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1

Inorganic chemical fertilizer application on US farms increased from very low levels to relatively high levels during the two to three decades after World War II.  

E-print Network

Inorganic chemical fertilizer application on US farms increased from very low levels to relatively high levels during the two to three decades after World War II. Increased fertilizer use greatly. It was apparent well before the rapid expansion in fertilizer use that inexpensive ways to evaluate the fertility

2

Essentials of Chemical Fertilizer Use in PRC.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a description of the characteristics and application methods of various nitrogen fertilizers, phosphorus fertilizers, potassium fertilizers, composite fertilizers, mixed fertilizers, trace element fertilizers, and other mineral fertil...

W. Nai-ch'iang

1978-01-01

3

??????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Paddy Soil Fertility Improvement for Rice Production through the Utilization of Chemical Fertilizer and Filter Cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filter cake is by - product of cane sugar manufacture. It consists of plant nutrient which is useful for soil fertility improvement. According to low fertility of most paddy soils, an experiment had been conducted with combination of chemical fertilizer application and filter cake incorporation for soil fertility and yield improvement in two different soil types in wet season during

Lop Buri

4

Long-Term Application of Chemical Fertilizers and Rice Straw on Soil Aluminum Toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red soil region in China is very important to agriculture. However, soil aluminum (Al) toxicity often occurs as a result of the high soil acidity. In a long-term experiment, we analyzed soil samples to determine the effect of fertilization on soil acidity and potential Al toxicity. The results showed that after 12 years of utilization, Al toxicity occurred in

Ruijun Qin; Fuxing Chen; Jusheng Gao

2010-01-01

5

Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1  

E-print Network

Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop

Columbia University

6

Africa Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1  

E-print Network

Africa Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values are expressed of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop. ´Projection: Africa

Columbia University

7

[Effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions and their global warming potentials in paddy fields with double-rice cropping].  

PubMed

A field experiment was carried out to study the effects of combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers on CH4 and N2O emissions, which were measured using the static chamber/gas chromatography method, and their global warming potentials in typical paddy fields with double-rice cropping in Hunan province. The results showed that the combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers did not change the seasonal patterns of CH4 and N2O emissions from paddy soils, but significantly changed the magnitudes of CH4 and N2O fluxes in rice growing seasons as compared with sole application of chemical fertilizers. During the two rice growing seasons, the cumulative CH4 emissions for the pig manure and chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer each contributing to 50% of the total applied N (1/2N + PM) treatment were higher than those for the treatments of no N fertilizer (ON), half amount of chemical N fertilizer (1/2N) and 100% chemical N fertilizer (N) by 54.83%, 33.85% and 43.30%, respectively (P < 0.05), whilst the cumulative N2O emissions for the 1/2N + PM treatment were decreased by 67.50% compared with N treatment, but increased by 129.43% and 119.23% compared with ON and 1/2N treatments, respectively (P < 0.05). CH4 was the dominant contributor to the global warming potential (GWP) in both rice growing seasons, which contributed more than 99% to the integrated GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions for all the four treatments. Both GWP and yield-scaled GWP for the treatment of 1/2N + PM were significantly higher than the other three treatments. The yield-scaled GWP for the treatment of 1/2N + PM was higher than those for the N, 1/2N and ON treatments by 58.21%, 26.82% and 20. 63%, respectively. Therefore, combined applications of pig manure and chemical fertilizers in paddy fields would increase the GWP of CH4 and N2O emissions during rice growing seasons and this effect should be considered in regional greenhouse gases emissions inventory. PMID:25338388

Wang, Cong; Shen, Jian-Lin; Zheng, Liang; Liu, Jie-Yun; Qin, Hong-Ling; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-Shui

2014-08-01

8

Chemical fertilizer reduction and soil fertility maintenance in rice-fish coculture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the long run, whether the use of chemical fertilizers could be reduced and soil fertility could be maintained through rice-fish\\u000a coculture is less well known. At the pilot site of the rice-fish coculture system, which is one of the five “globally important\\u000a agricultural heritage systems” (GIAHS), we conducted a 4-year study to compare fertilizer use, rice yield, and soil

Jian Xie; Xue Wu; Jianjun Tang; Jiaen Zhang; Xin Chen

2010-01-01

9

Emissions of NO and NH3 from a typical vegetable-land soil after the application of chemical N fertilizers in the Pearl River Delta.  

