, Juan; Palacio, Carlos

2012-09-01

416

Soil solution chemistry of sewage-sludge incinerator ash and phosphate fertilizer amended soil  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of the soil provides useful information on the feasibility of amending agricultural land with municipal and industrial waste, because the soil solution is the medium for most soil chemical reactions, the mobile phase in soils, and the medium for mineral adsorption by plant roots. The soil solutions studies in this research were from plots in a 4-yr field experiment conducted to evaluate the effects of the trace metals and P in sewage-sludge incinerator ash. Treatments compared ash with equivalent P rates from triple-superphosphate fertilizer and a control receiving no P application. Ash and phosphate fertilizer were applied annually at rates of 35, 70, and 140 kg citrate-soluble P ha{sup -1}. Cumulative ash applications during 4 yr amounted to 3.6, 7.2, and 14.4 Mg ash ha{sup -1}. Soil solutions were obtained by centrifugation-immiscible liquid displacement using a fluorocarbon displacing agent. Following chemical analysis, a chemical speciation model was used to determine possible solubility-controlling minerals for trace metals and P, and correlations between solution composition and plant uptake were analyzed. 37 refs., 5 tabs.

Bierman, P.M.; Rosen, C.J.; Bloom, P.R.; Nater, E.A. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-03-01

417

A Web Service Infrastructure and its Application for Distributed Chemical Equilibrium Computation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

W3C standardized Web Services are becoming an increasingly popular middleware technology used to facilitate the open exchange of data and perform distributed computation. In this paper we propose a modern alternative to commonly used software applications such as STANJAN and NASA CEA for performing chemical equilibrium analysis in a platform-independent manner in combustion, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics research. Our approach is based on the next generation style of computational software development that relies on loosely-coupled network accessible software components called Web Services. While several projects in existence use Web Services to wrap existing commercial and open-source tools to mine thermodynamic data, no Web Service infrastructure has yet been developed to provide the thermal science community with a collection of publicly accessible remote functions for performing complex computations involving reacting flows. This work represents the first effort to provide such an infrastructure where we have developed a remotely accessible software service that allows developers of thermodynamics and combustion software to perform complex, multiphase chemical equilibrium computation with relative ease. Coupled with the data service that we have already built, we show how the use of this service can be integrated into any numerical application and invoked within commonly used commercial applications such as Microsoft Excel and MATLAB® for use in computational work. A rich internet application (RIA) is presented in this work to demonstrate some of the features of these newly created Web Services.

Subrata Bhattacharjee

418

Grid-based methods for biochemical ab initio quantum chemical applications  

SciTech Connect

A initio quantum chemical methods are seeing increased application in a large variety of real-world problems including biomedical applications ranging from drug design to the understanding of environmental mutagens. The vast majority of these quantum chemical methods are {open_quotes}spectral{close_quotes}, that is they describe the charge distribution around the nuclear framework in terms of a fixed analytic basis set. Despite the additional complexity they bring, methods involving grid representations of the electron or solvent charge can provide more efficient schemes for evaluating spectral operators, inexpensive methods for calculating electron correlation, and methods for treating the electrostatic energy of salvation in polar solvents. The advantage of mixed or {open_quotes}pseudospectral{close_quotes} methods is that they allow individual non-linear operators in the partial differential equations, such as coulomb operators, to be calculated in the most appropriate regime. Moreover, these molecular grids can be used to integrate empirical functionals of the electron density. These so-called density functional methods (DFT) are an extremely promising alternative to conventional post-Hartree Fock quantum chemical methods. The introduction of a grid at the molecular solvent-accessible surface allows a very sophisticated treatment of a polarizable continuum solvent model (PCM). Where most PCM approaches use a truncated expansion of the solute`s electric multipole expansion, e.g. net charge (Born model) or dipole moment (Onsager model), such a grid-based boundary-element method (BEM) yields a nearly exact treatment of the solute`s electric field. This report describes the use of both DFT and BEM methods in several biomedical chemical applications.

Colvin, M.E.; Nelson, J.S.; Mori, E. [and others

1997-01-01

419

Contact Irritant Responses of Aedes aegypti Using Sublethal Concentration and Focal Application of Pyrethroid Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. Methods Contact irritancy (escape) behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru) using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC) of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. Results Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR) resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at <100% SAC using ½FAR of all test compounds. In most trials, KD and 24 hour mortality rates were higher in mosquitoes that did not escape than in those that escaped. In Thailand, field validation studies indicated an early time of exit (by four hours) and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. Conclusions/Significance Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human–vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is currently unknown and will depend on rate of biting on human hosts prior to house exiting. PMID:23469302

Manda, Hortance; Shah, Pankhil; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Morrison, Amy; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Grieco, John P.; Achee, Nicole L.

