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1

Long-term application effects of chemical fertilizer and compost on soil carbon under intensive rice–rice cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a long-term fertilizer experiment on rice–rice cropping in Typic Endoaquept, established at the Central Rice Research\\u000a Institute, Cuttack, India in 1969, effects of application of composted manure (5 Mg ha?1 year?1) and chemical fertilizers (N, NP, NK, and NPK twice in a year), in series without compost (C0) or with compost (C1) on changes in soil carbon and microbial pools were examined

P. Nayak; D. Patel; B. Ramakrishnan; A. K. Mishra; R. N. Samantaray

2009-01-01

2

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Allow Reduced Application Rates of Chemical Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for microorganisms that improve soil fertility and enhance plant nutrition has continued to attract attention due\\u000a to the increasing cost of fertilizers and some of their negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this greenhouse\\u000a study with tomato were to determine (1) if reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer coupled with microbial inoculants will produce\\u000a plant growth, yield, and nutrient

A. O. Adesemoye; H. A. Torbert; J. W. Kloepper

2009-01-01

3

Nitrous oxide emissions from Mollisols as affected by long-term applications of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers.  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the influences of long-term applications of organic amendments and chemical fertilizers on nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from Mollisols in northeast China and to relate soil N2O fluxes to soil moisture and temperature. A closed-chamber method was used to determine soil N2O flux during the maize growing season in 2011. In the entire maize growing period, cumulative N2O emissions were significantly (all P<0.05) increased by 66, 86 and 83% under the applications of 4.5 Mg ha(-1) maize straw combined with NPK, 7.5 and 22.5 Mg ha(-1) pig manure combined with NPK, respectively, compared with the control (0.64±0.01 kg N2O-N ha(-1)), whereas NPK fertilizer alone and 2.25 Mg ha(-1) maize straw combined with NPK had no remarkable influences (P>0.05). Nonetheless, even increasing nitrogen inputs, the cumulative microbial N2O emission over 126 days had an upper threshold around 1.2 kg N2O-N ha(-1). Approximately 25-44% of N2O was emitted from the applied organic amendments, and the emission factor (EF) of applied organic amendments as N2O based on 126 days was between 0.07 and 1.52%, higher than NPK fertilizer-induced EF (0.03%). Soil temperature explained 38-96% of the seasonal variation in soil N2O fluxes using exponential models, with a Q10 of 2.01-3.48. Our results suggest that the influences of organic amendments on soil N2O emissions from Mollisols primarily vary with the type of the applied organic amendments, whereas great nitrogen inputs at maximum asymptotically double baseline cumulative emissions. PMID:23523728

Li, Lu-Jun; Han, Xiao-Zeng; You, Meng-Yang; Horwath, William R

2013-03-22

4

Changes in mineral N, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in different soil depths after surface applications of dairy shed effluent and chemical fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of surface applications of dairy shed effluent (DSE) (effluent collected from a dairy milking shed and consists of dung, urine and water) or chemical fertilizer (NH4Cl) on N dynamics, microbial biomass C and N and extracellular enzyme activities (protease, deaminase and urease) in different soil depths. The DSE and NH4Cl were

M. Zaman; K. C. Cameron; H. J. Di; K. Inubushi

2002-01-01

5

Biological and chemical properties of arable soils affected by long-term organic and inorganic fertilizer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using soils from field plots in four different arable crop experiments that have received combinations of manure, lime and\\u000a inorganic N, P and K for up to 20?years, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical properties and estimates of soil\\u000a microbial community size and activity were studied. The soil pH was increased or unaffected by the addition of organic

M. Šimek; D. W. Hopkins; J. Kal?ík; T. Picek; H. Šantr??ková; J. Sta?a; K. Trávník

1999-01-01

6

Examination and chemical treatment of industrial solid wastes for safe land application. I. Evaluation of toxic elements present in solid wastes from a fertilizer and chemical plant.  

PubMed

Four solid wastes from a fertilizer/chemical plant located in the area of Thessaloniki are examined using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) extraction procedure for toxicity in order to determine their content of toxic elements. Analyses of the extracts indicate that one of the samples generates arsenic at a concentration which exceeds the EPA criterion level for this element by nearly 50 times. Another sample is characterised by pH values that are below the EPA minimum values; however, the toxic element concentration does not exceed EPA limits. The extractability of toxic elements from the solid wastes using various extracting solutions is also examined in order to determine the chemical conditions under which the toxic compounds are soluble. PMID:2321002

Katzika, A; Kouimtzis, T

1990-02-01

7

Effect of Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizers on Microbial Biomass and Functional Diversity of a Black Soil *1 *1 Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 40321101), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2005CB121105) and the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Nos. KZCX1SW19 and KZCX2-YW-408)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment with seven N, P, K-fertilizer treatments, i.e., control (no fertilizer), NP, NK, PK, NPK, NP2K, and NPK2 where P2 and K2 indicate double amounts of P and K fertilizers respectively, was conducted to examine the effect of long-term continuous application of chemical fertilizers on microbial biomass and functional diversity of a black soil (Udoll in the USDA Soil

Wei-Dong KONG; Yong-Guan ZHU; Bo-Jie FU; Xiao-Zeng HAN; Lei ZHANG; Ji-Zheng HE

2008-01-01

8

Effect of different application rates of organic fertilizer on soil enzyme activity and microbial population  

Microsoft Academic Search

After cultivating 24 crops of vegetables for three consecutive years in a greenhouse, the effects of different application rates of compost (Rate 1, 270 kg N ha y; Rate 2, 540 kg N ha y; Rate 3, 810 kg N ha y; Rate 4, 1,080 kg N ha y) were compared with the effects of chemical fertilizer (CF) and no application of fertilizer treatments (CK) for some selected soil chemical properties, microbial populations and soil enzyme

Ed-Haun Chang; Ren-Shih Chung; Yuong-How Tsai

2007-01-01

9

Struvite-based fertilizer and its physical and chemical properties.  

PubMed

This study describes a method to formulate struvite fine powder into pellets that are easy to spread on agricultural land. To evaluate the quality of produced pellets, some chemical and physical properties commonly measured for fertilizers were tested. The findings indicated that the salt index and heavy metal content ofstruvite pellets were significantly lower than those of commercial NPK fertilizers. In addition, the percentage of nutrient released from struvite pellets after 105 days was in the range of 9.6-23.2, 8.4-26.7 and 11.3-32.6% for nitrogen, phosphorous and magnesium, respectively, which is considerably lower than that of commercial NPK fertilizer. Among different formulations between struvite crystals and binders, starch and bentonite were the most efficient in agglomerating struvite powder, leading to an increase in the crush strength to over the recommended limit of >2.5 kgf for fertilizer hardness. PMID:23437670

Latifian, Maryam; Liu, Jing; Mattiasson, Bo

2012-12-01

10

Selenium fertilizers and foliar application, Danish experiments.  

PubMed

In 1963 Se-deficiency was observed for the first time in Denmark in a few sheep in West Jutland. The sheep were cured by injection of "Tokosel", and a survey of the Se-status of Danish fodder crops was initiated. A comprehensive set of data was produced during the early 70's, using the fluorometric method. The survey showed a general Se-deficiency in the whole country, and series of experiments were carried out to elucidate the possibility of raising the selenium level in plants from the native 0.02-0.04 ppm to more than the desired minimum of 0.05 ppm. Three different methods of application were tested: seed pretreatment, fertilizer enrichment, and foliar application. Seed pre-treatment has some disadvantages while the two other methods proved to be efficient and safe in a series of experiments and in tests on a large number of farms all over Denmark. These experiments and tests are discussed in detail. It is concluded that about 120 g Se/ha as sodium selenite, 10 g Se/ha as sodium selenate - both added through PK- or NPK-fertilizers, or foliar application of about 5 g Se/ha are sufficient yearly treatments to raise the native Se content of the Danish crops to levels of 0.05-0.1 ppm. PMID:3013073

Gissel-Nielsen, G

1986-01-01

11

Effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on yield, nutrient uptake, heavy metal content and residual fertility in a rice-mustard cropping sequence under acid lateritic soils.  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted for two years in sandy loam acid lateritic soil to study the direct effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on rice (Oryza sativa) and their residual effect on mustard (Brassica napus var glauca) grown in sequence. Rice yields were higher when fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers were used in an integrated manner as compared to sole application of chemical fertilizers. Yields of mustard were also higher under the residual effect of the former rather than the latter. However, this beneficial residual effect under integrated nutrient sources was inadequate for the mustard crop in the low fertility test soil. Hence, direct application of fertilizers was needed, in addition to residual fertility. The effect of fly ash on mean rice equivalent yield of the rice-mustard cropping sequence was highest (up to 14%) when it was used in combination with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers. While the yield increase was 10% when it was used in combination with only chemical fertilizers. The minimum yield advantage, 3%, occurred when fly ash was applied alone. The equivalent yield of the rice-mustard cropping sequence was equally influenced by either of the organic wastes. Cadmium and Ni content in rice grain and straw were less under the direct effect of fly ash. The residual effect on mustard was similar for Ni content in seed and stover; however, Cd content was increased. Beneficial residual soil chemical properties in terms of pH, organic carbon and available N, P and K were noted for integrated nutrient treatments involved fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers as compared to continuous use of only chemical fertilizers. Application of fly ash alone was effective in raising soil available P. Thus, integrated use of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers was beneficial in improving crop yield, soil pH, organic carbon and available N, P and K in sandy loam acid lateritic soil. PMID:14575950

Rautaray, S K; Ghosh, B C; Mittra, B N

2003-12-01

12

Effect of Different Fertilizer Application on the Soil Fertility of Paddy Soils in Red Soil Region of Southern China  

PubMed Central

Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (P<0.05). The application of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (P<0.05). During the experimental period, the average AN and AP contents were highest in OM treatment (about 1.6 and 29.6 times of that in the CK, respectively) and second highest in NPK treatment (about 1.2 and 20.3 times of that in the CK). Unlike AN and AP, the highest value of AK content was observed in NPK treatments with 38.10 mg·kg?1. Thus, these indicated that organic manure should be recommended to improve soil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region.

Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

2012-01-01

13

Fertilization ecology of egg coats: physical versus chemical contributions to fertilization success of free-spawned eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-spawned eggs are typically enclosed within accessory structures that are shed early in development. Most research on the role of these structures in fertilization has focused on chemical constituents and their influence on sperm-egg interaction. Here I test an alternative hypothesis that accessory structures play an important physical role in fertilization by increasing the size and buoyancy of the egg,

Robert D. Podolsky

14

Impact of combined exposure of chemical, fertilizer, bio-fertilizer and compost on growth, physiology and productivity of Brassica campestries in old alluvial soil.  

PubMed

Field experiment was carried out during November 2006 to February 2007 under old alluvial soil to evaluate the impact of combined dose of chemical fertilizer, biofertilizer in combination with compost for the yellow sarson (Brassica campestries cv. B9) in a randomized block design replicated thrice. Various morpho-physiological parameters viz., plant population, length of shoot and root, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), yield attributes viz., number of siliquae per plant, number of seeds/siliquae, 1000 seed weight (test weight), seed yield, stover yield and physiological and biochemical parameters viz., pigment content, sugar, amino acid, protein, ascorbic acid content in physiologically active leaf were performed. The treatment T1 i.e., 40% less N fertilizer 25% less P fertilizer K fertilizer constant + 12 kg ha(-1) biofertilizer (Azophos) and organic manure (compost) @ 5Mt ha(-1), showed the maximum chlorophyll accumulation (10. 231 mg g(-1) freshweight), highest seed/siliquae (25.143), test weight of seeds (4. 861g) and highest seed yield (10.661 tha(-1)). A comparison between all the morphological, anatomical, physiological and biochemical parameters due to application of chemical fertilizer; bio-fertilizer and compost alone and in combination and their impact on soil microorganism, flora and fauna will throw a sound environmental information. PMID:20143708

Datta, J K; Banerjee, A; Sikdar, M Saha; Gupta, S; Mondal, N K

2009-09-01

15

Five-year growth response of western red cedar, western hemlock, and amabilis fir to chemical and organic fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that growth responses of conifers to application of organic fertilizers are of longer duration than responses to chemical fertilizers was tested in two trials on northern Vancouver Island. Both trials were in 10-year-old plantations of conifers on a salal-dominated cutover known to have poor N supply. In Trial 1, western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don),

C. E. Prescott; S. M. Brown

1998-01-01

16

Solar evaporation of fertilizers/ag-chemical aqueous mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Even when best management practices are employed, dealers can have 2000 to 7000 gallons of fertilizer/pesticide rinsewaters each year that cannot be used on nonlabel crops or indiscriminately applied or disposed of without violating Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pesticide label application regulations. A novel, easily implemented solution for reduction of these rinsewaters has been developed at the University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH) working with researchers from the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), Muscle Shoals, Alabama. Researchers have developed a passive flat-plate solar evaporator. It is a stainless steel/glass unit approximately 8inches [times] 7inches [times] 5inches, and can be produced on an assembly line basis for less than $4000 each. NFERC technologists will use these units for environmental research and demonstration projects at other universities and dealers this year. Each unit can evaporate 900--1200 gallons of water per year.

Ash, D.H.; Salladay, D.G.; Norwood, V.M. (National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States)); Guinn, G.R. (Alabama Solar Energy Center, Huntsville, AL (United States))

1991-01-01

17

Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH4H2PO4 solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200° C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca7Mg2P6O24) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid-phosphorus.

Myojin, Sachi; Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi

2010-11-01

18

Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application  

SciTech Connect

In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) was successfully tested against additional observations of soil pH and N{sub 2}O emissions after fertilization and irrigation, and before plant emergence. We used TOUGHREACT-N to explain the significantly different N gas emissions and nitrate leaching rates resulting from the different N fertilizer types, application methods, and soil properties. The N{sub 2}O emissions from NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N fertilizer were higher than from urea and NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N fertilizers in coarse-textured soils. This difference increased with decreases in fertilization application rate and increases in soil buffering capacity. In contrast to methods used to estimate global terrestrial gas emissions, we found strongly non-linear N{sub 2}O emissions as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil calcite content. Speciation of predicted gas N flux into N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} depended on pH, fertilizer form, and soil properties. Our results highlighted the need to derive emission and leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil properties.

Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.J.; Hornberger, G.M.; Xu, T.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Spycher, N.; Miller, N.L.; Venterea, R.T.; Steefel, C.

2009-01-15

19

Selective Dissolution Analysis of Major and Trace Elements in an Allophanic Andisol Acidified by Long?Term Fertilizer Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long?term (61 years) experimental field was used to examine the effect of acidification on the chemical composition of an allophanic Andisol in northeastern Japan. The pH values of the 1:10 water extract of the plow layer soils were 4.1, 4.7, and 6.2 for three fertilizer application treatments: chemical fertilizers only (CF), CF and compost (CFC), and CFC with liming,

Masami Nanzyo; Akira Takeda; Hirofumi Tsukada

2009-01-01

20

DGT estimates cadmium accumulation in wheat and potato from phosphate fertilizer applications.  

PubMed

Cadmium is a common impurity in phosphatic fertilizers and may contribute to soil Cd accumulation. Changes in total and bioavailable Cd burdens to agricultural soils and the potential for plant Cd accumulation resulting from fertilizer input was investigated. Three year field studies were conducted using three dose levels of cadmium-rich, commercial, phosphate fertilizers applied at four agricultural sites. Labile Cd concentrations, measured using the passive sampling device Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (Cd(DGT)), increased with increasing fertilizer application rates. Cd also accumulated in the edible portion of wheat and potato crops grown at the sites, and showed strong positive dose response with fertilizer treatment. Regression models were calculated for each site, year, and for individual crops. Model comparisons indicated that soil physical and chemical parameters in addition to soil Cd fractions, were important determinants of Cd(DGT). Significant factors contributing to Cd(DGT) concentrations were Cd from fertilizer input (Cd(fertilizer)), pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and total recoverable Cd (Cd(total)). Important factors used to determine Cd concentrations in wheat grain (Cd(wheat)) and in potato (Cd(potato)) were as follows: Cd(wheat):Cd(fertilizer), and Cd(DGT); and Cd(potato):Cd(fertilizer), Cd(DGT), % O.M. The effective concentration, C(E), calculated from DGT did not correlate well with Cd(wheat) or with Cd(potato). Direct measurements of Cd(DGT) correlated better with Cd found in edible plant tissue. The modeling approach presented in this study helps to estimate Cd accumulation in plant tissue over multiple years and in distinct agricultural soil systems. PMID:19552942

Pérez, Angela L; Anderson, Kim A

2009-06-23

21

THE COMBINED USE OF CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND\\/OR BIOFERTILIZER FOR CROP GROWTH AND SOIL FERTILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant nutrients are essential for the production of crops and healthy food for the world's expanding population. Plant nutrients are therefore a vital component of sustainable agriculture. Increased crop production largely relies on the type of fertilizers used to supplement essential nutrients for plants. The nature and the characteristics of nutrient release of chemical, organic and biofertilizers are different, and

Jen-Hshuan Chen

22

Fertilization.  

PubMed

Fertilization-the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism-is the culmination of a multitude of intricately regulated cellular processes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, fertilization is highly efficient. Sperm become fertilization competent after undergoing a maturation process during which they become motile, and the plasma membrane protein composition is reorganized in preparation for interaction with the oocyte. The highly specialized gametes begin their interactions by signaling to one another to ensure that fertilization occurs when they meet. The oocyte releases prostaglandin signals to help guide the sperm to the site of fertilization, and sperm secrete a protein called major sperm protein (MSP) to trigger oocyte maturation and ovulation. Upon meeting one another in the spermatheca, the sperm and oocyte fuse in a specific and tightly regulated process. Recent studies are providing new insights into the molecular basis of this fusion process. After fertilization, the oocyte must quickly transition from the relative quiescence of oogenesis to a phase of rapid development during the cleavage divisions of early embryogenesis. In addition, the fertilized oocyte must prevent other sperm from fusing with it as well as produce an eggshell for protection during external development. This chapter will review the nature and regulation of the various cellular processes of fertilization, including the development of fertilization competence, gamete signaling, sperm-oocyte fusion, the oocyte to embryo transition, and production of an eggshell to protect the developing embryo. PMID:22872482

Marcello, Matthew R; Singaravelu, Gunasekaran; Singson, Andrew

2013-01-01

23

Optimal Design and Analysis on Pricking Hole Mechanism with Planetary Elliptic Gears for Deep-Fertilization Liquid Fertilizer Applicator  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to satisfy the demand of high working efficiency and running stability of liquid fertilizer applicator in the operation process, the pricking hole mechanism of liquid fertilizer applicator with planetary elliptic gears only was designed. Kinematics analysis model of the mechanism was created. Through theoretical derivation, the mechanism was analyzed using kinematics. By visual Basic 6.0 program, parameter optimization

Yahua Liu; Jinwu Wang; Jinfeng Wang; Yiyuan Ge

2011-01-01

24

Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications for Corn Based on Sufficiency Index Calculations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Corn was grown in both continuous corn and corn/soybean cropping systems under irrigation in the Platte Valley of Nebraska. The objective of the study was to determine whether in-season N stress measured by using chlorophyll meters could be used to determine N fertilizer applications. Four corn hyb...

25

Predicting Nitrogen in Streams: A Comparison of Two Estimates of Fertilizer Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decision makers frequently rely on water and air quality models to develop nutrient management strategies. Obviously, the results of these models (e.g., SWAT, SPARROW, CMAQ) are only as good as the nutrient source input data and recently the Nutrient Innovations Task Group has called for a better accounting of nonpoint nutrient sources. Currently, modelers frequently rely on county level fertilizer sales records combined with acreage of crops to estimate nitrogen sources from fertilizer for counties or watersheds. However, since fertilizer sales data are based on reported amounts they do not necessarily reflect actual use on the fields. In addition the reported sales data quality varies by state resulting in differing accuracy between states. In this study we examine an alternative method potentially providing a more uniform, spatially explicit, estimate of fertilizer use. Our nitrogen application data is estimated at a 30m pixel resolution which allows for scalable inputs for use in water and air quality models. To develop this dataset we combined raster data from the National Cropland data layer (CDL) data with the National Land Cover Data (NLCD). This process expanded the NLCD's 'cultivated crops' classes to included major grains, cover crops, and vegetable and fruits. The Agriculture Resource Management Survey chemical fertilizer application rate data were summarized by crop type and year for each state, encompassing the corn, soybean, spring wheat, and winter wheat crop types (ARMS, 2002-2005). The chemical fertilizer application rate data were then used to estimate annual application parameters for nitrogen, phosphate, potash, herbicide, pesticide, and total pesticide, all expressed on a mass-per-unit-crop-area basis for each state for each crop type. By linking crop types to nitrogen application rates, we can better estimate where applied fertilizer would likely be in excess of the amounts used by crops or where conservation practices may improve retention and uptake helping offset the impacts to water. To test the accuracy of our finer resolution nitrogen application data, we compare its ability to predict nitrogen concentrations in streams with the ability of the county sales data to do the same.

Mehaffey, M.; Neale, A.

2011-12-01

26

Comparative effects of Azolla and blue-green algae in combination with chemical N fertilizer on rice crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

FreshAzolla pinnata (Bangkok) and dry blue-green algae dominated byAulosira sp. andGloeotrichia sp. were inoculated separately at the rates of 500 and 10 kg\\/ha, 10 and 3 days after transplanting, respectively to evaluate\\u000a their effects in combination with chemical N fertilizer applied at different stages of rice crop. Split application of 30\\u000a kg N\\/ha urea (15 kg basal and 15 kg

A L Singh; P K Singh

1986-01-01

27

Effects of municipal solid waste compost, farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on wheat growth, soil composition and soil bacterial characteristics under Tunisian arid climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) as soil organic amendment is of an economic and environmental interest. However, little is known about the effectiveness of MSWC application on agricultural soil in northern Africa arid climate. We assessed the impact of five years' applications of different organic and mineral fertilizers on wheat grain yields and soil chemical and microbial

Hanene Cherif; Fathia Ayari; Hadda Ouzari; Massimo Marzorati; Lorenzo Brusetti; Naceur Jedidi; Abdennaceur Hassen; Daniele Daffonchio

2009-01-01

28

Phytoplankton Response to Liquid Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid fertilizer (Poly N; Allied Chemical Corportion) with an N:P2O5:K2O ratio of 10-34-0 and a granular fertilizer (fish pond fertilizer, 20-20-5) were applied to fish ponds. Poly N at 6.6 kg\\/ha per application and fish pond fertilizer at 45 kg\\/ha per application were both effective in promoting phytoplankton growth in sportfish ponds. Nutrient inputs were much lower with Poly

Robert G. Davidson; Claude E. Boyd

1981-01-01

29

MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

30

Fertilizer application during primary succession changes the structure of plant and herbivore communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilization of secondary successional communities generally increases biomass but reduces diversity; its impact on primary successional communities is less well understood. Following applications of a balanced fertilizer to naturally established vegetation on slate quarry waste, effects on tree growth, ground flora species and foliar invertebrates were monitored over two years. Fertilization increased tree growth, with stem basal area increasing by

Edwin C. Rowe; John R. Healey; Gareth Edwards-Jones; Joanna Hills; Mererid Howells; David L. Jones

2006-01-01

31

Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize ( Zea mays L.), sunflower ( Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean ( Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

2009-08-01

32

INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FERTILIZATION ON SELECTED PHYSICAL FEATURES AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ARONIA FRUIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t . Aronia melanocarpa (Michx) Elliot, called also black chokeberry, is a species with lower cultivation requirements within the Rosaceae family. The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of foliar fertilization with Mn, 'Alkalin' (N, K and S i) and Mn + 'Alkalin' on physical features and chemical composition of

Katarzyna Skupie?; Ireneusz Ochmian; Józef Grajkowski

33

Fertilizer applications and the organic matter status in the agege experimental field in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of 14 years application of mineral fertilizers on the organic carbon content of the Agege sandy soil was appraised. The fertilizer treatments in comparison to unfertilized plots led to higher as well as lower organic carbon. The sole applications of N. P, and K were compared, while N alone increased the organic carbon content of the soil, P

Igbo Unamba-Oparah

1973-01-01

34

Effects of fertilizer application on summer usage of cereal fields by farmland birds in central Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule Despite negative effects of inorganic fertilizer on weeds and invertebrates in cereal fields, impacts on bird usage were weak and non-linear.Aim To assess the effects of inorganic fertilizer application to winter cereals on breeding-season usage by farmland birds.Methods We measured bird usage of winter-sown cereal fields across a gradient of inorganic fertilizer inputs and tested for influences of management

Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki; Péter Batáry; Will J. Peach; András Báldi

2011-01-01

35

Chemical reactions during the preparation of P and NPK fertilizers from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we show how P and NPK fertilizers can be prepared from thermochemically treated sewage sludge ashes (SSA) and which chemical reactions occur during these post-treatment steps. The SSA used for this investigation was treated thermochemically at a temperature of 1,000°C in a rotary kiln after the addition of calcium chloride hydrate or magnesium chloride hydrate to

Christian Vogel; Christian Adam; Burkhard Peplinski; Stephan Wellendorf

2010-01-01

36

QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF CITRUS ON A CITROMELO ROOTSTOCK AS AFFECTED BY DIFFERENT TYPES OF N FERTILIZATION (CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

With respect to the important effects of nitrogen (N) on plant growth and fruit production, a five-year experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of different sources of N fertilization including chemical and organic on the quantity and quality of citrus fruit. Using five-year old trees, different types of fertilization including ammonium sulfate, urea coated with sulfur, ammonium nitrate and

A. Sheikh Ashkevari; S. H. Hoseinzadeh; M. Miransari

2012-01-01

37

[Application study of yangkang biological fertilizer on Panax notoginseng cultivation].  

PubMed

Yangkang Biological Fertilizer was sprayed on Panax notoginseng. The result indicated that the yield and the surviving rate can be raised 25.2% and 15.2% respectively. The best spraying practice were: in the unfolding stage of leaves (April) and bloom stage (July), with Yangkang Biological Fertilizer plus water (1:400), at four times every stage. PMID:12571908

Li, Z; Chen, Z; Jin, D

1999-10-01

38

[Effects of combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers on the available phosphorus content of upland red soil].  

PubMed

Aiming at the low content of available phosphorus in upland red soil of Southern China, this paper studied the effects of combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers on the available phosphorus and organic carbon contents and the pH of this soil. With the combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers, the soil physical and chemical properties improved to different degrees. As compared with the control, the soil pH and the soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents at different growth stages of oil rape after the combined application of biochar and inorganic fertilizers all had an improvement, with the increments at bolting stage, flowering stage, and ripening stage being 16%, 24% and 26%, 23%, 34% and 38%, and 100%, 191% and 317% , respectively. The soil pH and the soil organic carbon and available phosphorus contents were increased with the increasing amount of applied biochar. Under-the application of biochar, the soil available phosphorus had a significant correlation with the soil pH and soil organic carbon content. This study could provide scientific basis to improve the phosphorus deficiency and the physical and chemical properties of upland red soil. PMID:23898656

Jing, Yan; Chen, Xiao-min; Liu, Zu-xiang; Huang, Qian-ru; LiI, Qiu-xia; Chen, Chen; Lu, Shao-shan

2013-04-01

39

Effects of variety, cropping year, location and fertilizer application on nutritive value of durum wheat straw.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to assess the effects of variety, year, location and level of fertilizer application on chemical composition and in sacco dry matter (DM) degradability of durum wheat straw as well as to understand the relationship between straw quality and agronomic traits of the crop and to assess the possibilities of selecting wheat varieties that combine high grain yield with desirable straw quality. Two local (Arendeto and Tikur sinde) and two improved (Boohai and Gerardo) varieties of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum Desf.) were used in the experiment. The four varieties were grown at two locations (Akaki and Ejere) in the years 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 in 5 x 5 m plots in three replications. Diammonium phosphate and urea fertilizers were applied at four levels (0/0, 32/23, 41/23 and 64/46 kg/ha of nitrogen/phosphorus). Straw quality was assessed based on chemical composition and in sacco DM degradability. Correlation of straw quality with grain and straw yield and with other agronomic characteristics of the crop was determined. The potential utility index (a measure that integrates grain and digestible straw yield) was used for ranking of the varieties. The local varieties had higher crude protein (CP) and lower neutral detergent fibre contents and higher digestibility than the improved varieties. The cropping year and location had significant effect on CP content and degradability of the straw, which could be due to climatic variation. However, the fertilizer level did not have any significant effect on straw quality except that the CP content of the straw tended to increase with increasing level of fertilizer application. Based on the potential utility index the varieties ranked, in a decreasing order, as Tikur sinde > Arendeto > Gerardo > Boohai and the ranking was consistent across years and locations. Except the CP content, straw quality was not negatively correlated with grain and straw yield. This indicates that there is a possibility of selecting varieties of wheat that combine high grain and straw yield with desirable straw quality. PMID:18336408

Tolera, A; Tsegaye, B; Berg, T

2008-04-01

40

Application of image analysis techniques to evaluate the effect of urban residuals fertilization on corn (Zea mays) production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work focused the application of an image analysis technique to determine corn leaves morphology as objective indicator of the growth performance of corn (Zea mays) resulting from the urban residual fertilization. The analyses were related to six fertilization plots: original soil; chemical fertilizer (160 and 200 kg ha-1 of nitrogen); organic fertilizer (32 t ha-1) and two different doses of urban residues (sewage sludges) (7.5 and 22.5 t ha-1, this last amount corresponds to is the maximum level permitted from the Italian law in three year of fertilization). Those tests were realized by full randomized plots, with two three repetitions for each treatment. Measurements were performed for the first year of the trials in the period proximate to harvest (Rome, Italy - July 2000). Four plants for each plot were harvested and stripped of all leaves, whose RGB images were acquired by a digital photo camera (Kodak Ltd). Image analysis was performed first through the separation of RGB channels into single monochromatic 8-bit distribution, than the blue channel images, the most informative, were then submitted to enhancement, low pass filtering to reduce noise, threshold of binarization (based on statistical parameter affected on Gaussian grey levels distribution), binary morphology and object measurement. For ach single leaf the length, the width, the area were measured. The test results indicated positive and significant responses in relation between the crop growth (leaves area, length and width greater) and the different doses of urban residues (sewage sludges).

Menesatti, P.; D'Andrea, S.; Socciarelli, S.

2007-09-01

41

Precipitated impurities in monoammonium phosphate and their effect on chemical and physical properties of suspension fertilizers  

SciTech Connect

The TVA processes for the production of granular ammonium phosphate fertilizers use a preneutralizer or pipe reactor; a rotary drum ammoniator-granulator; accessory equipment for scrubbing off-gases; and equipment for drying, cooling, and sizing the product. Although the main interest in the processes has been in taking advantage of full ammoniation of the phosphoric acid for production of 18-46-0, there has been considerable interest in adapting these processes for production of monoammonium phosphate (MAP). This laboratory study was conducted to identify the solid-phase components in granular MAP, especially the forms of precipitated impurities. The first phase of the laboratory study concerned the identification of solid phases in granular MAP. The second phase of this laboratory study was conducted to correlate physical properties (viscosity and pourability) of 11-33-0 suspensions with the chemical and solid-phase composition of the original MAP from which these suspensions were prepared. The identification of these fertilizer compounds by the use of polarizing light microscopy (PLM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) for detailed solid-phase characterization and chemical analysis has provided a more thorough understanding of the composition of MAP fertilizer. 14 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

Dillard, E.F.; Frazier, A.W.

1986-01-01

42

Fertilizer summary data 1990  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income\\/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers

J. T. Berry; N. L. Hargett

1991-01-01

43

Effect of wood ash and nitrogen fertilization on soil chemical properties, soil microbial processes, and stand growth in two coniferous stands in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to investigate long-term effects of wood ash fertilization, given together with nitrogen, on soil\\u000a chemical properties, soil microbiological processes related to C and N cycling, and tree growth. The study was carried out\\u000a in a 31-year-old Scots pine stand and in a 45-year-old Norway spruce stand 15 years after application. The treatments were\\u000a (1) a

Anna Saarsalmi; Aino Smolander; Mikko Kukkola; Merja Arola

2010-01-01

44

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha.

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

45

Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring ?-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. PMID:21906958

El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

2011-08-26

46

Germ cell toxicity: significance in genetic and fertility effects of radiation and chemicals  

SciTech Connect

The response of the male and female to radiation and chemicals is different. Any loss of oocytes in the female cannot be replaced, and if severe enough, will result in a shortening of the reproductive span. In the male, a temporary sterile period may be induced owing to destruction of the differentiating spermatogonia, but the stem cells are the most resistant spermatogonial type, are capable of repopulating the seminiferous epithelium, and fertility usually returns. The response of both the male and female changes with development of the embryonic to the adult gonad, and with differentiation and maturation in the adult. The primordial germ cells, early oocytes, and differentiating spermatogonia of the adult male are unusually sensitive to the cytotoxic action of noxious agents, but each agent elicits a specific response owing to the intricate biochemical and physiological changes associated with development and maturation of the gametes. The relationship of germ cell killing to fertility is direct, and long-term fertility effects can be predicted from histological analysis of the gonads. The relationship to genetic effects, on the other hand, is indirect, and acts primarily by limiting the cell stages available for testing, by affecting the distribution of mitotically active stem cells among the different stages of the mitotic cycle, and thereby, changing both the type and frequency of genetic effects observed. 100 references, 38 figures, 7 tables.

Oakberg, E.F.

1983-01-01

47

Irrigated mountain meadow fertilizer application timing effects on overland flow water quality.  

PubMed

Nonpoint-source pollution from agricultural activities is currently the leading cause of degradation of waterways in the United States. Applying best management practices to flood-irrigated mountain meadows may improve agricultural runoff and return flow water quality. Prior research has focused on fertilizer use for increased hay yields, while few studies have investigated the environmental implications of this practice. We examined the effects of fertilizer application timing on overland flow water quality from an irrigated mountain meadow near Gunnison, Colorado. Application of 40 kg phosphorus (P) and 19 kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1) using monoammonium phosphate (11-52-0, N-P-K) fertilizer to plots in the fall significantly reduced concentrations of reactive P and ammonium N in irrigation overland flow compared with early or late spring fertilization. Reactive P loading was 9 to almost 16 times greater when fertilizer was applied in the early or late spring, respectively, compared with in the fall. Ammonium N followed a similar trend with early spring loading more than 18 times greater and late spring loading more than 34 times greater than loads from fall-fertilized plots. Losses of 45% of the applied P and more than 17% of the N were measured in runoff when fertilizer was applied in the late spring. These results, coupled with those from previous studies, suggest that mountain meadow hay producers should apply fertilizer in the fall, especially P-based fertilizers, to improve hay yields, avoid economic losses from loss of applied fertilizers, and reduce the potential for impacts to water quality. PMID:14535323

White, Shawn K; Brummer, Joe E; Leininger, Wayne C; Frasier, Gary W; Waskom, Reagan M; Bauder, Troy A

48

THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS FERTILIZERS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES OF EIGHT MODULES, IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SUBJECT MATTER AREAS ARE (1) CHEMICAL NUTRITION OF PLANTS, (2) PLANT GROWTH, (3) TERMINOLOGY,…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

49

Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO3 -) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH3) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic

Chuanhui Gu; F. Maggi; W. J. Riley; G. M. Hornberger; T. Xu; C. M. Oldenburg; N. Spycher; N. L. Miller; R. T. Venterea; C. Steefel

2009-01-01

50

Aqeuous and Gaseous Nitrogen Losses Induced by Fertilizer Application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to nitrate (NO3-) water pollution and atmospheric pollution of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH3). Characterizing the amount and species of N losses is therefore essential in developing a strat...

51

Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO3?) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH3) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N

Chuanhui Gu; F. Maggi; W. J. Riley; G. M. Hornberger; T. Xu; C. M. Oldenburg; N. Spycher; N. L. Miller; R. T. Venterea; C. Steefel

2009-01-01

52

AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM LAND APPLICATIONS OF FERTILIZERS AND MANURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ammonia volatilization can be a major nitrogen (N) loss process for surface-applied manures and urea containing fertilizers. There is growing concern that current manure management practices are contributing to ammonia loss and subsequent enrichment of streams and estuaries in the Mid-Atlantic reg...

53

Foliar applications of mono-potassium phosphate fertilizer inhibit powdery mildew development in nectarine trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliar applications of 1% solution of mono-potassium phosphae (MKP = KH2P04) fertilizer plus Triton X-100 (0.025%), sterol inhibiting (SI) fungicides, and an alternating treatment of phosphate fertilizer and SI fungicides inhibited development of the powdery mildew fungus Sphaerotheca pannosa on fruits and leaves of nectarine trees in 3 consecutive years. The effectiveness of the alternating treatments with an appropriate systemic

M. Reuveni; R. Reuveni

1998-01-01

54

Effects of vegetation and fertilization on weathered particles of coal gob in Shanxi mining areas, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined application of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizer in weathered particles of coal gob (WPCG) was studied by pot-scale trials. The accumulation of available nutrients and weathering process of coal gob piles were also investigated by field trial. It was showed that combined application of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizer increased yields of tall fescue, improved WPCG fertility especially its

Suqing Li; Dongmei Wu; Jintun Zhang

2005-01-01

55

A literature review of waste treatment technologies which may be applicable to wastes generated at fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites  

SciTech Connect

Pesticide and fertilizer products, as well as petroleum fuels and oils, are handled by several thousand agricultural chemical dealers (dealers) in the United States. incidental spillage of these products, as well as improper disposal or recycling of equipment and container rinsewaters, can result in contamination of soil, surface water and groundwater with hazardous chemicals. Past accidental spills and improperdisposal and management practices are another source of contamination. As dealers continue their efforts to contain, collect, and recycle their wastes and spills, there will be an increasing need for safe, efficient, and cost-effective waste treatment technologies to treat that portion of the wastes and spills that cannot be recycled. The National Fertilizer Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has initiated an effort to modify, research, develop, demonstrate, introduce, and market waste treatment technologies for dealers. This report supports this effort by providing a review of the literature concerning several physical and chemical waste treatment technologies which may be applicable to the wastes generated by dealers. Applicable waste treatment technologies identified in the literature search include carbon adsorption, UV-ozonation with biological degradation, wet-air oxidation, solar photooxidation, supercritical water oxidation, or microwave plasma destruction. Waste minimization and management technologies, such as recycling, are discussed in this report. The current regulatory environment concerning wastes generated by dealers is also reviewed. Finally, the issues discussed at several national and regional conferences on pesticide waste treatment and disposal technologies are reviewed and conclusions drawn from this information are presented.

Norwood, V.M.