PubMed

Cropland soil is an important source of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3). Chinese croplands are characterized by intensive management, but limited information is available with regard to NO emissions from croplands in China and NH3 emissions in south China. In this study, a mesocosm experiment was conducted to measure NO and NH3 emissions from a typical vegetable-land soil in the Pearl River Delta following the applications of 150 kg N ha(-1) as urea, ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC), respectively. Over the sampling period after fertilization (72 days for NO and 39 days for NH3), mean NO fluxes (± standard error of three replicates) in the control and urea, AN and ABC fertilized mesocosms were 10.9±0.9, 73.1±2.9, 63.9±1.8 and 66.0±4.0 ng N m(-2) s(-1), respectively; mean NH3 fluxes were 8.9±0.2, 493.6±4.4, 144.8±0.1 and 684.7±8.4 ng N m(-2) s(-1), respectively. The fertilizer-induced NO emission factors for urea, AN and ABC were 2.6±0.1%, 2.2±0.1% and 2.3±0.2%, respectively. The fertilizer-induced NH3 emission factors for the three fertilizers were 10.9±0.2%, 3.1±0.1% and 15.2±0.4%, respectively. From the perspective of air quality protection, it would be better to increase the proportion of AN application due to its lower emission factors for both NO and NH3. PMID:23527173

Li, Dejun

2013-01-01

10

[Reducing nutrients loss by plastic film covering chemical fertilizers].  

PubMed

With the low utilization rate of fertilizers by crop and the growing amount of fertilizer usage,the agricultural non-point source pollution in China is becoming more and more serious. The field experiments planting corns were conducted, in which the applied chemical fertilizers were recovered with plastic film to realize the separation of fertilizers from rain water. In the experiments, the influences of different fertilizing treatments on the growing and production of sweet corn were observed. The fertilizer utilization rate and the nutrient contents in surface run-off water with and without the film covering were also determined. Results showed that, with only 70% of the normal amount of fertilizers,the sweet corn could already get high yield under the experimental soil conditions. Soil analysis after corn crops showed that the amounts of available N, P and K in the soil increased obviously with the film-covering, and the decreasing order was: 100% fertilizers with film-covering > 70% fertilizers with film-covering > 100% fertilizers, 70% fertilizers > no fertilizer. The average utilization coefficients of fertilizers by the crop were 42%-87%, 0%-3%, 5%-15% respectively for N, P and K. It was higher with film-covering than that without covering, especially for the high fertilization treatment. Analysis of water samples collected for eight run-off events showed that, without film-covering, N, P and K average concentrations in the runoff waters with fertilizations were 27.72, 2.70 and 7.07 mg x L(-1), respectively. And they were reduced respectively by 39.54%, 28.05%, 43.74% with the film-covering. This can give significant benefits to the decrease of agricultural non-point source pollution and water eutrophication. PMID:20358842

Chen, Huo-jun; Wei, Ze-bin; Wu, Qi-tang; Zeng, Shu-cai

2010-03-01

11

Maintaining the Fertility of Rice Soils : A Chemical Study.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL BAPERIMENT STATIONS. 8 BULLETIN NO. 82. Chemical Xection,-January, 1906. * MAINTAINING THE FERTILITY OF RICE SOILS; A CHEMICAL . STUDY. BY (3. S. FRAPS, PH. D., Acting Chemi,st. POSTOFFICE .-' COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS... ...................................................... Total loss or gain by'rice soils 17 ........................... ............... Composition of the irrigation waters .% 18 ......................... ...................... Chemical composition of rice soils ..! i.?. 19...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1906-01-01

12

Annual nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for different lawngrass species for Florida. The fertilizer should be applied in multiple (2-6) applications yearly. With each fertilizer  

E-print Network

Annual nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for different lawngrass species for Florida. The fertilizer should be applied in multiple (2-6) applications yearly. With each fertilizer application, ½ to 1 lb. of N should be applied. To find out how much of the common fertilizer types this relates to, go

Hill, Jeffrey E.