2013-01-01

420

Fertility recommendations: past and present  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basis for fertilizer recommendations has progressed from trial and error in the 1940s to an almost total dependence on soil testing at the present. Fertilizer recommendations have progressed over time from small amounts of compound fertilizers to an amount of a nutrient based on a soil test value. Research activity on development of soil testing and fertilizer recommendations was

Regis Voss

1998-01-01

421

North American fertilizer capacity data  

SciTech Connect

This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

Not Available

1991-12-01

422

Fertilizers for Rice in Texas.  

E-print Network

in the rice-growing area, however, dif- ferent soils responded differently to fertilizers applied to rice. In the experiments on Lake Charles clay soil near Devers, in Liberty County, and on the light-colored soils in Orange County, applications of super... on Lake Charles and Crowley clay soils that have been grown to rice every second or third year for a long time, nitrogen (in sulfate of ammonia) gave better results than super- phosphate. In all of these cooperative experiments a combination of sulfate...

Wyche, R. H. (Robert Henry)

1941-01-01

423

Age and Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... In vitro fertilization (IVF). A method of assisted reproduction that involves combining an egg with sperm in ... for the purpose of producing a pregnancy. Libido. Sexual drive and desire. LH surge. The secretion, or ...

424

Loss of Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer, the best chance for fertility is sperm banking. Semen containing sperm is frozen in liquid nitrogen ... used for artificial insemination. As an alternative to banking sperm, extracting sperm directly from the testicles might ...

425

Weight and Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... obesity lowers the success rates of in vitro fertilization (IVF). In some studies, there has also been ... other possible infertility factors and then make a recommendation about whether you should try to lose weight ...

426

In vitro fertilization (IVF)  

MedlinePLUS

... eggs, donated eggs may be used. Step 3: Insemination and Fertilization The man's sperm is placed together ... mixing of the sperm and egg is called insemination. Eggs and sperm are then stored in an ...

427

TCRC Fertility Page  

MedlinePLUS

... the testicle are in the order of a cumulative 60 rads. Doses of 100-200 rads may produce a temporary decrease in sperm counts, but no permanent damage. While fertility should not be an issue and ...

428

Infertility and Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Infertility and Fertility: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is infertility? "Infertility" is a term that describes when a ...

429

Fertilization and pesticides affect mandarin orange nutrient composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of the application of foliar fertilization and pesticide on nutritional quality of mandarin orange juices were evaluated using 1H NMR metabolomics. Significant differences between the use of fertilizer and pesticides during fruit formation were observed, and included changes in sugar, am...

430

Fertilizer intensification and its impacts in China's HHH Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The accomplishment of China’s food security by application of high rates of fertilizers has generated several controversies regarding the quality of soil and water resources. Thus, the objective of this article is to assess the effects and causes of the fertilizer intensification in the Huang Huai ...

431

Improved predictability of fertilizer nitrogen need for corn following alfalfa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accounting for alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn reduces fertilizer N costs, over-application of N, and the risk of nitrate loss to ground water. It is equally important, however, to avoid inadequate N supply for corn. We analyzed nearly all previous research on fertilizer N response i...

432

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection Amount of phosphorus in manure produced by the total number of livestock located within each grid cell. Global Phosphorus in Manure Production. Source: Potter, P., and N. Ramankutty, et al. (2010). Global Fertilizer Application and Manure Production