1990-10-01

56

Irrigated Mountain Meadow Fertilizer Application Timing Effects on Overland Flow Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

application timing related to environmental issues. Therefore, studies are needed to determine the appro- Nonpoint-source pollution from agricultural activities is currently priate application timing of fertilizer to minimize im- the leading cause of degradation of waterways in the United States. Applying best management practices to flood-irrigated mountain pacts to environmental variables such as water quality. meadows may improve agricultural runoff

Shawn K. White; Joe E. Brummer; Wayne C. Leininger; Gary W. Frasier; Reagan M. Waskom; Troy A. Bauder

2003-01-01

57

Chemical inhibitors of methanogenesis and putative applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mini-review summarizes the category, characteristics, and the application fields of the chemical methanogenic inhibitors.\\u000a Usually, the chemical methanogenic inhibitors can be divided into “specific” and nonspecific inhibitors. The former group\\u000a includes the structural analogs of coenzyme M and HMG-CoA inhibitors. The nonspecific group includes many chemicals which\\u000a can inhibit the activity of both methanogens and non-methanogens. The chemical inhibitors

He Liu; Jin Wang; Aijie Wang; Jian Chen

2011-01-01

58

[Estimation of chemical fertilizer N-induced direct N2O emission from China agricultural fields in 1991-2000 based on GIS technology].  

PubMed

Referring to the definition of agricultural field N2O emission factor by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the main controlling factors climate and cropping system were introduced to estimate the chemical fertilizer N-induced direct N2O emission from China agricultural fields in 1991-2000, and a spatial inventory with 10 km x 10 km resolution was developed by dint of GIS framework. The results indicated that there was an increasing trend in the annual direct N2O emission, due to the increasing input of chemical fertilizer N. The mean annual emission in 1990s was estimated to be 204 Gg N2O-N, ranging from 159 to 269 Gg N2O-N, and the lowest and the highest emission occurred in 1992 and 1998, respectively. The uncertainty of the estimation was quantified to be about 23%. The spatial distribution of N2O emission was characterized by higher flux in eastern China and lower flux in western China, which was mainly attributed to the application rate of chemical fertilizer N and precipitation. PMID:17886648

Lu, Yan-Yu; Huang, Yao; Zhang, Wen; Zheng, Xun-Hua

2007-07-01

59

Properties and Applications of an Organic Fertilizer Inoculated with Effective Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research studies were conducted to elucidate the chemical, physical and microbiological properties of an organic fertilizer that was inoculated and fermented with a microbial inoculant (Effective Microorganisms or EM). The quality estimation methods employed addressed the mechanistic basis for beneficial effects of soil improvement and crop yield. Effective Microorganisms or EM was utilized as the microbial inoculant that is a

Kengo Yamada; Hui-Lian Xu

2001-01-01

60

On the Optimization of the Doses of Chemical Fertilizers for Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mono-factorial model, which gives the relation between the yield and the dose of chemical fertilizers, is based on the Mitscherlich function f1(x) = f1(0)+a1(1-e-11x). In addition to this function, we can consider f2(x) = f2(0)+a2 tanh(b2x), to be the basis for a new mathematical model, where tanh(b2x) represents the hyperbolic tangent. In the case of a bi-factorial model: f(x,y) = f(0,0)+a1 tanh(b1x)+a2 tanh(b2y)+a3 tanh(b1x)tanh(b2y) represents a generalization of the last relation. The constants that are involved in these functions are determined with the least squares method, by comparison with the experimental data. Taking into account both the market value of the products and the cost of fertilizers, we can find the optimal doses for maximizing certain economic indicators, such as revenue or profitability.

Sala, Florin; Boldea, Marius

2011-09-01

61

Applications of cryopreserved unfertilized mouse oocytes for in vitro fertilization.  

PubMed

Since the first successful reports into oocyte freezing, many papers concerning the cryopreservation of mouse oocytes have been published. However, a simple and practical cryopreservation method for unfertilized C57BL/6 mouse oocytes, and an IVF system using these cryopreserved oocytes have yet to be established, in spite of the fact that C57BL/6 is the prevalent inbred strain and is used for large-scale knockout programs. In this study, unfertilized C57BL/6 mouse oocytes were cryopreserved via a simple vitrification method. After warming, IVF was performed using cryopreserved unfertilized oocytes and fresh sperm, cryopreserved unfertilized oocytes and cold-stored sperm, cryopreserved unfertilized oocytes and frozen sperm (C57BL/6 strain sperm), and cryopreserved unfertilized oocytes and frozen sperm derived from GEM strains (C57BL/6 background GEM strains). Nearly all of the cryopreserved oocytes were recovered, of which over 90% were morphologically normal. Those oocytes were then used for in vitro fertilization, resulting in 72-97% of oocytes developing into 2-cell embryos. A portion of the 2-cell embryos were transferred to recipients, resulting in live young being produced from 32-49% of the embryos. In summary, we established the simple and practical method of mouse oocyte vitrification with high survivability and developmental ability and the IVF using the vitrified-warmed oocytes with fresh, cold-stored or cryopreserved sperm with high fertility. PMID:23846105

Nakagata, Naomi; Takeo, Toru; Fukumoto, Kiyoko; Kondo, Tomoko; Haruguchi, Yukie; Takeshita, Yumi; Nakamuta, Yuko; Matsunaga, Hiroko; Tsuchiyama, Shuuji; Ishizuka, Yuta; Araki, Kimi

2013-07-08

62

Investigation of the Effects of Phosphate Fertilizer Application on the Heavy Metal Content in Agricultural Soils with Different Cultivation Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of phosphate fertilizers is essential in agriculture, because they supply farmland with nutrients for growing plants.\\u000a However, heavy metals might be included as impurities in natural materials and minerals, so heavy metals can also be present\\u000a in phosphate fertilizers or other chemical fertilizers. The aim of this work was to assess the heavy metal content and contamination\\u000a status

Mehrdad Cheraghi; Bahareh Lorestani; Hajar Merrikhpour

63

INFLUENCE OF BIOSOLIDS AND FERTILIZER AMENDMENTS ON SELECTED SOIL PHYSICAL CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PARAMETERS IN TAILINGS REVEGETATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT A three year field study was conducted on two different tailings, Bethlehem (silt loam) and Trojan (sand), todetermine the effects of fertilizer and biosolids amendments on selected soil physical, chemical and microbial parameters. Following addition of biosolids at rates of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Mg ha, soil bulk density decreased linearly. Biosolids addition resulted in an increase

Al Jobson

64

APPLICATIONS: ENERGY AND CHEMICALS INDUSTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend to smaller and smaller structures, that is, miniaturization, is well known in the microelectronics industry, evidenced by the rapid increase in computing power through reduction of the area and volume needed per transistor on chips. In the energy and chemicals areas, this same trend towards miniaturization, i.e., control of function and\\/or structure at the nanoscale, also is occurring,

D. Co; S. T. Picraux

65

An approach to revegetation of Egyptian deserts. III. Chemical processing of low quality dolomite rock for production of granulated compound fertilizer  

SciTech Connect

The low quality dolomite rock from Abu-Rawash, Giza, was reacted with sulfuric acid to prepare a compound fertilizer comprising all secondary nutrient and micronutrient elements. The fertilizer product was mixed with 20 weight percent of ground bentonite ore, and was granulated using potassium sulfate solution as binder. Application of the new fertilizer for cultivating maize in sandy soil was very effective in improving the morphology of the plant. The compound fertilizer is recommended for reclamation of sandy soil.

Estefan, S.F.; Awadalla, F.T. (National Research Centre, Cario (Egypt))

1989-01-01

66

Influence of source, rate, and method of applicating controlled release fertilizer on nutrient release and growth of ‘Savannah’ holly  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of rate of fertilizer application and method of application on the rate of nutrient release and growth of ‘Savannah’ holly (Ilex ×attenuata Ashe) using three controlled release fertilizers. The controlled release fertilizers used were Osmocote 17N—3P—9.9K, Sierrablen 17N—3P—8.3K, and High-N 24N—1.7P—5.8K, all 12 to 14 month formulations. The three fertilizers had different

J. M. Ruter

1992-01-01

67

[Changes of crop yield and soil fertility under long-term application of fertilizer and recycled nutrients in manure on a black soil III. Soil nutrient budget].  

PubMed

The nutrient budget of fertilization models under different treatments was calculated using data from a field experiment over the period of 1985-1999. The results indicated that application of nitrogen fertilizer accelerated a large deficit of soil phosphorus, and the use of nitrogen and phosphorus accelerated the deficit of potassium. The experimental data demonstrated the appearance of a large area of soil deficit of phosphorus from 1970s and of potassium from 1980s in China. Nutrient recycled in farming system improved soil nutrient budget, but could not meet the nutrient requirements from high-yield crops. The use of recycled nutrients with an appropriate use of fertilizers according to the soil fertility could produce higher crop yields, balance soil nutrient budget, and not cause surplus nutrients to emit into environment. PMID:12624995

Liu, Hongxiang; Wang, Delu; Wang, Shouyu; Meng, Kai; Han, Xiaozeng; Zhang, Lu; Shen, Shanmin

2002-11-01

68

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2010-07-01

69

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2009-07-01

70

An experimental multi-band precision fertilizer applicator for a potato planter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental dry-fertilizer applicators presently used in potato nutritional investigations lack versatility. Belt-type applicators that meter out salts in bands of one fixed horizon at planting are most widely used (3, 4). When the effects of levels of phosphorus with and without micronutrients are being studied (5), contamination may occur by carry-over from plot to plot through belt and delivery tube

B. J. Hoyle; Herman Timm; E. R. Kucera

1967-01-01

71

Chemical Applications of Ion Accelerators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter discusses the basic principles of analytical methods based on positive ion beams from particle accelerators. The methods, namely, particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) are described in detail. Besides the underlying physical processes, methodical questions, analytical capabilities, and typical fields of application are also discussed.

Koltay, E.; Pászti, F.; Kiss, Á. Z.

72

Chemical characterization and bioavailability of phosphorus in water-insoluble fractions of three mono-ammonium phosphate fertilizers.  

PubMed

Elemental impurities in mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) fertilizers, such as Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, and F, result in compounds other than NH4H2PO4. The phosphorus availability of the impurity compounds was determined in 3 commercial MAP fertilizers produced from North Carolina, Florida, and Idaho phosphate rocks. Soluble compounds, including NH4H2PO4, were washed out of the fertilizers, and the water-insoluble fraction was collected. The North Carolina, Florida, and Idaho MAP fertilizers contained 13, 16, and 17% water-insoluble fractions, respectively. Availability of phosphorus in each MAP fertilizer and water-insoluble fraction was determined in a greenhouse pot study using sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor) as the test crop. There were no differences in dry matter weights or phosphorus uptake between reagent grade MAP and each MAP fertilizer. Lower dry matter weights and phosphorus uptake were produced from the water-insoluble North Carolina, Florida, and Idaho fractions (NC greater than FL greater than ID). Chemical analysis and characterization with optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry indicated 77.3, 73.8, and 73.6% NH4H2PO4 in the North Carolina, Florida, and Idaho MAP fertilizers, respectively. MgAl(NH4)2H(PO4)2F2, AlNH4HPO4F2, and FeNH4(HPO4)2 were identified as water-insoluble phosphorus compounds. There was a significant negative correlation between the percent phosphorus present as MgAl(NH4)2H(PO4)2F2 and the phosphorus availability. Increased crystallinity of the various water-insoluble compounds also contributed to reduced phosphorus availability. PMID:2553660

Sikora, F J; Dillard, E F; Copeland, J P; Mullins, G L

73

Conservation headlands for rare arable weeds: The effects of fertilizer application and light penetration on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to promoting agricultural wildlife in general, conservation headlands may be a method of providing a refuge to endangered arable weeds. The conservation headland technique excludes herbicide and insecticide use in the outer 2–3 m of the arable field, but does not restrict fertilizer inputs. We studied the effects of fertilizer application on the weed vegetation in relation to

David Kleijn; Leonie A. C. van der Voort

1997-01-01

74

Properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast and yet largely unexplored family of graphene materials has great potential for future electronic devices with novel functionalities. The ability to engineer the electrical and optical properties in graphene by chemically functionalizing it with a molecule or adatom is widening considerably the potential applications targeted by graphene. Indeed, functionalized graphene has been found to be the best known transparent conductor or a wide gap semiconductor. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms driving the functionalization of graphene with hydrogen is proving to be of fundamental interest for energy storage devices. Here we discuss recent advances on the properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

Craciun, M. F.; Khrapach, I.; Barnes, M. D.; Russo, S.

2013-10-01

75

Properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.  

PubMed

The vast and yet largely unexplored family of graphene materials has great potential for future electronic devices with novel functionalities. The ability to engineer the electrical and optical properties in graphene by chemically functionalizing it with a molecule or adatom is widening considerably the potential applications targeted by graphene. Indeed, functionalized graphene has been found to be the best known transparent conductor or a wide gap semiconductor. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms driving the functionalization of graphene with hydrogen is proving to be of fundamental interest for energy storage devices. Here we discuss recent advances on the properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene. PMID:24045655

Craciun, M F; Khrapach, I; Barnes, M D; Russo, S

2013-09-17

76

Agricultural Chemical and Fertilizer Storage Rules: Costs and Benefits for Insuring Cleaner Water for Indiana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis of public goods is presented with a discussion of the rules for fertilizer and pesticide storage units in Indiana. A basic rule summary is presented with descriptions of the types of dikes that might be considered for containment. Estimated costs are projected along with the number of contained liquid fertilizer spills by size in…

Welch, Mary A., Ed.

1991-01-01

77

CHANGES IN SNAP BEAN YIELD, NUTRIENT COMPOSITION, AND SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS WHEN USING BROILER LITTER AS FERTILIZER SOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concern surrounding phosphorus (P)-enrichment of surface waters has lead several states to adopt P-based nutrient management planning strategies regarding land-application of broiler litter. When litter is applied on a P-basis, as much as five times more receiving cropland may be needed compared with nitrogen (N)-based applications. Additionally, many crops have N fertilizer requirements greater than what can be applied

S. B. Phillips; G. L. Mullins; S. J. Donohue

2002-01-01

78

Effect of organic amendments and slow-release nitrogen fertilizer on willow biomass production and soil chemical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lime-stabilized sewage sludge and composted poultry manure, at a rate of 250m3ha?1 each, and slow-release N fertilizer (Scott's Osmocote) at 100, 200 and 300kgNha?1, were applied to plots of willow biomass crops during the first season of a three-year growth cycle. Stem biomass production was measured annually and soil chemical characteristics were assessed at the end of the growth cycle.

Hector G. Adegbidi; Russell D. Briggs; Timothy A. Volk; Edwin H. White; Lawrence P. Abrahamson

2003-01-01

79

Eect of organic amendments and slow-release nitrogen fertilizer on willow biomass production and soil chemical characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lime-stabilized sewage sludge and composted poultry manure, at a rate of 250 m3 ha?1 each, and slow-release N fertilizer (Scott's Osmocote) at 100, 200 and 300 kg N ha?1, were applied to plots of willow biomass crops during the 9rst season of a three-year growth cycle. Stem biomass production was measured annually and soil chemical characteristics were assessed at the

Hector G. Adegbidi; Russell D. Briggs; Timothy A. Volk; Edwin H. White; Lawrence P. Abrahamson

80

Effects of organic and inorganic chemical contaminants on fertilization, hatching success, and prolarval survival of striped bass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an organic-inorganic chemical contaminant mixture were evaluated on percent fertilization, percent hatch, and prolarval survival of striped bass. All dilutions of the mixture simulated concentrations of various organic and inorganic contaminants found in striped bass spawning habitats. The organic contaminants were Aroclors® 1248, 1254, 1260, chlordane, DDE, chlordecone (kepone), toxaphene, anthracene, benzo(a)anthrene, chrysene, fluoranthrene, fluorene, perylene, pyrene,

Lenwood W. Hall; Larry O. Horseman; Scott Zeger

1984-01-01

81

???????????????????????????? ? ?????????????????????????? ?????????????????????? Effect of Chemical Fertilizer on Khaya senegalensis (Ders.) A. Juss. Stecklings Growth and Its Impact on Early Growth ??????? ??????????????1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of chemical fertilizer on Khaya senegalensis (African mahogany) stecklings growth and its impact on early growth was investigated at the Forest Tree Seed Centre, Muak- Lek, Saraburi Province. Stecklings were prepared and transplanted into 3x7 inches plastic bags with topsoil, sand and coconut husk 2:1:1. An 3x2 factorial experiment in Completely Randomized Design was imposed. The first factor,

Supatra Limpiyaparapant; Somboon Boonyuen

82

Effect of long-term compost and inorganic fertilizer application on background N2O and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from an intensively cultivated soil.  

PubMed

The influence of inorganic fertilizer and compost on background nitrous oxide (N2O) and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions were examined over a maize-wheat rotation year from June 2008 to May 2009 in a fluvo-aquic soil in Henan Province of China where a field experiment had been established in 1989 to evaluate the long-term effects of manure and fertilizer on soil organic status. The study involved five treatments: compost (OM), fertilizer NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium, NPK), half compost N plus half fertilizer N (HOM), fertilizer NK (NK), and control without any fertilizer (CK). The natural logarithms of the background N2O fluxes were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with soil temperature, but not with soil moisture, during the maize or wheat growing season. The 18-year application of compost alone and inorganic fertilizer not only significantly (P<0.05) increased soil organic carbon (SOC) by 152% and 10-43% (respectively), but also increased background N2O emissions by 106% and 48-76% (respectively) compared with the control. Total N in soils was a better indicator for predicting annual background N2O emission than SOC. The estimated emission factor (EF) of mineralized N, calculated by dividing annual N2O emission by mineralized N was 0.13-0.19%, significantly (P<0.05) lower than the EF of added N (0.30-0.39%). The annual N2O emission in the NPK, HOM and OM soils amended with 300kgha(-1) organic or inorganic N was 1427, 1325 and 1178gNha(-1), respectively. There was a significant (P<0.05) difference between the NPK and OM. The results of this study indicate that soil indigenous N was less efficiently converted into N2O compared with exogenous N. Increasing SOC by compost application, then partially increasing N supply to crops instead of adding inorganic N fertilizer, may be an effective measure to mitigate N2O emissions from arable soils in the North China plain. PMID:23229048

Ding, Weixin; Luo, Jiafa; Li, Jie; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Liu, Deyan

2012-12-08

83

Studies on the effects of application of different foliar fertilizer materials, crop residue and inter cropping on Banana plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five separate experiments were conducted at university of Khartoum demonstration farm during 1993 to 1995 under both orchard and nursery conditions to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different fertilizers, use of crop residue and intercroppin...

Y. M. Hassan

1996-01-01

84

A conserved fertility signal despite population variation in the cuticular chemical profile of the trap-jaw ant Odontomachus brunneus.  

PubMed

Contact pheromones in the form of cuticular hydrocarbons are widespread among insects. Eusocial insects present a special challenge for understanding the evolution of the cuticular hydrocarbon profile because this blend is responsible for multiple distinct roles such as nestmate recognition and signalling fertility status. This study investigates these two signalling roles of the hydrocarbon profile in the trap-jaw ant Odontomachus brunneus. We demonstrate that the cuticular hydrocarbon profile is highly variable across populations and provide evidence that these differences are used for nestmate discrimination. Through manipulative experiments we also show that (Z)-9-nonacosene (Z9:C29) is used as a fertility signal and its role is conserved across populations. Our data demonstrate that both fertility and nestmate signalling influence the cuticular hydrocarbon profile and specifically the relative abundance of Z9:C29 on the cuticle of O. brunneus. Our study suggests that natural selection works on the cuticular chemical profile through multiple regulatory pathways, diversifying nestmate signals while conserving fertility signals. PMID:23868840

Smith, Adrian A; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Suarez, Andrew V

2013-07-18

85

Integrated Use of Recycled Organic Waste and Chemical Fertilizers for Improving Maize Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wire house experiment was conducted to study the integrated effect of un-composted, composted (recycled) organic waste and inorganic fertilizer on maize crop. One forth (44 kg ha-1) of recommended level of N fertilizer (175 kg ha-1) for maize was applied after blending in fruit and vegetable wastes during composting and same rate was applied along with un-composted organic waste.

RIZWAN AHMAD; ABID NASEER; ZAHIR A. ZAHIR; MUHAMMAD ARSHAD; TARIQ SULTAN; MUHAMMAD ARSHAD ULLAH

86

Effectiveness of Organic\\/BioFertilizer Supplemented with Chemical Fertilizers for Improving Soil Water Retention, Aggregate Stability, Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an organic-fertilizer was prepared by composting fruit and vegetable wastes in a locally fabricated unit and enriching it with N applied at the rate of 147 g kg compost. This “organic-fertilizer” was also used as a carrier for PGPR strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (N3) containing ACC-deaminase to formulate a bio-fertilizer. The organic- and\\/or bio-fertilizers were applied

Rizwan Ahmad; Muhammad Arshad; Azeem Khalid; Zahir A. Zahir

2008-01-01

87

Acupuncture and in vitro fertilization: critique of the evidence and application to clinical practice.  

PubMed

Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) commonly use adjunctive therapies to improve IVF outcomes and reduce stress, anxiety and depression. Among these acupuncture is a popular choice. Despite 40 clinical trials and 9 systematic reviews investigating the efficacy of acupuncture for improving IVF outcomes, evidence-based guidelines are difficult to devise. The methodology used in the clinical trials does not closely resemble the use of acupuncture in real world acupuncture clinics, limiting the applicability of this research. Since many women undergoing IVF are currently using acupuncture there is a pressing need for a broader understanding of the use of acupuncture for female infertility. This paper offers a critical examination of the research on acupuncture and IVF and its limitations, details the differences between these studies and real world clinical practice, and discusses Chinese medicine theory for improving fertility and its possible scientific mechanisms within the context of clinical practice. PMID:23337556

Anderson, Belinda; Rosenthal, Lara

2012-12-14

88

Modeling the risk of phosphorus runoff following single and split phosphorus fertilizer applications in two contrasting catchments.  

PubMed

The potential loss of P in runoff is a function of the combined effects of fertilizer-soil interactions and climatic characteristics. In this study, we applied a Bayesian approach to experimental data to model the annualized long-term risk of P runoff following single and split P fertilizer applications using two example catchments with contrasting rainfall/runoff patterns. Split P fertilizer strategies are commonly used in intensive pasture production in Australia and our results showed that three applications of 13.3 kg P ha(-1) resulted in a greater risk of P runoff compared with a single application of 40 kg P ha(-1) when long-term surface runoff data were incorporated into a Bayesian P risk model. Splitting P fertilizer applications increased the likelihood of a coincidence of fertilizer application and runoff occurring. We found that the overall risk of P runoff is also increased in catchments where the rainfall/runoff pattern is less predictable, compared with catchments where rainfall/runoff is winter dominant. The findings of our study also question the effectiveness of current recommendations to avoid applying fertilizer if runoff is likely to occur in the next few days, as we found that total P concentrations at the half-life were still very high (18.2 and 8.2 mg P L(-1)) following single and split P treatments, respectively. Data from the current study also highlight that omitting P fertilizer on soils that already have adequate soil test P concentrations is an effective method of reducing P loss in surface runoff. If P fertilizer must be applied, we recommend less frequent applications and only during periods of the year when the risk of surface P runoff is low. PMID:21520762

Burkitt, Lucy L; Dougherty, Warwick J; Corkrey, Ross; Broad, Shane T

89

In Vivo Applications of Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As stated at the beginning of this volume, the term “biosensor” refers to sensors that use biomolecules in the molecular recognition\\u000a or transduction processes. Although there have been many proposals to use fiberoptic biosensors in vivo, almost all the work\\u000a to date has been in vitro. In the more general class of fiberoptic chemical sensors, in vivo applications have progressed

Amos Gottlieb; Skip Divers; Henry K. Hui

90

Nitrogenous fertilizers: Global distribution of consumption and associated emissions of nitrous exide and ammonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global distribution of nitrogten input via application of chemical nitrogenous fertilizers to agricultural ecosystems is presented. The suite of 1° (latitude\\/longitude) resolution data bases includes primary data on fertilizer consumption, as well as supporting data sets defining the distribution and intensity of agriculture associated with fertilizer use. The data were developed from a variety of sources and reflect conditions

Elaine Matthews

1994-01-01

91

Slug responses to grassland cutting and fertilizer application under plant functional group removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current studies on trophic interactions in biodiversity experiments have largely relied on artificially sown gradients in plant diversity, but removal experiments with their more natural plant community composition are more realistic. Slugs are a major part of the invertebrate herbivore community, with some species being common pests in agriculture. We therefore investigated how strongly slugs are influenced by grassland management, plant biodiversity and composition. Here we analysed the effects of cutting frequency, fertilizer application and plant functional group composition on slug densities and their contribution to herbivory on Rumex acetosa in a removal experiment within a >100-year old grassland in Northern Germany. The experiment was laid out as a Latin rectangle with full factorial combinations of (i) plant functional group removal (3 levels) using herbicides, (ii) fertilizer application (2 levels) and (iii) cutting frequency (2 levels). The resulting 12 treatment combinations were replicated 6 times, resulting in 72 plots. We collected a total of 1020 individuals belonging to three species Arion distinctus (60.4% of individuals), Deroceras reticulatum (34.7%) and Arion lusitanicus (4.9%) using a cover board technique and additionally measured herbivore damage to R. acetosa. We found the highest slug abundance on plots with a low cutting frequency and high food resource availability (increased cover of forbs and taller vegetation). Fertilizer application had no significant effect on slug abundance, but caused higher herbivore damage to on R. acetosa, possibly as a result of increased tissue quality. The negative effect of higher cutting frequency on slug abundance was lowest in control plots with their naturally developed graminoid-forb communities (cutting reduced slug density by 6% in the control vs. 29% in herbicide plots). Our experiments therefore support the idea that more natural plant species compositions reduce the impact of disturbances (e.g. through cutting or grazing) on invertebrates.

Everwand, Georg; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja

2013-04-01

92

Lime and Soil Moisture Effects on Nitrogen gas Loss Following Fertilizer Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The loss of nitrogen from fertilizer application through ammonia volatilization and nitrous oxide emissions are of major environmental concern. Liming has been regarded as a mitigation option for lowering soil nitrogen gas emissions following the addition of fertilizers. A mechanistic nitrogen-cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) has been developed to simulate the interaction of water saturation variation with biogeochemical processes, and the balance between liming and soil buffering capacity. The model was tested with data from a laboratory soil incubation following the addition of synthetic urine (500 kg N ha-1). Simulation results agreed well with measured N2O emissions and soil inorganic-N concentrations. The study indicated that liming significantly increase NH3 volatilization, while the reduction in cumulative N2O emissions depended strongly on water regime. The cumulative N2O emissions under relatively dry conditions were reduced by up to 243% with liming. However, the cumulative N2O and N2 emissions were predicted to increase by up to 346% following liming because the resulting NO3--N pools (from enhanced nitrification) were susceptible to enhanced N2O and N2 losses during subsequent water application. Consequently, short-term (i.e., days ¡§C weeks) gains made in reducing soil N2O emissions by liming can be offset, and potentially reversed, by emissions later in the growing season. We describe an approach using the modeling framework to optimize N gas reductions using liming under various edaphic, crop type, fertilizer and irrigation application rates, and climate conditions.

Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.; Oldenburg, C.

2007-12-01

93

Effects of Rhizobium inoculation, organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and physical properties of faba bean seeds.  

PubMed

A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of Rhizobium inoculation, sulphur, nitrogen and chicken manure on yield, 100-seed weight, cookability, non-soakers, total defects and hydration coefficient of faba bean. The results showed that sulphur, nitrogen and chicken manure treatments significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased yield, 100-seed weight, non-soakers, and hydration coefficient, in the absence of Rhizobium inoculation. The results also showed that Rhizobium inoculation significantly (p < or = 0.05) increased yield, 100-seed weight, cookability, but decreased non-soakers. A positive correlation (r = 0.90) was observed between the non-soaker percent and the total defect percent. No correlation was found between non-soakers, hydration coefficient and cookability. The results of this investigation indicate that Rhizobium inoculation is a promising fertilizer because it is cheap, easy to handle and improves plant growth and seed quality. The efficiency of inoculation could be improved with the addition of biological, chemical or organic fertilizers. Generally, fertilization of faba bean with nitrogen, sulphur or chicken manure not only increased plant growth and yield, but also improved seed quality and nutritional value. PMID:9527348

Elsheikh, E A; Elzidany, A A

1997-01-01

94

21 CFR 1310.13 - Exemption of chemical mixtures; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. 1310.13 Section... § 1310.13 Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. (a) The Administrator...all or any part of the Act a chemical mixture consisting of two or more chemical...

2009-04-01

95

21 CFR 1310.13 - Exemption of chemical mixtures; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. 1310.13 Section... § 1310.13 Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. (a) The Administrator...all or any part of the Act a chemical mixture consisting of two or more chemical...

2010-04-01

96

Reducing dependence on chemical fertilizers and its financial implications for farmers in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fertilizer intensive technology so long promoted in agriculture produced a green revolution but has brought long-term damages to soil quality. The technology now appears unsustainable for future agricultural development in India both on account of its ecological implications and the burden on the budget. There is now a need to revisit the traditional methods once used in agriculture and

Nilabja Ghosh

2004-01-01

97

Soil biological activity and their seasonal variations in response to long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of long-term and continued application of fertilizers and manures\\u000a on microbial biomass, soil biological activity and their seasonal variations in surface and subsurface soils in relation to\\u000a soil fertility. For this, soils were sampled in spring, summer and autumn from Shenyang Long-term Experimental Station, northeastern\\u000a China. The results showed that

Gaofei Ge; Zhaojun Li; Fenliang Fan; Guixin Chu; Zhenan Hou; Yongchao Liang

2010-01-01

98

Distributions of rare earths and heavy metals in field-grown maize after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earths are widely applied in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition through the use of fertilizers, yet little is known of their accumulation in field-grown crops. We have studied the distribution of 16 rare earths (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanide elements) in field-grown maize and the concentration of heavy metals in the grains after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer.

Xingkai Xu; Wangzhao Zhu; Zijian Wang; Geert-Jan Witkamp

2002-01-01

99

Effect of Continuous Application of Low-Acidulent Fertilizer on Acidification of an Andisol and Plant Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to prevent the soil acidification caused by the NH4 and the accumulation of SO4 and Cl using a low acidulent urea based fertilizer applied in an Andisol that initial pH was adjusted to pH5 (named LAF5) or pH6 (named LAF6) in comparison with the continuous application of a rapidly soluble ammonium based fertilizer (RSF) applied on the

C. K. Morikawa; M. Saigusa

2003-01-01

100

Use of human urine fertilizer in cultivation of cabbage (Brassica oleracea)--impacts on chemical, microbial, and flavor quality.  

PubMed

Human urine was used as a fertilizer in cabbage cultivation and compared with industrial fertilizer and nonfertilizer treatments. Urine achieved equal fertilizer value to industrial fertilizer when both were used at a dose of 180 kg N/ha. Growth, biomass, and levels of chloride were slightly higher in urine-fertilized cabbage than with industrial-fertilized cabbage but clearly differed from nonfertilized. Insect damage was lower in urine-fertilized than in industrial-fertilized plots but more extensive than in nonfertilized plots. Microbiological quality of urine-fertilized cabbage and sauerkraut made from the cabbage was similar to that in the other fertilized cabbages. Furthermore, the level of glucosinolates and the taste of sauerkrauts were similar in cabbages from all three fertilization treatments. Our results show that human urine could be used as a fertilizer for cabbage and does not pose any significant hygienic threats or leave any distinctive flavor in food products. PMID:17894454

Pradhan, Surendra K; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Sjöblom, Annalena; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

2007-09-26

101

Effect of Soil Fertilizer, Foliar Fertilizer, and Growth Regulator Application on Milk Thistle Development, Seed Yield, and Silymarin Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important consideration for milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) cultivation is regulating development to lengthen the reproductive stage and increase seed yield with high silymarin content. The treatment of milk thistle with foliar fertilizers and growth regulators—thidiazuron (Dropp), 2,3,5?triiodobenzoic acid (Tiba), mepiquat chloride (Pix), and prohexadione?Ca (Regalis)—resulted in an increase in the proportion of mature flower heads. Highest seed yield

Maria Geneva; Grigor Zehirov; Ira Stancheva; Lubomir Iliev; Georgi Georgiev

2007-01-01

102

Deep placement: A method of nitrogen fertilizer application compatible with algal nitrogen fixation in wetland rice soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of different methods of nitrogen fertilizer application on the algal flora and biological nitrogen fixation (Acetylene-reducing activity) in a wetland rice soil was studied in pot and field experiments. Broadcast application of urea inhibited nitrogen fixation and favored the growth of green algae. In contrast, deep placement of urea supergranules (1–2 g urea granules) did not suppress

P. A. Roger; S. A. Kulasooriya; A. C. Tirol; E. T. Craswell

1980-01-01

103

Phosphorus effectiveness in fertilized soils evaluated by chemical solutions and residual value for wheat growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen soils from the south east of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina) that had been fertilized with moderate amounts of P (10–40 kgP\\/ha) during the last 10 years were used to investigate the effect of time on the decline of P availability as measured by three soil tests (Bray 1, Bray 2, Olsen) and the null-point method. Differences in

R. E. Mendoza

1992-01-01

104

Return to fertility after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist  

PubMed Central

Background Antagonistic analogues of GnRH for the treatment of prostate cancer may be used clinically in persons for whom return to fertility after such treatment is important or desirable. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effects of a long term treatment with orntide, a GnRH antagonist, on testosterone levels and fertility in male rats. Methods Two groups of male rats received either 120-day orntide microspheres (8.8 mg orntide/kg/120 days) or vehicle alone (control group). Serum orntide and testosterone levels in both groups were monitored at certain intervals for 9 months from the initiation of treatment. After recovery of normal serum testosterone levels in the treated animals, each rat was housed with two proven breeder, but drug-naive, females. Results All mates of treated rats achieved pregnancy as rapidly as the mates of control rats although two of the control rats did not sire a litter with either female and one sired only one litter. The mean size of the litters of treated (12.3 offspring per litter) and control (10.6 offspring per litter) were similar. All offspring were grossly normal morphologically and behaviorally during the time to weaning. Conclusions These results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression is reversible after cessation of treatment with this GnRH antagonist.

Kostanski, Janusz W; Jiang, Ge; Dani, Bhas A; Murty, Santos B; Qiu, Wei; Schrier, Bruce; Thanoo, B C; DeLuca, Patrick P

2001-01-01

105

Arsenic in Ironite fertilizer: The absorption by hamsters and the chemical form  

SciTech Connect

We determined the gastrointestinal absorption of the arsenic in Ironite, a readily available fertilizer, for male hamsters (Golden Syrian), considered to be an excellent model for how the human processes inorganic arsenic. Urine and feces were collected after administering an aqueous suspension of Ironite by stomach tube. In addition, we studied the forms and oxidation states of arsenic in Ironite by synchrotron spectroscopic techniques. The absorption of the arsenic in Ironite (1-0-0) was 21.2% and the absorption relative to sodium arsenite was 31.0%. Our results using XANES spectra determinations indicate that Ironite contains scorodite (AsV) as well as previously reported arsenopyrite (As(-1)). Since the 1-0-0 Ironite is readily available for purchase, its risk assessment for children by professionals is recommended. This is especially important because it is used to fertilize large areas of grass in playgrounds and parks where children play. The absorption of the arsenic in it, the hand to mouth activity of children, and the potential of ground water contamination makes the use of 1-0-0 Ironite as a fertilizer a potential environmental hazard.

Aposhian, M.M.; Koch, I.; Avram, M.D.; Chowdhury, U.K.; Smith, P.G.; Reimer, K.J.; Aposhian, H.V.; (Ariz); (Royal)

2009-09-11

106

Nonsurgical fertility control for managing free-roaming dog populations: A review of products and criteria for field applications.  

PubMed

About 75% of dogs worldwide are free to roam and reproduce, thus creating locally overabundant populations. Problems caused by roaming dogs include diseases transmitted to livestock and humans, predation on livestock, attacks on humans, road traffic accidents, and nuisance behavior. Nonsurgical fertility control is increasingly advocated as more cost-effective than surgical sterilization to manage dog populations and their impact. The aims of this review were to 1) analyze trends in numbers of scientific publications on nonsurgical fertility control for dogs; 2) illustrate the spectrum of fertility inhibitors available for dogs; 3) examine how differences between confined and free-roaming dogs might affect the choice of fertility inhibitors to be used in dog population management; and 4) provide a framework of criteria to guide decisions regarding the use of nonsurgical fertility control for dog population management. The results showed that the 117 articles published between 1982 and 2011 focussed on long-term hormonal contraceptives, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, immunocontraceptives, and male chemical sterilants. The number of articles published biennially increased from one to five papers produced in the early 1980s to 10 to 20 in the past decade. Differences between confined dogs and free-roaming dogs include reproduction and survival as well as social expectations regarding the duration of infertility, the costs of sterilization, and the responsibilities for meeting these costs. These differences are likely to dictate which fertility inhibitors will be used for confined or free-roaming dogs. The criteria regarding the use of fertility control for dog population management, presented as a decision tree, covered social acceptance, animal welfare, effectiveness, legal compliance, feasibility, and sustainability. The review concluded that the main challenges for the future are evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, sustainability, and effects of mass nonsurgical sterilization campaigns on dog population size and impact as well as integrating nonsurgical fertility control with disease vaccination and public education programs. PMID:23998740

Massei, Giovanna; Miller, Lowell A

2013-08-30

107

Precision farming through variable fertilizer application by automated detailed tracking of in-season crop properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is lacking in precision farming at present, are more comprehensive and non-destructive methods for obtaining the data needed to prescribe variable treatments. A farmer needs to be informed in order to be efficient, and that includes having the knowledge and information products to forge a viable strategy for farming operations. Current remote sensing (satellite images) sources are too coarse in multispectral spatial resolution and too infrequent in time to allow detailed tracking of phenological stages during the growing season. In this research very detailed and automated on-the-go optical monitoring of the crop is used for detecting and managing zones with different crop yield potential on a seasonal scale. In particular, reflectance properties are used to identify and evaluate optical indicators of the nutritional status of the crop. These indicators should allow site-specific in-seasonal correction of N-application to come to optimal crop yield all over the field. Based on these indicators, site-specific fertilization is done with a variable fertilizer equipped with DGPS. At the end of the season, the crop was harvested with a combine harvester, equipped with precision farming sensors to map final crop yield. In this way final results could be evaluated and analyzed.