13

Fertilization ecology of egg coats: physical versus chemical contributions to fertilization success of free-spawned eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free-spawned eggs are typically enclosed within accessory structures that are shed early in development. Most research on the role of these structures in fertilization has focused on chemical constituents and their influence on sperm-egg interaction. Here I test an alternative hypothesis that accessory structures play an important physical role in fertilization by increasing the size and buoyancy of the egg,

Robert D. Podolsky

14

Effect of Different Fertilizer Application on the Soil Fertility of Paddy Soils in Red Soil Region of Southern China  

PubMed Central

Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (P<0.05). The application of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (P<0.05). During the experimental period, the average AN and AP contents were highest in OM treatment (about 1.6 and 29.6 times of that in the CK, respectively) and second highest in NPK treatment (about 1.2 and 20.3 times of that in the CK). Unlike AN and AP, the highest value of AK content was observed in NPK treatments with 38.10 mg·kg?1. Thus, these indicated that organic manure should be recommended to improve soil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region. PMID:23028550

Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

2012-01-01

15

Influence of Long-Term Application of Organic and Mineral Fertilizers on Quality of a Savanna Alfisol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soils of the West African savanna are low in physical and chemical productivity. One conventional method of improving productivity of these soils is through application of organic materials either as a supplement or an alternative to mineral fertilizers. In terms of physical and fertility properties, the agricultural value of this practice is unquestionable. However, its influence on trace and

J. O. Ogunwole; P. O. Ogunleye

2005-01-01

16

Effect of bio-regulator and foliar fertilizers on chemical composition and yield of soybean.  

PubMed

Current study evaluates the effects of bio-regulator associated with foliar fertilizers on the yield components, productivity and chemical composition of soybean. The experimental design was entirely randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments consisted of: T1-absolute control, T2-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate in R1 stage of development, T3-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1, T4-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1; T5-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1, T6-application of 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1 and T7-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R1. Application of Sett and Mover is a potentially efficient handling as it favors the soybean agronomic performance in R1 stage. Chemical composition of processed grains has influence with applying bio-regulator and foliar fertilizers. PMID:24511692

Piccinin, Gleberson Guillen; Braccini, Alessandro Lucca; da Silva, Luiz Henrique; Mariucci, Giovanna Emanuêlle Gonçalves; Suzukawa, Andréia Kazumi; Dan, Lilian Gomes de Morais; Tonin, Telmo António

2013-11-15

17

Land Application of Organic Fertilizers or Amendments  

E-print Network

Composted manure can be applied using a tractor and spreader. pplying organic materials to your land can add beneficial nitrogen (N), phospho- rous (P), potassium (K), micronutrients and organic matter to your soil. Organic materials can.... Collect a sample of compost for nutrient testing. Use a plastic bag or tarp to verify organic fertilization rate. Apply organic fertilizer to the bag or tarp and then collect and weigh the material. With the area and weight collected from each...

Harmel, Daren; Mechell, Justin; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2007-12-13

18

Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application  

E-print Network

dissolved nutrients leaching through intact soil cores. Soilbut not N-leaching) in well-aerated soils, while ammonium-Nand leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil

Gu, C.

2009-01-01

19

[Effects of long-term applying sulfur- and chloride-containing chemical fertilizers on weed growth in paddy field].  

PubMed

An investigation was made at a double-rice paddy field in the Qiyang Red Soil Field Experimental Station, Hunan Province, China to study the species and biomass of weeds growing in rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth season after 34-year application of sulfur (SO4(2-)) and chloride (Cl(-))-containing chemical fertilizers under the same application rates of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Long-term application of Cl(-)-containing chemical fertilizer resulted in the greatest species number of weeds and the highest biomass of floating weeds and wet weeds, compared with long-term application of SO4(2-) and Cl(-) +SO4(2-)-containing chemical fertilizers. In early rice growth season, the biomass of weeds after applying Cl(-)-containing chemical fertilizer was 51.4% and 17.6% higher than that after applying Cl(-) + SO4(2-) and SO4(2-)-containing chemical fertilizers, respectively; in late rice growth season, the increment was 144% and 242%, respectively. More floating weeds were observed after applying Cl(-) + SO4(2-) and SO4(2-)-containing chemical fertilizers, but few of them were found after applying Cl(-)-containing chemical fertilizer. The total dry mass of weeds and the dry mass of wet weeds were positively correlated with soil Cl(-) content (r = 0.764, P < 0.01 and r = 0.948, P < 0.01, respectively), but negatively correlated with soil SO4(2-)-S content (r = 0.849, P < 0.01 and r = 0.641, P < 0.05). Soil alkali-hydrolyzable N and available P, under the co-effects of soil SO4(2-)-S, Cl(-), and pH, had indirect effects on the total dry mass of weeds. By adopting various fertilization measures to maintain proper soil pH and alkali-hydrolyzable N and available P contents, increase soil SO42(-)-S content, and decrease soil Cl(-) content, it could be possible to effectively inhibit the growth of wet weeds and to decrease the total biomass of weeds in double-rice paddy field. PMID:21774323