Columbia University

433

TVA`s coproduction of electricity and fertilizer project  

SciTech Connect

TVA is proposing to develop and commercially demonstrate the coproduction of electricity and fertilizer using integrated gasification/combined cycle (IGCC) technology. The Coproduction Demonstration Project (CDP) will show that coproduction of chemicals with electricity can economically and environmentally enhance the production of electric power from coal. The proposed CDP will be a nominal 250-M plant. During normal operation, the CDP will produce about 150 MW of base-load capacity and 1000 tons per day (TPD) of urea. Sulfur is recovered either as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur. During peak power demand, the fertilizer capacity can be bypassed, and the full 250 MW can be produced. Subsequent IGCC/fertilizer coproduction (IGCC/F) plants may convert only 20 to 25 percent of the plant`s capacity as fertilizer or other chemicals, depending on optimum IGCC/F operating conditions. The coproduction of electricity and fertilizer allows the continuous operation of the capital intensive gasification-related process units at 100-percent capacity, while varying the amount of electricity produced from 60 percent to 100 percent of rated capacity. Coproduction also will further reduce the annual revenue requirements for power generation by the coproduction of the higher valued fertilizer coproduct. Since nitrogen fertilizers are produced from natural gas, the real escalation of natural gas prices in the 1990s is expected to result in significant price increases in natural gas-based chemicals, especially fertilizers. The overall risk of producing revenues is reduced because two countercyclic coproducts are produced. Electricity has peak demands in the summer and winter while fertilizer`s peak demand is in the spring.

Bradshaw, D.T.; Wright, T.L. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Faucett, H.L.; Weatherington, R.W. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States)

1991-12-31

434

Fertility preservation in female cancer patients: An overview  

PubMed Central

Fertility preservation is becoming increasingly important to improve the quality of life in cancer survivors. Despite guidelines suggesting that discussion of fertility preservation should be done prior to starting cancer therapies, there is a lack of implementation in this area. A number of techniques are available for fertility preservation, and they can be used individually or together in the same patient to maximize efficiency. Oocyte and embryo cryopreservation are now established techniques but have their limitations. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation though considered experimental at present, has a wider clinical application and the advantage of keeping the fertility window open for a longer time. Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy have a major impact on reproductive potential and fertility preservation procedures should be carried out prior to these treatments. The need for fertility preservation has to be weighed against morbidity and mortality associated with cancer. There is thus a need for a multidisciplinary collaboration between oncologists and reproductive specialists to improve awareness and availability.

Mahajan, Nalini

2015-01-01

435

Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil  

SciTech Connect

To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- and compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R. [Rutherglen Center, Rutherglen, Vic. (Australia)

2008-07-15

436

Measuring adsorption, diffusion and flow in chemical engineering: applications of magnetic resonance to porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are increasingly used to improve our understanding of the multi-component, multi-phase processes encountered in chemical engineering. This review brings together many of the MR techniques used, and often developed specifically, to study chemical engineering systems and, in particular, processes occurring within porous media. Pulse sequences for relaxometry, pulsed field gradient measurements of diffusion, imaging and velocimetry measurements are described. Recent applications of these MR pulse sequences to microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structures are then reviewed. Considering the microporous and mesoporous systems, we focus attention on studies of rock cores, manufactured materials such as cement and gypsum plaster, and catalysts. When considering macroporous structures, the transport through packed beds of particles typical of fixed-bed catalytic reactors is reviewed; a brief overview of the increasing research interest in gas-solid fluidized beds is also presented. We highlight the field of sparse k-space sampling as an area that is in its infancy and suggest that, combined with Bayesian methods, it will offer new opportunities in both extending the application of high-field MR techniques to chemical engineering and increasing the range of measurements that can be carried out using low-field hardware.

Gladden, Lynn F.; Mitchell, Jonathan

2011-03-01

437

Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

1994-01-01

438

Commercial Fertilizers 1927-28.  

E-print Network

. The results of the fertilizer inspection have been published .in bulletins of the Agricultural Experiment Station, regularly since 1906. This is the twenty-fifth Fertilizer Control bulletin and contains statistics and suggestions as to the use of fertilizer... acid, 4 per cent nitrogen and 4 per cent potash, and one knows exactly what kind of fertilizer is referred to. This is the usage in Texas at the present time, but the National Per- tilizer Association and the second National Fertilizer Conference...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

1928-01-01

439

Chemical milling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical milling was used in removing excess material and reducing overall weight of metal parts. Chemical milling is discussed generally, describing the process, its applications, advantages and limitations, chemical milling solutions, maskants, and various other aspects of the chemical milling process. The effectiveness of chemical milling of specific materials such as aluminum, beryllium, magnesium, titanium, steel, and stainless steel alloys

J. W. Dini

1974-01-01

440

Promoting effects of a single Rhodopseudomonas palustris inoculant on plant growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under low fertilizer input.  