Reyniers, Mieke; Vrindts, Els; Dumont, Koenraad; De Baerdemaeker, Josse

2002-01-01

108

Enrichment of some B-vitamins in plants with application of organic fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature showed that plants grown with organic fertilizers often contain higher concentrations of vitamins B1 (thiamin) and B12 (cyanocobalamin) as compared with plants grown with inorganic fertilizers. Since plant roots were recently shown to be able to absorb B1 and B12, it was thus suspected that organic fertilizers (such as manure of diverse sources or sewage

A. Mozafar

1994-01-01

109

Experimental Study on Pricking Hole Performances of Deep Application Liquid Fertilizer Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to meet the needs of different spacing and depth of intertillage crops, a kind of liquid fertilizer device which can apply liquid fertilizer deeply into the soil was designed. Rotational speed of planetary frame, forward speed of test-bed vehicle, the distance between rotating center of planetary wheel axle and spraying fertilizer needle-tip were selected as factors, experiment was

Jinfeng Wang; Jinyan Ju; Jinwu Wang

2011-01-01

110

Application of ultrasonics to chemical analysis  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonics has found a wide utility in chemistry, making available energy densities of the order of 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 6} W/cm{sup 3}, which is 3-5 orders of magnitude greater than the energy densities used in some physical methods like radiolysis and photolysis. The paper overviews several techniques of ultrasound to chemical analysis with the greatest effect obtained by using a wide range of ultrasound frequencies. The methods described include: using different ultrasound properties like velocity of propagation, decay rate, acoustic resistance, and relaxational absorption as analytical signals; the use of sonoluminescence; applications for oxidation, coagulating, and dispersion by ultrasound methods; use of ultrasound for sample preparation; and the use of ultrasound for widening the scope of the atomic spectroscopy and electrochemcial methods of analysis.

Chmilenko, F.A.; Baklanov, A.N.; Sidorova, L.P.; Piskun, Yu.M. [Dnepropetrovsk State Univ. (Ukraine)

1994-06-01

111

SOIL CHEMICAL CHANGES OVER 16 YEARS AS INFLUENCED BY NITROGEN FERTILIZATION, TILLAGE, AND CROP SEQUENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Changes in soil chemical properties due to long-term management can influence plant nutrient availability, crop yield, and environmental quality. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of N fertilzation, tillage, and crop sequence on selected soil chemical properties for a long-te...

112

Phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen in runoff following fertilizer application to turfgrass.  

PubMed

Intensively managed golf courses are perceived by the public as possibly adding nutrients to surface waters via surface transport. An experiment was designed to determine the transport of nitrate N and phosphate P from simulated golf course fairways of 'Tifway' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. Fertilizer treatments were 10-10-10 granular at three rates and rainfall events were simulated at four intervals after treatment (hours after treatment, HAT). Runoff volume was directly related to simulated rainfall amounts and soil moisture at the time of the event and varied from 24.3 to 43.5% of that added for the 50-mm events and 3.1 to 27.4% for the 25-mm events. The highest concentration and mass of phosphorus in runoff was during the first simulated rainfall event at 4 HAT with a dramatic decrease at 24 HAT and subsequent events. Nitrate N concentrations were low in the runoff water (approximately 0.5 mg L-1) for the first three runoff events and highest (approximately 1-1.5 mg L-1) at 168 HAT due to the time elapsed for conversion of ammonia to nitrate. Nitrate N mass was highest at the 4 and 24 HAT events and stepwise increases with rate were evident at 24 HAT. Total P transported for all events was 15.6 and 13.8% of that added for the two non-zero rates, respectively. Total nitrate N transported was 1.5 and 0.9% of that added for the two rates, respectively. Results indicate that turfgrass management should include applying minimum amounts of irrigation after fertilizer application and avoiding application before intense rain or when soil is very moist. PMID:12371190

Shuman, L M

113

Possible application of solar-thermal energy in the chemical industry  

SciTech Connect

Eight chemicals are identified that require substantial amounts of non-recoverable energy for their production. The chemicals are: ethylene, vinyl chloride, styrene, propylene, butadiene, isoprene, hydrogen, and phosphorus. These chemicals are used to produce a wealth of products such as plastics, rubbers and fertilizers. In most cases, these energy intensive materials are at the top of a pyramid of subsequent, exothermic reactions and products that do not require additional thermal energy except for separation processes. Their production at present is centralized and done on a large scale, and most of the organics are produced in refineries where hydrocarbon energy is abundant. This association with refineries means at present that direct substitution of solar energy for hydrocarbon fired heaters may not be convenient, even though scientifically feasible. Other novel solar energy applications are production of caustic soda from thermodynamic cycles, ethylene from ethanol, and butadiene from ethanol.

Martin, L.R.

1982-06-01

114

Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Application on the Phytochemical and Antioxidant Activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).  

PubMed

A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P2O5:10% K2O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P2O5, 15% K2O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

2013-09-05

115

Nitrous oxide fluxes from grassland in the Netherlands. 2. Effects of soil type, nitrogen fertilizer application and grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensively managed grasslands are potentially a large source of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the Netherlands because of the large nitrogen (N) input and the fairly wet soil conditions. To quantify the effects of soil type, N-fertilizer application and gra

G. L. Velthof; O. Oenema

1995-01-01

116

Phosphorus Loss to Runoff Water Twenty-Four Hours after Application of Liquid Swine Manure or Fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manure contains both organic and inorganic P com- pounds of varying solubility. The proportions are depen- Phosphorus (P) added to soil from fertilizer or manure application dent on, among other factors, manure type and animal could pose a threat to water quality due to its role in eutrophication diet (Barnett, 1994). Phosphorus is also partitioned into of fresh water resources.

Hadi Tabbara

2003-01-01

117

Effects of fertilizer rate, application timing and plant spacing on yield and nutrient content of bell pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var annuum L.), cv Pip, transplants were established at 31 and 46 cm in?rows on bare soil and drip irrigated on a twice weekly schedule. A base rate of fertilizer was applied either in one preplant application or in two (preplant and first flower set) or three (preplant, first flower set, after the midseason harvest) split

V. M. Russo

1991-01-01

118

Influence of lime, fertilizer and manure applications on soil organic matter content and soil physical conditions: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lime, fertilizer and manure applications on soil organic matter status and soil physical properties are of importance to agricultural sustainability. Their effects are complex and many interactions can occur. In the short-term, liming can result in dispersion of clay colloids and formation of surface crusts. As pH is increased the surface negative charge on clay colloids increases

R. J. Haynes; R. Naidu

1998-01-01

119

Chemical composition of sewage sludges and analysis of their potential use as fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was used to provide information concerning the chemical bonding of zinc and copper present in the sludge obtained from the Dayton, Ohio sewage treatment plant. The binding energy of the Zn 2Pââ electron in sludge when placed under a vacuum of 10⁻⁷ Torr was 1023.8 +- 0.2 eV and the binding energy of the

L. E. Sommers

1977-01-01

120

Effects of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Growth and Symbiotic Properties of Faba Bean (Vida\\/aha L.) Under Salt Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chemical (nitrogen and phosphorus) and biological fertilizers ( Rhizobium and vesicular ar buscular mycorrhizae (VAM) Glomus sp.) on growth and symbiotic properties of faba bean u nder saline conditions were investigated in two pot experiments. Salinity significantly reduced the shoot fresh and dry weight, number of nodules, dry weight of nodules and percentage of mycorrhizal infection. Both

Ahlam Elsammani Ahmed; Elsiddig Ahmed; Elmustafa Elsheikh

121

Effects of chlorimuron-ethyl application with or without urea fertilization on soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea.  

PubMed

Chlorimuron-ethyl (CE) has been widely used in modern agriculture, but little is known regarding the influence of CE on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) populations in soils. In this study, microcosm incubation of aquic brown soil was conducted for 60 d. Associated changes in the population sizes of AOB and AOA in response to CE application with or without urea fertilization were examined via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). The half-life of CE ranged from 11.80 d to 14.54 d in the tested soil. Compared to the untreated control, the application of CE alone had no strong effects on soil pH, and urea fertilization temporarily increased soil pH in the first 7 days. The abundance of the AOA amoA gene was greater than the abundance of the AOB amoA gene in all treatments, but both were significantly suppressed by CE application in a dose-dependent manner. Urea fertilization generally increased AOB and AOA amoA gene abundances, except that the AOA amoA gene level was slightly reduced at the early stage of the incubation period. AOB and AOA preferred different N levels for growth, with AOB only growing significantly at high NH4(+) levels and AOA growing substantially at low NH?(+) levels. The stimulation effects of urea fertilization on AOA and AOB amoA gene abundances were strongly suppressed by the CE application. This study indicated that the CE application substantially suppressed soil nitrification via inhibiting the AOB and AOA population regardless of urea fertilization, which resulted in significant changes in the soil NH?(+)-N and NO?(-)-N levels. Furthermore, AOB and AOA inhabiting separate ecological niches with different NH?(+) levels played various roles in N cycling. PMID:23792929

Tan, Huanbo; Xu, Mingkai; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Huiwen; Zhang, Chenggang

2013-05-31

122

Soil micronutrient availability to crops as affected by long-term inorganic and organic fertilizer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micronutrient status in soils and crops can be affected by different fertilization practices during a long-term field experiment. This paper investigated the effects of different fertilization treatments on total and DTPA-extractable micronutrients in soils and micronutrients in crops after 16 year fertilization experiments in Fengqiu County, Henan Province, China. The treatments of the long-term experiment included combinations of various rates

B. Y. Li; D. M. Zhou; L. Cang; H. L. Zhang; X. H. Fan; S. W. Qin

2007-01-01

123

Impact of chemically enhanced diffusion on dissolved inorganic carbon stable isotopes in a fertilized lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At high pH the chemical reaction of CO2 with OH- can significantly increase the mass transfer of CO2 between air and water. The reaction of CO2 with OH- strongly fractionates carbon isotopes in comparison to simple diffusion. These processes, chemically enhanced diffusion (CED) and chemically enhanced fractionation (CEF), greatly influence the carbon budgets and carbon isotope ratios for water bodies with high pH. Using floating chambers, we estimated mass transfer coefficients for CO2 and a nonreactive gas, CH4, in an experimentally eutrophied lake. The mass transfer coefficient estimated from CH4 flux did not vary greatly between measurements (k600 = 1.83 ± 0.33 cm h-1; mean ±1 SD) and agreed well with other independent estimates of mass transfer. The mass transfer coefficient of CO2, however, was chemically enhanced by 3.5- to 7.5-fold. This enhancement was related to pH and temperature but was slightly higher than predictions from an existing model. We determined the role of CEF by modifying a model of CED to include both carbon isotopes (12C and 13C). A whole-lake addition of inorganic 13C to Peter Lake created dynamics in ?13C-dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and provided a test of the new model. The value of ?13C-DIC decreased from approximately -9‰ to -21‰, a result that was well predicted by the model including CEF but could not be duplicated when CEF was omitted. Thus CED and CEF influenced the mass balance of air-water CO2 exchange and had isotopic consequences for DIC. Although CEF is considered inconsequential for mean oceanic conditions, this model could be applied to marine systems for inorganic carbon modeling in areas where pH is elevated or physical mass transfer is limited because of low turbulence.

Bade, Darren L.; Cole, Jonathan J.

2006-01-01

124

RESPONSE OF MAIZE TO FOLIAR VS. SOIL APPLICATION OF NITROGEN–PHOSPHORUS–POTASSIUM FERTILIZERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliar fertilization is a widely used practice to correct nutritional deficiencies in plants caused by improper supply of nutrients to roots. The aim of the present study was to determine the efficiency of different forms of nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium (NPK) fertilizers applied to maize (Zea mays L.), either to the soil or to the leaves. Two sweet corn plants (CV Jubilee) were

Fan Ling; Moshe Silberbush

2002-01-01

125

Nutritional Applications of the Chemical Senses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the relationship of taste and smell to ingestion, digestion, and metabolism. Indicates that the response of these physiological systems can be chemical specific and that chemical senses may play different roles in regulating diet during nutrient deficiency and during nutrient surplus situations. (JN)|

Naim, Michael; Kare, Morley R.

1984-01-01

126

PHOSPHORUS LOSS TO RUNOFF WATER 24 HOURS AFTER APPLICATION OF MANURE OR FERTILIZER: I. EFFECTS OF POST-APPLICATION TILLAGE AND RATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) added to soil from fertilizer and manure application could pose a threat to water quality even if best management practices (BMPs) are followed. The objective of this study was to compare concentrations and losses of total suspended solids (TSS) and various P forms in runoff water wh...

127

Computational Toxicology: Application in Environmental Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter provides an overview of computational models that describe various aspects of the source-to-health effect continuum. Fate and transport models describe the release, transportation, and transformation of chemicals from sources of emission throughout the general envir...

128

Effect of soil acidity and nitrification of fertilizer introduced by row application on sugar beet growth in several soil types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to analyze the factors that affected the growth of sugar beet in four different soil types by using concrete-framed plots as follows: soil acidity (soil pH, exchange acidity y1) and nitrification of fertilizer introduced by row application. Comparison of the value of the exchange acidity y1 of the four soil types with the pH

Nobuhiko Fueki; Masayuki Tani; Shuji Higashida; Satoshi Nakatsu

2004-01-01

129

NEURAL NETWORK AND GIS DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: A MICROCOMPUTER APPLICATION TO PREDICT FOREST FERTILIZATION RESPONSE IN CENTRAL WASHINGTON  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 ABSTRACT.—This paper summarizes development of a neural network and Geographic Information System decision support system (NNGIS-DSS) microcomputer application designed to help forest managers to predict tree response to forest fertilization operations in the Central Washington Region of the Inland Northwest. This system uses distinct software packages within an integrated personal computer development environment using Visual Basic as the front-end

Roberto A. Avila; James A. Moore

130

Effect on water quality in irrigation reservoir due to application reduction of nitrogen fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until 1997, tea farmers in the Makinohara district of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, applied around 1.2 ton\\/ha of nitrogen fertilizer\\u000a per year to their tea fields. In general, uptake amount of nitrogen by tea plants is around 300–350 kg\\/ha. Then some part\\u000a of the remainder of nitrogen fertilizer leach into ground water and flow out into the river. The other part of remainder

Hideo Nakasone

2009-01-01

131

Effects of Organic and Chemical Fertilizers and Biological Control of Problem Organisms on Production of Fingerling Striped Bass, Morone saxatilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen 0.04-ha ponds were fertilized with similar amounts of nitrogen (N) and available phosphorus (P) provided by either alfalfa meal, urea and phosphoric acid, or a combination where half of the P was provided by phosphoric acid and half by alfalfa meal. Half of the ponds fertilized with the combition of nutrients were stocked with adult male common carp, Cyprim

Richard O. Anderson

1994-01-01

132

Determining the Optimal Proportions of Chemical Fertilizers for the Agricultural Production in the Case of a Hyperbolic Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the mathematical modellation of applying two types of fertilizers, we will consider a hyperbolic function with two variables given by relation (3). Determining the best quantities and the optimal proportions of fertilizers is made with the help of the Lagrange integrator; the results are presented in Table 2 and Figures 7 to 9.

Boldea, M.; Sala, F.; Micula, Lia; Berbecea, Adina

2010-09-01

133

Comparative Effects of Nitrogen Fertigation and Granular Fertilizer Application on Growth and Availability of Soil Nitrogen during Establishment of Highbush Blueberry.  

PubMed

A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. "Bluecrop"). Treatments included four methods of N application (weekly fertigation, split fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls) and four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150?kg·ha(-1)?N). Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with a liquid urea solution; weekly fertigation was applied once a week from leaf emergence to 60 d prior to the end of the season while split fertigation was applied as a triple-split from April to June. Non-fertigated controls were fertilized with granular ammonium sulfate, also applied as a triple-split, and irrigated by drip or microsprinklers. Weekly fertigation produced the smallest plants among the four fertilizer application methods at 50?kg·ha(-1)?N during the first year after planting but the largest plants at 150?kg·ha(-1)?N in both the first and second year. The other application methods required less N to maximize growth but were less responsive than weekly fertigation to additional N fertilizer applications. In fact, 44-50% of the plants died when granular fertilizer was applied at 150?kg·ha(-1)?N. By comparison, none of the plants died with weekly fertigation. Plant death with granular fertilizer was associated with high ammonium ion concentrations (up to 650?mg·L(-1)) and electrical conductivity (>3?dS·m(-1)) in the soil solution. Early results indicate that fertigation may be less efficient (i.e., less plant growth per unit of N applied) at lower N rates than granular fertilizer application but is also safer (i.e., less plant death) and promotes more growth when high amounts of N fertilizer is applied. PMID:22639596

Bryla, David R; Machado, Rui M A

2011-09-19

134

40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory...CONTINUED) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory...Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing...

2013-07-01

135

Assessment of Fertilization Effect of Fly Ash on High-Analysis Synthetic Compound Fertilizers. Fertilizer Response Test Using Komatsuna, Brassica Campestris L.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New fertilizers were developed to expand the application of fly ash and complement some shortcomings in physical properties of ammonium nitrate and urea fertilizers. These fertilizers are synthetic compound fertilizers containing three elements produced i...

M. Aoki T. Umezawa K. Okabe

1987-01-01

136

Chemical engineering applications of electrical process tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical tomographic imaging has been applied to a broad range of chemical engineering processes, including: bubble columns, fluidised beds, pneumatic transport, liquid mixing, cyclonic separation, pressure filtration, liquid pipe-flow, polymerisation, emergency depressurisation, and paste extrusion. Two imaging approaches are described, electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and electrical impedance tomography (EIT). To date, these have primarily been used as low-cost research tools

H. S. Tapp; A. J. Peyton; E. K. Kemsley; R. H. Wilson

2003-01-01

137

Chemical Applications of Molecular Quantum Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Molecular systems of chemical interest are investigated with the aid of molecular quantum theory. The self-consistent field (SCF) method is used to predict the molecular structures of ClF sub 2 , ClF sub 4 and Cl sub 3 radicals, and the ions ClF sub 2+ , ...

S. R. Ungemach

1977-01-01

138

Computer Applications in Balancing Chemical Equations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses computer-based approaches to balancing chemical equations. Surveys 13 methods, 6 based on matrix, 2 interactive programs, 1 stand-alone system, 1 developed in algorithm in Basic, 1 based on design engineering, 1 written in HyperCard, and 1 prepared for the World Wide Web. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)|

Kumar, David D.

2001-01-01

139

21 CFR 1310.13 - Exemption of chemical mixtures; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01...2013-04-01 false Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. 1310.13 Section 1310.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT...RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES §...

2013-04-01

140

Quantifying uncertainties in N(2)O emission due to N fertilizer application in cultivated areas.  

PubMed

Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential approximately 298 times greater than that of CO(2). In 2006, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated N(2)O emission due to synthetic and organic nitrogen (N) fertilization at 1% of applied N. We investigated the uncertainty on this estimated value, by fitting 13 different models to a published dataset including 985 N(2)O measurements. These models were characterized by (i) the presence or absence of the explanatory variable "applied N", (ii) the function relating N(2)O emission to applied N (exponential or linear function), (iii) fixed or random background (i.e. in the absence of N application) N(2)O emission and (iv) fixed or random applied N effect. We calculated ranges of uncertainty on N(2)O emissions from a subset of these models, and compared them with the uncertainty ranges currently used in the IPCC-Tier 1 method. The exponential models outperformed the linear models, and models including one or two random effects outperformed those including fixed effects only. The use of an exponential function rather than a linear function has an important practical consequence: the emission factor is not constant and increases as a function of applied N. Emission factors estimated using the exponential function were lower than 1% when the amount of N applied was below 160 kg N ha(-1). Our uncertainty analysis shows that the uncertainty range currently used by the IPCC-Tier 1 method could be reduced. PMID:23226430

Philibert, Aurore; Loyce, Chantal; Makowski, David

2012-11-30

141

Free energy calculations: Applications to chemical and biochemical phenomena  

SciTech Connect

The author will review the applications of free energy calculations employing molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo methods to a variety of chemical and biochemical phenomena. The focus is on the applications of such calculations to molecular solvation, molecular association, macromolecular stability, and enzyme catalysis. The molecules discussed range from monovalent ions and small molecules to proteins and nucleic acids.

Kollman, P. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

1993-11-01

142

Free energy calculations: Applications to chemical and biochemical phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author will review the applications of free energy calculations employing molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo methods to a variety of chemical and biochemical phenomena. The focus is on the applications of such calculations to molecular solvation, molecular association, macromolecular stability, and enzyme catalysis. The molecules discussed range from monovalent ions and small molecules to proteins and nucleic acids.

Peter. Kollman

1993-01-01

143

[Effects of different application rates of humic acid compound fertilizer on pepper and its mechanism of anti-senility and incremental yield].  

PubMed

The effects of different application rates of humic acid compound fertilizer (HA) on the yield and physiological characteristics of pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) were studied in this paper. The results showed that different application rates of (HA) could affect the physiological activities and yield of pepper. The nitrate reductase activity (NRA) and peroxidase (POD) activity were improved with increasing application rate, but the change rate of NRA was reduced gradually. POD activity in inorganic compound fertilizer treatment was improved significantly when the application rate of fertilizer was higher than 0.3 g.kg-1, but that in HA treatment changed smoothly. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was improved significantly when the application rate of fertilizer was lower than 0.2 g.kg-1, and decreased gradually when the application rate was higher than 0.2 g.kg-1. The change of transpiration rate was consistent with that of SOD activity. The relationship between the application rate of fertilizer and the yield of pepper could be described with quadratic curve regression model. According to the equation, the highest application rate of HA should be 0.27 g.kg-1, and the highest yield of pepper could reach 165.22 g per pot. PMID:15139193

Sun, Zhimei; Xue, Shichuan; Liang, Wenju; Liu, Yuzhu

2004-01-01

144

Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL`s Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs.

Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

1993-05-01

145

Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs.

Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

1993-05-01

146

Application of profiled ejector in chemical lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the use of profiled ejectors based on constant rate of momentum change [I.W. Eames, Applied Thermal Engineering 22 (2002) 121] along the mixing chamber has been proposed for enhancing the recovery ratio across an ejector stage by minimizing shock losses for application in ejector based refrigeration system. Such ejectors can achieve pressure recovery ratio in excess of 150, thus

Gaurav Singhal; A. L. Dawar; P. M. V. Subbarao

2008-01-01

147

Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

148

Normal calves produced after transfer of embryos cultured in a chemically defined medium supplemented with epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor I following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization in Japanese black cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine whether high concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and/or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) would have a beneficial effect on bovine embryo development in vitro and to obtain normal calves by using an ovum pick up method and embryo culture in a chemically defined medium. When compared with controls, EGF (100 or 200 ng/ml) or IGF-I (50 or 100 ng/ml) significantly increased the rate of embryos that developed into blastocysts during an 8-day culture after the in vitro fertilization of oocytes obtained from ovaries from a slaughterhouse. IGF-I induced a dose-dependent increase in cell number in both the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm, whereas EGF stimulated proliferation only in the inner cell mass. A combination of EGF (100 ng/ml) and IGF-I (50 ng/ml) produced an additive effect, and embryos developed into blastocysts at a comparatively high rate (27.9%) compared with controls (12.0%). A similar rate of development was achieved using a combination of EGF and IGF-I in the culture of embryos following ovum pick up by ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicular aspiration and in vitro fertilization, and 5 blastocysts that developed after the culture were transferred into uteri; two embryos implanted, and normal calves were born. These results suggest that the combined use of EGF and IGF-I makes bovine embryo culture in a chemically defined medium a practical and useful procedure for producing blastocysts, and its application to embryo culture following ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization could be useful for producing normal calves. PMID:22075559

Sakagami, Nobutada; Umeki, Hidenobu; Nishino, Osamu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

2011-11-11

149

Heavy metals incidence in the application of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides to rice farming soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn in different inorganic fertilizers (urea, calcium superphosphate, iron sulphate and copper sulphate) and in pesticides (two herbicides and one fungicide) are evaluated together with the contribution of these metals in soils from their use. The study was made in rice farming areas to the north of Albufera Natural

Eugenia Gimeno-García; Vicente Andreu; Rafael Boluda

1996-01-01

150

Application of a SlowRelease Fertilizer for Oil Bioremediation in Beach Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

the cleanup of shorelines contaminated with oil (Head and Swannell, 1999). To date, bioremediation tech- A 105-d field experiment was conducted to determine the potential niques are not yet routinely used in Singapore, although of the slow-release fertilizer, Osmocote (Scotts, Marysville, OH), to stimulate the indigenous microbial biodegradation of petroleum hy- the potential of the indigenous microbial biomass to drocarbons

R. Xu; N. L. A. Lau; K. L. Ng; J. P. Obbard

2004-01-01

151

VARIABLE SOURCE N FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS TO OPTIMIZE CROP N USE EFFICIENCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research was initiated in 2005 to determine methods to delineate and map areas in fields which are more vulnerable to N loss due to wet conditions, to examine the use of a variable-source strategy to optimize crop N fertilizer use efficiency and, to calculate the cost-effectiveness of using this var...

152

EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON GROWTH YIELD AND PESTS OF VEGETABLE CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field experiments were conducted to measure the yield response of Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to an organic fertilizer derived from hydrolyzed feather, meat, bone, and blood meal, sulfate of potash and langeinite (Nature Safe 10-2-8). Th...

153

EFFECTS OF THREE CONSECUTIVE APPLICATIONS OF MSW COMPOST ON SANDY SOIL UNDER INTENSIVE FERTILIZATION CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal Solid Waste Compost (sieved < 10 mm; MSWC) from Recycling Plant of Villarrasa (Huelva), was applied to 3 consecutive seasons of horticultural crops (Tomato, zucchini and green pepper) under greenhouse and intensive fertilization conditions. A Control treatment (no organic amendment), and a commercial compost (CC treatment) widely used by farmers in the area (Los Palacios, Sevilla) were applied as

R. López; F. Cabrera

154

[Application of ICP-MS to detecting ten kinds of heavy metals in KCl fertilizer].  

PubMed

With the rapid development of society, more and more attention has been focused on environmental safety, especially on the pollutions of heavy metals, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants and deleterious microorganism. Heavy metals are difficult to metabolize in human body are quite harmful, so research on the pollution of heavy metals is increasingly important. There are many pollution sources of heavy metals, including waste residue, waste water and exhaust gas from industry and automobile, and garbage from human life. The contents of 10 kinds of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb) in potassium fertilizer (KCl) from Russia were analyzed by ICP-MS. The results showed that potassium fertilizer (KCl) contained less heavy metals than organic-inorganic compound fertilizer; the content of heavy metals Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb is 0.00, 65.54, 238.85, 190.60, 0.98, 14.98, 2.97, 10.04, 1.28 and 97.42 ng x g(-1), respectively, which accords with the correlative standards. All the data showed that if potassium fertilizer (KCl) is manufactured through normal channel, the content of heavy metals should be little and safe. PMID:19123423

Rui, Yu-kui; Shen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Fu-suo; Yan, Yun; Jing, Jing-ying; Meng, Qing-feng

2008-10-01

155

Neural subtype specification of fertilization and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells and application in parkinsonian mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing protocols for the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells require extended in vitro culture, yield variable differentiation results or are limited to the generation of selected neural subtypes. Here we provide a set of coculture conditions that allows rapid and efficient derivation of most central nervous system phenotypes. The fate of both fertilization- and nuclear transfer–derived ES

Tiziano Barberi; Peter Klivenyi; Noel Y Calingasan; Hyojin Lee; Hibiki Kawamata; Kathleen Loonam; Anselme L Perrier; Juan Bruses; Maria E Rubio; Norbert Topf; Viviane Tabar; Neil L Harrison; M Flint Beal; Malcolm A S Moore; Lorenz Studer

2003-01-01

156

[Regulation of fertilizer application on yield and root growth of spring wheat-faba bean intercropping system].  

PubMed

The effects of N and P fertilizer application on the multiple population yield and root growth of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum)--spring faba bean(Vicia sativa)intercropping system were studied by two field experiments with 0, 150 and 225 kgN.hm-2, three pot and pool experiments with 2 N applications (0, 100 mg N.kg-1 soil) and 3 P applications (0, 100 and 200 mg P.kg-1 soil). The results showed that this intercropping system had a significant advantage of yield and beneficial effects. Compared to Po supply, P fertilization increased the seed yield by 48.39% for intercropped spring wheat and 16.69% for intercropped faba bean in field experiment. Furthermore, the total seed yield of both crops was increased by 20.07% to 43.14% in pool culture, and the grain yield of intercropped faba bean was increased by 58.46% to 78.78%. In the intercropping system, the growth peak of root density of both crops was appeared alternately, the peak of wheat root growth being earlier than that of faba bean. The maximum root weight of intercropped wheat was in its early heading periods, whereas that of faba bean appeared at its maturity periods, which reduced the competition for water and nutrients between the crops, and resulted in yield increase. The weight, length and surface area of wheat roots in P supply were increased by 54.33%, 48.88% and 47.00%, and in N supply, they were increased by 15.25%, 11.61% and 11.46%, respectively. About 57.61% of wheat root weight and 69.20% of faba bean root weight were distributed at 0-30 cm soil depths in the treatments of receiving P fertilizer at various rates, which indicated that P supply increased root weight and length of both crops in the intercropping system. PMID:12418251

Zhang, Enhe; Li, Lingling; Huang, Gaobao; Huang, Peng; Chai, Qiang

2002-08-01

157

Chemical applications of molecular quantum theory  

SciTech Connect

Molecular systems of chemical interest are investigated with the aid of molecular quantum theory. The self-consistent field (SCF) method is used to predict the molecular structures of ClF/sub 2/, ClF/sub 4/ and Cl/sub 3/ radicals, and the ions ClF/sub 2//sup +/, ClF/sub 2//sup -/, ClF/sub 4//sup +/ and ClF/sub 4//sup -/. The ClF/sub 2/ and Cl/sub 3/ radicals are predicted to be bent with bond angles of 145.2/sup 0/ and 158.6/sup 0/, respectively, while the ions ClF/sub 2//sup +/ and ClF/sub 2//sup -/ are predicted to be bent with a bond angle of 97.4/sup 0/ and linear, respectively. The geometry predictions for the ClF/sub 4/ radical and the ClF/sub 4//sup +/ ion are found to be notably basis set dependent. The ClF/sub 4//sup -/ ion is predicted to be square-planar. Multi-configuration self-consistent field (MCSCF) calculations have yielded the dipole moment function for the /sup 1/sigma/sup +/ state of HI, which qualitatively confirms the experimental finding that the dipole derivative at R/sub e/ is negative. The /sup 2/sigma/sup +/ F + H/sub 2/ potential energy surface is studied extensively with the configuration interaction (CI) method. The most complete calculations yield an activation energy of 2.74 kcal/mole and an exothermicity of 30.0 kcal/mole. The production of a potential energy surface of ''chemical accuracy'' for this system is found to be more difficult than previously believed. The simplest hydrophobic model, the water-methane system, is studied with the SCF method in order to determine the nature and magnitude of the interaction. The most favorable geometric arrangement corresponds to an attraction of 0.5 kcal/mole.

Ungemach, S.R.

1977-09-01

158

Nitrogen Recovery and Transformation from a Surface or SubSurface Application of Controlled-Release Fertilizer on a Sandy Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) are used to reduce leaching of nutrients, especially nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) to groundwater, caused mainly by application of soluble N fertilizers to sandy soils in Florida. A leaching column study was conducted to evaluate N release and transformation from a CRF (CitriBlen) over a 16-week period when it was applied on the soil surface or incorporated into

Shinjiro Sato; Kelly T. Morgan

2008-01-01

159

[Application possibilities of chemical imaging in pharmaceutical technology].  

PubMed

Chemical imaging is a novel analytical method that simultaneously delivers spatial, chemical, structural, and functional information on the dosage forms. Both infrared and Raman spectroscopic imaging may serve as useful nondestructive analytical techniques in the pharmaceutical product development and quality control. Most important application possibilities are reviewed and some studies demonstrate the advantages of the structure exploration. Raman imaging is suitable to understand and control the quality attributes of different dosage forms. PMID:20169866

Vajna, Balázs; Nagy, Zsombor; Patyi, Gergo; Zsigmond, Zsolt; Antal, István; Marosi, György

2009-01-01

160

MHD augmented chemical rocket propulsion for space applications  

SciTech Connect

A performance analysis is carried out of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) augmented chemical thruster (based on a gaseous hydrogen-oxygen system) for space applications such as orbit transfer. The mathematical model used in the analysis is a one-dimensional flow model using equilibrium chemistry for the combustor, choked nozzle, and MHD channel portions of the system, and chemical nonequilibrium kinetics for the high area-ratio gas dynamic nozzle portion of the system. The performance of the chemical-MHD-augmented thruster is compared with that of a pure electric thruster of the same specific impulse level. 13 refs.

Schulz, R.J.; Chapman, J.N.; Rhodes, R.P. (Tennessee, University, Tullahoma (United States))

1992-07-01

161

Applications of direct chemical oxidation to demilitarization  

SciTech Connect

Research is reported concerning an aqueous process for oxidative destruction of solid- and liquid organic wastes, including ongoing work relevant to demilitarization This process uses acidified ammonium- or sodium peroxydisulfate and operates at ambient pressure and at temperatures of 80- 100 C The oxidant may be regenerated by electrolysis of the sulfate by- product at Pt anodes at roughly 80% coulombic efficiency, even in the presence of inorganic contaminants (e g , nitrate, phosphate or chloride) found in the original waste and entrained in the recycle stream Integral rate constants have been determined for the oxidation of diverse organic compounds at low concentrations (50 ppm, C), with rate constants (based on equivalents) of 0 004-O 02 miri Higher concentrations generally react at a 2-4X higher rate. The process has been carried through full- scale laboratory tests and initial pilot plant tests on chlorinated solvents, using a hydrolysis pretreatment Integral rate data indicate throughput rates of about 200 kg- C/m3-day The process may benefit the demilitarization efforts in various specialized applications destruction of solvents; destruction of trace propellants and explosives in shell casings remaining after bulk removal, destruction of red and pink waters, in situ remediation of soils at open pit burning/detonation sites; and as a regenerative filter for offgas carrying toxic or explosive substances.

Cooper, J.F., LLNL

1998-06-01

162

Application of toxicity identification evaluation procedures to an effluent from a nitrogenous fertilizer plant in China.  

PubMed

The integrated method combining chemistry and toxicology, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), was conducted to identify key toxicants in an effluent from a nitrogen fertilizer plant in China. Toxicity characterization, phase I of TIE, revealed that the suspected toxicant in the effluent was an anion that could be changed into a volatile acid. The results of toxicity identification and confirmation procedures indicated potassium cyanide to be the primary toxicant in the effluent. PMID:12742372

Yu, Hongxia; Shang, Huihua; Xu, Tielian; Cui, Yuxia; Yang, Ling; Jin, Hongjun; Wang, Liansheng

2003-06-01

163

40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

164

Comparative effects of nitrogen fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil nitrogen during establishment of highbush blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Bluecrop’). Treatments included four methods of N application (split fertigation, ...

165

Optimizing Economic Indicators in the Case of Using Two Types of State-Subsidized Chemical Fertilizers for Agricultural Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

We admit that the mathematical relation between agricultural production f(x, y) and the two types of fertilizers x and y is given by function (1). The coefficients that appear are determined by using the least squares method by comparison with the experimental data. We took into consideration the following economic indicators: absolute benefit, relative benefit, profitableness and cost price. These

M. Boldea; F. Sala

2010-01-01

166

Expanding applications of chemical genetics in signal transduction  

PubMed Central

Chemical genetics represents an expanding collection of techniques applied to a variety of signaling processes. These techniques use a combination of chemical reporters and protein engineering to identify targets of a signaling enzyme in a global and non-directed manner without resorting to hypothesis-driven candidate approaches. In the last year, chemical genetics has been applied to a variety of kinases, revealing a much broader spectrum of substrates than had been appreciated. Here, we discuss recent developments in chemical genetics, including insights from our own proteomic screen for substrates of the kinase ERK2. These studies have revealed that many kinases have overlapping substrate specificity, and they often target several proteins in any particular downstream pathway. It remains to be determined whether this configuration exists to provide redundant control, or whether each target contributes a fraction of the total regulatory effect. From a general perspective, chemical genetics is applicable in principle to a broad range of posttranslational modifications (PTMs), most notably methylation and acetylation, although many challenges remain in implementing this approach. Recent developments in chemical reporters and protein engineering suggest that chemical genetics will soon be a powerful tool for mapping signal transduction through these and other PTMs.

Carlson, Scott M.; White, Forest M.

2012-01-01

167

Long-term effects of fertilization on the forms and availability of soil phosphorus in rice paddy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in total P accumulation and P compounds with time in the plough layer in a paddy soil in southern Korea were investigated in relation to the continuous application of chemical fertilizers (NPK), straw based compost (Compost), combination these two (NPK+Compost) for 31 years. Continuous fertilization increased the total and inorganic P contents in plough layers. In NPK, inorganic

Chang Hoon Lee; Chang Young Park; Ki Do Park; Weon Tae Jeon; Pil Joo Kim

2004-01-01

168

Effect of local application of sympathomimetic drugs to the epididymis on fertility in rats.  

PubMed

Insertion of Silastic rods containing the directly acting sympathomimetic drug, methoxamine, adjacent to the epididymis of rats caused a temporary reduction in fertility with no loss of ability to mate. This effect lasted up to 3 weeks. At the time of the maximal antifertility action (3-7 days after insertion), the number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate fell to almost zero, and there was a reduction in the total number of spermatozoa in the epididymis resulting from a significant drop in the number present in the cauda. Methoxamine also caused immotility and decapitation of the remaining epididymal spermatozoa. The indirectly acting sympathomimetics, tyramine and norephedrine, did not affect fertility. It is postulated that methoxamine acts to induce infertility principally by bringing about a reduction of sperm numbers in the ejaculate. This could have been produced either by a failure of the vas and cauda to contract normally at copulation or because the sperm store in the cauda had fallen below a critical threshold level. PMID:7359477

Ratnasooriya, W D; Gilmore, D P; Wadsworth, R M

1980-01-01

169

Using hyperspectral data in precision farming applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Precision farming practices such as variable rate applications of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals require accurate field variability mapping. This chapter investigated the value of hyperspectral remote sensing in providing useful information for five applications of precision farming: (a) Soil...

170

Effects of biosolids application on soil chemical properties in peri-urban agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of biosolids as a fertilizer in agricultural cultivation are common practices in many countries. This study investigates the effects of such practices in field experiments on Fluvisol and Acrisol soils in peri-urban Hanoi City. We compared biosolid- fertilized vegetable\\/rice-dominated systems (biosolids applied as chicken manure (Acrisol in Vinh Phuc Province) or composted pig manure mixed with rice straw

Nguyen Manh Khai; Pham Quang Ha; Nguyen Cong Vinh; Jon Petter Gustafsson; Ingrid Öborn

2008-01-01

171

Waste waters from vacuum-sulfur treatment in coke-chemical plants are effective reagent anticaking matter for potassium fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caking of potassium fertilizers is usually avoided by treating them with aliphatic amines (Cââ-Cââ) which are expensive, deficient and toxic. In order to improve the mechanical and physicochemical properties of potassium chloride, a large number of various additives were tested e.g. inorganic salts, water-repellant surfactants and inert powders with a highly developed surface. Of all the additives studied, the

A. P. Yanovskaya; L. N. Karpitskaya; F. F. Mozheiko; K. A. Aleksandrovich

1983-01-01

172

Bacterial Fertilizers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The term bacterial (microbial) fertilizers refers to preparations containing primarily active strains of the microorganisms mainly bacteria in sufficient numbers. This report covers various aspects of bacterial fertilizers: Nitrogen Preparation and Usage;...