Shen, Pu; Gao, Ju-sheng; Xu, Ming-gang; Li, Dong-chu; Niu, De-kui; Qin, Dao-zhu

2011-04-01

20

DGT estimates cadmium accumulation in wheat and potato from phosphate fertilizer applications.  

PubMed

Cadmium is a common impurity in phosphatic fertilizers and may contribute to soil Cd accumulation. Changes in total and bioavailable Cd burdens to agricultural soils and the potential for plant Cd accumulation resulting from fertilizer input was investigated. Three year field studies were conducted using three dose levels of cadmium-rich, commercial, phosphate fertilizers applied at four agricultural sites. Labile Cd concentrations, measured using the passive sampling device Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (Cd(DGT)), increased with increasing fertilizer application rates. Cd also accumulated in the edible portion of wheat and potato crops grown at the sites, and showed strong positive dose response with fertilizer treatment. Regression models were calculated for each site, year, and for individual crops. Model comparisons indicated that soil physical and chemical parameters in addition to soil Cd fractions, were important determinants of Cd(DGT). Significant factors contributing to Cd(DGT) concentrations were Cd from fertilizer input (Cd(fertilizer)), pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and total recoverable Cd (Cd(total)). Important factors used to determine Cd concentrations in wheat grain (Cd(wheat)) and in potato (Cd(potato)) were as follows: Cd(wheat):Cd(fertilizer), and Cd(DGT); and Cd(potato):Cd(fertilizer), Cd(DGT), % O.M. The effective concentration, C(E), calculated from DGT did not correlate well with Cd(wheat) or with Cd(potato). Direct measurements of Cd(DGT) correlated better with Cd found in edible plant tissue. The modeling approach presented in this study helps to estimate Cd accumulation in plant tissue over multiple years and in distinct agricultural soil systems. PMID:19552942

Pérez, Angela L; Anderson, Kim A

2009-09-01

21

Long Term Fertility Monitoring of Soil Treated by the Chemical-Biological Stabilization Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the long term fertility of soil treated by Chemical-Biological Stabilization, a patented method developed to treat tropical and semitropical sites with high concentrations of very weathered hydrocarbons, by transforming them into soil humus. The fertility in soil was studied over a three year period with respect to TPH (EPA 418.1), TCLP leachates, toxicity (Microtox), field capacity, and water

Randy H. Adams; Francisco J. Guzman-Osorio; J. Abisenas Alvarez-Rivera

22

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CHEMICAL AND FERTILIZER MINERAL INDUSTRY, STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

Air and water pollutants are generated during the conversion of naturally occurring minerals into suitable forms for use in chemical and fertilizer production. These minerals are barite, borates, fluorspar, lithium minerals, mineral pigments, phosphate rock, potash, salt, sodium ...

23

Fertilizer summary data 1990  

SciTech Connect

Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

1991-05-01

24

Comparative effects of Azolla and blue-green algae in combination with chemical N fertilizer on rice crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

FreshAzolla pinnata (Bangkok) and dry blue-green algae dominated byAulosira sp. andGloeotrichia sp. were inoculated separately at the rates of 500 and 10 kg\\/ha, 10 and 3 days after transplanting, respectively to evaluate\\u000a their effects in combination with chemical N fertilizer applied at different stages of rice crop. Split application of 30\\u000a kg N\\/ha urea (15 kg basal and 15 kg

A L Singh; P K Singh

1986-01-01

25

Fertilization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thomas Brown of Nucleus Medical Media created this video to show the complete journey of fertilization from the cellular perspective. It was awarded an honorable mention in the 2012 International Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge, hosted by Science Magazine and the U.S. National Science Foundation.