PubMed

Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×10(6) CFU g(-1) soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture. PMID:25130882

Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

2014-09-17

441

Soil Fertility Status and Numass Fertilizer Recommendation of Typic Hapluusterts in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient depletion is one of the major causes that contribute to decline in soil productivity in the highlands of Ethiopia. It is generally a reversible constraint as long as soil test based fertilizer application is in place. However, Ethiopian subsistence agriculture has suffered for years due to lack of proper knowledge to combat nutrient depletion. To date, blanket application is

Fassil Kebede; Charles Yamoah

442

In situ chemical synthesis of ruthenium oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for electrochemical capacitor applications.  

PubMed

An in situ chemical synthesis approach has been developed to prepare ruthenium oxide/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites. It is found that as the C/O ratio increases, the number density of RuO2 nanoparticles decreases, because the chemical interaction between the Ru ions and the oxygen-containing functional groups provides anchoring sites where the nucleation of particles takes place. For electrochemical capacitor applications, the microwave-hydrothermal process was carried out to improve the conductivity of RGO in RuO2/RGO nanocomposites. The significant improvement in capacitance and high rate capability might result from the RuO2 nanoparticles used as spacers that make the interior layers of the reduced graphene oxide electrode available for electrolyte access. PMID:23765196

Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Kwang-Heon; Yoon, Seung-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Bum

2013-08-01

443

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Rainer Wallny

2012-10-15

444

Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the central receiver Rankine system, with thermal storage, to determine the relative merit of plants employing a thermochemical system. As an assessment criterion, the busbar energy costs were compared. Separate but comparable solar energy cost computer codes were used for distributed receiver and central receiver systems. Calculations were performed for capacity factors ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. The results indicate that SO2/SO3 technology has the potential to be more cost effective in transporting the collected energy than in storing the energy for the storage capacity range studied (2-15 hours)

Hanseth, E. J.; Won, Y. S.; Seibowitz, L. P.

1980-01-01

445

Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable.

Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

2002-02-20

446

CO 2 emission in an intensively cultivated loam as affected by long-term application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term field experiment was conducted to examine the influence of mineral fertilizer and organic manure on the equilibrium dynamics of soil organic C in an intensively cultivated fluvo-aquic soil in the Fengqiu State Key Agro-Ecological Experimental Station (Fengqiu county, Henan province, China) since September 1989. Soil CO2 flux was measured during the maize and wheat growing seasons in 2002–2003

Weixin Ding; Lei Meng; Yunfeng Yin; Zucong Cai; Xunhua Zheng

2007-01-01

447

Foliar urea fertilization of cereals: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that there are several potential benefits of providing nitrogen to cereals via the foliage as urea solution. These include: reduced nitrogen losses through denitrification and leaching compared with nitrogen fertilizer applications to the soil; the ability to provide nitrogen when root activity is impaired e.g., in saline or dry conditions, and uptake late in the season

M. J. Gooding; W. P. Davies

1992-01-01

448

Fertilizer Input Costs: Perceptions and Strategies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveys of producers attending Extension meetings in February 2009 indicated that their top economic concern is rising fertilizer prices. Two common responses to this concern were to start using precision or variable-rate nutrient application and to start using nutrient placement. Spreadsheets on th...

449

Evaluation of the CENTURY Model Using Long-Term Fertilization Trials under Corn-Wheat Cropping Systems in the Typical Croplands of China  

PubMed Central

Soil organic matter models are widely used to study soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Here, we used the CENTURY model to simulate SOC in wheat-corn cropping systems at three long-term fertilization trials. Our study indicates that CENTURY can simulate fertilization effects on SOC dynamics under different climate and soil conditions. The normalized root mean square error is less than 15% for all the treatments. Soil carbon presents various changes under different fertilization management. Treatment with straw return would enhance SOC to a relatively stable level whereas chemical fertilization affects SOC differently across the three sites. After running CENTURY over the period of 1990–2050, the SOC levels are predicted to increase from 31.8 to 52.1 Mg ha?1 across the three sites. We estimate that the carbon sequestration potential between 1990 and 2050 would be 9.4–35.7 Mg ha?1 under the current high manure application at the three sites. Analysis of SOC in each carbon pool indicates that long-term fertilization enhances the slow pool proportion but decreases the passive pool proportion. Model results suggest that change in the slow carbon pool is the major driver of the overall trends in SOC stocks under long-term fertilization. PMID:24751981

Cong, Rihuan; Wang, Xiujun; Xu, Minggang; Ogle, Stephen M.; Parton, William J.