W. V. B. Sundra Rao

1981-01-01

173

Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2012-04-16

174

[Effects of fertilization on soil active organic carbon under Phyllostachys praecox stand].  

PubMed

In this paper, fertilization experiment was conducted on Phyllostachys praecox stand to study the effects of different heavy application of chemical fertilizers and manure on soil active organic carbon pool. The results showed that compared with only applying chemical fertilizers, the combined application of chemical fertilizers and manure significantly increased the contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and mineralized carbon (MC) as well as the ratios of WSOC/TOC, MGC/TOC and MC/TOC (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). With the decreasing application rate of manure, soil TOC, WSOC, MBC and MBC/TOC decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and when the application rate of manure was decreased by 50%, soil TOC, WSOC, MBC and MBC/TOC decreased by 10.75%, 12.02%, 30.94% and 22.61%, respectively. In the treatments of only applying chemical fertilizers, soil WSOC, MBC and MBC/TOC decreased obviously when the application rate of fertilizer nitrogen exceeded 1009.5 kg x hm(-2) x yr(-1). There were significant correlations between soil TOC, WSOC, MBC and MC (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), among which, MBC and MBC/TOC could be used as the quality indications of soil carbon pool under Phyllostachys praecox stand. PMID:15852918

Jiang, Peikun; Xu, Qiufang

2005-02-01

175

Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.  

PubMed

Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ?100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies. PMID:22963545

Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

2012-09-21

176

Phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glycosides of organic and mineral-base fertilized cassava tubers.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted to determine the effect of organic and mineral-based fertilizers on phytochemical contents in the tubers of two cassava varieties. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plot was fertilizer source (vermicompost, empty fruit bunch compost and inorganic fertilizer) and sub-plot was cassava variety (Medan and Sri Pontian). The amount of fertilizer applied was based on 180 kg K(2)O ha-1. The tubers were harvested and analyzed for total flavonoids, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glucoside content. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Different sources of fertilizer, varieties and their interactions were found to have a significant effect on phytochemical content. The phenolic and flavonoid content were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the vermicompost treatment compared to mineral fertilizer and EFB compost. The total flavonoids and phenolics content of vermicompost treated plants were 39% and 38% higher, respectively, than those chemically fertilized. The antioxidant activity determined using the DPPH and FRAP assays were high with application of organic fertilizer. Cyanogenic glycoside levels were decreased with the application of organic fertilizer. Among the two types of compost, vermicompost resulted in higher nutritional value of cassava tubers. Medan variety with application of vermicompost showed the most promising nutritional quality. Since the nutritional quality of cassava can be improved by organic fertilization, organic fertilizer should be used in place of chemical fertilizer for environmentally sustainable production of better quality cassava. PMID:22370524

Omar, Nur Faezah; Hassan, Siti Aishah; Yusoff, Umi Kalsom; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Sinniah, Umarani

2012-02-27

177

Grain Production and Environmental Management in China's Fertilizer Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth in China's per hectare chemical fertilizer application, from less than 10 kg in 1960 to 331 kg in 1993, has contributed significantly to the growth in grain production, but has also caused many environment problems such as groundwater pollution. With one-fifth of the world's population but only 7% of the earth's arable land, China is facing the

Qingbin Wang; Catherine Halbrendt; Stanley R. Johnson

1996-01-01

178

Chemical conversion surfaces for solar-energy applications  

SciTech Connect

One of the major impediments to the utilization of solar energy is the initial cost of the systems. One mechanism for reducing this initial cost is reduction of component costs. Present-day selective coatings are relatively expensive, costing $10 to $20/m/sup 2/ ($1 to $2 per ft/sup 2/). Chemical conversion coating of substrate materials is a means by which selective coatings might be produced for low-temperature active and passive applications at a low cost. Some researchers have predicted chemical costs of only a few cents per ft/sup 2/. Much information is needed for both optical property optimization and durability to see if any of these coatings might hold promise for solar applications. This study is an attempt to determine which coatings and substrate combinations might hold the greatest promise. The following substrate materials are investigated: aluminum, copper, brass, zinc, cadmium, aluminum/zinc alloys, nickel, iron, and stainless steel.

Moore, S.W.; Clements, J.S.; Doty, W.R.

1983-08-01

179

Developments and Applications of Membranes in Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membranes are increasingly being used in the chemical and bioprocess industries replacing more conventional separation techniques and as a means of producing high purity intermediates for further processing. Application of membranes in the water industry and waste treatment is also becoming increasingly important as water shortage and environmental problems need to be addressed. An outline of the materials used for the production of membranes and their applications are described. Some of the research into the development of more selective membranes for vapour separations and pervaporation is discussed. An example of the latest work on the development of ceramic hollow fibre membranes is also given.

England, Richard

180

Applications of neural networks in chemical engineering: Hybrid systems  

SciTech Connect

Expert systems are known to be useful in capturing expertise and applying knowledge to chemical engineering problems such as diagnosis, process control, process simulation, and process advisory. However, expert system applications are traditionally limited to knowledge domains that are heuristic and involve only simple mathematics. Neural networks, on the other hand, represent an emerging technology capable of rapid recognition of patterned behavior without regard to mathematical complexity. Although useful in problem identification, neural networks are not very efficient in providing in-depth solutions and typically do not promote full understanding of the problem or the reasoning behind its solutions. Hence, applications of neural networks have certain limitations. This paper explores the potential for expanding the scope of chemical engineering areas where neural networks might be utilized by incorporating expert systems and neural networks into the same application, a process called hybridization. In addition, hybrid applications are compared with those using more traditional approaches, the results of the different applications are analyzed, and the feasibility of converting the preliminary prototypes described herein into useful final products is evaluated. 12 refs., 8 figs.

Ferrada, J.J.; Osborne-Lee, I.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Grizzaffi, P.A. (Southwestern Louisiana Inst., Lafayette, LA (USA))

1990-01-01

181

Applications of artificial neural networks in chemical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing literature within the field of chemical engineering describing the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) has evolved\\u000a for a diverse range of engineering applications such as fault detection, signal processing, process modeling, and control.\\u000a Because ANN are nets of basis functions, they can provide good empirical models of complex nonlinear processes useful for\\u000a a wide variety of purposes.

David M. Himmelblau

2000-01-01

182

Laser Based Chemical Sensor Technology: Recent Advances and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing need in many chemical sensing applications ranging from environmental science to industrial process\\u000a control as well as medical diagnostics for fast, sensitive, and selective trace gas detection based on laser spectroscopy.\\u000a The recent availability of continuous wave near infrared diode lasers-, mid-infrared quantum cascade and interband cascade\\u000a distributed feedback (QC and IC DFB) lasers as mid-infrared

Frank K. Tittel; Yury A. Bakhirkin; Robert F. Curl; Anatoliy A. Kosterev; Matthew R. McCurdy; Stephen G. So; Gerard Wysocki

183

Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education1  

PubMed Central

The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal–organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout.

Battle, Gary M.; Ferrence, Gregory M.; Allen, Frank H.

2010-01-01

184

Integration of Chemical Sensors with LSI Technology — History and Applications —  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical sensors are one of the oldest fields of research closely related to the semiconductor technology. From the Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors (ISFET) in the 70's, through Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) sensors from the end of the 80's, chemical sensors are combining in the 90's MEMS technology with LSI intelligence to devise more selective, sensitive and autonomous devices to analyse complex mixtures. A brief history of chemical sensors from the ISFET to the nowadays LSI integrated sensors is first detailed. Then the states-of-the-art of LSI integrated chemical sensors and their wide range of applications are discussed. Finally the authors propose a brand-new usage of integrated wireless MEMS sensors for remote surveillance of chemical substances, such as food-industry or pharmaceutical products, that are stored in closed environment like a bottle, for a long period. In such environment, in-situ analyse is necessary, and electrical cables, for energy supply or data transfer, cannot be used. Thanks to integrated MEMS, an autonomous long-term in-situ quality deterioration tracking system is possible.

Tixier-Mita, Agnès; Takahashi, Takuya; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

185

Field assessment of soil quality as affected by compost and fertilizer application in a broccoli field (San Benito County, California)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected in-field physical, chemical and biological indicators were measured for the rapid assessment of soil quality changes in a Sorrento silty clay loam as a result of compost and ammonium nitrate application to a broccoli field (San Benito County, CA). Plots were laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications of 0, 22 and 44Mgha?1 compost treatments

S Stamatiadis; M Werner; M Buchanan

1999-01-01

186

Fertilizer nitrogen isotope signatures.  

PubMed

There has been considerable recent interest in the potential application of nitrogen isotope analysis in discriminating between organically and conventionally grown crops. A prerequisite of this approach is that there is a difference in the nitrogen isotope compositions of the fertilizers used in organic and conventional agriculture. We report new measurements of delta15N values for synthetic nitrogen fertilizers and present a compilation of the new data with existing literature nitrogen isotope data. Nitrogen isotope values for fertilizers that may be permitted in organic cultivation systems are also reported (manures, composts, bloodmeal, bonemeal, hoof and horn, fishmeal and seaweed based fertilizers). The delta15N values of the synthetic fertilizers in the compiled dataset fall within a narrow range close to 0 per thousand with 80% of samples lying between-2 and 2 per thousand and 98.5% of the data having delta15N values of less than 4 per thousand (mean=0.2 per thousand n=153). The fertilizers that may be permitted in organic systems have a higher mean delta15N value of 8.5 per thousand and exhibit a broader range in delta15N values from 0.6 to 36.7 per thousand (n=83). The possible application of the nitrogen isotope approach in discriminating between organically and conventionally grown crops is discussed in light of the fertilizer data presented here and with regard to other factors that are also important in determining crop nitrogen isotope values. PMID:17786669

Bateman, Alison S; Kelly, Simon D

2007-09-01

187

Responses of grassland soil nematodes and protozoa to multi-year and single-year applications of dairy manure slurry and fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve understanding of how long-term use of manure affects nitrogen cycling processes, the effects of multiple years of manure applications on abundance of protozoa and nematode community structure were assessed. Plots of a grass sward in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia were either left untreated or were treated with dairy manure slurry or fertilizer, each at

T. A. Forge; S. Bittman; C. G. Kowalenko

2005-01-01

188

Soil organic matter content and quality: effects of fertilizer applications, burning and trash retention on a long-term sugarcane experiment in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of crop residue management and fertilizer applications on soil organic matter (SOM) content and labile soil organic fractions were examined on a long-term (59 years) field trial under sugarcane situated at Mount Edgecombe, South Africa. Treatments at the site included pre-harvest burning with harvest residues removed (Bto), burning with harvest residues left at the soil surface (Bt) and

M. H. Graham; R. J. Haynes; J. H. Meyer

2002-01-01

189

Energy-use patterns in sub-tropical rice-wheat cropping under short term application of crop residue and fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice-wheat cropping in the sub-tropics is energy intensive, requiring a major input from fossil fuel. These crops produce lots of residue, part of which is often wasted in burning, the incorporation of which is beneficial when applied with fertilizer. Reserves of fossil fuel is decreasing at an increasing rate. Therefore, it is more important to know the effect of application

Apurba Sarkar

1997-01-01

190

Leaf NRA and its relationship with grain and protein yield of triticale as affected by progressive application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four cultivare of triticale along with one check cultivar each of bread wheat and rye were field grown at Aligarh, India, to determine the effect of progressive application of combined nitrogen + phosphorus (N+P) fertilizer levels on nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in flag and penultimate leaf at three stages of crop development. Leaf NRA increased with increasing combined N+P levels

Samiullah Moinuddin; S. A. Ansari; M. M. R. K. Afridi

1996-01-01

191

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS: APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. athematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibrated by application to data ...

192

Nitrous oxide emission from wetland rice soil as affected by the application of controlled-availability fertilizers and mid-season aeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

N2O emission from a wetland rice soil as affected by the application of three controlled-availability fertilizers (CAFs) and\\u000a urea was investigated through a pot experiment. N2O fluxes from the N fertilized paddy soil averaged 44.8–69.3??g N m–2 h–1 during the rice growing season, accounting for 0.28–0.51% of the applied N. The emission primarily occurred during the mid-season\\u000a aeration (MSA) and

X. Yan; L. Du; S. Shi; G. Xing

2000-01-01

193

Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

Not Available

1991-07-01

194

Effect of long-term application of inorganic fertilizer and organic amendments on soil organic matter and microbial biomass in three subtropical paddy soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil organic matter (SOM), microbial carbon (Cmic), and microbial nitrogen (Nmic) status affected by the application of inorganic fertilizer and organic amendments in subtropical paddy soils were investigated.\\u000a Soil samples were collected from the plow layer of three long-term (17 years) field experiments at Xinhua, Ningxiang, and\\u000a Taojiang counties in Hunan Province, China. Results showed that, compared to the control, application

X. H. Hao; S. L. Liu; J. S. Wu; R. G. Hu; C. L. Tong; Y. Y. Su

2008-01-01

195

Application of the Own-Children Method for estimating fertility by ethnic and religious groups in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertility across and within countries is influenced by a number of socio-economic and cultural factors, including ethnicity\\u000a and potentially religion. However, apart from census data, little information is available, at least in the UK, to estimate\\u000a fertility rates and thus fertility trends by ethnic and religious groups between censuses. Previously, the Labour Force Survey\\u000a (LFS) has been exploited to produce

Sylvie Dubuc

2009-01-01

196

Application of laser-assisted zona drilling to in vitro fertilization of cryopreserved mouse oocytes with spermatozoa from a subfertile transgenic mouse.  

PubMed

Development of assisted reproductive technologies is necessary to obtain fertilized oocytes in a subfertile transgenic mouse strain. Here, we showed the application of laser-assisted drilling of the zona pellucida to in vitro fertilization of cryopreserved mouse oocytes with sperm from subfertile transgenic mice (C57BL/6N-Tg(UCP/FAD2)U8 strain). After cryopreservation by vitrification, the recovery and survival rates of the zona-drilled mouse oocytes were 97% (97/100) and 94% (91/97), respectively. In vitro fertilization of the cryopreserved zona-drilled mouse oocytes with sperm from the subfertile transgenic mice was greatly facilitated (60%, 55/91) compared to that of the cryopreserved zona-intact mouse oocytes (11%, 81/768). In vitro fertilized embryos that developed to the 2-cell stage were again cryopreserved by vitrification, and after warming they were transferred into recipient females. Subsequently, six viable offspring were delivered, and all were confirmed to be transgenic mice. These results indicate that laser-assisted zona drilling of oocytes combined with cryopreservation by vitrification may be a useful approach for large-scale production of in vitro fertilized embryos for managing transgenic mouse strains with reproductive disabilities such as subfertile sperm. PMID:16807506

Anzai, Masayuki; Nishiwaki, Megumi; Yanagi, Miho; Nakashima, Tatsuyuki; Kaneko, Takehito; Taguchi, Yoshitomo; Tokoro, Mikiko; Shin, Seung-Wook; Mitani, Tasuku; Kato, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Nakagata, Naomi; Iritani, Akira

2006-06-28

197

Application of a slow-release fertilizer for oil bioremediation in beach sediment.  

PubMed

A 105-d field experiment was conducted to determine the potential of the slow-release fertilizer, Osmocote (Scotts, Marysville, OH), to stimulate the indigenous microbial biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in an oil-spiked beach sediment on an intertidal foreshore in Singapore. Triplicate microcosms containing 80 kg of weathered sediment, spiked with 5% (w/w) Arabian light crude oil and 1.2% (w/w) Osmocote pellets, were established, together with control microcosms minus Osmocote. Relative to the control, the presence of the Osmocote sustained a significantly higher level of nutrients (NH(4)(+)-N, NO(3)(-)-N, and PO(4)(3-)-P) in the sediment pore water over the duration of the experiment. The metabolic activity of the indigenous microbial biomass, as measured using an intracellular dehydrogenase enzyme assay, was also significantly enhanced over the duration of the experiment in amended sediments. The loss of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons (TRPH) and biodegradation of total n-alkanes (C(10)-C(33)), branched alkanes (pristane and phytane), as well as total target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (two- to six-ring), in both the control and Osmocote-amended sediments, followed a first-order biodegradation model. The first-order loss rate of total recoverable petroleum hydrocarbons was 2.57 times greater than that of the control. The hopane-normalized rate constants for total n-alkane, branched alkane, and total target PAH biodegradation in the Osmocote-treated sediments were 3.95-, 5.50-, and 2.45-fold higher than the control, respectively. Overall, the presence of Osmocote was able to significantly enhance and accelerate the biodegradation of aliphatics and PAHs in oil-contaminated sediments under natural field conditions in an intertidal foreshore environment. PMID:15254102

Xu, R; Lau, N L A; Ng, K L; Obbard, J P

198

A forecast analysis on fertilizers consumption worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to make a review and forecast on fertilizers consumption worldwide in order to provide basal data for the\\u000a decision-making of fertilizers production and for the environmental impact assessment of fertilizers application. It was found\\u000a that fertilizers consumption was dependent on human population and the increase of fertilizers consumption was mainly resulted\\u000a from expansion of human population. The

WenJun Zhang; XiYan Zhang

2007-01-01

199

Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) is an atomically thin sheet of graphite that has traditionally served as a precursor for graphene, but is increasingly attracting chemists for its own characteristics. It is covalently decorated with oxygen-containing functional groups - either on the basal plane or at the edges - so that it contains a mixture of sp2- and sp3-hybridized carbon atoms. In particular, manipulation of the size, shape and relative fraction of the sp2-hybridized domains of GO by reduction chemistry provides opportunities for tailoring its optoelectronic properties. For example, as-synthesized GO is insulating but controlled deoxidation leads to an electrically and optically active material that is transparent and conducting. Furthermore, in contrast to pure graphene, GO is fluorescent over a broad range of wavelengths, owing to its heterogeneous electronic structure. In this Review, we highlight the recent advances in optical properties of chemically derived GO, as well as new physical and biological applications.

Loh, Kian Ping; Bao, Qiaoliang; Eda, Goki; Chhowalla, Manish

2010-12-01

200

Application of a multiple-trait, multiple-country genetic evaluation model for female fertility traits.  

PubMed

The need to implement a method that can handle multiple traits per country in international genetic evaluations is evident. Today, many countries have implemented multiple-trait national genetic evaluations and they may expect to have their traits simultaneously analyzed in international genetic evaluations. Traits from the same country are residually correlated and the method currently in use, single-trait multiple across-country evaluation (ST-MACE), cannot handle nonzero residual correlations. Therefore, multiple-trait, multiple across-country evaluation (MT-MACE) was proposed to handle several traits from the same country simultaneously. To test the robustness of MT-MACE on real data, female fertility was chosen as a complex trait with low heritability. Data from 7 Holstein populations, 3 with 2 traits and 4 with 1 trait, were used. The differences in the estimated genetic correlations by MT-MACE and the single ST-MACE analysis (average absolute deviation of 0.064) were due to the bias of considering several traits from the same country in the ST-MACE analysis. However, the differences between the estimated genetic correlations by MT-MACE and multiple ST-MACE analyses avoiding more than one trait per country in each analysis (average absolute deviation of 0.066) were due to the lack of analysis of the correlated traits from the same country together and using the reported within-country genetic correlations. Applying MT-MACE resulted in reliability gain in international genetic evaluations, which was different from trait to trait and from bull to bull. The average reliability gain by MT-MACE over ST-MACE was 3.0 points for domestic bulls and 6.3 points for foreign bulls. Even countries with 1 trait benefited from the joint analysis of traits from the 2-trait countries. Another superiority of MT-MACE over ST-MACE is that the bulls that do not have national genetic evaluation for some traits from multiple trait countries will receive international genetic evaluations for those traits. Rank correlations were high between ST-MACE and MT-MACE when considering all bulls. However, the situation was different for the top 100 bulls. Simultaneous analysis of traits from the same country affected bull ranks, especially for top 100 bulls. Multi-trait MACE is a recommendable and robust method for international genetic evaluations and is appropriate for handling multiple traits per country, which can increase the reliability of international genetic evaluations. PMID:21094772

Nilforooshan, M A; Jakobsen, J H; Fikse, W F; Berglund, B; Jorjani, H

2010-12-01

201

Bioinspired greigite magnetic nanocrystals: chemical synthesis and biomedicine applications.  

PubMed

Large scale greigite with uniform dimensions has stimulated significant demands for applications such as hyperthermia, photovoltaics, medicine and cell separation, etc. However, the inhomogeneity and hydrophobicity for most of the as prepared greigite crystals has limited their applications in biomedicine. Herein, we report a green chemical method utilizing ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to synthesize bioinspired greigite (Fe3S4) magnetic nanocrystals (GMNCs) with similar structure and magnetic property of magnetosome in a large scale. ?-CD and PEG is responsible to control the crystal phase and morphology, as well as to bound onto the surface of nanocrystals and form polymer layers. The GMNCs exhibit a transverse relaxivity of 94.8?mM(-1)s(-1) which is as high as iron oxide nanocrystals, and an entrapment efficiency of 58.7% for magnetic guided delivery of chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. Moreover, enhanced chemotherapeutic treatment of mice tumor was obtained via intravenous injection of doxorubicin loaded GMNCs. PMID:24141204

Feng, Mei; Lu, Yang; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Yun-Jun; Gao, Huai-Ling; Dong, Liang; Xu, Wei-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

2013-10-21

202

Bioinspired greigite magnetic nanocrystals: chemical synthesis and biomedicine applications  

PubMed Central

Large scale greigite with uniform dimensions has stimulated significant demands for applications such as hyperthermia, photovoltaics, medicine and cell separation, etc. However, the inhomogeneity and hydrophobicity for most of the as prepared greigite crystals has limited their applications in biomedicine. Herein, we report a green chemical method utilizing ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to synthesize bioinspired greigite (Fe3S4) magnetic nanocrystals (GMNCs) with similar structure and magnetic property of magnetosome in a large scale. ?-CD and PEG is responsible to control the crystal phase and morphology, as well as to bound onto the surface of nanocrystals and form polymer layers. The GMNCs exhibit a transverse relaxivity of 94.8?mM?1s?1 which is as high as iron oxide nanocrystals, and an entrapment efficiency of 58.7% for magnetic guided delivery of chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. Moreover, enhanced chemotherapeutic treatment of mice tumor was obtained via intravenous injection of doxorubicin loaded GMNCs.

Feng, Mei; Lu, Yang; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Yun-Jun; Gao, Huai-Ling; Dong, Liang; Xu, Wei-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

2013-01-01

203

Bioinspired greigite magnetic nanocrystals: chemical synthesis and biomedicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale greigite with uniform dimensions has stimulated significant demands for applications such as hyperthermia, photovoltaics, medicine and cell separation, etc. However, the inhomogeneity and hydrophobicity for most of the as prepared greigite crystals has limited their applications in biomedicine. Herein, we report a green chemical method utilizing ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to synthesize bioinspired greigite (Fe3S4) magnetic nanocrystals (GMNCs) with similar structure and magnetic property of magnetosome in a large scale. ?-CD and PEG is responsible to control the crystal phase and morphology, as well as to bound onto the surface of nanocrystals and form polymer layers. The GMNCs exhibit a transverse relaxivity of 94.8 mM-1s-1 which is as high as iron oxide nanocrystals, and an entrapment efficiency of 58.7% for magnetic guided delivery of chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. Moreover, enhanced chemotherapeutic treatment of mice tumor was obtained via intravenous injection of doxorubicin loaded GMNCs.

Feng, Mei; Lu, Yang; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Yun-Jun; Gao, Huai-Ling; Dong, Liang; Xu, Wei-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

2013-10-01

204

Fertilizer vs. organic matter contributions to nitrogen leaching in cropping systems of the Pampas: 15 N application in field lysimeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) export from soils to streams and groundwater under the intensifying cropping schemes of the Pampas is modest compared to intensively cultivated basins of Europe and North America; however, a slow N enrichment of water resources has been suggested. We (1) analyzed the fate of fertilizer N and (2) evaluated the contribution of fertilizer and soil organic matter (SOM)

Silvina I. Portela; Adrián E. Andriulo; María C. Sasal; Bruno Mary; Esteban G. Jobbágy

2006-01-01

205

Effect of continuous olive mill wastewater applications, in the presence and absence of nitrogen fertilization, on the structure of rhizosphere-soil fungal communities.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is rich in potentially toxic organics precluding its disposal into water receptors. However, land application of diluted OMW may result in safe disposal and fertilization. In order to investigate the effects of OMW on the structure of soil fungal groups, OMW was applied daily to pepper plants growing in a loamy sand and a sandy loam at two doses for a period of 3 months (total OMW equivalents 900 and 1800 m(3) ha(-1)). Nitrogen (N) fertilization alleviated N scarcity and considerably enhanced plant biomass production; however, when applied in combination with the high OMW dose, it induced plant stress. OMW applications resulted in marked changes in the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns of soil basidiomycete communities, while concurrent N fertilization reduced these effects. In contrast, the ascomycete communities required N fertilization to respond to OMW addition. Cloning libraries for the basidiomycete communities showed that Cryptococcus yeasts and Ceratobasidium spp. dominated in the samples treated with OMW. In contrast, certain plant pathogenic basidiomycetes such as Thanatephorus cucumeris and Athelia rolfsii were suppressed. The observed changes may be reasonably explained by the capacity of OMW to enrich soils in organic substrates, to induce N immobilization and to directly introduce OMW-derived basidiomycetous yeasts. PMID:19799632

Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Rousidou, Constantina; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K; Bekris, Fotios; Zervakis, Georgios I; Singh, Brajesh K; Ehaliotis, Constantinos

2009-09-07

206

Effect of Timing of Sulfur Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Rapeseed  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is usually a positive yield response when sulfur (S) is applied to rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.) plants grown on S-deficient soils. Recommendations include application of some of or the entire amount of S at planting, but the plant requirement as well as availability of S to rapeseed during its various phenological stages is not well documented. In a field

Altaf Ahmad; Ishrat Khan; N. A. M Anjum; Iram Diva; M. Z. Abdin; Muhammad Iqbal

2005-01-01

207

PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF LOSS RISK ASSESSMENT FOR UNINCORPORATED MANURE AND FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wisconsin’s cropland phosphorus loss risk assessment for nutrient management planning (P Index) has been revised to account for the probability and potential volume of runoff events following manure applications. This P Index uses a simplified modeling approach to estimate annual unit area phosphoru...

208

Chemical nonequilibrium for interacting bosons: Applications to the pion gas  

SciTech Connect

We consider an interacting pion gas in a stage of the system evolution where thermal but not chemical equilibrium has been reached, i.e., for temperatures between thermal and chemical freeze-out T{sub ther}chemical potential {mu}{sub {pi}} within a diagrammatic thermal field-theory approach, valid in principle for any bosonic field theory in this regime. The resulting Feynman rules are derived here and applied within the context of chiral perturbation theory to discuss thermodynamical quantities of interest for the pion gas such as the free energy, the quark condensate, and thermal self-energy. In particular, we derive the {mu}{sub {pi}}{ne}0 generalization of Luscher and Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner-type relations. We pay special attention to the comparison with the conventional kinetic theory approach in the dilute regime, which allows for a check of consistency of our approach. Several phenomenological applications are discussed, concerning chiral symmetry restoration, freeze-out conditions, and Bose-Einstein pion condensation.

Fernandez-Fraile, D.; Gomez Nicola, A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2009-09-01

209

Marine derived polysaccharides for biomedical applications: chemical modification approaches.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp) and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems. PMID:18830142

d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Malinconico, Mario; Laurienzo, Paola

2008-09-03

210

LWIR hyperspectral imaging application and detection of chemical precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection and identification of Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) represent a major challenge to protect and sustain first responder and public security. In this context, passive Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is a promising technology for the standoff detection and identification of chemical vapors emanating from a distant location. To investigate this method, the Department of National Defense and Public Safety Canada have mandated Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier to develop and test Very Long Wave Infrared (VLWIR) HSI sensors for standoff detection. The initial effort was focused to address the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), surrogates and precursors. Sensors such as the Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) and the Multi-option Differential Detection and Imaging Fourier Spectrometer (MoDDIFS) were developed for this application. This paper presents the sensor developments and preliminary results of standoff detection and identification of TICs and precursors. The iCATSI and MoDDIFS sensors are based on the optical differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometric technology and are able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify small leak at ranges in excess of 1 km. Results from a series of trials in asymmetric threat type scenarios are reported. These results serve to establish the potential of passive standoff HSI detection of TICs, precursors and surrogates.

Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Dubé, Denis

2012-10-01

211

State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

Not Available

1994-06-01

212

Phosphorus transfer in runoff following application of fertilizer, manure, and sewage sludge.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) transfer in surface runoff from field plots receiving either no P, triplesuperphoshate (TSP), liquid cattle manure (LCS), liquid anaerobically digested sludge (LDS), or dewatered sludge cake (DSC) was compared over a 2-yr period. Dissolved inorganic P concentrations in runoff increased from 0.1 to 0.2 mg L(-1) on control and sludge-treated plots to 3.8 and 6.5 mg L(-1) following application of LCS and TSP, respectively, to a cereal crop in spring. When incorporated into the soil in autumn, runoff dissolved P concentrations were typically < 0.5 mg L(-1) across all plots, and particulate P remained the dominant P form. When surface-applied in autumn to a consolidated seedbed, direct loss of LCS and LDS increased both runoff volume and P transfers, but release of dissolved P occurred only from LCS. The largest P concentrations (>70 mg L(-1)) were recorded following TSP application without any increase in runoff volume, while application of bulky DSC significantly reduced total P transfers by 70% compared with the control due to a reduced runoff volume. Treatment effects in each monitoring period were most pronounced in the first runoff event. Differences in the release of P from the different P sources were related to the amounts of P extracted by either water or sodium bicarbonate in the order TSP > LCS > LDS > DSC. The results suggest there is a lower risk of P transfer in land runoff following application of sludge compared with other agricultural P amendments at similar P rates. PMID:11215651

Withers, P J; Clay, S D; Breeze, V G

213

Effect of nitrogen fertilization on chemical composition and rumen fermentation of different parts of plants of three corn hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment compared reductions in the level of N fertilisation of corn crop (i.e., no N fertilisation; 0-N, or 150kg of N\\/ha; 150-N) with those currently adopted in the Po valley of North Italy (i.e., 300kg of N\\/ha; 300-N) on chemical and nutritional characteristics of grain, stalks and leaves in corn hybrids selected for whole plant silage production (i.e., FAO

F. Masoero; A. Gallo; C. Zanfi; G. Giuberti; M. Spanghero

2011-01-01

214

Effects of Waterlogging on Nitrogen Accumulation and Alleviation of Waterlogging Damage by Application of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Mixtalol in Winter Rape ( Brassica napus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A study on the physiological and yield effects of waterlogging and the alleviation of waterlogging damage by the application\\u000a of nitrogen fertilizers and mixtalol in winter rape was conducted in experimental tanks especially designed for controlling\\u000a soil moisture content. The results showed that waterlogging at the seedling and stem elongation stages causes a significant\\u000a decrease in nitrogen content and

W. Zhou; D. Zhao; X. Lin

1997-01-01

215

Impacts of long-term application of organic fertilizers on soil quality parameters in reclaimed loess soils of the Rhineland lignite mining area  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of long-term field experiments, the impact is demonstrated of the periodic application of organic fertilizers\\u000a on the accumulation of organic matter and the development of the micro-pollutant content of reclaimed loess soils of the Rhineland\\u000a lignite mining area under agricultural use. The oldest of these experiments (‘Berrenrath Humus Accumulation Experiment’) was\\u000a begun in 1969. The results show

Thomas Delschen

1999-01-01

216

Foliar application of distillery-spent wash as a liquid fertilizer for betterment of growth of Sorghum vulgare and Cajanus cajan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distillery spent wash contained all necessary elements and biofertilizer microbes (Rhizobia, Azospirilla, Azotobacter, and phosphobacteria) to support the growth of plants. Application of the spent wash, as it is without dilution, did not\\u000a cause deformities and derangement of plant metabolism. The successful use of distillery spent wash as a liquid fertilizer\\u000a for augmenting crop productivity in C3 and C4

R. Suresh Babu; V. C. Saralabai; K. S. Muralidharan; M. Vlvekanandam

1996-01-01

217

Growth of Nursery-grown Bamboo Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in two Tropical Soil Typeswith and without Fertilizer Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nursery experiment was conducted to assess the effect of bioinoculants (Glomus aggregatum, Bacillus polymixa, Azospirillum brasilense) on seedling growth promotion of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees.) in two soil types (alfisol, vertisol) with or without fertilizer application. Bamboo seedlings were grown\\u000a in the presence or absence of bioinoculants either individually or in all combinations for 180 days in field soil

T. Muthukumar; K. Udaiyan

2006-01-01

218

Soil organic carbon fractions after 16-years of applications of fertilizers and organic manure in a Typic Rhodalfs in semi-arid tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural soils can act as a potential sink of the increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere if managed properly by application\\u000a of organic manures and balanced fertilizers. However, the rate of carbon (C) sequestration in soils is low in warm climates\\u000a and thus the short term changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) contents are almost negligible. Therefore, the knowledge about

K. Banger; G. S. Toor; A. Biswas; S. S. Sidhu; K. Sudhir

2010-01-01

219

A 3-year field measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies in China: Effects of water regime, crop residue, and fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-year field experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from rice paddies under various agricultural managements including water regime, crop residue incorporation, and synthetic fertilizer application. In contrast with continuous flooding, midseason drainage incurred a drop in CH4 fluxes while triggering substantial N2O emission. Moreover, N2O emissions after midseason drainage depended strongly on

Jianwen Zou; Yao Huang; Jingyan Jiang; Xunhua Zheng; Ronald L. Sass

2005-01-01

220

[Sustainable production of bulk chemicals by application of "white biotechnology"].  

PubMed

Practically all organic chemicals and plastics are nowadays produced from crude oil and natural gas. However, it is possible to produce a wide range of bulk chemicals from renewable resources by application of biotechnology. This paper focuses on White Biotechnology, which makes use of bacteria (or yeasts) or enzymes for the conversion of the fermentable sugar to the target product. It is shown that White Biotechnology offers substantial savings of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for nearly all of the products studied. Under favorable boundary conditions up to two thirds (67%) of the current non-renewable energy use for the production of the selected chemicals can be saved by 2050 if substantial technological progress is made and if the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks is successfully developed. The analysis for Europe (E.U. 25 countries) shows that land requirements related to White Biotechnology chemicals are not likely to become a critical issue in the next few decades, especially considering the large unused and underutilized resources in Eastern Europe. Substantial macroeconomic savings can be achieved under favourable boundary conditions. In principle, natural bacteria and enzymes can be used for White Biotechnology but, according to many experts in the fields, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) will be necessary in order to achieve the high yields, concentrations and productivities that are required to reach economic viability. Safe containment and inactivation of GMOs after release is very important because not all possible implications caused by the interaction of recombinant genes with other populations can be foreseen. If adequate precautionary measures are taken, the risks related to the use of genetically modified organisms in White Biotechnology are manageable. We conclude that the core requirements to be fulfilled in order to make clear steps towards a bio-based chemical industry are substantial technological progress in the bioprocess step and in downstream processing, high prices for fossil fuels and low prices for fermentable sugar. We strongly recommend to develop an integrated White Biotechnology strategy taking into account these four core requirements and other important accompanying activities. PMID:19306570

Patel, M K; Dornburg, V; Hermann, B G; Shen, Li; van Overbeek, Leo

2008-12-01

221

Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models in Chemical Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting “in silico” tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application—health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The “human PBPK model toolkit” is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures.

Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

2012-01-01

222

Preserving Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Negative impact of modern cancer treatment methods on human reproduction has been recognized. In this chapter, we first summarize\\u000a the facts about cancer and treatment-related adverse outcomes in female reproductive function, then discuss the needs, and\\u000a outline the current strategies and the future directions of fertility preservation and ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation\\u000a in adult and adolescent female patients whose fertility

Kutluk Oktay; Ozgur Oktem

223

21 CFR 1308.23 - Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01...false Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application. 1308.23 Section 1308.23 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT...CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Chemical Preparations §...

2013-04-01

224

21 CFR 1309.25 - Temporary exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01...exemption from registration for chemical registration applicants. 1309.25 Section 1309.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT...IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Requirements for...

2013-04-01

225

77 FR 16263 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Substances, Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33...notice that on February 27, 2012, Cayman Chemical Company, 1180 East Ellsworth Road...supply these materials to the research and forensics community for drug testing and...

2012-03-20

226

77 FR 70188 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33...that on September 25, 2012, Cayman Chemical Company, 1180 East Ellsworth Road...for distribution to their research and forensics customers conducting drug testing...

2012-11-23

227

40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 28 2009-07-01...Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory...60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals...

2009-07-01

228

40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01...Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory...60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals...

2010-07-01

229

[Regional fertility levels and trends in Brazil--application of own children method to the 1970 census].  

PubMed

An arrangement of Brazil's diverse regions was made in order to compare fertility levels in the decade of the 1960s, using the own children method on data from the 1970 demographic census of Brazil. Regions were categorized into 3 groups of high, medium, and low fertility. Regions 5 and 6 (Northeast and North) comprise the 1st group, Regions 3 and 4 (Minas Gerais, Espiritu Santo, and the Southern states) the 2nd group, and Regions 1 and 2 (Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro) the 3rd. Socioeconomic development in each of the 3 groups is described. A disaggregation of data by age specifically identifies groups that are defined by fertility behavior; thus, it becomes evident that women aged 25-39 years (particularly in the Northeastern region but also of the North) exhibited a significant increase in fertility rates around 1965. Additionally, the major rates of the period corresponded to the rates of this age group. In considering rural and urban areas of residence, 2 important characteristics emerged. On 1 hand, it was the rural area which is most closely associated with the fertility increase in 1965. On the other hand, it is the urban areas which registered a polarization, differentiating regions of high fertility (North and Northeast with Minas Gerais and Espiritu Santo) and low fertility (Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and the other Southern states). In the rural area it is difficult to establish any classification, especially at the beginning of the decade. Differentiation in the rural area appears more clearly at the end of the period. There appears to be a general tendency to maintain throughout the period a certain parallel among the regions. It is the product of 2 different behaviors, synthesized into a general form. While in the urban area, fertility levels widely differed at the beginning of the period, they tended to become homogeneous in the final years of the 1960s. The rural area, on the contrary, had similar fertility levels during the early 1960s and tended to become diversified at the close of the decade. In summary, the fertility trend of Brazil as a whole in the decade before 1970 was the product of diverse trends and levels, which become evident when they are presented as disaggregated data for each region. Although the results are what might be expected when considering the socioeconomic circumstances of the regions, diversity is still present in each region when the different rates for urban and rural areas are examined. PMID:12267495

Rodriguez Wong, L L

1983-01-01

230

Applications of chemical shift imaging to marine sciences.  