Thomas Brown (Nucleus Medical Media;)

2013-02-01

26

APPLICATION of INORGANIC FERTILIZERS LOWER FRASER VALLEY  

E-print Network

.~ Lands and Parksw O& M Ministry of Agriculture, ~ Fisheries and Food `=-- DU FRASER #12;APPLICATION and Food Fisheries and Oceans Fraser River Action Plan December 1995 Prepared by P.E. Brisbin Charcoal Creek Projects Inc. 2681 St. Moritz Way Abbotsford, B.C. V3G 1C3 & G.G. Runka Land Sense Ltd. Box 80356

27

Chemical Characteristics of Aerosol Mists in Phosphate Fertilizer Manufacturing Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the carcinogens listed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), strong inorganic mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a known human carcinogen. In this study, aerosol sampling was conducted at 24 locations in eight Florida phosphoric acid and concentrated fertilizer manufacturing plants and two locations as background in Winter Haven and Gainesville, Florida, using dichotomous samplers. The locations were

Yu-Mei Hsu; Chang-Yu Wu; Dale A. Lundgren; J. Wesley Nall; Brian K. Birky

2007-01-01

28

Chemical interactions between soil N and alkaline-hydrolysing N fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical interactions between soil N and alkaline-hydrolysing N fertilizers labelled with15N were studied in the laboratory using twelve?-irradiated soils. Fertilizer was recovered in the soil organic N fraction via the process of NH3 fixation. NH3 fixation at day 7 varied from 1.8 to 4.6% of the N added as aqua ammonia at 1000 mg kg-1 soil. The amount of NH3

S. Sen; P. M. Chalk

1993-01-01

29

Ground-water flow and effects of agricultural application of sewage sludge and other fertilizers on the chemical quality of sediments in the unsaturated zone and ground water near Platteville, Colorado, 1985-89  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From fall 1985 through 1989, 6,431 dry tons of anaerobic, digested, sewage sludge were applied as a fertilizer on about 1 square mile of sandy farm- land near Platteville, Colorado. Mean nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the surficial aquifer increased during the period of sewage- sludge application. However, the effects of municipal sewage sludge applied to the soil in section 16 are difficult to ascertain because anhydrous ammonia and cattle and chicken manure were applied to section 16 prior to sewage-sludge application and anhydrous ammonia was applied during the period of sewage-sludge application. Mostly ammonia plus organic nitrogen was detected in the unsaturated zone while nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen predominated in the surficial aquifer. The areas of largest concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen were in the northeastern and southwestern quarter sections os section 16. Changes in nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations with depth and time were detected in water samples from the multilevel ground-water sampling devices in the surficial aquifer. Nitrogen probably entered the saturated zone in the irrigated areas and low temporarily ponded areas and moved to the northeast with water in the surficial aquifer.

Gaggiani, N. G.

1995-01-01

30

DGT estimates cadmium accumulation in wheat and potato from phosphate fertilizer applications  

PubMed Central

Cadmium is a common impurity in phosphatic fertilizers and may contribute to soil Cd accumulation. Changes in total and bioavailable Cd burdens to agricultural soils and the potential for plant Cd accumulation resulting from fertilizer input was investigated. Three year field studies were conducted using three dose levels of cadmium-rich, commercial, phosphate fertilizers applied at four agricultural sites. Labile Cd concentrations, measured using the passive sampling device Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (CdDGT), increased with increasing fertilizer application rates. Cd also accumulated in the edible portion of wheat and potato crops grown at the sites, and showed strong positive dose response with fertilizer treatment. Regression models were calculated for each site, year, and for individual crops. Model comparisons indicated that soil physical and chemical parameters in addition to soil Cd fractions, were important determinants of CdDGT. Significant factors contributing to CdDGT concentrations were Cd from fertilizer input (Cdfertilizer), pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and total recoverable Cd (Cdtotal). Important factors used to determine Cd concentrations in wheat grain (Cdwheat) and in potato (Cdpotato) were as follows: Cdwheat:Cdfertilizer, and CdDGT; and Cdpotato:Cdfertilizer, CdDGT, % O.M. The effective concentration, CE, calculated from DGT did not correlate well with Cdwheat or with Cdpotato. Direct measurements of CdDGT correlated better with Cd found in edible plant tissue. The modeling approach presented in this study helps to estimate Cd accumulation in plant tissue over multiple years and in distinct agricultural soil systems. PMID:19552942

Perez, Angela L.; Anderson, Kim A.

2014-01-01

31

Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.  