2014-01-01

450

DEVELOPMENT OF A SEMI-CONTROLLER FOR A VARIABLE RATE FERTILIZER  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT OF A SEMI-CONTROLLER FOR A VARIABLE RATE FERTILIZER APPLICATOR Jianbin Ji 1 , Xiu Wang production, introduced a variable fertilizer controller which suits for a domestic food-producing areas to promote output. The variable rate fertilization controller combined with the current Chinese made

451

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: S.America Albers Equal Area  

E-print Network

Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell-and-manure South America Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Publication Date: 1/24/2011 Kg/ha of PhosphorusGlobal Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: S.America Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers

Columbia University

452

Chemical vapor deposition of Ti-Si-N films for diffusion barrier applications  

SciTech Connect

Structurally disordered refractory ternary films such as titanium silicon nitride (Ti-Si-N) have potential as advanced diffusion barriers in future ULSI metallization schemes. The authors demonstrate chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of Ti-Si-N-containing films in a commercially available single-wafer CVD system using two different Ti precursors, TiCl{sub 4} and tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium (TDEAT). In particular, the TDEAT-based films can be grown conformally with low impurity content, and are promising candidates for advanced diffusion barrier applications.

Smith, P.M.; Custer, J.S.; Jones, R.V. [and others

1995-11-01

453

Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils  

SciTech Connect

Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

2003-03-06

454

Fluid fertilizers. [Fluids  

SciTech Connect

The use of fertilizer in the United States has increased spectacularly in the past 20 years. In 1981 plant nutrient use (N + P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ + K/sub 2/O) totaled 23.5 million short tons - compared with only 7.5 million tons in 1960 (table 2). Nutrient use doubled from 1960 to 1970 and tripled from 1960 to 1981. In 1981 fluid nutrient use (mixtures plus nitrogen solutions) totaled 4.1 million tons, more than doubling since 1970 and increasing from 6.3% to 17.5% of the total nutrient use since 1960. Fluid mixtures (NPK) use in 1981 totaled 1.8 million tons of nutrients - about 17% of total mixed fertilizers or 7.5% of total nutrients used. The proportion of total fertilizer nutrients applied in fluid from increases greatly if anhydrous ammonia is included. The 4.6 million tons of nitrogen applied as anhydrous ammonia in 1981 increases total fluid nutrients to 8.1 million tons - 34.5% of the total nutrients applied in the United States. Fluid fertilizer use has grown nearly twice as fast as total fertilizer use, averaging more than 15% per year increase between 1960 and 1970, and an 11% increase between 1960 and 1980. A large part of this increase occurred during the introductory stages of the new product form and was aided by rapid advances in technology.

Potts, J.M. (ed.)

1984-09-01

455

40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11 Section...determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. (a) A person...submissions. (1) The specific chemical identity of the chemical substance that the...

2013-07-01

456

40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11 Section...determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. (a) A person...submissions. (1) The specific chemical identity of the chemical substance that the...

2012-07-01

457

40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11 Section...determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. (a) A person...submissions. (1) The specific chemical identity of the chemical substance that the...

2011-07-01

458

40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11 Section...determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. (a) A person...submissions. (1) The specific chemical identity of the chemical substance that the...

2014-07-01

459

The OSHA and EPA programs on preventing chemical accidents and potential applications in the photovoltaic industry  

SciTech Connect

OSHA issued in 1992, the Process Safety Management (PSM) of Highly Hazardous Substances. This rule requires owners/operators of facilities that handle hazardous chemicals in quantities greater than the listed thresholds to establish all the elements of a PSM. EPA has issued in June 1996, the rules for a Risk Management Program which also refers to specific substances and threshold quantities. These rules are applicable to all the facilities that use or store any of 139 regulated substances at quantities ranging from 100 lb to 10,000 lb. The RMP rule covers off-site hazards, while the OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) rule covers worker safety issues within the plant boundary. Some of the listed substances may be found in photovoltaic manufacturing facilities. This brief report presents the basic elements of these two rules and discusses their potential applicability in the photovoltaic industry.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1996-08-01

460

Evaluation of the Performance of a Centrifugal Broadcast Distributor for Seeds and Fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a centrifugal broadcast distributor for seeds and fertilizer was evaluated. The application rate, uniformity of distribution, percentage of broken distributed material, and percentage of germinated alfalfa seeds were used as criteria in this study. The experiments were conducted first by spreading alfalfa seeds and fertilizer, seperately. Then two mixtures of seeds and fertilizer (seeds-to-fertilizer 1:1 and 1:2)

M. F. Wahby