PubMed

The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission (PET) scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or ¹H) including carbon (¹³C) or phosphorus (³¹P). In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region of interest (ROI or voxel) or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI). Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using ¹³C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-¹³C]-glycine. This is the first report of ¹³C CSI in a marine organism. PMID:20948912

Lee, Haakil; Tikunov, Andrey; Stoskopf, Michael K; Macdonald, Jeffrey M

2010-08-19

231

Chemically directed assembly of nanoparticles for material and biological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unique electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) make them useful building blocks for nanodevices and biofabrication. Site-selective immobilization/deposition of NPs on surfaces at desired positions is an important fabrication step in realizing the potential of nanomaterials in these applications. In this thesis, my research has focused on developing new strategies for mono- and multilayered-NP deposition on surfaces, increasing the stability of NP-assembles upon various surfaces for practical use of NP-based devices. Chemically directed dithiocarbamate binding of amine groups to NPs in the presence of CS2 was used for enhancing the robustness of NP assembles. Such patterning methodologies have allowed me to use site-directed NP immobilization in applications as diverse as microcontact printing, nanomolding in capillaries, nanoimprint lithography, and photolithography. Also, I have developed a simple and reliable one-step technique to form robust dendrimer-NP nanocomposites using dithiocarbamate-based chemistry. These composites are able to encapsulate and release various therapeutics, providing controllable sustained release and to separate small molecules and biomacromolecules.

Park, Myoung-Hwan

232

Applications of molecular Rydberg states in chemical dynamics and spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecules in high Rydberg states, in which one electron has been excited into a hydrogenic orbital of large mean radius, have many unusual properties compared to ground state molecules. These properties, which are reviewed in this article, make them suitable for a diverse and growing number of applications in chemical dynamics. The most recent methods for studying molecular Rydberg states using high-resolution spectroscopy and theory, including effects of electric fields, are described here. An important feature is the high susceptibility of Rydberg states to external field perturbation which not only has a profound effect on the observable energy levels, spectroscopic intensities and lifetimes, but is also useful for state-selective detection through field ionization. The large dipole moment that can be created in a field is also useful for controlling the motion of molecules in Rydberg states. The applications reviewed here include: ZEKE (zero kinetic energy), MATI (mass-analyzed threshold ionization) and PIRI (photo-induced Rydberg ionization) spectroscopy; pulsed-field recombination of ions and electrons; the state selection and reaction of molecular ions; collisions of Rydberg states with neutrals, ions and metallic surfaces; Rydberg tagging and imaging of products of photodissociation; and the control of translational motion and orientation via the use of inhomogeneous fields.

Softley, T. P.

233

Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences  

PubMed Central

The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission (PET) scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or 1H) including carbon (13C) or phosphorus (31P). In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region of interest (ROI or voxel) or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI). Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using 13C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-13C]-glycine. This is the first report of 13C CSI in a marine organism.

Lee, Haakil; Tikunov, Andrey; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.

2010-01-01

234

Nitric and nitrous oxide emissions following fertilizer application to agricultural soil: Biotic and abiotic mechanisms and kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of nitric and nitrous oxide (NO and N2O) from agricultural soils may have several consequences, including impacts on local tropospheric and global stratospheric chemistry. Elevated NO and N2O emissions following application of anhydrous ammonia to an agricultural field in California were driven by the biological generation of nitrite (NO2-) and subsequent abiotic decomposition of nitrous acid (HNO2). Maximum fluxes of > 1000 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1 and > 400 ng N2O-N cm-2 h-1 were observed, and emissions of > 100 ng NO-N cm-2 h-1 and > 50 ng N2O-N cm-2 h-1 persisted for >4 weeks. Laboratory experiments were performed to determine rate coefficients and activation energies for HNO2-mediated NO and N2O production. Kinetic parameters describing the conversion of NO to N2O were measured and were found to vary with water-filled pore space (WFPS). Regression models incorporating HNO2, WFPS, and temperature accounted for 75-77% of the variability in field fluxes. A previously developed NO emissions model was modified to incorporate a kinetic expression for HNO2- and temperature-dependent production. The model tended to underestimate fluxes under low-flux conditions and overestimate fluxes under high-flux conditions. These data indicate that (1) control of acidity may be an effective means for minimizing gaseous N losses from fertilized soils and possibly for improving air quality in rural areas, (2) the transformation of HNO2-derived NO may be an important mechanism of N2O production even under relatively aerobic conditions, and (3) mechanistic models which account for spatial heterogeneity and transient conditions may be required to better predict field NO fluxes.

Venterea, Rodney T.; Rolston, Dennis E.

2000-06-01

235

Review of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Graphene and Related Applications.  

PubMed

Since its debut in 2004, graphene has attracted enormous interest because of its unique properties. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has emerged as an important method for the preparation and production of graphene for various applications since the method was first reported in 2008/2009. In this Account, we review graphene CVD on various metal substrates with an emphasis on Ni and Cu. In addition, we discuss important and representative applications of graphene formed by CVD, including as flexible transparent conductors for organic photovoltaic cells and in field effect transistors. Growth on polycrystalline Ni films leads to both monolayer and few-layer graphene with multiple layers because of the grain boundaries on Ni films. We can greatly increase the percentage of monolayer graphene by using single-crystalline Ni(111) substrates, which have smooth surface and no grain boundaries. Due to the extremely low solubility of carbon in Cu, Cu has emerged as an even better catalyst for the growth of monolayer graphene with a high percentage of single layers. The growth of graphene on Cu is a surface reaction. As a result, only one layer of graphene can form on a Cu surface, in contrast with Ni, where more than one layer can form through carbon segregation and precipitation. We also describe a method for transferring graphene sheets from the metal using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). CVD graphene has electronic properties that are potentially valuable in a number of applications. For example, few-layer graphene grown on Ni can function as flexible transparent conductive electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells. In addition, because we can synthesize large-grain graphene on Cu foil, such large-grain graphene has electronic properties suitable for use in field effect transistors. PMID:23480816

Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Luyao; Zhou, Chongwu

2013-03-12

236

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations 1 Table...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63...Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations As...

2013-07-01

237

Responses of a Marl Lake to Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow marl lake was fertilized during three consecutive years with inorganic fertilizer. Application was made in midsummer and evaluation of its effect was made by comparing data gathered in a pretreatment and a posttreatment period each year. Fertilization brought about an immediate increase in suspended solids and a decrease in transparency. These changes appeared to be caused by a

F. F. Hooper; R. C. Ball

1964-01-01

238

Experiments on Fertilization of Sport-Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four fertilizer application intervals (1 d, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks) were established in sunfish (Centrarchidae) ponds. All ponds received the same total amount of liquid fertilizer of a grade 11-37-0 (%N-%P2O5-%K2O) during the study. Fertilization at 4-week intervals was as effective in promoting sunfish production as fertilization at shorter intervals. Phosphate-only fertilization was as efficient as fertilization

Areena Murad; Claude E. Boyd

1987-01-01

239

Synthesis and chemical modification of carbon nanostructures for materials applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the structure, chemical reactivities, electromagnetic response, and materials properties of various carbon nanostructures, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite, and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Efficient production and modification of these unique structures, each with their own distinct properties, will make them more accessible for applications in electronics, materials, and biology. A method is reported for controlling the permittivity from 1--1000 MHz of SWCNT-polymer composites (0.5 wt%) for radio frequency applications including passive RF antenna structures and EMI shielding. The magnitude of the real permittivity varied between 20 and 3.3, decreasing as higher fractions of functionalized-SWCNTs were added. The microwave absorbing properties and subsequent heating of carbon nanotubes were used to rapidly cure ceramic composites. With less than 1 wt% carbon nanotube additives and 30--40 W of directed microwave power (2.45 GHz), bulk composite samples reached temperatures above 500°C within 1 min. Graphite oxide (GO) polymer nanocomposites were developed at 1, 5, and 10 wt% for the purpose of evaluating the flammability reduction and materials properties of the resulting systems. Microscale oxygen consumption calorimetry revealed that addition of GO reduced the total heat release in all systems, and GO-polycarbonate composites demonstrated very fast self-extinguishing times in vertical open flame tests. A simple solution-based oxidative process using potassium permanganate in sulfuric acid was developed for producing nearly 100% yield of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by lengthwise cutting and unraveling of MWCNT sidewalls. Subsequent chemical reduction of the GNRs resulted in restoration of electrical conductivity. The GNR synthetic conditions were investigated in further depth, and an improved method which utilized a two-acid reaction medium was found to produce GNRs with fewer defects and/or holes on the basal plane and higher aspect ratio. Two different covalent functionalization methods for GNRs based on diazonium chemistry were developed. The resulting functionalized GNRs (f-GNRs) are readily soluble in organic solvents which increase their solution processability. The f-GNRs were also found to be in a reduced state, with minimal sp2 carbon disruption, while also keeping the ribbon shape.

Higginbotham, Amanda Lynn

240

[Fertility as the outcome of the length of exposure. Methodology and application to Sudan, Syria, and Tunisia].  

PubMed

A graduate student applied World Fertility Survey data from Syria, Sudan, and Tunisia to a fertility model that takes into account duration of exposure to risk of pregnancy. The 11 variables of this model have been grouped into three categories: nuptiality, maternal period, and birth spacing variables. Syria had the youngest age at first birth. The interval between marriage and first birth was only 11 months in Syria, but 16 months in Tunisia and 24 months in Sudan. The researcher thought that it was relatively improbable that new brides used contraception in Sudan, so it appears that involuntary subfecundity occurred in Sudan. After 15 years of marriage, marriage stability was much lower for Sudan. Fertility was the lowest in Sudan (6.23 vs. 6.81 for Tunisia and 7.7 for Syria). Remarried Sudanese women had lower fertility than those in a first union, while this was the opposite in Tunisia and Syria. Women from Syria had a longer maternal period (by about two years) and a shorter birth interval (by 6 months compared to Sudan and by 9 months compared to Tunisia), so they had the highest total fertility (7.03 vs. 5.17 for Tunisia and 5.7 for Sudan). Fertility levels determined by the model corresponded with those of national reports. Tunisia had the lowest breast feeding levels (33% vs. 47% in Syria and 62% in Sudan) and contraceptive use was rather high (37% vs. 16% for Sudan and 34% for Syria). The sterilization level was highest in Tunisia (8.1% vs. 0.3% in Sudan and 0.4% in Syria). Subfecundity was more or less the same in Syria and Tunisia (18% and 20%, respectively) while it was 64% in Sudan. This high rate of subfecundity was probably due to female genital mutilation practices. True infertility was 20% for Sudan and Tunisia and 15% for Syria. PMID:12346231

Kouaouci, A

241

Application of Tryptophan Fluorescence to Assess Sensitizing Potentials of Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are too many chemical substances around our living space. However, the toxicity of most of them has not been reported,\\u000a especially regarding their sensitizing potentials. We aimed to develop a simple in vitro method to quantitatively predict\\u000a the sensitizing potentials of chemicals by measuring the fluorescence of chemical-human serum albumin (HSA) complexes. HSA\\u000a was treated with test chemicals and

Thi-Thu-Phuong Pham; Tsunehiro Oyama; Toyohi Isse; Toshihiro Kawamoto

2009-01-01

242

Phosphorus content in long-term fertilized soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorous (P) is often considered a limiting nutrient in crop production. However, particularly in intensive livestock and pig farming areas large surplus of P inputs associated with manure application to agricultural soils may result in an excessive P accumulation and a consequent gradual saturation of the soil P-sorption capacity. This event must be discouraged in order to contain possible eutrophication. In this study we investigated the impact of a long-term fertilization experiment on the accumulation in soil of different form of P. The experiment has been underway since 1964 on the University of Padova Experimental farm. The treatments derived from the factorial combination of 3 types of soil (clay, sandy and peaty) with 3 types of mineral, organic or mixed fertilization, organized in two randomized blocks. A total of 36 lysimeters (surface of 4 m2 and 80 cm deep) were cultivated. Fertilization rates were as follows: 0, no fertilization; F1 manure (20 t ha-1 y-1); M1, mineral fertilization (100 kg ha-1 y-1 N); F1M1, manure (20 t ha-1 y-1) + mineral fertilization (100 kg ha-1 y-1 N); F2 manure (40 t ha-1 y-1); M2, mineral fertilization (200 kg ha-1 y-1 N - 100 P2O5 - 280 K2O). Soil samples were taken using a 2-cm diameter auger from 0 to 100 cm depth, every 10 cm. P was analysed in term of total, organic and available (Olsen) phosphorus. Only treatments 0, M2 and F2 were subjected to soil sampling and chemical analyses. Results showed as the variables were affected by all the factors considered (treatment, soil and depth). Both farmyard manure and mineral fertilization increased the P content in function of soil types. In particular, as concerning the interaction between fertilization and depth, manure as well as mineral fertilization influenced the available P along soil profiles. The long-term fertilizer applications increased the P content at a level which resulted potentially hazardous for the environment.

Pizzeghello, D.; Morari, F.; Berti, A.; Nardi, S.; Giardini, L.

2009-04-01

243

Application of TRIZ creativity intensification approach to chemical process safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a modified method of TRIZ to improve safety in chemical process design. This method is modified by the theory of TRIZ, which is inventive problem solving theory, for retrofit design of chemical process considering safety.The original TRIZ is difficult to access to chemical process safety due to inapplicability and ambiguity of terminology in classification of these parameters.

Junghwan Kim; Jinkyung Kim; Younghee Lee; Wonsub Lim; Il Moon

2009-01-01

244

Direct chemical oxidation: applications to demilitarization and decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of using aqueous solutions of sodium peroxydisulfate in the destruction of mustard gas surrogates has been demonstrated. This technique, known as Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO), resulted in oxidative destruction of these surrogates, and a refinement was added to prevent the formation of slow-to-oxidize intermediates. Specifically, it was shown that `one-armed mustard` gas could be hydrolyzed to thiodiethanol and free chloride ion, and this species could then be partially oxidized to either the sulfoxide or sulfone depending on oxidant stoichiometry. Hydrolysis was accomplished on a mild basic solution at ambient temperature over a number of hours; oxidation was carried out at 90{degrees}C using peroxydisulfate solutions, Partial oxidation of thiodiethanol in the presence of chloride under basic conditions resulted in a a substantially pure mixture of the corresponding sulfone and sulfoxide, with no formation of chlorine gas. Analogous experiments in acid solutions produced a more complex mix of products and some oxidant was consumed in the evolution of chlorine. Complete destruction of the surrogates (to ppm level of detection) was achieved in either acid or base solution with less than a 7-fold excess of oxidant.

Cooper, J.F.; Balazs, B.; Lewis, P.

1998-04-01

245

Chemical vapor deposition of silver films for superconducting wire applications  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to deposit silver films for superconducting wire applications. Silver halide and silver organometallic reagents were initially tested for use as CVD precursors. AgI, silver trifluoroacetate (Ag(TFA)), and perfluoro-1-methylpropenylsilver (Ag(PF)) produced the most promising silver films. CVD processing was optimized on these three precursors to produce the best possible silver films. Thermodynamic calculations were preformed using a modified version of the SOLGASMIX-PV computer program to assist the optimization studies. The model tested the effects of temperature, pressure, and hydrogen concentration on the CVD process. Experiments done with AgI, Ag(TFA), and Ag(PF) were compared to the results of the program. Ag(PF) was found to produce continuous silver films by CVD at 300 C and 30 torr. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) was deposited on top of the silver films and silver was deposited on top of YBCO. A fiber which contained a silver barrier layer and a YBCO overlayer was found to be a superconductor at 72 K.

Shapiro, M.J.

1991-01-01

246

Chemical modification of porous silicon mirror for biosensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous silicon (PSi) nanostructures have remarkable optical properties that can be used for biosensing applications. In this paper we report first on the fabrication of heavily doped p-type PSi with pore diameters in the range of 400-4000 nm. The nonspecific and specific binding of the Glucose Oxidase protein (GOX) was then studied onto the PSi mirrorlike substrate. Adsorption of GOX was tuned by the pH of the protein solution (pI = 4.2) depending of the surface charge. PSi matrixes were first stabilized by thermal oxidation and GOX adsorption was performed once directly on the oxidized PSi surface, and also on previously functionalized PSi surfaces. In the latter case the GOX was coupled to the PSi via the S-H group of the 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTS). The silane-GOX and GOX interactions on the PSi surface were monitored by the Fourier Transformed Infrared spectra that display characteristic bands of the linked molecules. The interference spectrum shows a large blue shift in the Fabry-Perot interference pattern caused by the change in the refractive index of the medium implying a decrease in the effective optical thickness. Quantitative analysis shows that chemically modified PSi samples admit approximately 24% of GOX. Activity assay proved that the protein preserves its catalyst properties under these adsorption conditions.

Palestino Escobedo, G.; Legros, R.; de la Mora Mojica, B.; del Río Portilla, J. A.; Pérez López, J. E.; Gergely, C.

2007-06-01

247

Changes in the biological activity of chestnut soils upon the long-term application of fertilizers in a rotation with oil-bearing crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental studies showed that irrigated chestnut soils on the piedmont of the Zailiiskiy Alatau Range are characterized by the moderate activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. The use of these soils in the crop rotation system increases the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes (invertase, urease, and ATP synthase) by 30% in comparison with the monoculture; at the same time, it does not have a significant impact on the changes in the biological activity of the redox enzymes (catalase and dehydrogenase). The hydrolytic activity of the soils is activated to a greater extent in the crop rotation and in the monoculture against the background application of organic fertilizers. In this case, the recommended rates of mineral fertilizers do not inhibit the activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. An increase in the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes directly affects the yield of oilseed flax. Therefore, indices of the hydrolytic activity of soils can be used as a test for the diagnostics of the efficiency of fertilizers both in crop rotation and monoculture systems.

Eleshev, R. E.; Bakenova, Z. B.

2012-11-01

248

APPLICATION OF DEMOGRAPHIC ESTIMATION MODELS TO FERTILITY IN A NIGERIAN ETHNIC GROUP: IMPLICATIONS FOR POPULATION GROWTH AND FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the current level of fertility in a Nigerian ethnic group, the Igbo in Eastern Nigeria, using various modern demographic estimation techniques. The aim is to control for the validity and reliability of estimates derived from these techniques with a view to arriving at more robust estimates . The analysis was from data collected for the study of

CLIFFORD OBBY ODIMEGWU

249

Tillage and Fertilizer Application Methods Effects on Greenhouse Gas Flux (CO2, CH4 and N2O)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from soil. Thus, a field experiment was conducted at the Sand Mountain Research Station located in the Appalachian Plateau region of Northeast Alabama on a Hartsells fine sandy loam. Measure...

250

The chemical mechanism generation programme CHEMATA—Part 1: The programme and first applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical mechanism generation programme CHEMATA (CHEmical Mechanism Adaptation to Tropospheric Applications) generates explicit or lumped gasphase chemical mechanisms. Input data are a list of species and their source strengths (emissions or atmospheric production), kinetic data and lumping group definitions. All these input data can be changed by the user in order to generate a mechanism which is adapted to

Frank Kirchner

2005-01-01

251

Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical stratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiogenic isotopes have wide application to chemical stratigraphy, geochronology, provenance studies, and studies of temporal changes in Earth surface processes. This paper briefly reviews the principles of radiogenic isotope geochemistry and the distribution of a number of elements of interest in the environment, and then uses this information to explore the range of applications to chemical stratigraphy and other fundamental

Jay L. Banner

2004-01-01

252

Fertility Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUBSTANTIVE ISSUES The 20th century was witness to major demographic changes, both in the industrial North and the less developed South. Population growth rates in the North oscillated as fertility declined to below replacement levels in many countries during the Great Depression and then rose during the course of the postwar ‘‘baby boom.’’ In the South, as death rates declined

Joseph E. Potter; Axel I. Mundigo

253

Applications of deactivated GC columns for analysis of nitrogen-containing chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention.  

PubMed

Nitrogen-containing chemicals are one of the important families of compounds relevant to the purposes of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Several applications, using various injection modes, of new deactivated columns specially designed for basic compounds are presented. These columns prove remarkably well-suited to the gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the chemicals of interest, even to underivatized amino-alcohols, whose analysis on conventional GC columns is often difficult and hindered by poor resolution and high detection limits. Such a deactivated phase can even replace the typical GC phases used for CWC verification purposes. PMID:16620512

Le Moullec, Sophie; Juillet, Yannick; Bégos, Arlette; Bellier, Bruno

2006-03-01

254

Application of Photoacoustic Effect to Chemical Kinetics in Solution.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of the pulsed photoacoustic technique (PA) to the study of chemical kinetics in very dilute solutions is demonstrated with three different reactions: A bidental ligand substitution of 1,2-bi(diphenylphosphino) ethane on the five-coordinate cobalt dithiolene complex, a nucleophilic addition of tributyl phosphite to (p-(dimethylamino)triphenyl)methyl cation, and an enzyme catalyzed reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide by glucose-6-phosphate. Photoacoustic detection is shown to be 100 times more sensitive than spectrophotometric detection. As a consequence, it allows one to use lower reactant concentrations so that the time scale for the corresponding fast reactions can be lengthened. The pulsed PA technique also provides an alternative method for the direct determination of reverse rate constants and equilibrium constants of reactions. Moreover, Michaelis constants of biochemical reactions, especially for enzymes whose K_{rm m} values is below 1.0 muM, can be measured more accurately using photoacoustic detection than using spectrophotometric detection. Additionally, the pulsed PA method can be very valuable for the study of reactions that are restricted by the low solubility, availability, or high cost of reactants. The sensitivity of the PA method is found to be limited by the background signal resulting from solvents. Photoacoustic signals generated in strongly absorbing media are also studied and results are in agreement with the theory developed by G. J. Diebold. From the time profile of the acoustic signal, the absorption coefficient of strongly absorbing medium can be determined provided the sound speed is known. Since the pulse shape of the acoustic transient depends upon the relative density and the acoustic velocity of the transparent and the strongly absorbing media, the physical properties of the transparent medium can also be determined with the use of the PA technique.

Cheng, Huy-Zu.

255

Farmers' Character and Behavior of Fertilizer Application Evidence from a Survey of Xinxiang County, Henan Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural chemical use has caused a public concern over environmental issue while decisions about applying chemicals are made by individual farmers. The critical decision-making role of farmers relative to agricultural chemical use creates a need for accurate information on their perceptions of various chemical-related hazards and the factors that may influence such judgments. Based on data collected from 177 land

Hong-yun HAN; Lian-ge ZHAO

2009-01-01

256

P-31 NMR characterization of fertilizer residual P in cotton/corn fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient. However, over application of P to soils has raised concerns because excess P in runoff could result in eutrophication of fresh water bodies. A field experiment of poultry litter (PL) and chemical fertilizer (CF) to a Cecil soil used for cotton and corn...

257

Abundant and stable char residues in soils: Implications for soil fertility and carbon sequestration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Large-scale soil application of biochar might enhance soil fertility and increase crop production, while also sequestering atmospheric carbon. Reaching these outcomes requires an undertanding of the chemical structure of biochar. Using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...

258

Application of Farmyard Manure Improved the Chemical and Physical Properties of the Soil in a Semi-Arid Area in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to assess the effect of the integrated use of farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizers on soil chemical properties in a semi-arid area in NE Ethiopia. Twelve treatments comprising factorial combinations of four levels of FYM (0, 5, 10 and 15 t ha annum ) and three levels of inorganic fertilizers (0, 50 and 100% of

W. Bayu; N. F. G. Rethman; P. S. Hammes; G. Alemu

2006-01-01

259

Assessment factors—Applications in health risk assessment of chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the scientific basis for default assessment factors used in risk assessment of nongenotoxic chemicals including the use of chemical- and pathways specific assessment factors, and extrapolation approaches relevant to species differences, age and gender. One main conclusion is that the conventionally used default factor of 100 does not cover all inter-species and inter-individual differences. We suggest that a

Agneta Falk-Filipsson; Annika Hanberg; Katarina Victorin; Margareta Warholm; Maria Wallén

2007-01-01

260

Chemical mechanical polishing of polymeric materials for MEMS applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymeric materials such as polycarbonate (PC) and poly-methyl methacryate (PMMA) are replacing silicon as the major substrate in microfluidic system fabrication due to their outstanding features such as low cost and good chemical resistance. In this study, chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of PC and PMMA substrates was investigated. Four types of slurry were tested on CMP of the polymers under

Z. W. Zhong; Z. F. Wang; Y. H. Tan

2006-01-01

261

Discriminative application of string similarity methods to chemical and non-chemical names for biomedical abbreviation clustering  

PubMed Central

Background Term clustering, by measuring the string similarities between terms, is known within the natural language processing community to be an effective method for improving the quality of texts and dictionaries. However, we have observed that chemical names are difficult to cluster using string similarity measures. In order to clearly demonstrate this difficulty, we compared the string similarities determined using the edit distance, the Monge-Elkan score, SoftTFIDF, and the bigram Dice coefficient for chemical names with those for non-chemical names. Results Our experimental results revealed the following: (1) The edit distance had the best performance in the matching of full forms, whereas Cohen et al. reported that SoftTFIDF with the Jaro-Winkler distance would yield the best measure for matching pairs of terms for their experiments. (2) For each of the string similarity measures above, the best threshold for term matching differs for chemical names and for non-chemical names; the difference is especially large for the edit distance. (3) Although the matching results obtained for chemical names using the edit distance, Monge-Elkan scores, or the bigram Dice coefficients are better than the result obtained for non-chemical names, the results were contrary when using SoftTFIDF. (4) A suitable weight for chemical names varies substantially from one for non-chemical names. In particular, a weight vector that has been optimized for non-chemical names is not suitable for chemical names. (5) The matching results using the edit distances improve further by dividing a set of full forms into two subsets, according to whether a full form is a chemical name or not. These results show that our hypothesis is acceptable, and that we can significantly improve the performance of abbreviation-full form clustering by computing chemical names and non-chemical names separately. Conclusions In conclusion, the discriminative application of string similarity methods to chemical and non-chemical names may be a simple yet effective way to improve the performance of term clustering.

2012-01-01

262

Emissions of ammonia and nitric oxide from an agricultural site following application of different synthetic fertilizers and manures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions were measured by the dynamic flux chamber (DFC) method from a cropland of Chinese cabbage\\u000a over a one and a half month period (September–October, 2006). By applying a combination of three treatment (T) types (comprising\\u000a different proportions of manure, urea, and NPK fertilizer) to the crop field, the effects

Piw Das; Ki-Hyun Kim; Jae-Hwan Sa; W. S. Bae; Jo-Chun Kim; Eui-Chan Jeon

2008-01-01

263

Patterns in phosphorus and corn root distribution and yield in long-term tillage systems with fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of phosphorus in the soil profile as a function of soil tillage, fertilizer management system and cultivation time is strongly related to root distribution. As the dynamics of this process are not well understood, long-term experiments are useful to clarify the cumulative effect through time. The study evaluated an 18-year-old experiment carried out on Rhodic Paleudult soil, located

S. E. V. G. A. Costa; E. D. Souza; I. Anghinoni; J. P. C. Flores; F. C. B. Vieira; A. P. Martins; E. V. O. Ferreira

2010-01-01

264

Chemically functionalized gold nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on the development and application of gold nanoparticle based detection systems and biomimetic structures. Each class of modified nanoparticle has properties that are defined by its chemical moieties that interface with solution and the gold nanoparticle core. In Chapter 2, a comparison of the biomolecular composition and binding properties of various preparations of antibody oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle conjugates is presented. These constructs differed significantly in terms of their structure and binding properties. Chapter 3 reports the use of electroless gold deposition as a light scattering signal enhancer in a multiplexed, microarray-based scanometric immunoassay using the gold nanoparticle probes evaluated in Chapter 2. The use of gold development results in greater signal enhancement than the typical silver development, and multiple rounds of metal development were found to increase the resulting signal compared to one development. Chapter 4 describes an amplified scanometric detection method for human telomerase activity. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with specific oligonucleotide sequences can efficiently capture telomerase enzymes and subsequently be elongated. Both the elongated and unmodified oligonucleotide sequences are simultaneously measured. At low telomerase concentrations, elongated strands cannot be detected, but the unmodified sequences, which come from the same probe particles, can be detected because their concentration is higher, providing a novel form of amplification. Chapter 5 reports the development of a novel colorimetric nitrite and nitrate ion assay based upon gold nanoparticle probes functionalized with Griess reaction reagents. This assay takes advantage of the distance-dependent plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles and the ability of nitrite ion to facilitate the cross coupling of novel nanoparticle probes. The assay works on the concept of a kinetic end point and can be triggered at the EPA limit for this ion in drinking water. Finally, Chapter 6 describes the synthesis of high density lipoprotein biomimetic nanoparticles capable of binding cholesterol. These structures use a gold nanoparticle core to template the assembly of a mixed phospholipid layer and the adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I. These synthesized structures have the general size and surface composition of natural HDL and bind free cholesterol with a Kd of 4 nM.

Daniel, Weston Lewis

265

Application of Peroxidases in the Synthesis of Fine Chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Introduction; Improved Stability of CPO via In Situ Formation of H2O2; Selective oxidations with Mulecuair Oxygen; Immobilization of Glycosylated Enzymes into PUR-Foam; Selective Oxidations in Predominantly Organic Media; Chemical and G...

F. Van de Velde

2000-01-01

266

Multi-view spectral clustering and its chemical application.  

PubMed

Clustering is an unsupervised method that allows researchers to group objects and gather information about their relationships. In chemoinformatics, clustering enables hypotheses to be drawn about a compound's biological, chemical and physical property in comparison to another. We introduce a novel improved spectral clustering algorithm, proposed for chemical compound clustering, using multiple data sources. Tensor-based spectral methods, used in this paper, provide chemically appropriate and statistically significant results when attempting to cluster compounds from both the GSK-Chembl Malaria data set and the Zinc database. Spectral clustering algorithms based on the tensor method give robust results on the mid-size compound sets used here. The goal of this paper is to present the clustering of chemical compounds, using a tensor-based multi-view method which proves of value to the medicinal chemistry community. Our findings show compounds of extremely different chemotypes clustering together, this is a hint to the chemogenomics nature of our method. PMID:23428472

Adefioye, Adeshola A; Liu, Xinhai; De Moor, Bart

2013-02-21

267

Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.  

PubMed

With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well. PMID:20549448

Shaviv, Avi

2005-09-01

268

Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.  

PubMed

With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well. PMID:16512215

Shaviv, Avi

2005-12-01

269

Application of pharmacokinetic principles to exposure to chemical mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Kinetic interactions among chemicals present in a mixture can influence the relationship between administered and delivered or effective dose; these interactions are distinct from dynamic interactions such as, for example, competition between two chemicals for receptor binding sites. The relationship between administered and effective dose depends on a number of biochemical, physiological, and physical factors such as age, sex, level of physical activity, route of administration, dose pattern, and bioavailability. In addition, interactions among chemicals may limit or increase the effective dose relative to the administered dose for any of the chemicals of a mixture. If the mechanism of the interaction is known, the direction and general magnitude of its effects may be predictable. A variety of potential interactions is briefly reviewed, and selected illustrations of these interactions are given. Two types of interactions likely to be pervasive in mixtures of chemically related bioactive materials are considered in greater detail. These interactions are induction of metabolizing enzymes such as the mixed-function oxidases, and competition of structurally similar chemicals for active sites on metabolizing enzymes. Simulations are presented to illustrate the consequences of these interactions, and examples of their occurrence are given. 17 references.

O'Flaherty, E.J. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

1989-10-01

270

Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

1987-10-01

271

Advances in controlled-release fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The steady increase in population growth and food demand and the continuous reduction in cultivated land per capita induce steady intensification of fertilizer application worldwide. Despite improvements in the practices of nutrient application, the use efficiency (UE) of essential elements such as N and P is not satisfactory, resulting in an increase of environmental problems. The use of controlled-release fertilizers

Avi Shaviv

2001-01-01

272

Accumulation of chromium from fertilizers in cultivated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to determine whether chromium originating from fertilizers increases to toxic concentrations as a result of common applications of fertilizers were carried out in fields with a well-documented record of fertilizer application. Chromium contents ranged from 10-150 µg Cr\\/g soil in the 41 fields with long-term applications of N, P, and K fertilizers, silicate, and liming materials in seven agricultural

Hisao Watanabe

1984-01-01

273

Effects of conventional and organic fertilization on spinach ( Spinacea oleracea L.) growth, yield, vitamin C and nitrate concentration during two successive seasons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current experiment was laid out in order to compare different kinds of organic manure and chemical fertilizer application in growing spinach under the open-field conditions in two successive seasons. Matador type spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) was cultivated organically and conventionally and spinach growth, yield, vitamin C and nitrate concentrations were checked throughout two successive seasons (autumn and winter). Commercial chemical

Sedat Citak; Sahriye Sonmez

2010-01-01

274

Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fission are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for /sup 239/Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

1982-07-07

275

40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities § 63.747 Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations....

2013-07-01

276

Chemical Synthesis and Biological Applications of Nucleic Acids to Nitrogen Fixation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this research is the development of new and improved methods for the chemical synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides and their application to gene transfer studies involving biological nitrogen fixation. The use of the pivaloyl group for th...

1978-01-01

277

CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) and Diffusion Coatings for High Temperature Applications in Turbomachinery and Rocket Motors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief but critical review is presented of recent developments in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) metal and ceramic coatings for aerospace applications, covering in addition to standard CVD, activated CVD, diffusion CVD, pressure pulsed CVD and the more ...

S. P. Field J. E. Restall C. D. Chalk C. Hayman

1989-01-01

278

Scientific and Technical Application Forecast on Chemical Detection of Personnel by Gaseous and Particulate Matter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Scientific and Technological Applications Forecast (STAF) presents a rigorous discussion of Chemical Detection of Personnel by Gaseous and Particulate Matter. Various methods of detecting enemy forces in jungle terrain, hidden in ambush, or otherwise...

R. Orlowski J. Poyer R. Dora

1966-01-01

279

Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue  

SciTech Connect

This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica.

Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R

2007-07-01

280

A REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS OF LUMINESCENCE TO MONITORING OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent analytical literature on the application of luminescence techniques to the measurement of various classes of environmentally significant chemicals has been reviewed. Luminescent spectroscopy based methods are compared to other current techniques. Also, examples of rece...

281

REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS OF LUMINESCENCE TO MONITORING OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent analytical literature on the application of luminescence techniques to the measurement of various classes of environmentally significant chemicals has been reviewed. uminescent spectroscopy based methods are compared to other current techniques. lso, examples of recent...

282

Applications of computational fluid dynamics to HF chemical laser nozzle design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a specialized predictive tool employing CFD techniques for the analysis of chemical laser nozzle and cavity flow fields is traced. A brief background of the general-purpose PARCH Navier-Stokes field solver is provided, as well as some details of the steps taken to specialize PARCH for chemical laser applications, and flow field predictions of the hypersonic-low-temperature (HYLTE) chemical

J. Long; W. Smith; R. Acebal; N. Sinha; W. A. Duncan

1991-01-01

283

Structure–property relationships of polymer-filled nonwoven membranes for chemical protection applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer membranes with selective permeabilities are excellent material candidates for chemical protection applications. For example, poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS) membranes have high water permeability, and at the same time, they can block some harmful chemicals. However, PAMPS membranes are mechanically weak and their vapor selectivities need to be further improved for practical chemical protection. In this study, nonwoven fabrics were employed

Kyung-Hye Jung; Liwen Ji; Behnam Pourdeyhimi; Xiangwu Zhang

2010-01-01

284

Application of the Uncertain Systems Model to Chemical Heat Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical parts are usually destroyed from the surface. So how to improve the surface quality is very important. One of the methods is chemical heat treatment. Among the process penetrating some special elements is a pre-processing technology. For the sake of different diffusion velocity the penetrated element has different concentration in different depth, namely, the element concentration is changed

Bin Zeng; Youxin Luo

2009-01-01

285

Application of a chemically adsorbed fluorocarbon film to improve demolding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an extremely thin chemically adsorbed fluorocarbon film (having a thickness of the order of 1nm) for injection molding greatly reduces the ejection resistance, depending on the mold shape or dimensional accuracy.Consequently, this technique should be very beneficial when applied to the molding of resin materials that have difficulty with mold release, such as silicone, urethane and elastomer

Hiroyuki Yamamoto; Yuji Ohkubo; Kazufumi Ogawa; Kunihiro Utsumi

2009-01-01

286

Carbon Footprint Calculations: An Application of Chemical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Topics commonly taught in a general chemistry course can be used to calculate the quantity of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by various human activities. Each calculation begins with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction that produces the CO[subscript 2] gas. Stoichiometry, thermochemistry, the ideal gas law, and dimensional…

Treptow, Richard S.

2010-01-01

287

Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) is an atomically thin sheet of graphite that has traditionally served as a precursor for graphene, but is increasingly attracting chemists for its own characteristics. It is covalently decorated with oxygen-containing functional groups - either on the basal plane or at the edges - so that it contains a mixture of sp2- and sp3-hybridized carbon

Kian Ping Loh; Qiaoliang Bao; Goki Eda; Manish Chhowalla

2010-01-01

288

Chemical conversion surfaces for solar-energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt is made to determine which coatings and substrate combinations might hold the greatest promise for chemical conversion coating of substrate materials. The following substrate materials are investigated: aluminum, copper, brass, zinc, cadmium, aluminum\\/zinc alloys, nickel, iron, and stainless steel. One of the major impediments to the utilization of solar energy is the initial cost of the systems. One

S. W. Moore; J. S. Clements; W. R. Doty

1983-01-01

289

Chemically modified papain for applications in detergent formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papain was modified using succinic anhydride, and the modified papain so obtained was compared with the native papain for its activity and stability in detergents. This study was done using commercial enzyme detergents as references. It was found that modified papain retained activity comparable to the commercial enzyme detergents. Chemically modified papain may prove to be an inexpensive alternative to

Shilpa S Khaparde; Rekha S Singhal

2001-01-01

290

Application of visco-elastic boundary element method to creep problems in chemical engineering structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, in terms of the theory and numerical implementation of the visco-elastic boundary element method (VEBEM), investigates the creep problems in chemical engineering. The visco-elastic property is represented by a generalized Kelvin model, and the Laplace transformation and inverse techniques are introduced for simplifying the numerical method. Two numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application in chemical engineering.