PubMed

In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality. PMID:25236242

Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

2015-02-15

32

Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize ( Zea mays L.), sunflower ( Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean ( Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

2009-08-01

33

A segmented regression model for event history data: an application to the fertility  

E-print Network

A segmented regression model for event history data: an application to the fertility patterns in- dividual data for Italian women from the Second National Survey on Fertility. The model provides insights into dramatic decrease of fertility experienced in Italy, in that it detects a 'common' tendency

Gerkmann, Ralf

34

Contents of minerals in green leafy vegetables cultivated in soil fortified with different chemical fertilizers.  

PubMed

Content of selected minerals in spinach (Spinacea oleracea) and ambat chuka (Rumex vesicarius) cultivated in soil fortified with different chemical fertilizers was determined in a pot experiment. Addition of NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) fertilizer along with micronutrients, iron and zinc, enhanced the concentration of zinc, iron and magnesium in selected green leafy vegetables markedly (p < 0.05), while the concentration of copper was not altered significantly (p > 0.05). Potassium content in the green leafy vegetables was not affected (p > 0.05) by the addition of chemical fertilizers to soil. Spinach and ambat chuka differed remarkably in their mineral contents. Contents of potassium, zinc and copper were significantly high in spinach, while the contents of magnesium and iron were markedly high in ambat chuka (p < 0.05). PMID:11213164

Reddy, N S; Bhatt, G

2001-01-01

35

Fertilizer/Chemical Sales and Service Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for fertilizer/chemical sales and service workers. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

36

[Application of microfluidics in sperm isolation and in vitro fertilization].  

PubMed

Due to the low effectiveness of traditional assisted reproductive technology (ART), new technological possibilities are constantly explored. Lots of studies have demonstrated the potential of microfluidics to revolutionize the fundamental processes of in vitro fertilization (IVF). With the advantages of high efficiency, short time, harmless collection, real-time observation of separation, similar microenvironment, and automation, the application of microfluidics in sperm isolation and IVF has shown an evident superiority over the conventional approaches and provided a new platform for ART. This review highlights the application of various microfluidic techniques in sperm motility assessment and isolation, sperm chemotaxis assay, IVF, sperm concentration, and sperm separation and enrichment in recent years. It also briefly introduces the basic principles, structural design, and operation processes of the microfluidic platform, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of each method and the potential of their clinical application. Obviously, there are still some challenges to the application of microfluidics in ART. However, it is believed that the development of this new technology would be toward a highly integrated application of several steps in one single device, known as IVF-lab-on-a-chip. PMID:24908739

Li, Fang-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Shu-Min; You, Fan

2014-05-01

37

Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato-radish-pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers + lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers + medium rate of COM (T3), and chemical fertilizers + high rate of COM (T4) were designed in the present experiment. The supplied doses of N, P, and K were equal for all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoot biomass and market yields of tomato, radish and pakchoi among treatments ( P > 0.05). It was found that positive P and K balance existed in the tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system of all treatments. Compared with no manure treatment (T1), application of medium rate of COM (T3) decreased N, P runoff losses, increased N, P, K contents in crop tissues except N, P in pakchoi shoot, and lessened P, K accumulation in soils, accordingly, improved the efficiency of macronutrient. It was concluded that appropriate COM used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers could not only meet the crops’ nutrient requirement, but also improved the efficiency of macronutrient and remained positive balance of P and K in the intensive tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system, which can be regarded as an effective measure for a contribution towards sustainable agriculture and a control pathway for reducing the potential risk of castoff to water environment.

Lu, H. J.; Ye, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. L.; Lin, X. Y.; Ni, W. Z.

38

Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato–radish–pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers+lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers+medium rate of COM (T3),

H. J. Lu; Z. Q. Ye; X. L. Zhang; X. Y. Lin; W. Z. Ni

2011-01-01

39

Self-fertility in scots pine as a mechanism of resistance to chemical mutagens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on chemical mutagenesis have shown that the seed progeny of self-fertile Scots pine trees (generations M1 and M2) have increased resistance to supermutagens, since the frequency of mitotic pathologies in them has proved to be even lower\\u000a than in the F1 progeny of self-sterile trees chronically exposed to anthropogenic impact (automobile exhausts). This is evidence that the\\u000a use of

O. S. Mashkina; N. F. Kuznetsova; Yu. N. Isakov; A. K. Butorina

2009-01-01

40

Rice-wheat cropping system: assessment of sustainability under green manuring and chemical fertilizer inputs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rice-wheat rotations are the most important cropping system of the Indo-Gangetic plains. We measured the long-term sustainability of the system for green manuring and chemical fertilizer input practices utilising the trends in grain yield, partial factor productivity (PFP), agronomic efficiency, benefit:cost ratio, soil organic carbon content (OC) and sustainable yield index (SYI). The data of a long-term experiment conducted at

R. L Yadav; B. S Dwivedi; P. S Pandey

2000-01-01

41

Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.  

PubMed

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

2012-01-01

42

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

43

Germ cell toxicity: significance in genetic and fertility effects of radiation and chemicals  

SciTech Connect

The response of the male and female to radiation and chemicals is different. Any loss of oocytes in the female cannot be replaced, and if severe enough, will result in a shortening of the reproductive span. In the male, a temporary sterile period may be induced owing to destruction of the differentiating spermatogonia, but the stem cells are the most resistant spermatogonial type, are capable of repopulating the seminiferous epithelium, and fertility usually returns. The response of both the male and female changes with development of the embryonic to the adult gonad, and with differentiation and maturation in the adult. The primordial germ cells, early oocytes, and differentiating spermatogonia of the adult male are unusually sensitive to the cytotoxic action of noxious agents, but each agent elicits a specific response owing to the intricate biochemical and physiological changes associated with development and maturation of the gametes. The relationship of germ cell killing to fertility is direct, and long-term fertility effects can be predicted from histological analysis of the gonads. The relationship to genetic effects, on the other hand, is indirect, and acts primarily by limiting the cell stages available for testing, by affecting the distribution of mitotically active stem cells among the different stages of the mitotic cycle, and thereby, changing both the type and frequency of genetic effects observed. 100 references, 38 figures, 7 tables.

Oakberg, E.F.

1983-01-01

44

THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS FERTILIZERS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES OF EIGHT MODULES, IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SUBJECT MATTER AREAS ARE (1) CHEMICAL NUTRITION OF PLANTS, (2) PLANT GROWTH, (3) TERMINOLOGY,…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

45

[Study on fertillizer application techniques of annual Dioscoreae zingiberensis].  

PubMed

The experiment N,P and K fertilizer on Dioscorea zingiberensis were studied by setting fied parameter tests with rotational design. The selecton value of three agronomic factors were put forward by establishing regression mathematics models in the production and net value. PMID:16913481

Liu, Wei-Ming; Wang, Ri-Zhao

2006-04-01

46

Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO3?) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH3) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N

Chuanhui Gu; F. Maggi; W. J. Riley; G. M. Hornberger; T. Xu; C. M. Oldenburg; N. Spycher; N. L. Miller; R. T. Venterea; C. Steefel

2009-01-01

47

On the Optimization of the Doses of Chemical Fertilizers for Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mono-factorial model, which gives the relation between the yield and the dose of chemical fertilizers, is based on the Mitscherlich function f1(x) = f1(0)+a1(1-e-11x). In addition to this function, we can consider f2(x) = f2(0)+a2 tanh(b2x), to be the basis for a new mathematical model, where tanh(b2x) represents the hyperbolic tangent. In the case of a bi-factorial model: f(x,y) = f(0,0)+a1 tanh(b1x)+a2 tanh(b2y)+a3 tanh(b1x)tanh(b2y) represents a generalization of the last relation. The constants that are involved in these functions are determined with the least squares method, by comparison with the experimental data. Taking into account both the market value of the products and the cost of fertilizers, we can find the optimal doses for maximizing certain economic indicators, such as revenue or profitability.

Sala, Florin; Boldea, Marius

2011-09-01

48

Chemical analysis and molecular models for calcium-oxygen-carbon interactions in black carbon found in fertile amazonian anthrosoils.  