H. Antes

1997-01-01

291

Development of chemical sensor arrays for harsh environments and aerospace applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerospace industry requires the development of a range of chemical sensor technologies for such applications as fuel leak detection, fire detection, and emission monitoring. A range of chemical sensors are being developed based on: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology, 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials, and 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to

G. W. Hunter; P. G. Neudeck; C. C. Liu; B. Ward; Q. H. Wu; P. Dutta; M. Frank; J. Trimbol; M. Fulkerson; B. Patton; D. Makel; V. Thomas

2002-01-01

292

Application of computer pattern recognition to metal ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first application of computer pattern recognition to the analysis of low pressure transition metal ion chemical ionization (MICI) data is described. The data have been collected using a conventional ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectrometer and a Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS) equipped with laser ionization sources. Chemical ionization data for organic compounds of several classes with various transition

1986-01-01

293

Application of toxicokinetics to improve chemical risk assessment: Implications for the use of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

While toxicokinetics has become an integral part of pharmaceutical safety assessment over the last two decades, its use in the chemical industry is relatively new. However, it is recognised as a potentially important tool in human health risk assessment and recent initiatives have advocated greater application of toxicokinetics as part of an improved assessment strategy for crop protection chemicals that

Stuart Creton; Richard Billington; Will Davies; Matthew P. Dent; Gabrielle M. Hawksworth; Simon Parry; Kim Z. Travis

2009-01-01

294

Anodic plasma-chemical treatment of CP titanium surfaces for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anodic plasma-chemical (APC) process was used to modify CP titanium surfaces for biomedical applications. This technique allows for the combined chemical and morphological modification of titanium surfaces in a single process step. The resulting conversion coatings, typically several micrometer thick, consist mainly of titanium oxide and significant amounts of electrolyte constituents. In this study, a new electrolyte was developed

V. M Frauchiger; F Schlottig; B Gasser; M Textor

2004-01-01

295

Soil-fertility management and host preference by European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), on Zea mays L.: A comparison of organic and conventional chemical farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been argued by proponents of organic agriculture that crop losses to insects and diseases are reduced by this farming method, and that reduced susceptibility to pests is a reflection of differences in plant health, as mediated by soil-fertility management. These reports although widespread are mostly anecdotal and largely without experimental foundation. In this study, the effects of

P. L. Phelan; J. F. Mason; B. R. Stinner

1995-01-01

296

Study of the uptake of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs in wheat and soybean after application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer.  

PubMed

Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently occurring in sludge and waters from sewage treatment plants (STPs). Sludge obtained from sewage treatment is often applied as a fertilizer in agriculture and not many studies about the uptake of pharmaceuticals into crops can be found. In this paper, we present a greenhouse experiment to study the presence of four NSAIDs (naproxen, ketoprofen, diclofenac and ibuprofen) in two different crops (soybean and wheat) after application of sludge as a fertilizer. Two different amounts of sludge were added to the soil; the recommended amount (with respect to phosphorus content) and the double recommended amount. One treatment without sludge was also included as a blank. The crops were harvested after 60 as well as 110 days. Only diclofenac and ibuprofen were detected in the sludge in concentrations of 22 and 217 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. None of the NSAIDs were detected in the crops from any of the treatments. Compared to the amounts applied to the soil, detection limits correspond to an uptake of less than 2% for diclofenac and 0.8% for ibuprofen. PMID:23454699

Cortés, José Manuel; Larsson, Estelle; Jönsson, Jan Åke

2013-02-26

297

Recent applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence in chemical analysis.  

PubMed

Analytical applications of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) are reviewed with emphasis on the years 1997-2000. Recent developments are described for the ECL of organics, metal complexes and clusters, cathodic ECL on oxide covered electrodes, ECL based immunosensors, DNA-probe assays and enzymatic biosensors. Mechanisms are given for polyaromatic hydrocarbons, luminol/hydrogen peroxide, some cathodic ECL reactions and ruthenium complexes with and without co-reactants. New developments and improvements of techniques and instrumentation and their application to analytes are described. The application of ECL for visualisation of electrochemical processes and imaging of surfaces is mentioned. PMID:18968276

Fähnrich, K A; Pravda, M; Guilbault, G G

2001-05-30

298

Fertilizer Granulation: Its Processes and Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Introduction; Reasons for granulation; Overview of fertilizer Industry; Development of granulation; Current granulation processes; Steam/Water granulation; Chemical granulation; Types of granulation equipment; The rolling drum; Fluidized...

S. Golam P. Ehtonen M. Jaervelaeinen

1993-01-01

299

Induction generator applications for petroleum and chemical plants  

SciTech Connect

A 13000-hp 1200-r/min induction machine has been applied as a motor/generator in a compressor-expander string associated with a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. Power factor correction capacitors are connected at the terminals of the induction machine. The specific principles of application, as they apply to generator applications, of induction machines are reviewed. Mechanical design, overspeed, excitation, electrical and mechanical transients, and machine control are studied in detail.

Owen, E.L.; Griffith, G.R.

1983-11-01

300

Benefits of chemical beam epitaxy for micro and optoelectronic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the benefits that Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE) growth technique can bring to micro and optoelectronic devices. The characteristics of the technique are first underlined for a better understanding of the specific advantages it offers compared to other growth techniques. The first one is the low growth temperature, which pushed the thickness limit in strained InGaAsP multi-quantum well

Jean-Louis Benchimol; F. Alexandre; Bruno Lamare; Philippe Legay

1996-01-01

301

Solubility equilibria: From chemical potentiometry to industrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solubility equilibria are related to thertnodynainic properties in general and chemical po- tentials in particular of ionic compounds, nonelectrolytes and metals in aqueous solutions or melts. Solubility phenomena are most efficiently dealt with by the theoretical and graphical methods of phase theory. Master variables for the depiction of the pertinent solid-solid or solid-liquid phase diagram are deduced from generalized Gibbs-Duhem

Heinz Gamsjager

1995-01-01

302

A condensed gas–phase chemical model and its application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the “lumped mechanism” and “counting species” methods, we developed a condensed gas-phase chemical model based on a\\u000a simplified one. The modified quasi-steady-state approximation (QSSA) scheme and the error redistribution mass conservation\\u000a technique are adopted to solve the atmospheric chemistry kinetic equations. Results show that the condensed model can well\\u000a simulate concentration variations of gas species such as SO2, NOX,

Tijian Wang; Zhaobo Sun; Zongkai Li

1999-01-01

303

Chemical modification: the key to clinical application of RNA interference?  

PubMed Central

RNA interference provides a potent and specific method for controlling gene expression in human cells. To translate this potential into a broad new family of therapeutics, it is necessary to optimize the efficacy of the RNA-based drugs. As discussed in this Review, it might be possible to achieve this optimization using chemical modifications that improve their in vivo stability, cellular delivery, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, potency, and specificity.

Corey, David R.

2007-01-01

304

Influence of Fertilizer on Seed Production in Allegheny Hardwood Stands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fertilizers applied in spring can stimulate production of black cherry and red maple seeds in Allegheny hardwood stands. Increased seed production begins in the year after application, but lasts only about 2 years. However, fertilizers do not increase see...

J. C. Bjorkbom L. R. Auchmoody D. E. Dorn

1979-01-01

305

Fertilization and Spacing Effects on Growth of Planted Ponderosa Pine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fertilizer placed in the planting hole increased height growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) early in the life of the plantation. Later broadcast applications of fertilizer may have had little effect on growth. Wider spacings produce...

P. H. Cochran R. P. Newman J. W. Barrett

1991-01-01

306

Title III section 313 release reporting guidance: Estimating chemical releases from spray application of organic coatings  

SciTech Connect

Spray applicators of organic coatings may be required to report annually any releases to the environment of certain chemicals regulated under Section 313, Title III, of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. The document has been developed to assist appliers of organic coatings in the completion of Part III (Chemical Specific Information) of the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form. Included herein is general information on toxic chemicals used and process wastes generated, along with several examples to demonstrate the types of data needed and various methodologies available for estimating releases.

Not Available

1988-01-01

307

Characterization and analysis of the active contents of nano-chemicals for textile application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two nano-chemicals in the form of nano-suspensions were obtained commercially from the market. These two nano-chemicals\\u000a were claimed to have UV-protective and anti-bacterial functions, but the active ingredients of these nano-chemicals were not\\u000a disclosed. This was commonly found in commercial nano-chemicals used for textile application. Therefore, the aim of this paper\\u000a was to use some simple analytical

C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; Y. W. Wong

2009-01-01

308

Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface ocean. Concern has been expressed that ocean fertilization may not be very effective at reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and may produce unintended environmental consequences. The rationale for thinking that ocean fertilization might help diminish ocean acidification is that dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the near-surface equilibrate with the atmosphere in about a year. If ocean fertilization could reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it would also reduce surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and thus diminish the degree of ocean acidification. To evaluate this line of thinking, we use a global ocean carbon cycle model with a simple representation of marine biology and investigate the maximum potential effect of ocean fertilization on ocean carbonate chemistry. We find that the effect of ocean fertilization on ocean acidification depends, in part, on the context in which ocean fertilization is performed. With fixed emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, ocean fertilization moderately mitigates changes in ocean carbonate chemistry near the ocean surface, but at the expense of further acidifying the deep ocean. Under the SRES A2 CO2 emission scenario, by year 2100 simulated atmospheric CO2, global mean surface pH, and saturation state of aragonite is 965 ppm, 7.74, and 1.55 for the scenario without fertilization and 833 ppm, 7.80, and 1.71 for the scenario with 100-year (between 2000 and 2100) continuous fertilization for the global ocean (For comparison, pre-industrial global mean surface pH and saturation state of aragonite is 8.18 and 3.5). As a result of ocean fertilization, 10 years from now, the depth of saturation horizon (the depth below which ocean water is undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate) for aragonite in the Southern Ocean shoals from its present average value of about 700 m to 100 m. In contrast, no significant change in the depth of aragonite saturation horizontal is seen in the scenario without fertilization for the corresponding period. By year 2100, global mean calcite saturation horizon shoals from its present value of 3150 m to 2965 and 2534 m in the case without fertilization and with it. In contrast, if the sale of carbon credits from ocean fertilization leads to greater CO2 emissions to the atmosphere (e.g., if carbon credits from ocean fertilization are used to offset CO2 emissions from a coal plant), then there is the potential that ocean fertilization would further acidify the deep ocean without conferring any chemical benefit to surface ocean waters.

Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

2008-12-01

309

Applications and use of in-situ chemical sensors in semiconductor manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of in-situ chemical sensors in semiconductor wafer fabrication will increase significantly over the next five years. Advanced gas phase and liquid phase real time, non contaminating chemical sensors will be applied in four major categories of use. These four areas of application are: (1) Upstream measurements of trace contaminants in high purity process gases and liquids. (2) In-the-chamber or in-the- process bath measurements of chemical species of on line active process tools. (3) Real time, on line, downstream measurements of gas phase and liquid phase effluents coming from semiconductor wafer process tools. (4) Semiconductor industrial hygiene and safety monitors for toxic substances in the work place. This paper will review each of these major applications for both gases and liquids as they will need to be integrated into semiconductor wafer manufacturing over time. Some existing sensor applications currently exist. This review will focus extensively on in-situ real time chemical monitoring sensors.

Tolliver, Donald L.; Atkinson, George H.

1997-07-01

310

Soil Fertility and Fertilizer Management in Semiarid Tropical India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: World fertilizer market review and outlook; Fertilizer production and consumption trends - India; Soil fertility and fertilizer management in semiarid tropical India - A historical perspective; Soil fertility problems in the semiarid tropics of ...

C. B. Christianson

1989-01-01

311

Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased Corganic and Pextractable concentrations, compared to treatments without plants, reaching the highest values in the treatments combining amendments and plants. After one month of incubation, the dehydrogenase activities in wastes were more than twice in the amended treatments (1.71-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate and sampling period). Nevertheless, wastes from treatments with plants had higher dehydrogenase activities (9.66-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate) than in treatments using only amendments (4.98-22.30 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1), but both were higher than control. The plants in control presented lower fresh biomass than in amended treatments. Plants growth in control was not sufficient to enhance dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes (1.51 and 1.72 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, with/without plants, respectively). The extractable nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn) increased with amendment application, an advantage for remediation purposes. Although extractable Al, As, Na also increased in the same treatments, they remained small. In contrast, extractable Cu and Pb were, generally, lower in amended treatments than in control. The presence of the plant did not increase the concentration of elemental in the extractant solution.

Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

2013-04-01

312

Toxicokinetic modeling and its applications in chemical risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has found frequent application in risk assessments where PBPK models serve as important adjuncts to studies on modes of action of xenobiotics. In this regard, studies on mode of action provide insight into both the sites\\/mechanisms of action and the form of the xenobiotic associated with toxic responses. Validated PBPK models permit

Melvin E. Andersen

2003-01-01

313

Chemical modification of porous silicon mirror for biosensing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porous silicon (PSi) nanostructures have remarkable optical properties that can be used for biosensing applications. In this paper we report first on the fabrication of heavily doped p-type PSi with pore diameters in the range of 400-4000 nm. The nonspecific and specific binding of the Glucose Oxidase protein (GOX) was then studied onto the PSi mirrorlike substrate. Adsorption of GOX

G. Palestino Escobedo; R. Legros; B. de la Mora Mojica; J. A. del Río Portilla; J. E. Pérez López; C. Gergely

2007-01-01

314

Applications of atomic magnetometry in chemical and biological imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atomic magnetometry has been recently developed as the most sensitive technique for detecting magnetic field, especially low-frequency magnetic signal. However, its applications in chemistry and biomedicine have not been extensively explored. In addition, the applications are often limited by the bulky size and high operating temperature of the magnetometers. We report a sensitive and compact atomic magnetometer that has an optimal operating temperature of 37 degree. The small size of the atomic sensors significantly improves the coupling between the sample and the detectors. Using this magnetometer in a scanning detection scheme, we show high-resolution, quantitative imaging of magnetically-labeled antibody binding to targeted molecules. We also show applications of this technique in nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging in the Earth's magnetic field: a pH-sensitive gadolinium chelate for low magnetic field is revealed, which can be potentially used for minimum-invasive pH mapping; fluid flow in porous metallic materials is measured, which overcomes the penetration problem associated with conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Further improvement for the magnetometer and new detection schemes will be discussed.

Xu, Shoujun; Yao, Li; Garcia, Nissa; Yu, Dindi

2010-03-01

315

Baseflow and peakflow chemical responses to experimental applications of ammonium sulphate to forested watersheds in north-central West Virginia, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream water was analysed to determine how induced watershed acidification changed the chemistry of peakflow and baseflow and to compare the relative timing of these changes. Two watersheds in north-central West Virginia, WS3 and WS9, were subjected to three applications of ammonium sulphate fertilizer per year to induce acidification. A third watershed, WS4, was the control. Samples were collected for 8 years from WS9 and for 9 years from WS3. Prior to analyses, concentration data were flow adjusted, and the influence of natural background changes was removed by accounting for the chemical responses measured from WS4. This yielded residual values that were evaluated using robust locally weighted regression and Mann-Kendall tests. On WS3, analyte responses during baseflow and peakflow were similar, although peakflow responses occurred soon after the first treatment whereas baseflow responses lagged 1-2 years. This lag in baseflow responses corresponded well with the mean transit time of baseflow on WS3. Anion adsorption on WS3 apparently delayed increases in SO4 leaching, but resulted in enhanced early leaching losses of Cl and NO3. Leaching of Ca and Mg was strongly tied, both by timing and stoichiometrically, to NO3 and SO4 leaching. F-factors for WS3 baseflow and peakflow indicated that the catchment was insensitive to acid neutralizing capacity reductions both before and during treatment, although NO3 played a large role in reducing the treatment period F-factor. By contrast, the addition of fertilizer to WS9 created an acid sensitive system in both baseflow and peakflow. On WS9, baseflow and peakflow responses also were similar to each other, but there was no time lag after treatment for baseflow. Changes in concentrations generally were not as great on WS9 as on WS3, and several ions showed no significant changes, particularly for peakflow. The lesser response to treatment on WS9 is attributed to the past abusive farming and site preparation before larch planting that resulted in poor soil fertility, erosion, and consequently, physical and chemical similarities between upper and lower soil layers. Even with fertilizer-induced NO3 and SO4 leaching increases, base cations were in low supplies and, therefore, unavailable to leach via charge pairing. The absence of a time lag in treatment responses for WS9 baseflow indicates that it has substantially different flow paths than WS3. The different hydrologies on these nearby watersheds illustrates the importance of understanding watershed hydrology when establishing a monitoring programme to detect ecosystem change. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Edwards, Pamela J.; Wood, Frederica; Kochenderfer, James N.

2002-08-01

316

Applications of acceptorless dehydrogenation and related transformations in chemical synthesis.  

PubMed

Conventional oxidations of organic compounds formally transfer hydrogen atoms from the substrate to an acceptor molecule such as oxygen, a metal oxide, or a sacrificial olefin. In acceptorless dehydrogenation (AD) reactions, catalytic scission of C-H, N-H, and/or O-H bonds liberates hydrogen gas with no need for a stoichiometric oxidant, thereby providing efficient, nonpolluting activation of substrates. In addition, the hydrogen gas is valuable in itself as a high-energy, clean fuel. Here, we review AD reactions selectively catalyzed by transition metal complexes, as well as related transformations that rely on intermediates derived from reversible dehydrogenation. We delineate the methodologies evolving from this recent concept and highlight the effect of these reactions on chemical synthesis. PMID:23869021

Gunanathan, Chidambaram; Milstein, David

2013-07-19

317

Application of Surface Chemical Analysis Tools for Characterization of Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS); low energy ion scattering (LEIS); and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), are briefly summarized. Examples describing the characterization of engineered nanoparticles are provided. Specific analysis considerations and issues associated with using surface analysis methods for the characterization of nanoparticles are discussed and summarized, along with the impact that shape instability, environmentally induced changes, deliberate and accidental coating, etc., have on nanoparticle properties.

Baer, Donald R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Techane, Sirnegeda D.; Castner, David G.

2010-02-01

318

[Applications of real-time monitoring techniques in chemical synthetic ingredients].  

PubMed

Real-time monitoring technique for process parameters and/or insight variables of chemical synthetic ingredients is a novel chemical process analysis method, which can real time monitor the chemical synthetic ingredients, reveal the mechanism of chemical reaction occurring, reaction courses and kinetic characteristics, and monitor, control and adjust chemical reaction to determine the endpoint of reaction and enhance selectivity of reaction, quality and yields of product. Many real-time monitoring techniques were achieved to satisfy the demands in several chemical synthetic reactions. The structure and principles of current real-time monitoring techniques was stated, and a review was summarized on its applications in chemical synthetic ingredients. The research, development and applications of real-time monitoring techniques such as spectrometry (i. e. ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, infrared spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy), chromatography (i. e. thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis) and their coupled techniques (i. e. GC-MS, GC-IR and LC-MS) for chemical synthetic ingredients were evaluated. The coupled techniques were utilized to take the advantages of their high performance separation and quantitative power of chromatography, and sensitive and qualitative identification capacity of spectrometric techniques could realize the real-time monitoring for special chemical synthetic ingredients in complex systems. The future developmental trends and application prospects of real-time monitoring techniques are also discussed. With the research & development of microprocessor and embedded system, the real-time monitoring instrument for chemical synthetic ingredients will have a trend to miniaturization, intelligence, digitization, functionalization and multichannel with widely versatile and strongly compatible features. PMID:20384154

Shi, Kai-Yun; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Gan, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Xia, Chen

2010-02-01

319

Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds  

SciTech Connect

This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

1991-02-01

320

Chemical assembly of nanostructured films for sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of inorganic nanorods, nanowires, nanoribbons, and nanoscrolls have been synthesized in large-area arrays vertically aligned on metallic surfaces. The simple syntheses of the nanowire films are accomplished in situ by gas-solid and liquid-solid reactions under mild conditions. For the preparation of endohedral metallofullerene films, solution casting and electrochemical techniques are employed. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the nanostructures have been characterized, which provide interesting prospects of these film materials in various applications. Potential uses of these films as passive and/or active components in dye-sensitized solar cells and gas sensors have been demonstrated in a number of preliminary experiments.

Wen, Xiaogang; Fan, Louzhen; Yang, Shihe

2004-12-01

321

Stored chemical energy propulsion system for underwater applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An underwater propulsion system that couples a lithium fueled boiler with a standard Rankine cycle has been developed and demonstrated in an ocean environment. Although the demonstration vehicle was a small diameter axisymmetric body, other configurations have been subjected to study and experimentation. Various fuel-oxidizer combinations have been considered for use in the system, and these are examined along with the necessary supporting technologies for future development efforts. A brief history of the system development is included. It is concluded that the described system has been shown to be a viable candidate for numerous underwater applications.

Hughes, T. G.; Smith, R. B.; Kiely, D. H.

1983-04-01

322

The development of micro/nano chemical sensor systems for aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerospace applications require a range of chemical sensing technologies to monitor conditions related to both space exploration and aeronautic aircraft operations. These applications include leak detection, engine emissions monitoring, fire detection, human health monitoring, and environmental monitoring. This paper discusses efforts to produce microsensor platforms and Smart Sensor Systems that can be tailored to measure a range of chemical species. This technology development ranges from development of base sensor platforms to the evaluation of more mature systems in relevant environments. Although microsensor systems can have a significant impact on aerospace applications, extensive application testing is necessary for their long-term implementation. The introduction of nanomaterials into microsensor platforms has the potential to significantly enable improved sensor performance, but control of those nanostructures is necessary in order to achieve maximum benefits. Examples will be given of microsensor platform technology, Smart Sensor Systems, application testing, and efforts to integrate and control nanostructures into sensor structures.

Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Evans, L.; Biaggi-Labiosa, A.; Ward, B. J.; Rowe, S.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Dutta, P.; Berger, G. M.; Vander Wal, R. L.

2010-04-01

323

Unplanned releases and injuries associated with aerial application of chemicals, 1995-2002.  

PubMed

For this article, records of the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were reviewed to identify and describe acute, unplanned releases of agricultural chemicals and associated injuries related to aerial application during 1995-2002. Records of aerial-application accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board were also reviewed. Of the 54,090 events in the HSEES system for 1995-2002, 91 were identified as aerial-application events. The most commonly released substance was malathion. There were 56 victims; 12 died, and 34 required treatment at a hospital. A higher percentage of HSEES aerial-applicator events involved injury and death than did other HSEES transportation events. The relatively high number of injuries and fatalities underscores the need for precautions such as monitoring and limiting pilot cumulative exposures to pesticides, and using appropriate personal protective equipment and decontamination equipment. Emergency responders should be educated about the hazards associated with chemicals at aerial-application crash sites. PMID:16334093

Rice, Nancy; Messing, Rita; Souther, Larry; Berkowitz, Zahava

2005-11-01

324

The effect of soil compaction, profile disturbance and fertilizer application on the growth of eucalypt seedlings in two glasshouse studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil damage, compaction and displacement, during logging or clearing and cultivation affects both soil physical and chemical properties and reduces growth of regenerated or planted tree seedlings. Understanding the factors involved will aid management and set limits for indicators of sustainable management in eucalypt forests. In the first of two glasshouse studies, three Eucalyptus species were grown for 110 days

J. R. Williamson; W. A. Neilsen

2003-01-01

325

Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique in chemical diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range completely noninvasively from outside a container (e.g., pipe, tank, reactor vessel, etc.,). These acoustic parameters, along with their frequency-dependence, can be used to identify various chemicals. This technique can be adapted for a range of chemical diagnostic applications, particularly, in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals may provide appropriate feedback information. Both experimental data and theoretical modeling are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are discussed.

Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Lizon, D.; Hasse, R.

1996-09-01

326

Application of Key Events Analysis to Chemical Carcinogens and Noncarcinogens  

PubMed Central

The existence of thresholds for toxicants is a matter of debate in chemical risk assessment and regulation. Current risk assessment methods are based on the assumption that, in the absence of sufficient data, carcinogenesis does not have a threshold, while noncarcinogenic endpoints are assumed to be thresholded. Advances in our fundamental understanding of the events that underlie toxicity are providing opportunities to address these assumptions about thresholds. A key events dose-response analytic framework was used to evaluate three aspects of toxicity. The first section illustrates how a fundamental understanding of the mode of action for the hepatic toxicity and the hepatocarcinogenicity of chloroform in rodents can replace the assumption of low-dose linearity. The second section describes how advances in our understanding of the molecular aspects of carcinogenesis allow us to consider the critical steps in genotoxic carcinogenesis in a key events framework. The third section deals with the case of endocrine disrupters, where the most significant question regarding thresholds is the possible additivity to an endogenous background of hormonal activity. Each of the examples suggests that current assumptions about thresholds can be refined. Understanding inter-individual variability in the events involved in toxicological effects may enable a true population threshold(s) to be identified.

BOOBIS, ALAN R.; DASTON, GEORGE P.; PRESTON, R. JULIAN; OLIN, STEPHEN S.

2009-01-01

327

Long-term application of organic manure and nitrogen fertilizer on N 2O emissions, soil quality and crop production in a sandy loam soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term field experiment was established to determine the influence of mineral fertilizer (NPK) or organic manure (composed of wheat straw, oil cake and cottonseed cake) on soil fertility. A tract of calcareous fluvo-aquic soil (aquic inceptisol) in the Fengqiu State Key Experimental Station for Ecological Agriculture (Fengqiu county, Henan province, China) was fertilized beginning in September 1989 and N2O

Lei Meng; Weixin Ding; Zucong Cai

2005-01-01

328

Design, synthesis, and application of the trimethoprim-based chemical tag for live-cell imaging.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, chemical tags have been developed to complement the use of fluorescent proteins in live-cell imaging. Chemical tags retain the specificity of protein labeling achieved with fluorescent proteins through genetic encoding, but provide smaller, more robust tags and modular use of organic fluorophores with high photon output and tailored functionalities. The trimethoprim-based chemical tag (TMP-tag) was initially developed based on the high affinity interaction between E. coli dihydrofolate reductase and the antibiotic trimethoprim and was subsequently rendered covalent and fluorogenic via proximity-induced protein labeling reactions. To date, the TMP-tag is one of the few chemical tags that enable intracellular protein labeling and high-resolution live-cell imaging. Here we describe the general design, chemical synthesis, and application of TMP-tag for live-cell imaging. Alternate protocols for synthesizing and using the covalent and the fluorogenic TMP-tags are also included. PMID:23839994

Jing, Chaoran; Cornish, Virginia W

2013-06-01

329

Nitrogenous fertilizers: Global distribution of consumption and associated emissions of nitrous exide and ammonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global distribution of nitrogen input via application of chemical nitrogenous fertilizers to agricultural ecosystems is presented. The suite of 1° (latitude/longitude) resolution data bases includes primary data on fertilizer consumption, as well as supporting data sets defining the distribution and intensity of agriculture associated with fertilizer use. The data were developed from a variety of sources and reflect conditions for the mid-1980s. East Asia, where fertilizer use is increasing at ˜10%/year, accounted for ˜37% of the total, while North America and western Europe, where fertilizer use is leveling off, accounted for 17% and 14% of global use, respectively. Former centrally planned economies of Europe consumed one fifth of the 1984 total, but rapid increases in the 1980s are slowing, and consumption trends are variable. The most widely used chemical nitrogenous fertilizer is urea which accounted for 40% of the world's total in the mid-1980s. While almost every country consumes urea, ˜75% of the large East Asian fertilizer use is supplied by this one fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate, used primarily in the former centrally planned economies of Europe, in West Asia, and in Africa, accounted for about one quarter of global consumption. These data were used to estimate distributions of the annual emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and of ammonia (NH3) associated with the use of fertilizers. Applying published ranges of emission coefficients for fertilizer types in the data base yields a median emission of 0.1 Tg N2O-N, with lower and upper values of 0.03 and 2.0 Tg N2O-N in 1984. This equals <1% to ˜3% of the total nitrogen applied via commercial fertilizers and represents <1% to 15% of the annual emission of N2O from terrestrial sources. Assuming that the ˜4% annual increase in consumption of nitrogenous fertilizers during the 1980s corresponds to a ˜4% rise in the release of N2O-N, yearly increases in emissions from fertilizer use are <0.01 to 0.08 Tg N2O-N equal to <1% to 3% of the current growth of atmospheric nitrous oxide. However, since no measurements of fertilizer-derived nitrous oxide emissions are available for agricultural environments in the tropics/subtropics, where ˜40% of fertilizer N is consumed and where consumption is increasing rapidly, relative contributions of climatic regions to current and future emissions remain uncertain. Ammonia emission coefficients for simple groups of fertilizer types were applied to derive the global distribution of ammonia volatilization associated with nitrogenous fertilizer consumption. The 1984 total of ˜5-7 Tg NH3-N, about 10-15% of the annual ammonia source, is concentrated overwhelmingly in subtropical Asia owing to the dominant use of urea with high rates of volatilization. However, the paucity of measurements in representative ecological and management environments suggests that the magnitude and distribution of current and future ammonia emission from fertilizers is still poorly known.

Matthews, Elaine

1994-12-01

330

Application of Artificial Neural Networks and Chaos in Chemical Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An artificial neural network (ANN) and chaos, conceived and developed independently, are beginning to play essential roles in chemical engineering. Nonetheless, the ANN possesses an appreciable number of deficiencies that need be remedied, and the capability of the ANN to explore and tame chaos or an irregularly behaving system is yet to be fully realized. The present dissertation attempts to make substantial progress toward such ends. The problem of controlling the temperature of an industrial reactor carrying out semibatch polymerization has been solved by an innovative adaptive hybrid control system comprising an ANN and fuzzy expert system (FES) complemented by two supervisory ANN's. The system enhances the strength and compensates for the weaknesses of both the ANN and FES. The system, named dual ANN (DANN), has been proposed for characterizing the nonlinear nature of chaotic time -series data. Its capability to approximate the behavior of a chaotic system has been found to far exceed that of a conventional ANN. A novel approach has been devised for training an ANN through the modified interactive training (MIT) mode. This mode of training has been demonstrated to substantially outperform a conventional interactive training (CIT) mode. A method has been established for synchronizing chaos by resorting to an ANN. This method is capable of causing to be coherent the trajectories of systems whose deterministic governing equations are insufficiently known. This requires training the ANN with a time series and a common driving signal or signals. Examples are given for chaos generated by difference as well as differential equations. An alternative to the OGY method has been proposed for controlling chaos; it meticulously perturbs an accessible parameter of the chaotic system. A single, highly precise ANN suffices to render stable any of an infinite number of unstable periodic orbits embedded in a chaotic or strange attractor. A method for estimating sub-Lyapunov exponents or conditional Lyapunov exponents is presented; it has been developed by exploiting the learning capability of an ANN. For some chaotic systems, the sub-Lyapunov exponents determined by the method are in good accord with the theoretical values.

Otawara, Kentaro

1995-01-01

331

Chemical Applications of a Programmable Image Acquisition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image analysis is widely used in chemistry, both for rapid qualitative evaluations using techniques such as thin layer chromatography (TLC) and for quantitative purposes such as well-plate measurements of analyte concentrations or fragment-size determinations in gel electrophoresis. This paper describes a programmable system for image acquisition and processing that is currently used in the laboratories of our organic and physical chemistry courses. It has also been used in student research projects in analytical chemistry and biochemistry. The potential range of applications is illustrated by brief presentations of four examples: (1) using well-plate optical transmission data to construct a standard concentration absorbance curve; (2) the quantitative analysis of acetaminophen in Tylenol and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin using TLC with fluorescence detection; (3) the analysis of electrophoresis gels to determine DNA fragment sizes and amounts; and, (4) using color change to follow reaction kinetics. The supplemental material in JCE Online contains information on two additional examples: deconvolution of overlapping bands in protein gel electrophoresis, and the recovery of data from published images or graphs. The JCE Online material also presents additional information on each example, on the system hardware and software, and on the data analysis methodology.

Ogren, Paul J.; Henry, Ian; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Kelly, Ian

2003-06-01

332

Phyto-chemical and pharmacological applications of Berberis aristata.  

PubMed

In the recent years, the interest and research in medicinal plants have increased in a great deal. Ayurvedic medicines and formulations developed from ancient Indian herbal systems are renowned for their various important applications. Berberis aristata - an Indian medicinal plant, which belongs to the family Berberidaceae is an ayurvedic herb used since ancient times. It is also known as Indian berberi, Daruharidra, Daruhaldi, Darvi and Chitra. The plant is useful as anti-pyretic, anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-lipidemic agent. B. aristata extracts and its formulations are also useful in the treatment of diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, gynaecological disorders, HIV-AIDS, osteoporosis, diabetes, eye and ear infections, wound healing, jaundice, skin diseases and malarial fever. This review aims to highlight the ethnobotany, pharmacognosy and pharmacological uses of B. aristata which will give insights in developing potentially new bioactives from the plant scaffolds. This review will also highlight the patenting trends, the new compositions developed using the actives from B. aristata and the different assignees involved in filing patents. PMID:22808523

Potdar, Dipti; Hirwani, R R; Dhulap, Sivakami

2012-07-01

333

Role, metabolism, chemical modifications and applications of hyaluronan.  

PubMed

Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) is a linear naturally occurring polysaccharide formed from repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate. Despite its relatively simple structure, HA is an extraordinarily versatile glycosaminoglycan currently receiving attention across a wide front of research areas. It has a very high molar mass, usually in the order of millions of Daltons, and possesses interesting visco-elastic properties based on its polymeric and polyelectrolyte characteristics. HA is omnipresent in the human body and in other vertebrates, occurring in almost all biological fluids and tissues, although the highest amounts of HA are found in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues. HA is involved in several key processes, including cell signaling, wound repair and regeneration, morphogenesis, matrix organization and pathobiology. Clinically, it is used as a diagnostic marker for many disease states including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, liver pathologies, and as an early marker for impending rejection following organ transplantation. It is also used for supplementation of impaired synovial fluid in arthritic patients, following cataract surgery, as a filler in cosmetic and soft tissue surgery, as a device in several surgical procedures, particularly as an anti-adhesive following abdominal procedures, and also in tissue engineering. This review will provide an overview of the structure and physiological role of HA, as well as of its biomedical and industrial applications. Recent advances in biotechnological approaches for the preparation of HA-based materials, and as a component of tissue scaffolding for artificial organs will also be presented. PMID:19442142

Volpi, Nicola; Schiller, Juergen; Stern, Robert; Soltés, Ladislav

2009-01-01

334

Development and Applications of Quantitative X - Microscopy with Chemical Sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray microscopy has been developed to image biological samples with a resolution intermediate between visible light and electron microscopes. Interest in distinguishing different molecules using x-ray microscopy has motivated the effort to combine x-ray microscopy with x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES). This thesis includes three projects. The major part concerns the development and applications of XANES microscopy to quantitatively map DNA and proteins. The two other parts are image formation and image contrast enhancement through deconvolution and the use of carbon-XANES to study soft x-ray irradiation induced chemistry in PMMA (a widely used x-ray resist). For the major part of the thesis, XANES microscopy was applied to examine the content and distribution of DNA and protein in mature sperm cells. Sperm nuclei from five different species of mammals were examined, species chosen for analysis because their sperm contains markedly different proportion of protamine 1 and protamine 2 (which are the basic DNA packing proteins in sperm). This work provides new information about composition and structure of sperm chromatin by showing that the protein to DNA ratio in sperm nuclei is not strongly species dependent.

Zhang, Xiaodong

1995-01-01

335

Use and efficiency of a liquid nitrogen fertilizer on grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid nitrogen fertilizers are, per unit of N, generally cheaper than granulated ammonium nitrate because of lower production costs. Although very corrosive, the storage and handling of liquid nitrogen fertilizers does not usually present any problems. The applicability and efficiency of a commercial liquid nitrogen fertilizer (containing 39% N, half urea and half ammonium nitrate) on grassland was investigated in

L. Carlier; J. Baert; A. De Vliegher

1990-01-01

336

CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING  

SciTech Connect

Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of x-rays in high Z elements.

HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.

2001-08-01

337

Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.  

PubMed

To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments. PMID:21848295

Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

2011-08-25

338

Mechanical properties of chemical vapor deposited coatings for fusion reactor application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical vapor deposited coatings of TiBâ, TiC and boron on graphite substrates are being developed for application as limiter materials in magnetic confinement fusion reactors. In this application severe thermal shock conditions exist and to do effective thermo-mechanical modelling of the material response it is necessary to acquire elastic moduli, fracture strength, and strain to fracture data for the coatings.

A. W. Mullendore; J. B. Whitley; H. O. Pierson; D. M. Mattox

1981-01-01

339

Mechanical properties of chemical vapor deposited coatings for fusion reactor application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical vapor deposited coatings of TiBâ, TiC and boron on graphite substrates are being developed for application as limiter materials in magnetic confinement fusion reactors. In this application severe thermal shock conditions exist and to do effective thermo-mechanical modelling of the material response it is necessary to acquire elastic moduli, fracture strength and strain to fracture data for the coatings.

A. W. Mullendore; J. B. Whitley; H. O. Pierson; D. M. Mattox

1980-01-01

340

THE LONG-TERM VEGETABLE PRODUCTION EXPERIMENT: PLANT GROWTH AND SOIL FERTILITY COMPARISONS BETWEEN FERTILIZER AND COMPOST-AMENDED SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paired comparative study of compost versus conventionally-fertilized vegetable plots has been conducted for 11 years in a sandy loam soil near Truro, Nova Scotia; likely the longest study of its kind in Canada. The fertility treatments have been applied annually to six rotation plots planted with six to eight different vegetable crops. Compost and fertilizer applications have been based

P. R. Warman

341

Fertility awareness in the 1990s — the Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning, its scientific basis, practical application and effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early methods of natural family planning (calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, and symptothermal) are briefly mentioned and dismissed as unsatisfactory for fertility regulation at our present state of knowledge of female reproductive physiology. Cervical mucus patterns, which reflect ovarian hormone levels, are shown to be accurate markers of the fertile and infertile phases of a woman's menstrual cycle. Interpretation of

K. Hume

1991-01-01

342

Handheld hyperspectral imager system for chemical\\/biological and environmental applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small, hand held, battery operated imaging infrared spectrometer, Sherlock, has been developed by Pacific Advanced Technology and was field tested in early 2003. The Sherlock spectral imaging camera has been designed for remote gas leak detection, however, the architecture of the camera is versatile enough that it can be applied to numerous other applications such as homeland security, chemical\\/biological

Michele Hinnrichs; Bob Piatek

2004-01-01

343

Hand-held hyperspectral imager for chemical\\/biological and environmental applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small, hand held, battery operated imaging infrared spectrometer, Sherlock, has been developed by Pacific Advanced Technology and was field tested in early 2003. The Sherlock spectral imaging camera has been designed for remote gas leak detection, however, the architecture of the camera is versatile enough that it can be applied to numerous other applications such as homeland security, chemical\\/biological

Michele Hinnrichs; Bob Piatek

2004-01-01

344

COIL--Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser: advances in development and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advantageous features of Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) for laser technologies have increased considerably activities of international COIL communities during past ten years. They have been focused on the advanced concepts of hardware designs of the COIL subsystems, and testing and scaling-up of existing laser facilities. Prospective special applications of COIL technology, both civil and military, have received a significant attention

Jarmila Kodymova

2005-01-01

345

Chemical vapor deposition diamond window as vacuum and tritium confinement barrier for fusion application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure resistant polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond disk for a microwave window is used for a vacuum and a tritium confinement boundary in fusion applications. A pressure test of a CVD diamond window disk (2.25 mm in thickness and 100 mm in diameter) was carried out. It was demonstrated that the diamond window tolerated 1.0 MPa (10 atm)

K. Takahashi; K. Sakamoto; A. Kasugai; T. Imai; J. R. Brandon; R. S. Sussmann

2000-01-01

346

Statistical models for LWIR hyperspectral backgrounds and their applications in chemical agent detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote detection of chemical vapors in the atmosphere has a wide range of civilian and military applications. In the past few years there has been significant interest in the detection of effluent plumes using hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy in the 8-13mum atmospheric window. A major obstacle in the full exploitation of this technology is the fact that everything in the infrared

D. Manolakis; L. G. Jairam; D. Zhang; M. Rossacci

2007-01-01

347

Synthesis and applications of 2-aminopyrimidine derivatives as key intermediates in chemical synthesis of biomolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Published data on the main approaches to the formation of the heterocyclic 2-aminopyrimidine system, which is one of important pharmacophores responsible for the biological properties of its derivatives, are described systematically. Main chemical transformations of functionalized 2-aminopyrimidines and their application in the synthesis of modern pharmaceuticals are considered.

Koroleva, Elena V.; Gusak, K. N.; Ignatovich, Zh V.

2010-10-01

348

EFFECTS OF SOIL CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ON BERMUDAGRASS GROWTH RESPONSE TO BROILER LITTER APPLICATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In spite of the apparent importance of soil properties such as texture on availability of N and P, no study has attempted to quantitatively evaluate the effect of soil chemical and physical characteristics on the response of bermudagrass to broiler litter applications. Three soils from bermudagrass ...

349

Development of novel low temperature bonding technologies for microchip chemical analysis applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce two new low temperature bonding technologies for the assembly of microstructured glass substrates for the realisation of microchannels for miniaturised chemical analysis applications. A first method consists of a proper cleaning of the two glass surfaces, followed by a simple epoxy gluing process at 90°C. In a second method, direct bonding is obtained just by exposing the glass

A. Sayah; D. Solignac; T. Cueni; M. A. M. Gijs

2000-01-01

350

Electrode interfaces switchable by physical and chemical signals for biosensing, biofuel, and biocomputing applications.  

PubMed

This review outlines advances in designing modified electrodes with switchable properties controlled by various physical and chemical signals. Irradiation of the modified electrode surfaces with various light signals, changing the temperature of the electrolyte solution, application of a magnetic field or electrical potentials, changing the pH of the solutions, and addition of chemical/biochemical substrates were used to change reversibly the electrode activity. The increasing complexity in the signal processing was achieved by integration of the switchable electrode interfaces with biomolecular information processing systems mimicking Boolean logic operations, thus allowing activation and inhibition of electrochemical processes on demand by complex combinations of biochemical signals. The systems reviewed range from simple chemical compositions to complex mixtures modeling biological fluids, where the signal substrates were added at normal physiological and elevated pathological concentrations. The switchable electrode interfaces are considered for future biomedical applications where the electrode properties will be modulated by the biomarker concentrations reflecting physiological conditions. PMID:23143006

Katz, Evgeny; Minko, Segiy; Halámek, Jan; MacVittie, Kevin; Yancey, Kenneth

2012-11-10

351

Vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes by chemical assembly--methodology, properties, and applications.  

PubMed

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), as one of the most promising one-dimension nanomaterials due to its unique structure, peculiar chemical, mechanical, thermal, and electronic properties, have long been considered as an important building block to construct ordered alignments. Vertically aligned SWNTs (v-SWNTs) have been successfully prepared by using direct growth and chemical assembly strategies. In this review, we focus explicitly on the v-SWNTs fabricated via chemical assembly strategy. We provide the readers with a full and systematic summary covering the advances in all aspects of this area, including various approaches for the preparation of v-SWNTs using chemical assembly techniques, characterization, assembly kinetics, and electrochemical properties of v-SWNTs. We also review the applications of v-SWNTs in electrochemical and bioelectrochemical sensors, photoelectric conversion, and scanning probe microscopy. PMID:20437493

Diao, Peng; Liu, Zhongfan

2010-04-01

352

[Dynamics of upland field P pool under a long-term application of fertilizer P in yellow soil area and their effects on P concentration in runoff].  

PubMed

Studies on the dynamics of upland field P pool under a long-term application of fertilizer P in yellow soil area and their effects on P concentration in runoff showed that the contents of A1-P, Fe-P and Ca-P in soil cultivated layer increased greatly, and Olsen-P and algae-available P also accumulated obviously. The correlation coefficients of algae-available P content in the high-P soils (Olsen-P > 25 mg.kg-1) with the quantities of A1-P, Fe-P and Ca-P were 0.859**, 0.903** and 0.650*, respectively, of which, Fe-P was the most important. By a 30-min rainfall simulation experiment with a constant rainfall rate of 63.2 mm.h-1, the concentrations of dissolved reactive P and bio-available P in runoff from low-P upland fields (Olsen-P 4.62-15.9 mg.kg-1) were 2.81-4.17 micrograms.L-1 and 0.723-0.876 mg.L-1, respectively, whereas their concentrations in runoff from high-P upland fields (Olsen-P 29.4-59.2 mg.kg-1) were 0.026-0.714 mg.L-1 and 0.996-1.281 mg.L-1, respectively. Therefore, runoff from high-P upland fields could accelerate water eutrophication. PMID:12827870

Liu, Fang; Huang, Changyong; He, Tengbin; Qian, Xiaogang; Liu, Yuansheng; Luo, Haibo

2003-02-01

353

Chemical engineering applications on the MPP, Alliant FX/8 and Encore Multimax parallel computers  

SciTech Connect

The authors have begun to evaluate various parallel computers for use in chemical engineering applications. Their group is actively involved in the use of the following machines: The MPP, a 16,365 processor SIMD computer, at NASA/Goddard; the Encore Multimax, a bus connected 18 processor 54 MIPS computer; and the Alliant FX/8, a bus connected 8 processor, each with pipeline and integral vector processing facilities (98MFLOPS). They are performing a variety of applications including: a large scale three-dimensional coupled transport/chemistry model for analysis of acid deposition; the elucidation of the structural features of heparin, an important therapeutic anticoagulant; and the implementation of parallel algorithms for SIMPLEX optimization. Their results and experiences related to the applicability of these parallel architectures for use in solving chemical engineering problems is presented.

Carmichael, G.R.; Cohen, D.M.; Potra, F.; Marciano, R.; Shin, W.C.; Linhardt, R.J. (Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (USA))

1988-01-01

354

Fertilizer trends 1982  

SciTech Connect

Contents of this publication are as follows: TVA fertilizer program; the fertilizer market; trends in nutrient use; nitrogen; phosphate; potash; sulfur; Canada; North American production capacity data; and statistical sources and suggested references.

Bridges, J.D.

1983-01-01

355

The application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic\\/ pharmacodynamic (PBPK\\/PD) modeling for exploring risk assessment approaches of chemical mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

When dealing with health impacts of environmental or occupational exposure such as groundwater contamination from or remediation effort associated with hazardous waste sites, we are obviously not facing individual, single chemicals. Thus, we are immediately confronted with the following questions: (1) Is single chemical risk assessment approach applicable; to the multiple chemicals in hazardous waste sites? (2) How do we

Raymond S. H. Yang; Hisham A. El-Masri; Russell S. Thomas; Alexander A. Constan; John D. Tessari

1995-01-01

356

Fertilizers in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review encompasses results of fertilization experiments on several agroforestry systems—alley cropping, perennial shade systems, home gardens—in which fertilizer use is a likely management alternative. Fertilizer response was found to be most common in alley cropping, variable in perennial shade systems, and rarely reported in home gardens. Level of nutrient removal in harvested products is probably the overriding factor in

L. T. Szott; D. C. L. Kass

1993-01-01

357

Literature Review of Soil Fertility in the West African Semi-Arid Tropics (WASAT).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increasing population pressure has forced many farmers in the West African semiarid tropics to decrease, if not eliminate, fallow periods and rely on chemical fertilizer in order to maintain soil fertility. Under intensive and continuous cropping, nutrien...

L. Schaber

1985-01-01

358

Short-Term Irrigation Level Effects on Residual Nitrate in Soil Profile and N Balance from Long-Term Manure and Fertilizer Applications in the Arid Areas of Northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of long-term applications of fertilizers and manure (1982 to 2003) and short-term irrigation level (2002 and 2003) on accumulation of nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) in soil at Zhangye Oasis, China. The treatments included manure (M) and no manure (M0) as main plots; check (Ck), nitrogen (N), nitrogen + phosphorus (NP), and nitrogen

Sheng-Mao Yang; Ping Wang; Dong-Rang Suo; S. S. Malhi; Yi Chen; Yong-Jie Guo; Sheng-Zhe E; Da-Wei Zhang

2011-01-01

359

APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS  

SciTech Connect

The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach

2001-05-01

360

Chemically amplified thick film i-line positive resist for electroplating and redistribution applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adapting chemically amplified (CA) resist technology to thick film applications is demonstrated in this paper over a wide range of thicknesses and types of substrates. Substantial performance differences were observed over copper (Cu) substrates compared to silicon (Si). These differences are attributed to different photo acid generator (PAG) distribution in the resist depth influenced by its structure and the nature of the substrate. Optimized resist formulations were developed to provide acceptable performance on Cu wafers. A family of new chemically amplified thick film resist products is being introduced to the market. This technology offers significant advantages in throughput and performance over conventional novolak / diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ) products at a competitive cost.

Toukhy, Medhat; Mullen, Salem; Paunescu, Margareta; Chen, Chunwei; Meyer, Stephen; Pawlowski, Georg; Murakami, Yoshio; Hamel, Clifford

2006-03-01

361

APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS  

SciTech Connect

The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May

2000-04-01

362

Applicability of chemically modified capillaries in chiral capillary electrophoresis for methamphetamine profiling.  

PubMed

We examined the applicability of chemically modified capillaries on the chiral capillary electrophoresis of essential compounds for methamphetamine (MA) profiling (MA, amphetamine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, norephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine) using highly sulfated ?-cyclodextrin as a chiral selector. Four types of chemically modified capillaries, namely, FunCap-CE/Type D (possessing diol groups), Type A (amino groups), Type C (carboxyl groups), and Type S (sulfate groups), were evaluated. Repeatability, speed, and good chiral resolution sufficient for routine MA profiling were achieved with the Type S capillary. PMID:23422168

Iwata, Yuko T; Mikuma, Toshiyasu; Kuwayama, Kenji; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki

2013-02-16

363

MORPHOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED SLUDGE AMENDED NIGERIAN SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sewage sludge application to agricultural lands is one way to address the high demand for and low supply of commercial fertilizers in Nigeria. This study was conducted to determine the changes in morphological and chemical properties of a sludge-amended soil. Two pedons on a 5-ha sewage farm and o...

364

Manure and Commercial Fertilizer Nutrients Relative to Cropland and Pasture Requirements: Is the Pollution Risk Growing on Corn\\/Livestock Farms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent trends in livestock concentration in major corn producing states suggest that increasing risk of water pollution from manure applications may be offsetting declines in risk of water pollution from chemical fertilizer. Analysis of data from ARMS surveys found that potential excess nitrogen and phosphorous per corn acre increases sharply between 1996 and 2001 when manure nutrient credits are included.

Richard F. Nehring; Lee A. Christensen; Erik J. ODonoghue; Carmen L. Sandretto

2003-01-01

365

EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZER REGIMES ON THE GROWTH OF HOPEA ODORATA ESTABLISHED FOR ORNAMENTAL PURPOSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fertilizer experiment was carried out to determine the effect of different fertilizer regimes on the growth of H. odorata planted for urban landscape at the New Klang Valley Expressway (NKVE). Different fertilizer regimes were used as treatment, comprised two types of fertilizer; inorganic and organic, two nitrogen rates ; 75 g and 150 g and two frequencies of application;

M. N. Ahmad Azaruddin; Y. Adzmi; M. Adnan; M. S. Mustafa Kamal; R. Mohd Fauzi; A. R. Anuar

366

Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light,...

A. Chakrabarti A. Stoecker H. Schatten

1995-01-01

367

Induction of a mutation in the male fertility gene of the preferentially transmitted Aegilops sharonensis chromosome 4S1 and its application for hybrid wheat production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat plants nullisomic for chromosome 4B are male sterile due to the absence of the male fertility gene Ms1. However, plants in which chromosome 4B has been substituted by the preferentially transmitted chromosome 4S1 of Ae. sharonensis are male fertile due to the compensating effect of Ms4 on the alien chromosome. This substitution line has been mutated and three recessive

I. P. King; R. M. D. Koebner; S. M. Reader; T. E. Miller

1991-01-01

368

Commercial fertilizers 1992  

SciTech Connect

Fertilizer consumption information in the USA for 1992 submitted by state regulatory officials is presented. This includes total sales or shipments for farm and non-farm use. Liming materials were excluded. Materials used for manufacture or blending of reported fertilizers or for use in other fertilizers are excluded to avoid double-counting. The consumption of multiple-nutrient and single-nutrient fertilizers is listed. Dry bulk, fluid, and bagged classes are given. Typical fertilizers include: anhydrous ammonia, aqua ammonia, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium nitrates, ammonium sulfates, phosphoric acid, superphosphates, potassium chlorides, and potassium sulfates.

Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

1992-12-01

369

Assortative fertilization in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The concept of gametic isolation has its origins in the 1937 edition of T. Dobzhansky's Genetics and the Origin of Species. Involving either positive assortative fertilization (as opposed to self-incompatibility) or negative assortative fertilization, it occurs after mating but prior to fertilization. Gametic isolation is generally subsumed under either prezygotic or postmating isolation and thus has not been the subject of extensive investigation. Examples of assortative fertilization in Drosophila are reviewed and compared with those of other organisms. Potential mechanisms leading to assortative fertilization are discussed, as are their evolutionary implications. PMID:9223260

Markow, T A

1997-07-22

370

USE OF THE FUNGICIDE CARBENDAZIM AS A MODEL COMPOUND TO DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF ACUTE CHEMICAL EXPOSURE DURING OOCYTE MATURATION AND FERTILIZATION ON PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN THE HAMSTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Here we use a hamster animal model to identify early pregnancy loss due to an acute chemical exposure to the female during the perifertilization interval. The fungicide carbendazim (methyl 1H-benzimidazole-2-carbamate), a microtubule poison with antimitotic activity, was selected...

371

Applications of computational fluid dynamics to HF chemical laser nozzle design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a specialized predictive tool employing CFD techniques for the analysis of chemical laser nozzle and cavity flow fields is traced. A brief background of the general-purpose PARCH Navier-Stokes field solver is provided, as well as some details of the steps taken to specialize PARCH for chemical laser applications, and flow field predictions of the hypersonic-low-temperature (HYLTE) chemical laser nozzle and cavity. The convergence of the solution of the complete problem is facilitated by an overlapping zonal approach, which was very effective in obtaining separate converged solutions in each of the four zones (transonic-nozzle-throat, supersonic-nozzle, injector, and cavity) employed. Results from the four zones are presented as selected line plots and color-filled contour plots for temperature, velocity, concentration, and other flow properties.

Long, J.; Smith, W.; Acebal, R.; Sinha, N.; Duncan, W. A.

1991-06-01

372

Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients.  

PubMed

Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age. PMID:23866841

van Erven, Britt; Gubbels, Cynthia S; van Golde, Ron J; Dunselman, Gerard A; Derhaag, Josien G; de Wert, Guido; Geraedts, Joep P; Bosch, Annet M; Treacy, Eileen P; Welt, Corrine K; Berry, Gerard T; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela

2013-07-16

373

Wet Chemical Synthesis and Screening of Thick Porous Oxide Films for Resistive Gas Sensing Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of wet chemical synthesis suitable for high throughput and combinatorial applications has been developed for the synthesis of porous resistive thick- film gas sensors. This method is based on the robot-controlled application of unstable metal oxide suspensions on an array of 64 inter-digital electrodes positioned on an Al2O3 substrate. SnO2, WO3, ZrO2, TiO2, CeO2, In2O3 and Bi2O3 were

Gerald Frenzer; Andreas Frantzen; Daniel Sanders; Ulrich Simon; Wilhelm F. Maier

2006-01-01

374

[Advances on investigation of chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Capparis spinosa].  

PubMed

In this paper, the chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Capparis spinosa had been reviewed. The constituents of C. spinosa include the saccharides and glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and volatile oils, fatty acids and steroides and so on. C. spinosa had many extensive pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, odynolysis, antifungus, hepatoprotective effect, hypoglycemic activity, antioxidation, anti-hyperlipemia, anticoagulated blood, smooth muscle stimulation, anti-stress reaction, improve memory. It was used to treat arthrolithiasis, rheumarthritis and dermatosis in clinic in domestic, and it would have a broad application prospects. PMID:19149246

Yang, Tao; Liu, Yu-Qing; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

2008-11-01

375

Development of bismuth tellurium selenide nanoparticles for thermoelectric applications via a chemical synthetic process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bismuth tellurium selenide (Bi2TeySe3?y) nanoparticles for thermoelectric applications are successfully prepared via a water-based chemical reaction under atmospheric conditions. The nanostructured compound is prepared using a complexing agent (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and a reducing agent (ascorbic acid) to stabilize the bismuth precursor (Bi(NO3)3) in water and to favor the reaction with reduced sources of tellurium and selenium. The resulting powder is

Cham Kim; Dong Hwan Kim; Yoon Soo Han; Jong Shik Chung; SangHa Park; Hoyoung Kim

2011-01-01

376

Total-Internal-Reflection Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sensing platforms based on the principle of total internal reflection (TIR) represent a fairly mature yet still expanding\\u000a and exciting field of research. Sensor development has mainly been driven by the need for rapid, stand-alone, automated devices\\u000a for application in the fields of clinical diagnosis and screening, food and water safety, environmental monitoring, and chemical\\u000a and biological warfare agent detection.

Kim E. Sapsford

377

Graph-Based Induction for General Graph Structured Data and Its Application to Chemical Compound Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the relations are represented by a graph structure, e.g., chemical bonding, Web browsing record, DNA sequence, Inference\\u000a pattern (program trace), to name a few. Thus, efficiently finding characteristic substructures in a graph will be a useful\\u000a technique in many important KDD\\/ML applications. However, graph pattern matching is a hard problem. We propose a machine learning\\u000a technique called Graph-

Takashi Matsuda; Tadashi Horiuchi; Hiroshi Motoda; Takashi Washio

2000-01-01

378

Nanomechanical resonators and their applications in biological\\/chemical detection: Nanomechanics principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) such as nanomechanical resonators, which have recently received significant attention from the scientific community. This is not only due to their capability of label-free detection of bio\\/chemical molecules at single-molecule (or atomic) resolution for future applications such as the early diagnosis of diseases like cancer, but also

Kilho Eom; Harold S. Park; Dae Sung Yoon; Taeyun Kwon

2011-01-01

379

Long-period gratings in optical fibres for chemical sensor applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of long-period fibre grating (LPG) parameters and their mutual dependences are presented. LPGs were studied and optimized specifically for chemical sensor applications. It was found that absorption by the fibre cladding of some environmental gases, such as oxygen or water vapour, may result in a false signal generation. The principal limitation of the sensor sensitivity is connected to the longitudinal homogeneity of the fibre refractive indices.

Peshko, Igor; Cherry, Owen; Rutkevich, Tim; Hockley, Bernard; Rubtsov, Vladimir

2005-11-01

380

Application of toxicokinetics to improve chemical risk assessment: implications for the use of animals.  

PubMed

While toxicokinetics has become an integral part of pharmaceutical safety assessment over the last two decades, its use in the chemical industry is relatively new. However, it is recognised as a potentially important tool in human health risk assessment and recent initiatives have advocated greater application of toxicokinetics as part of an improved assessment strategy for crop protection chemicals that could offer greater efficiency, use fewer animals and provide better data for risk assessment purposes. To explore the potential scientific and animal welfare benefits of increased use of toxicokinetic data across the chemical industry, an international workshop was held in 2008. Experts from a wide range of chemical industry sectors, including industrial chemicals, agrochemicals and consumer products, participated in the meeting as well as representatives from relevant regulatory authorities. Pharmaceutical industry experts were also invited, in order to share experiences from the extensive use of toxicokinetics in drug development. Given that increased generation of toxicokinetic data could potentially result in an increased number of animals undergoing testing, technologies and strategies to reduce and refine animal use for this purpose were also considered. This paper outlines and expands upon the key themes that emerged from the workshop. PMID:19665509

Creton, Stuart; Billington, Richard; Davies, Will; Dent, Matthew P; Hawksworth, Gabrielle M; Parry, Simon; Travis, Kim Z

2009-08-07

381

Long-Term Effect of Organic and Mineral Fertilization on Soil Physical Properties Under Greenhouse and Outdoor Management Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the use of organic amendments as an alternative to conventional fertilization, a 10-year experiment on a loam soil was conducted under a crop rotation system in both greenhouse and outdoor plots applied with chemical fertilizers (NPK) and vegetal compost (organic fertilizer) in the Guadalquivir River Valley, Spain. The effect of these two different fertilization regimes on the soil

J. F. HERENCIA; P. A. GARCÍA-GALAVÍS; C. MAQUEDA

2011-01-01

382

Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known

R. Haffenden; T. Kimmell

2002-01-01

383

DERMAL ABSORPTION OF CHEMICALS: EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL AS A SOLID, AQUEOUS PASTE, SUSPENSION OR IN VOLATILE VEHICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to investigate the dermal absorption of chemicals applied to female F344 rats in different physical forms. hese forms included chemical as a solid, aqueous paste, suspension or dissolved in the volatile vehicle ethanol. he chemicals investigated were...

384

Streptavidin-biotin technology: improvements and innovations in chemical and biological applications.  

PubMed

Streptavidin and its homologs (together referred to as streptavidin) are widely used in molecular science owing to their highly selective and stable interaction with biotin. Other factors also contribute to the popularity of the streptavidin-biotin system, including the stability of the protein and various chemical and enzymatic biotinylation methods available for use with different experimental designs. The technology has enjoyed a renaissance of a sort in recent years, as new streptavidin variants are engineered to complement native proteins and novel methods of introducing selective biotinylation are developed for in vitro and in vivo applications. There have been notable developments in the areas of catalysis, cell biology, and proteomics in addition to continued applications in the more established areas of detection, labeling and drug delivery. This review summarizes recent advances in streptavidin engineering and new applications based on the streptavidin-biotin interaction. PMID:24057405

Dundas, Christopher M; Demonte, Daniel; Park, Sheldon

2013-09-22

385

Fertilizer caking: Mechanisms, influential factors, and methods of prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most fertilizers have some tendency to form lumps or agglomerates (caking) during storage. The mechanism of caking in fertilizers is most often attributed to the formation of salt bridges and\\/or capillary adhesion. The severity of caking can be influenced by a number of factors, such as chemical composition, moisture content, particle structure, mechanical strength, hygroscopic properties, product temperature, ambient conditions,

D. W. Rutland

1991-01-01

386

Medical Drugs Impairing Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human being is one of the least fertile among the mammals, despite the alarming scene of global overpopulation. Human\\u000a fertility is certainly on the decline. There are several historical, demographic, geographic, social, genetic and environmental\\u000a factors contributing to the decline. Medical drugs do contribute to a decline in the fertility of some couples. Iatrogenic\\u000a causes of medical illness are

N. Pandiyan

387

Fertilization in echinoderms.  

PubMed

For more than 150 years, echinoderm eggs have served as overly favored experimental model systems in which to study fertilization. Sea urchin and starfish belong to the same phylum and thus share many similarities in their fertilization patterns. However, several subtle but fundamental differences do exist in the fertilization of sea urchin and starfish, reflecting their phylogenetic bifurcation approximately 500 million years ago. In this article we review some of the seminal and recent findings that feature similarities and differences in sea urchin and starfish at fertilization. PMID:22925679

Santella, Luigia; Vasilev, Filip; Chun, Jong T

2012-08-31

388

Proximate determinants of fertility in peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

The continuing decline in fertility despite a contraction in contraceptive use in Peninsular Malaysia since the mid-1980s has triggered considerable interest in the reasons behind this phenomenon, such as increase in abortion, sterility, and out-of-wedlock pregnancy. Fertility decline has been attributed to rapid socioeconomic development, which can only influence fertility through the intermediate variables. Application of vital statistics, population census, and survey data of Peninsular Malaysia on Bongaarts's model vindicates that marriage postponement and contraceptive use are the 2 most important proximate determinants of fertility, but the effects are not uniform across the ethnic groups. For instance, the predicted total fertility rate for Chinese and Malays are 2.9 and 1.6, respectively, compared with the observed level of 3.0 and 1.9. Postpartum infecundability and abortion also play a part in explaining ethnic fertility differentials. The fertility inhibiting effects of these proximate determinants have significant implications on reproductive health and future population growth. PMID:21490114

Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho; Yew, Siew Yong

2011-04-13

389

Chemical applications of laser- and sympathetically-cooled ions in ion traps.  

PubMed

Ensembles of cold atomic and molecular ions in ion traps prepared at millikelvin temperatures by laser and sympathetic cooling have recently found considerable interest in both physics and chemistry. At very low temperatures the ions form ordered structures in the trap also known as "Coulomb crystals". Ion Coulomb crystals exhibit a range of intriguing properties which render them attractive systems for novel experiments in chemical dynamics, ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy and quantum-information processing. In this article we review the methods used to prepare atomic and molecular ion Coulomb crystals and discuss some recent studies in mass spectrometry, low-temperature chemistry and precision spectroscopy to illustrate their scientific potential for chemical applications. Finally, we conclude with an outlook on outstanding challenges and prospective further developments in the field. PMID:19060963

Willitsch, Stefan; Bell, Martin T; Gingell, Alexander D; Softley, Timothy P

2008-10-22

390

Synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of a polysialate-hydroxyapatite composite for potential biomedical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New composite materials based on aluminosilicate materials were developed to be used in orthopaedic or maxillo-facial surgery. They are called geopolymers or polysialate-siloxo (PSS) and were studied alone or mixed with hydroxyapatite (HAP). The properties of these materials were investigated for potential use in biological or surgery applications. In this work, the chemistry involved in materials preparation was described. Samples were characterized by some physico-chemical methods like X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrometry (IR) and electron dispersion X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Results indicate that the mixing hydroxyapatite-geopolymer (PSS) leads to a neutral porous composite material with interesting physico-chemical properties. A preliminary evaluation of its cytotoxicity reveals an harmlessness towards fibroblasts. These properties allow to envisage this association as a potential biomaterial.

Zoulgami, M.; Lucas-Girot, A.; Michaud, V.; Briard, P.; Gaudé, J.; Oudadesse, H.

2002-09-01

391

Ultra-Spatial Synchrotron Radiation for Imaging Molecular Chemical Structure: Applications in Plant and Animal Studies  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive, bioanalytical technique. This technique takes advantage of synchrotron light brightness and small effective source size and is capable of exploring the molecular chemical features and make-up within microstructures of a biological tissue without destruction of inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions within cellular dimension. To date there has been very little application of this advanced synchrotron technique to the study of plant and animal tissues' inherent structure at a cellular or subcellular level. In this article, a novel approach was introduced to show the potential of the newly developed, advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to reveal molecular structural-chemical features of various plant and animal tissues.

Yu,P.

2007-01-01

392

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Rainer Wallny

2012-10-15

393

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2013, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Harris Kagan; K.K. Gan; Richard Kass

2009-03-31

394

Fluorescent tracer evaluation of chemical protective clothing during pesticide applications in central Florida citrus groves.  

PubMed

Chemical protective clothing (CPC) is often recommended as a method of exposure mitigation among pesticide applicators. This study evaluated four CPC regimens (cotton work shirts and work pants, cotton/polyester coveralls, and two non-woven garments) during 33 airblast applications of the organophosphorus insecticide ethion in central Florida citrus groves. CPC performance was determined by measurement of fluorescent tracer deposition on skin surfaces beneath garments with a video imaging analysis instrument (VITAE system), and by alpha-cellulose patches placed outside and beneath the garments. Non-woven coveralls allowed significantly greater exposure than did traditional woven garments, primarily because of design factors (e.g., large sleeve and neck openings). The greatest exposure occurred on the forearms beneath the non-woven garments. Fabric penetration was detected for all test garments; 5% to 7% of the ethion measured outside the garments was found beneath the garments. The clothing materials tested were not chemically resistant under these field conditions. Exposurepathways that would probably be undetected by the patch technique were characterized effectively with fluorescent tracers and video imaging analysis. However, the patch technique was more sensitive in detecting fabric penetration. CPC garments have been improved since this study was conducted, but performance testing under field conditions is not widespread. Workers conducting airblast applications would be better protected by closed cab systems or any technology that places an effective barrier between the worker and the pesticide spray. PMID:12363182

Fenske, R A; Birnbaum, S G; Methner, M M; Lu, C; Nigg, H N

2002-08-01

395

Expanding the applicability of multimedia fate models to polar organic chemicals.  

PubMed

Reliable estimates of environmental phase partitioning are essential for accurate predictions of the environmental fate of organic chemicals. Current fate and transport models use single-parameter linear free energy relationships (SP-LFERs) to quantify equilibrium phase partitioning. The applicability of such SP-LFERs is limited because no single parameter is able to describe appropriately all the molecular interactions that contribute to environmental phase distribution processes. Environmental partitioning coefficients predicted by SP-LFERs may thus have errors of up to an order of magnitude. Ranges for several environmental partitioning equilibria are identified, where such errors can result in significantly different fate predictions for individual bulk model compartments. We propose that it is possible to reduce such errors and uncertainties by implementing polyparametric LFER (PP-LFER) approaches in multimedia fate models. A level III fugacity model was modified such that the partitioning properties of chemicals are characterized by five linear solvation energy parameters rather than vapor pressure, water solubility, and octanol-water partition coefficient. A comparison of modified and unmodified models for a set of organic chemicals shows that the approach chosen to simulate environmental phase partitioning can have a large impact on model results, including long-range transport potential, overall persistence, and concentrations in various media. It is argued that PP-LFER based environmental fate models are applicable to a much wider range of organic substances, in particular those with polar functional groups. Obstacles to the full implementation of PP-LFER in multimedia fate models are currently the lack of solute descriptors for some chemicals of environmental concern and suitable regression equations for some important environmental phase equilibria, in particular for the partitioning between gas and particle phase in the atmosphere. PMID:14620821

Breivik, Knut; Wania, Frank

2003-11-01

396

Training Manual for Fertilizer Plant Operators.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the manual is to assist in the training of fertilizer plant operators in the developing countries. It is an effort to share with the chemical industries in these countries experience that has been obtained over many years of operation at th...

1970-01-01

397

FATE AND TRANSFORMATION OF FERTILIZERS IN SOILS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilizers when applied to soil are transformed into chemical species that differ substantially from their original form. These transformations ultimately affect the efficiency of crop uptake and can have significant environmental impact. In this review, we provide ...

398

Environmental impact assessment of agricultural production systems using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology II. The application to N fertilizer use in winter wheat production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the environmental impact of different nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates in winter wheat production by using a new life cycle assessment (LCA) method, which was specifically tailored to crop production. The wheat production system studied was designed according to “good agricultural practice”. Information on crop yield response to different N rates was taken from a long-term field trial

F Brentrup; J Küsters; J Lammel; P Barraclough; H Kuhlmann

2004-01-01

399

Effect of manure and fertilizer application on the distribution of organic carbon in different soil fractions in long-term field experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied soil organic carbon (SOC) pools using physical fractionation in two long-term arable field experiments in Hungary (Martonv´ asar and Keszthely), which started in 1950 and 1963, respectively (clay loam and loam soil). Replicate experimental plots of three different manure and fertilizer treatments and one unfertilized control object were sampled in March 2004 at both sites. Samples from all

Steven Sleutel; Stefaan De Neve; Tibor T ´ oth; Georges Hofman; Herman Otto

2006-01-01

400

Effects of Method and Level of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on Soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and Availability of Ammonium and Nitrate in Blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) require low soil pH and prefer N primarily as ammonium for optimum production. Nitrogen fertilizer methods and rates were evaluated in a new field of ‘Bluecrop’ blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) to determine their effects on soil pH and availability of ammonium and nit...

401

Application of quantum-chemical approximations to environmental problems: Prediction of physical and chemical properties of TNT and related species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents accurate predictions of ecologically important properties of nitroaromatic compounds and their derivatives, including vapor pressure, Henry’s law constants, water solubility, octanol\\/water partition coefficients, heats of formation and ionization potentials. The proposed technique of calculations was based on quantum-chemical methods. The relationship between the chemical structure and mentioned physico-chemical parameters of such widespread military produced contaminants as trinitrotoluene

Mohammad Qasim; Yana Kholod; Leonid Gorb; David Magers; Patricia Honea; Jerzy Leszczynski

2007-01-01

402

Application of Mixed Spin iMQCs for Temperature and Chemical-Selective Imaging  

PubMed Central

The development of accurate and non-invasive temperature imaging techniques has a wide variety of applications in fields such as medicine, chemistry and materials science. Accurate detection of temperature both in phantoms and in vivo can be obtained using iMQCs (intermolecular multiple quantum coherences), as demonstrated in a recent paper [1]. This paper describes the underlying theory of iMQC temperature detection, as well as extensions of that work allowing not only for imaging of absolute temperature but also for imaging of analyte concentrations through chemically selective spin density imaging.

Jenista, Elizabeth R.; Galiana, Gigi; Branca, Rosa T.; Yarmolenko, Pavel S.; Stokes, Ashley M.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Warren, Warren S.

2010-01-01

403

[Bio-based pharmaceutical polymers, possibility of their chemical modification and the applicability of modified polymers].  

PubMed

Different types of polymers are widely used in biomedical, pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes. Their applications are curbed, if the polymers can not break down by the body or if the polymer itself is harmful or decompose to harmful material. Authors provide an overview of different types of pharmaceutical polymers of various sources, of the structural characterization and possibilities of their chemical modification and of the classical and instrumental analytical examination methods. The paper deals with the limitations of the use of biopolymers, as well. PMID:23444721

Sebe, István; Szabó, Barnabás; Zelkó, Romána

2012-01-01

404

Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils  

SciTech Connect

Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

2003-03-06

405

Chemical vapor deposition of Ti-Si-N films for diffusion barrier applications  

SciTech Connect

Structurally disordered refractory ternary films such as titanium silicon nitride (Ti-Si-N) have potential as advanced diffusion barriers in future ULSI metallization schemes. The authors demonstrate chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of Ti-Si-N-containing films in a commercially available single-wafer CVD system using two different Ti precursors, TiCl{sub 4} and tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium (TDEAT). In particular, the TDEAT-based films can be grown conformally with low impurity content, and are promising candidates for advanced diffusion barrier applications.

Smith, P.M.; Custer, J.S.; Jones, R.V. [and others

1995-11-01

406

Performance of a compact, hybrid optical evanescent-wave sensor for chemical and biological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a hybrid evanescent-wave sensor component that we fabricated by using an integrated optical interferometer with a specially adapted photodetector array. The design of the interferometer is based on the use of tapered waveguides to obtain two intersecting collimated beams. Phase shifts can be measured with an angular precision of better than 10-3 rad, which corresponds to a superstrate index change inferior of 10-6 with our structure. The interest in the device as a chemical sensor is experimentally demonstrated. The same optical component could be used in a variety of other sensor applications, e.g., biological and immunological sensors.

Helmers, H.; Greco, Pierre; Benech, Pierre; Rustad, Rolf; Kherrat, Rochdi; Bouvier, Gérard

1996-02-01

407

New Developments in Fertilizer Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exhibits and descriptions are presented for granular fertilizers, fluid fertilizers, slow-release fertilizers, agronomic research, and some pilot-plant and plant demonstrations are described. (ERA citation 09:002539)

1983-01-01

408

Commercial fertilizers 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document contains consumption data for commercial fertilizers in the USA for 1991. Graphical information on the consumption by class is given for the nation. State by state data for consumption of several types of commercial fertilizers are presented. Only numerical data is included.

Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

1991-12-01

409

Fertilization in Fucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are described for the collection, treatment and uniform discharge of large quantities of gametes, and a measure of fertilization control in the monoecious brown alga, Fucus distichus. Fertilization was examined using the techniques of blister-formation, gamete separation experiments, and electron microscopy. Sperm enter the freshly-discharged egg packets through a mesochite pore and juxtaposition with the eggs early. However, experimental

Edward G. Pollock

1970-01-01

410

OPTIMIZING FRY POND FERTILIZATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pond fertilization practices for channel catfish fry are discussed, with recommendations made for improving zooplankton composition in earthen ponds. We suggest using only established ponds for fry culture, filling ponds 7-10 d before stocking, and applying inorganic fertilizer at an initial rate o...

411

Hispanic Adolescent Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge regarding the fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States is quite limited. This paper discusses the fertility of these adolescents and summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. As a group, Hispanic adolescents have birthrates that fall between those of non-Hispanic whites and blacks, but

Katherine F. Darabi; Joy Dryfoos; Dana Schwartz

1986-01-01

412

Fertility of American Men.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first report issued by the Census Bureau focusing on the fertility patterns of American men. Earlier studies on fertility published by the Bureau since the late 1940s have only analyzed data for women from either decennial censuses or fertilit...

A. Bachu

1996-01-01

413

Are Mules Fertile?  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN the Nuevo Mundo of Madrid for October 27 it is stated that a mule, belonging to Don Carlos Gimenez, of Argamasella de Calatrava, recently gave birth to a foal. From India, South Africa, and America reports have reached the writer about fertile mules, but in no single instance has the evidence of fertility been altogether satisfactory. In the present

J. C. Ewart

1910-01-01

414

R And D on a Fertilizer Sensor and Control System: Phase 1 Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes Phase 1 progress toward proving a new, energy-saving concept in agricultural practice - measuring in situ nitrogen fertilizer requirements and controlling the application of fertilizer as a result of that measurement. (ERA citation ...

J. Colburn

1986-01-01

415

Effects of soil aggregate size, moisture content and fertilizer management on nitrous oxide production in a volcanic ash soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory incubation study was conducted to determine the effects of soil aggregate size, soil moisture content and manure application on nitrous oxide (N2O) production through nitrification and denitrification. In Southern Hokkaido, soil samples were taken from a mineral soil layer (2.5–10?cm) of a grassland to which chemical fertilizer and manure had been applied. The soil aggregates were air-dried and

Farzana Diba; Mariko Shimizu; Ryusuke Hatano

2011-01-01

416

High-yield boron nitride nanosheets from 'chemical blowing': towards practical applications in polymer composites.  

PubMed

An improved 'chemical blowing' route presuming atmospheric-pressure pre-treatment and moderate heating rate of designated precursors was developed to synthesize ultra-thin boron nitride (BN) nanosheets with high yield and large lateral dimensions. The yield reached as high as 40 wt% with respect to raw materials (ammonia borane). The strong oxygen-related ultraviolet luminescence together with a blue emission of these BN nanosheets was then documented and analyzed. This implies potential applications in solid-state lighting, ultraviolet lasing and full-color luminescence. Mechanical strength of different polymeric composites with a small fraction of BN nanosheet fillers was dramatically increased by tens of per cent, while high transparency of composite materials was still maintained in the visible optical range. The increased yield and reduced cost of BN nanosheets should promote their wide practical applications in various composites. PMID:22820508

Wang, Xuebin; Pakdel, Amir; Zhi, Chunyi; Watanabe, Kentaro; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio

2012-07-20

417

The electrical properties of gold nanowires and their applications in chemical sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we explore the morphology dependent electrical behavior of gold nanowires and exploit these phenomena to develop robust, highly responsive gold nanowire sensors capable of detecting low concentrations of elemental and ionic mercury. The sensor design is straightforward; it consists of a single gold nanowire isolated between electrical contact pads. Accordingly, it is highly manufacturable, low power, and suitable for integration into sensor arrays. The nanosensor is based on electrical resistivity changes that arise upon adsorption of mercury onto gold surfaces. We demonstrate the advantages of the nanoscale design for this application and substantiate its use for other chemical detection applications. Though the gold-mercury system is reported here, the effects observed are universal and can be utilized in other metal-analyte combinations as well.

Keebaugh, Shawn

418

The OSHA and EPA programs on preventing chemical accidents and potential applications in the photovoltaic industry  

SciTech Connect

OSHA issued in 1992, the Process Safety Management (PSM) of Highly Hazardous Substances. This rule requires owners/operators of facilities that handle hazardous chemicals in quantities greater than the listed thresholds to establish all the elements of a PSM. EPA has issued in June 1996, the rules for a Risk Management Program which also refers to specific substances and threshold quantities. These rules are applicable to all the facilities that use or store any of 139 regulated substances at quantities ranging from 100 lb to 10,000 lb. The RMP rule covers off-site hazards, while the OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) rule covers worker safety issues within the plant boundary. Some of the listed substances may be found in photovoltaic manufacturing facilities. This brief report presents the basic elements of these two rules and discusses their potential applicability in the photovoltaic industry.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1996-08-01

419

Nitrogen leaching and plant uptake from controlled-release fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled-release N fertilizers are commonly used in the production of container-grown ornamental crops, yet the relative effects of various nutrient sources on N leaching are not well known. A 27-week experiment was conducted to evaluate N leaching loss and plant growth following two applications of six controlled-release N fertilizers and one soluble N fertilizer to container-grownEuonymus patens Rehd. The controlled-release

R. L. Mikkelsen; H. M. Williams; A. D. Behel Jr

1994-01-01

420

Chemical-protein interactome and its application in off-target identification.  

PubMed

Drugs exert their therapeutic and adverse effects by interacting with molecular targets. Although designed to interact with specific targets in a desirable manner, drug molecules often bind to unexpected proteins (off-targets). By activating or inhibiting off-targets and the associated biological processes and pathways, the resulting chemical-protein interactions can influence drug reaction directly or indirectly. Exploring the relationship between drug and off-targets and the downstream drug reaction can help understand the polypharmacology of the drug, hence significantly advance the drug repositioning pipeline and the application of personalized medicine in understanding and preventing adverse drug reaction. This review summarizes works on predicting off-targets via chemical-protein interactome (CPI), an interaction strength matrix of drugs across multiple human proteins aiming at exploring the unexpected drug-protein interactions, with a variety of computational strategies, including docking, chemical structure comparison and text-mining etc. Effective recall on previous knowledge, de novo prediction and subsequent experimental validation conferred us strong confidence in these methods. Such studies present prospect of large scale in silico methodologies for off-target discovery with low cost and high efficiency. PMID:21369884

Yang, Lun; Wang, Ke-Jian; Wang, Li-Shan; Jegga, Anil G; Qin, Sheng-Ying; He, Guang; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Yue; He, Lin

2011-03-03

421

The applications of machine learning algorithms in the modeling of estrogen-like chemicals.  

PubMed

Increasing concern is being shown by the scientific community, government regulators, and the public about endocrine-disrupting chemicals that, in the environment, are adversely affecting human and wildlife health through a variety of mechanisms, mainly estrogen receptor-mediated mechanisms of toxicity. Because of the large number of such chemicals in the environment, there is a great need for an effective means of rapidly assessing endocrine-disrupting activity in the toxicology assessment process. When faced with the challenging task of screening large libraries of molecules for biological activity, the benefits of computational predictive models based on quantitative structure-activity relationships to identify possible estrogens become immediately obvious. Recently, in order to improve the accuracy of prediction, some machine learning techniques were introduced to build more effective predictive models. In this review we will focus our attention on some recent advances in the use of these methods in modeling estrogen-like chemicals. The advantages and disadvantages of the machine learning algorithms used in solving this problem, the importance of the validation and performance assessment of the built models as well as their applicability domains will be discussed. PMID:19519328

Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun; Gramatica, Paola

2009-06-01

422

The potential applications of SOS-lux biosensors for rapid screening of mutagenic chemicals.  

PubMed

The environmental fate and potency of mutagenic compounds is of growing concern. This has necessitated the development and application of rapid assays to screen large numbers of samples for their genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Despite the development of biosensors for genotoxicity assessment, these have not been calibrated against traditional microbial bioassays. In this study, assays using the SOS-lux-marked microbial biosensors Escherichia coli K12C600 and E. coli DPD1718 were refined and optimised to screen selected mutagenic chemicals. The response of the biosensors was compared with the mutagenic response of the traditional Salmonella mutagenicity assay. For the chemicals tested (acridine, B[a]A, B[a]P, chrysene, mitomycin C and sodium azide), E. coli DPD1718 was consistently more sensitive than E. coli K12C600. The biosensors were of comparable sensitivity to the Salmonella assay but were more rapid, reproducible and easier to measure. These data validate the adoption of optimised assays making use of microbial biosensors for routine screening of test chemicals. PMID:23581454

Alhadrami, Hani A; Paton, Graeme I

2013-05-01

423

Application of Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) MRI for Endogenous Contrast at 7 Tesla.  

PubMed

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indirectly images exchangeable solute protons resonating at frequencies different than bulk water. These solute protons are selectively saturated using low bandwidth RF irradiation and saturation is transferred to bulk water protons via chemical exchange, resulting in an attenuation of the measured water proton signal. CEST MRI is an advanced MRI technique with wide application potential due to the ability to examine complex molecular contributions. CEST MRI at high field (7 Tesla [7 T]) will improve the overall results due to increase in signal, T1 relaxation time, and chemical shift dispersion. Increased field strength translates to enhanced quantification of the metabolite of interest, allowing more fundamental studies on underlying pathophysiology. CEST contrast is affected by several tissue properties, such as the concentrations of exchange partners and their rate of proton exchange, whose effects have been examined and explored in this review. We have highlighted the background of CEST MRI, typical implementation strategy, and complications at 7 T. PMID:23402307

Dula, Adrienne N; Smith, Seth A; Gore, John C

2013-02-12

424

Application of quantum-chemical approximations to environmental problems: Prediction of physical and chemical properties of TNT and related species.  

PubMed

This paper presents accurate predictions of ecologically important properties of nitroaromatic compounds and their derivatives, including vapor pressure, Henry's law constants, water solubility, octanol/water partition coefficients, heats of formation and ionization potentials. The proposed technique of calculations was based on quantum-chemical methods. The relationship between the chemical structure and mentioned physico-chemical parameters of such widespread military produced contaminants as trinitrotoluene and its derivatives was considered. We revealed that the DFT level of theory combined with the COSMO-RS technique is able to predict the studied parameters with an accuracy that results in error bars of less then one logarithmic unit. PMID:17512030

Qasim, Mohammad; Kholod, Yana; Gorb, Leonid; Magers, David; Honea, Patricia; Leszczynski, Jerzy

2007-05-23

425

Ecosystem-scale measurements of nitrous oxide fluxes for an intensely grazed, fertilized grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An eddy covariance (EC) system with a tunable diode laser trace gas analyzer was used in a field setting in Ireland to measure N2O emissions on a continuous basis over an eight-month period, spanning a range of seasonal conditions. Intensely-grazed grassland fields within the footprint area of the EC sensors were subject to chemical fertilizer and slurry applications in order to boost grassland yield, and the amounts of these applications were documented by the farmers on a monthly basis. Three major emission events, covering a timeframe of 16 days (6.6% of the measurement period) contributed to over half (51.1%) of the observed cumulative flux. Two of these events occurred during the summer, while the third occurred during the winter, with vastly different soil moisture and soil temperature conditions associated with these times of the year. The type of N applications (fertilizer vs. slurry), soil moisture and temperature status had implications for controlling the short-term rates of N2O emissions. Cumulative N2O emissions, however, were driven by fertilizer and slurry N applications, as the emission factor of approximately 3.0% displayed consistency throughout the eight-month period.

Scanlon, Todd M.; Kiely, Ger

2003-08-01

426

Influence of animal manure application on the chemical structures of soil organic matter as investigated by advanced solid-state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Annual application of cattle manure to a farmer's field in eastern Nebraska for 5 yr caused improved soil N and P supply and increased corn (Zea mays L.) yield in less productive portions of the field compared to another field treatment receiving the same amount of N as inorganic fertilizer. As a fi...

427

Effects of VA-mycorrhizal fungi on growth and nutrient uptake of cuttings of Rosa multiflora in two container media with three levels of fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooted cuttings ofRosa multiflora ‘Brooks 56’ were grown in a medium of 1 mineral soil: 1 sand (v\\/v) or bark: 1 sand (v\\/v) inoculated with the VA-mycorrhizal\\u000a (VAM) fungiGlomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe andG. fasciculatum (Thaxt. sensu Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe or left as noninoculated controls. The slow release fertilizer osmocote was applied\\u000a at rates of either

1987-01-01

428

Formation, Chemistry and Fertility of Extraterrestrial Soils: Cohesion, Water Adsorption and Surface Area of Carbonaceous Chondrite. Prebiotic and Space Resource Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following microbial and plant responses to Murchison CM2 meteorite nutrients, further soil fertility parameters are examined. Cohesion of the matrix is tested by dissolving in acidic disaggregation agents, 0.4 M CH_3COOH, 10% HNO_3, H_2SO_4 (pH 3), 50%H_2O_2+H_2SO_4 (pH 3), and saturated CO_2 solution. The responses suggest that carbonates and the organic polymer contribute as cementing agents, and that enhanced disaggregation

Michael N. Mautner

1999-01-01

429

Carbon sequestration and methane emission from a tropical rice field under intensive rice cultivation with long-term application of compost and inorganic fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of long-term intensive rice-rice cropping system with different managements on soil organic carbon content (SOC) and methane emission was studied using a 36-year-old fertility experiment under tropical climate. Intensive rice production systems are important sinks of carbon but at the same time these are the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4, a major greenhouse gas. A significant increase

D. R. Nayak; J. Yeluriapti; T. K. Adhya

2009-01-01

430

Distribution of acid extractable P and exchangeable K in a grassland soil as affected by long-term surface application of N, P and K fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information on the fate and distribution of surface-applied fertilizer P and K in soil is needed in order to assess their availability to plants and potential for water contamination. Distribution of extractable P (in 0.03 M NH4F + 0.03 M H2SO4 solution) and exchangeable K (in neutral 1.0 M ammonium acetate solution) in the soil as a result of selected

S. S. Malhi; J. T. Harapiak; R. Karamanos; K. S. Gill; N. Flore

2003-01-01

431

[A long-term field trial on fertilization and on use of recycled nutrients in farming systems IV. Soil fertility changes].  

PubMed

The fertility changes of soil under different fertilization treatments of a twelve years field trial indicated that the application of compost recycled in a farming system with appropriate amount of fertilizer applied to balance the soil nutrient budget, could not only produce higher crop yields and less surplus of nutrients into environment, but also improved soil fertility with significant increase of soil organic carbon and nitrogen in cultivated layer. However, maintaine higher soil available phosphorus, it was not sufficient just to balance the budget of soil phosphorus, and more phosphorus fertilizer application was needed. PMID:12624996

Zhang, Lu; Shen, Shanmin; Yu, Wantai

2002-11-01

432

Soil solution chemistry of sewage-sludge incinerator ash and phosphate fertilizer amended soil  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of the soil provides useful information on the feasibility of amending agricultural land with municipal and industrial waste, because the soil solution is the medium for most soil chemical reactions, the mobile phase in soils, and the medium for mineral adsorption by plant roots. The soil solutions studies in this research were from plots in a 4-yr field experiment conducted to evaluate the effects of the trace metals and P in sewage-sludge incinerator ash. Treatments compared ash with equivalent P rates from triple-superphosphate fertilizer and a control receiving no P application. Ash and phosphate fertilizer were applied annually at rates of 35, 70, and 140 kg citrate-soluble P ha{sup -1}. Cumulative ash applications during 4 yr amounted to 3.6, 7.2, and 14.4 Mg ash ha{sup -1}. Soil solutions were obtained by centrifugation-immiscible liquid displacement using a fluorocarbon displacing agent. Following chemical analysis, a chemical speciation model was used to determine possible solubility-controlling minerals for trace metals and P, and correlations between solution composition and plant uptake were analyzed. 37 refs., 5 tabs.

Bierman, P.M.; Rosen, C.J.; Bloom, P.R.; Nater, E.A. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-03-01

433

Conducting polymers on non-conducting substrates: Chemical coating processes and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation will be as follows: -Historical background -Oxidizing polymerization mechanism of heterocycles and aromatic compounds: the cases of pyrrole and anilin -The processes: solute, gas phase and from conducting polymer solutions -The substrates: glass, polymers, inorganic materials, textiles, powders. -Properties of coatings: -Chemical properties: redox, acid-base -Properties resulting from the polymer doping counter-ion -Physical properties: : optical, magnetic, conducting, microwave absorption -Stability -Applications: optics, microelectronics, sensors, electrochrome glasses, electromagnetic and antistatic shielding, military applications, packaging for electronic components, biocompat- ibility, plasturgy. -Commercial applications throughout the world. How to obtain these materials -Conclusions The examples will be taken from the results of our laboratory, those of CEA-Direction des Technologies Avancées-Centre d'Etudes et de Recherche sur les Matériaux-Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Grenoble (Mssrs R. Jolly and J. C. Thiéblemont), from the Milliken Research Corp. (Dr. H. H. Kuhn), from the Zipperlin Kessler company (Dr. B. Wessling), from the Americhem company and from I.B.M. (Dr. M. Angelopoulos).

Geniès, Eugène M.

1996-01-01

434

Conducting polymers on non-conducting substrates: Chemical coating processes and applications  

SciTech Connect

The presentation will be as follows: {emdash}Historical background {emdash}Oxidizing polymerization mechanism of heterocycles and aromatic compounds: the cases of pyrrole and anilin {emdash}The processes: solute, gas phase and from conducting polymer solutions {emdash}The substrates: glass, polymers, inorganic materials, textiles, powders. {emdash}Properties of coatings: {emdash}Chemical properties: redox, acid-base {emdash}Properties resulting from the polymer doping counter-ion {emdash}Physical properties: : optical, magnetic, conducting, microwave absorption {emdash}Stability {emdash}Applications: optics, microelectronics, sensors, electrochrome glasses, electromagnetic and antistatic shielding, military applications, packaging for electronic components, biocompat- ibility, plasturgy. {emdash}Commercial applications throughout the world. How to obtain these materials {emdash}Conclusions The examples will be taken from the results of our laboratory, those of CEA-Direction des Technologies Avanc{acute e}es{emdash}Centre d{close_quote}Etudes et de Recherche sur les Mat{acute e}riaux{emdash}Centre d{close_quote}Etudes Nucl{acute e}aires de Grenoble (Mssrs R. Jolly and J. C. Thi{acute e}blemont), from the Milliken Research Corp. (Dr. H. H. Kuhn), from the Zipperlin Kessler company (Dr. B. Wessling), from the Americhem company and from I.B.M. (Dr. M. Angelopoulos). {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Genies, E.M. [Laboratoire d`Electrochimie Moleculaire, Service d`Etude des Systemes et Architectures Moleculaires, Departement de Recherche Fondamentale sur la Matiere Condensee, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, 38054 Cedex 9, Grenoble (France)

1996-01-01

435

Nanomechanical resonators and their applications in biological/chemical detection: Nanomechanics principles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in nanotechnology have led to the development of nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) such as nanomechanical resonators, which have recently received significant attention from the scientific community. This is not only due to their capability of label-free detection of bio/chemical molecules at single-molecule (or atomic) resolution for future applications such as the early diagnosis of diseases like cancer, but also due to their unprecedented ability to detect physical quantities such as molecular weight, elastic stiffness, surface stress, and surface elastic stiffness for adsorbed molecules on the surface. Most experimental works on resonator-based molecular detection have been based on the principle that molecular adsorption onto a resonator surface increases the effective mass, and consequently decreases the resonant frequencies of the nanomechanical resonator. However, this principle is insufficient to provide fundamental insights into resonator-based molecular detection at the nanoscale; this is due to recently proposed novel nanoscale detection principles including various effects such as surface effects, nonlinear oscillations, coupled resonance, and stiffness effects. Furthermore, these effects have only recently been incorporated into existing physical models for resonators, and therefore the universal physical principles governing nanoresonator-based detection have not been completely described. Therefore, our objective in this review is to overview the current attempts to understand the underlying mechanisms in nanoresonator-based detection using physical models coupled to computational simulations and/or experiments. Specifically, we will focus on issues of special relevance to the dynamic behavior of nanoresonators and their applications in biological/chemical detection: the resonance behavior of micro/nanoresonators; resonator-based chemical/biological detection; physical models of various nanoresonators such as nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. We pay particular attention to experimental and computational approaches that have been useful in elucidating the mechanisms underlying the dynamic behavior of resonators across multiple and disparate spatial/length scales, and the resulting insight into resonator-based detection that has been obtained. We additionally provide extensive discussion regarding potentially fruitful future research directions coupling experiments and simulations in order to develop a fundamental understanding of the basic physical principles that govern NEMS and NEMS-based sensing and detection applications.

Eom, Kilho; Park, Harold S.; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kwon, Taeyun

2011-06-01

436

Queering the fertility clinic.  

PubMed

A sociologist examines contemporary engagements of queer bodies and identities with fertility biomedicine. Drawing on social science, media culture, and the author's own empirical research, three questions frame the analysis: 1. In what ways have queers on the gendered margins moved into the center and become implicated or central users of biomedicine's fertility offerings? 2. In what ways is Fertility Inc. transformed by its own incorporation of various gendered and queered bodies and identities? And 3. What are the biosocial and bioethical implications of expanded queer engagements and possibilities with Fertility Inc.? The author argues that "patient" activism through web 2.0 coupled with a largely unregulated free-market of assisted reproduction has included various queer identities as "parents-in-waiting." Such inclusions raise a set of ethical tensions regarding how to be accountable to the many people implicated in this supply and demand industry. PMID:23463357

Mamo, Laura

2013-06-01

437

Canadian ethnic fertility.  

PubMed

Investigates the relationship among ethnicity, education, and fertility for selected Canadian ethnic groups, introducing several extensions of Johnson's recent elaboration of Goldsheider and Uhlenberg's minority group status hypothesis. The findings suggest that among Asiatics and Germans the prevailing reproductive pattern is an assimilative one relative to the British majority group. Native Indians and Dutch maintain high levels of reproduction, but at post secondary school attainment their mean family sizes converge with the British. Ukrainian, Italian, and Jewish minorities experience below average fertility, and at high levels of education it is the British group which converges with the low fertility pattern of Jews and Italians. Ukrainians differ, as their fertility is consistently below the majority group, regardless of education level. PMID:12263436

Trovato, F

1981-01-01

438

33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...contamination such as flammable liquids, combustible liquids,...

2010-07-01

439

33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...contamination such as flammable liquids, combustible liquids,...

2009-07-01

440

Fertility differentials in Nepal.  

PubMed

With the realization of the importance of fertility studies, a national fertility survey was carried out in Nepal in 1976 by the Nepal Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health Project (MCP) in collaboration with the World Fertility Survey. The present study is based on data from this survey and examines fertility differentials by socioeconomic groups in Nepal. The present analysis concerns the information on children everborn to women by various regions and groups by marital durations. As many Nepalese ethnic groups practice child marriage, a careful distinction was made in the questionnaire between the date of marriage contracted and the start of cohabitation. Furthermore, if the age at cohabitation was less than the reported age at menarche, then the latter was instead taken as the initiation of potential fertility. Thus an attempt was made to define marriage in terms of the onset of exposure to risk of childbearing. The variables that are included in the study are region of residence, literacy of the respondent and her husband, educational attainment of the respondent and her husband, religion and ethnic group. Numbers of children everborn to these groups of women were standardized for marital duration of all women in order to establish whether the observed differences in children ever born are due to the variable itself or to differences in marital duration. Marital duration is found to have the greatest effect on fertility. In the shorter marital durations, the fertility of women marrying at younger ages seems to be depressed by the effect of adolescent sterility and subfecundity. There is a negative and statistically significant correlation between the age at marriage and mean number of children everborn. Women in the mountains have lower fertility than women in the hills and terai. The unstandardized mean number of children everborn seems to suggest that uneducated women have higher fertility than educated women, but when marital duration is taken into account there is virtually no difference in the number of children born. The number of children is lower among women whose husbands are educated and even with standardization for marital duration some difference remains, suggesting some direct effect. The education of women only indirectly affects fertility through age at marriage. However, the extremely low proportion of educated in the country means that this factor will have only a slight effect on fertility. PMID:6885853

Gubhaju, B

1983-07-01

441

[Effects of applying nitrogen fertilizer and fertilizer additive on rice yield and rice plant nitrogen uptake, translocation, and utilization].  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted in the Taihu Lake region of southern Jiangsu to study the effects of applying nitrogen (N) fertilizer and fertilizer additive on the rice yield and the rice plant N uptake, translocation, and utilization. Applying N fertilizer had significant positive effects on the rice yield, accumulative absorbed N at all growth stages and at each growth stage, and N translocation rate after anthesis (P < 0.01). However, when the N application rate exceeded 200 kg x hm(-2), its yield-increasing effect was not significant (P > 0.05). The N translocation rate after anthesis and the N fertilizer use efficiency decreased with increasing N application rate. Applying fertilizer additive further improved the rice yield, accumulative absorbed N, N translocation rate after anthesis, and N fertilizer use efficiency, and this effect was more evident when the N application rate was equal to or greater than 200 kg x hm(-2). Relatively high rice yield and N use efficiency were achieved when applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of N fertilizer without the application of fertilizer additive. PMID:22126044

Li, Wen-jun; Xia, Yong-qiu; Yang, Xiao-yun; Guo, Miao; Yan, Xiao-yuan

2011-09-01

442

Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil  

SciTech Connect

To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- and compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R. [Rutherglen Center, Rutherglen, Vic. (Australia)

2008-07-15

443

Biological and Agricultural Studies on Application of Discharge Plasma and Electromagnetic Fields 6.Agricultural Chemical Application System Using Corona Discharge and High Electric Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the electrostatic chemical application system has been carried out for the purpose of improving spray deposition and reducing spray drift. By means of corona discharge or electrostatic induction, particles of agricaltual chemicals become electrostatically charged. Many electrostatic sprayers are developed and tested. The results suggested that these sprayers improved the spray deposition onto plants or plant models. Several electrostatic sprayers are currently utilized.

Uchino, Toshitaka

444

Mathematical Model of Plant Uptake and Translocations of Organic Chemicals: Application to Experiments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. A mathematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibr...

L. Boersma C. McFarlane F. T. Lindstrom

1991-01-01

445

40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430...description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...production of pulp and paper at semi-chemical...

2010-07-01

446

40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430...description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...production of pulp and paper at semi-chemical...

2009-01-01

447

Multi-stage chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin: Fundamentals and applications  

PubMed Central

For more than 60 years, the chemical induction of tumors in mouse skin has been used to study mechanisms of epithelial carcinogenesis and evaluate modifying factors. In the traditional two-stage skin carcinogenesis model, initiation is accomplished by the application of a subcarcinogenic dose of a carcinogen. Subsequently, tumor development is elicited by repeated treatment with a tumor promoting agent. The initiation protocol can be completed within 1–3 hours depending on the number of mice used, while the promotion phase requires twice weekly treatments (1–2 hours) and once weekly tumor palpation (1–2 hours) for the duration of the study. A highly reproducible papilloma burden is expected within 10–20 weeks with progression of a portion of the tumors to squamous cell carcinomas within 20–50 weeks. In contrast to complete skin carcinogenesis, the two-stage model allows for greater yield of premalignant lesions as well as separation of the initiation and promotion phases.

Abel, Erika L.; Angel, Joe M; Kiguchi, Kaoru; DiGiovanni, John

2011-01-01

448

Characteristics of Plasma-Enhanced-Chemical-Vapor-Deposition Tetraethylorthosilicate Oxide and Thin-Film-Transistor Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make application to the low-temperature thin-film-transistor (TFT) process possible, the deposition of SiO2 films by plasma-enhanced-chemical-vapor-deposition (PECVD) using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was investigated. It was shown that the oxide films with low Si-OH content had good electrical properties: for example, low interface state density of 5× 1010 cm-2 eV-1 and high breakdown strength of 8 MV/cm. In addition, polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) TFT’s employing TEOS-SiO2 films as gate insulators were fabricated and examined. It was confirmed that the TEOS-PECVD method was a promising method for forming gate insulators. This paper reports on TEOS-SiO2 films and poly-Si TFT’s.

Nishi, Yutaka; Funai, Takashi; Izawa, Hideo; Fujimoto, Takeo; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Ishii, Mitsuo

1992-12-01

449

Single crystal chemical vapor deposited diamond detectors for intensity-modulated radiation therapy applications  

SciTech Connect

We report here on first intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) clinical tests performed at the Gustave Roussy Institute in France using one small (0.117 mm{sup 3}) synthetic single crystal diamond detector (SCDD). We report the comparison between the point doses evaluated with our detector, with a PTW semiflex air ionization chamber (0.125 cm{sup 3}) and calculated with the treatment planning system (TPS), respectively. The obtained results show a maximum difference of 2.3% for the diamond detector and of 4.6% for the ionization chamber, as compared with the TPS calculations. These very promising results show the potentiality of chemical vapor deposited SCDD for dosimetry of IMRT fields and opens up the field for diamond dosimeters toward novel applications such as very small beam monitoring.

Rebisz-Pomorska, M.; Tromson, D.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Isambert, A. [Institut Gustave Roussy (IGR), 94805 Villejuif (France); Marczewska, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), 31-342 Krakow (Poland)

2009-10-15

450

Super-polished aluminum mirrors through the application of chemical mechanical polishing techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical Mechanical Polishing, also referred to Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP), is one of the enabling technologies which allows the fabrication of high performance multi-level metal structures in IC fabrication. In this paper we will discuss the specific application of CMP techniques to aluminum mirror polishing and the resultant super polished finish obtained. Current aluminum mirror processing methods use combinations of machining, lapping and diamond turning operations to achieve required surface accuracy and quality. Optimum results from diamond turning yields surface figure with an error of no less than half a wave and surface roughness no less than 50 angstrom aluminum substrates. In addition, diamond turning puts "grooves" onto the surface that act as a diffractive element resulting in specular beam power loss and ghost images. Often these diffractive and scatter effects, inherent to grooved surfaces, are too severe to provide adequate performance in the UV and visible range. Further, the low signal to noise ratio of the optical system reduces resolution and the overall efficiency of the optical system. A new procedure for polishing bare 6061-T6 Aluminum monolithic mirrors using Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) slurry and techniques yields extremely high quality, low scatter mirrors. Planar aluminum mirrors with flatness equivalent to lambda/10 and Ra <2 nm have been polished and measured on a Veeco NT3300 white light Interferometer (at 20X). Comparison of the power spectral density curves of mirrors produced via CMP with those presently produced with diamond turning shows reduction across the range of spatial frequencies (1-103 mm-1) and elimination of the grooving frequency. Both white light interferometer and AFM images show the polished surfaces to be smooth, pit free with no pull outs.

Moeggenborg, Kevin; Vincer, Tamara; Lesiak, Stanley; Salij, Roman

2006-08-01

451

Compactness and robustness: Applications in the solution of integral equations for chemical kinetics and electromagnetic scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis employs the topological concept of compactness to deduce robust solutions to two integral equations arising from chemistry and physics: the inverse Laplace problem in chemical kinetics and the vector wave scattering problem in dielectric optics. The inverse Laplace problem occurs in the quantitative understanding of biological processes that exhibit complex kinetic behavior: different subpopulations of transition events from the "reactant" state to the "product" state follow distinct reaction rate constants, which results in a weighted superposition of exponential decay modes. Reconstruction of the rate constant distribution from kinetic data is often critical for mechanistic understandings of chemical reactions related to biological macromolecules. We devise a "phase function approach" to recover the probability distribution of rate constants from decay data in the time domain. The robustness (numerical stability) of this reconstruction algorithm builds upon the continuity of the transformations connecting the relevant function spaces that are compact metric spaces. The robust "phase function approach" not only is useful for the analysis of heterogeneous subpopulations of exponential decays within a single transition step, but also is generalizable to the kinetic analysis of complex chemical reactions that involve multiple intermediate steps. A quantitative characterization of the light scattering is central to many meteoro-logical, optical, and medical applications. We give a rigorous treatment to electromagnetic scattering on arbitrarily shaped dielectric media via the Born equation: an integral equation with a strongly singular convolution kernel that corresponds to a non-compact Green operator. By constructing a quadratic polynomial of the Green operator that cancels out the kernel singularity and satisfies the compactness criterion, we reveal the universality of a real resonance mode in dielectric optics. Meanwhile, exploiting the properties of compact operators, we outline the geometric and physical conditions that guarantee a robust solution to the light scattering problem, and devise an asymptotic solution to the Born equation of electromagnetic scattering for arbitrarily shaped dielectric in a non-perturbative manner.

Zhou, Yajun

452

Chemical marker for ALS-inhibitor herbicides: 2-aminobutyric acid proportional in sub-lethal applications.  

PubMed

A chemical profiling technique for sub-lethal acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor herbicides (e.g., sulfonylureas, imidazolines, triazolopyrimidine sulfonanilides, and pyrimidyloxy salicylic) was developed using 2-aminobutyric acid, and was found to be directly proportional to application rates in field studies on two varieties of potato plants. An uncomplicated, benign-by-design analytical method for the determination of 2-aminobutyric acid in plant tissue was developed. The method is simple, fast, and automated, entailing a water-trichloroacetic acid extraction followed by precolumn on-line derivatization using o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) solution and liquid chromatographic analyses. Use of reagents and chlorinated organic solvents, and generation of waste, are minimized as compared to other ALS-inhibitor herbicide analytical techniques. Recoveries for a series of fortified plant tissues ranged from 82 to 103%. Two 20-day field trials on two potato varieties, Russet Burbank and Shepody, were conducted during the 2000 and 2001 growing seasons. The study demonstrated that the 2-aminobutyric acid method is an excellent, selective chemical marker technique for ALS-inhibitor herbicides for real world plant matrixes. PMID:11958629

Loper, Bob R; Cobb, William T; Anderson, Kim A

2002-04-24

453

Development and application of high-performance affinity beads: toward chemical biology and drug discovery.  

PubMed

In drug development research, the elucidation and understanding of the interactions between physiologically active substances and proteins that numerous genes produce is important. Currently, most commercially available drugs and physiologically active substances have been brought to market without knowledge of factors interacting with the drugs and the substances. Affinity purification is a useful and powerful technique employed to understand factors that are targeted by drugs and physiologically active substances. However, use of conventional matrices for affinity chromatography often causes a decrease in efficiency of affinity purification and, as a result, more practical matrices for affinity purification have been developed for application in drug discovery research. In this paper, we describe the development of high-performance affinity beads (SG beads and FG beads) that enable one-step affinity purification of drug targets and the elucidation of the mechanism of the action of the drugs. We also describe a chemical screening system using our affinity beads. We hope that utilization of the affinity beads will contribute to the progress of research in chemical biology. PMID:19243077

Sakamoto, Satoshi; Kabe, Yasuaki; Hatakeyama, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Handa, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

454

Tracking chemical changes in a live cell: Biomedical applications of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). We will then present several examples demonstrating the application potentials of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biomedical research. These will include monitoring living cells progressing through the cell cycle, including death, and cells reacting to dilute concentrations of toxins.

Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

2002-07-25

455

Statistical models for LWIR hyperspectral backgrounds and their applications in chemical agent detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote detection of chemical vapors in the atmosphere has a wide range of civilian and military applications. In the past few years there has been significant interest in the detection of effluent plumes using hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy in the 8-13?m atmospheric window. A major obstacle in the full exploitation of this technology is the fact that everything in the infrared is a source of radiation. As a result, the emission from the gases of interest is always mixed with emission by the more abundant atmospheric constituents and by other objects in the sensor field of view. The radiance fluctuations in this background emission constitute an additional source of interference which is much stronger than the detector noise. In this paper we develop and evaluate parametric models for the statistical characterization of LWIR hyperspectral backgrounds. We consider models based on the theory of elliptically contoured distributions. Both models can handle heavy tails, which is a key stastical feature of hyperspectral imaging backgrounds. The paper provides a concise description of the underlying models, the algorithms used to estimate their parameters from the background spectral measurements, and the use of the developed models in the design and evaluation of chemical warfare agent detection algorithms.

Manolakis, D.; Jairam, L. G.; Zhang, D.; Rossacci, M.

2007-04-01

456

Binomial tau-leap spatial stochastic simulation algorithm for applications in chemical kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cell biology, cell signaling pathway problems are often tackled with deterministic temporal models, well mixed stochastic simulators, and/or hybrid methods. But, in fact, three dimensional stochastic spatial modeling of reactions happening inside the cell is needed in order to fully understand these cell signaling pathways. This is because noise effects, low molecular concentrations, and spatial heterogeneity can all affect the cellular dynamics. However, there are ways in which important effects can be accounted without going to the extent of using highly resolved spatial simulators (such as single-particle software), hence reducing the overall computation time significantly. We present a new coarse grained modified version of the next subvolume method that allows the user to consider both diffusion and reaction events in relatively long simulation time spans as compared with the original method and other commonly used fully stochastic computational methods. Benchmarking of the simulation algorithm was performed through comparison with the next subvolume method and well mixed models (MATLAB), as well as stochastic particle reaction and transport simulations (CHEMCELL, Sandia National Laboratories). Additionally, we construct a model based on a set of chemical reactions in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. For this particular application and a bistable chemical system example, we analyze and outline the advantages of our presented binomial ?-leap spatial stochastic simulation algorithm, in terms of efficiency and accuracy, in scenarios of both molecular homogeneity and heterogeneity.

Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.; Burrage, Kevin

2007-09-01

457

Strategies and Applications for Incorporating Physical and Chemical Signal Gradients in Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

From embryonic development to wound repair, concentration gradients of bioactive signaling molecules guide tissue formation and regeneration. Moreover, gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues. Perhaps tissue engineers can take a cue from nature in attempting to regenerate tissues by incorporating gradients into engineering design strategies. Indeed, gradient-based approaches are an emerging trend in tissue engineering, standing in contrast to traditional approaches of homogeneous delivery of cells and/or growth factors using isotropic scaffolds. Gradients in tissue engineering lie at the intersection of three major paradigms in the field—biomimetic, interfacial, and functional tissue engineering—by combining physical (via biomaterial design) and chemical (with growth/differentiation factors and cell adhesion molecules) signal delivery to achieve a continuous transition in both structure and function. This review consolidates several key methodologies to generate gradients, some of which have never been employed in a tissue engineering application, and discusses strategies for incorporating these methods into tissue engineering and implant design. A key finding of this review was that two-dimensional physicochemical gradient substrates, which serve as excellent high-throughput screening tools for optimizing desired biomaterial properties, can be enhanced in the future by transitioning from two dimensions to three dimensions, which would enable studies of cell–protein–biomaterial interactions in a more native tissue–like environment. In addition, biomimetic tissue regeneration via combined delivery of graded physical and chemical signals appears to be a promising strategy for the regeneration of heterogeneous tissues and tissue interfaces. In the future, in vivo applications will shed more light on the performance of gradient-based mechanical integrity and signal delivery strategies compared to traditional tissue engineering approaches.

Singh, Milind; Berkland, Cory

2008-01-01

458

Redox-controlled multiple-species reactive chemical transport, part II: Verification and application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A redox-controlled multiple-species, multidimensional reactive chemical transport model, DYNAMIX, has been presented in part 1 of this paper. In part 2 the model is checked against two other independently developed reactive chemical transport codes. Simulated results from DYNAMIX agree reasonably well with those obtained from the other two models. Two approaches for simulating redox reactions, an external approach (based on hypothetical electron activity) and an effective internal approach (based on conservation of electrons), have been examined. The results show that in the external approach the simulated redox front is smeared out by diffusion and dispersion, whereas in the effective internal approach the redox front is sharp and is controlled by the redox reactions. The evolution of solid phases from the two approaches give markedly different mineral assemblages. It is suggested that the external approach is of relevance in industrial processes such as electrometallurgy, in which mineral dissolution is driven by externally supplied electric power. The effective internal approach is applicable to hydrogeochemical systems (groundwater contamination, diagenesis, ore formation, rock weathering, and soil genesis) in which redox potential is dictated by the states of the redox species. The results also suggest that in the presence of precipitation (and consequent retardation of the concentration front), spreading due to hydrodynamic dispersion may be significantly inhibited. To demonstrate the applicability of DYNAMIX for realistic field problems, two field cases are simulated by this model. In the first case, the supergene enrichment of copper at Butte, Montana, the simulated mineral assemblages and their distributions agree reasonably with the mineral assemblages and the ore grade observed in the field. In the second case, involving two-dimensional contaminant transport in a hypothetic aquifer, the simulated results suggest that DYNAMIX is capable of handling a realistic multi-dimensional field problem with several hundred grid blocks and time scales of practical interest.

Liu, Chen Wuing; Narasimhan, T. N.

1989-05-01

459

How can chemical compounds alter human fertility?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of environmental toxins, such as pesticides, solvents and industrial waste, on human and animal health have caused much public fear. The suggested mechanism of action for these xenobiotics is their capacity to interact with steroid hormones receptors, in particular those for estrogens and androgens. Concern was reinforced by the “historical” example of diethylstilbestrol, an estradiol mimetic causing genital

Charbel Massaad; Frida Entezami; Liliane Massade; Mouhamed Benahmed; François Olivennes; Robert Barouki; Samir Hamamah

2002-01-01

460

Innovative use of controlled availability fertilizers with high performance for intensive agriculture and environmental conservation.  

PubMed

A variety of slow release fertilizers, controlled release (availability) fertilizers (CAFs), and stability fertilizers have been developed in response to the serious drawbacks of the conventional fertilizers since the early 1960's. Of these fertilizers, CAFs which are coated with resin are consumed in the largest quantity in the world. Selecting CAFs with higher performance, the author will discuss about: 1) Innovation of agro-technologies for various field crops including new concepts of fertilizer application, 2) high yielding of field crops, 3) enhancing quality and safety of farm products, and 4) controlling the adverse effect of intensive agriculture on the environment. PMID:20549445

Shoji, Sadao

2005-09-01