PubMed

Carbon particles containing mineral matter promote soil fertility, helping it to overcome the rather unfavorable climate conditions of the humid tropics. Intriguing examples are the Amazonian Dark Earths, anthropogenic soils also known as "Terra Preta de Índio'' (TPI), in which chemical recalcitrance and stable carbon with millenary mean residence times have been observed. Recently, the presence of calcium and oxygen within TPI-carbon nanoparticles at the nano- and mesoscale ranges has been demonstrated. In this work, we combine density functional theory calculations, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of TPI-carbons to elucidate the chemical arrangements of calcium-oxygen-carbon groups at the molecular level in TPI. The molecular models are based on graphene oxide nanostructures in which calcium cations are strongly adsorbed at the oxide sites. The application of material science techniques to the field of soil science facilitates a new level of understanding, providing insights into the structure and functionality of recalcitrant carbon in soil and its implications for food production and climate change. PMID:24892495

Archanjo, Braulio S; Araujo, Joyce R; Silva, Alexander M; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Falcão, Newton P S; Jorio, Ado; Achete, Carlos A

2014-07-01

49

Organic and synthetic fertility amendments influence soil microbial, physical and chemical properties on organic and conventional farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted to examine the effects of organic and synthetic soil fertility amendments on soil microbial communities and soil physical and chemical properties at three organic and three conventional vegetable farms in Virginia and Maryland in 1996 and 1997. Two treatments, including either an alternative organic soil amendment (composted cotton-gin trash, composted yard waste, or cattle manure) or

L. R. Bulluck; M. Brosius; G. K. Evanylo; J. B. Ristaino

2002-01-01

50

Chemical inhibitors of methanogenesis and putative applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mini-review summarizes the category, characteristics, and the application fields of the chemical methanogenic inhibitors.\\u000a Usually, the chemical methanogenic inhibitors can be divided into “specific” and nonspecific inhibitors. The former group\\u000a includes the structural analogs of coenzyme M and HMG-CoA inhibitors. The nonspecific group includes many chemicals which\\u000a can inhibit the activity of both methanogens and non-methanogens. The chemical inhibitors

He Liu; Jin Wang; Aijie Wang; Jian Chen

2011-01-01

51

Bayesian Inference of Baseline Fertility and Treatment Effects via a Crop Yield-Fertility Model  

PubMed Central

To effectively manage soil fertility, knowledge is needed of how a crop uses nutrients from fertilizer applied to the soil. Soil quality is a combination of biological, chemical and physical properties and is hard to assess directly because of collective and multiple functional effects. In this paper, we focus on the application of these concepts to agriculture. We define the baseline fertility of soil as the level of fertility that a crop can acquire for growth from the soil. With this strict definition, we propose a new crop yield-fertility model that enables quantification of the process of improving baseline fertility and the effects of treatments solely from the time series of crop yields. The model was modified from Michaelis-Menten kinetics and measured the additional effects of the treatments given the baseline fertility. Using more than 30 years of experimental data, we used the Bayesian framework to estimate the improvements in baseline fertility and the effects of fertilizer and farmyard manure (FYM) on maize (Zea mays), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and soybean (Glycine max) yields. Fertilizer contributed the most to the barley yield and FYM contributed the most to the soybean yield among the three crops. The baseline fertility of the subsurface soil was very low for maize and barley prior to fertilization. In contrast, the baseline fertility in this soil approximated half-saturated fertility for the soybean crop. The long-term soil fertility was increased by adding FYM, but the effect of FYM addition was reduced by the addition of fertilizer. Our results provide evidence that long-term soil fertility under continuous farming was maintained, or increased, by the application of natural nutrients compared with the application of synthetic fertilizer. PMID:25405353

Chen, Hungyen; Yamagishi, Junko; Kishino, Hirohisa

2014-01-01

52

Effect of the long-term application of different fertilization systems on soddy-podzolic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the control variant of an acid nonlimed soil in which the pH values have remained stable for 40 years should be used as criteria for the maximum permissible loads of mineral fertilizers affecting the agrochemical and biological soil properties. Considerable alteration of these limiting agrochemical and biological soil properties (in the variant with NK application) leads to

N. F. Gomonova; I. N. Skvortsova; G. M. Zenova

2007-01-01

53

Use of the Chlorophyll Meter to Guide In-season Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Irrigated Cotton  

E-print Network

1 Use of the Chlorophyll Meter to Guide In-season Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Irrigated;2 The chlorophyll meter provides a rapid and nondestructive diagnosis of plant N status and has been widely tested) found that in-season chlorophyll meter measurements of cotton correlated with petiole nitrate-N, leaf N

Mukhtar, Saqib

54

The accuracy of farm machinery for precision agriculture: a case for fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work quality, capacity and reliability are important criteria for design and evaluation of farm equipment. With the introduction of precision agriculture, the ability to adapt to spatially variable soil and crop conditions, becomes an additional aspect. A calculation method was developed to find the precision of site specific fertilizer application. The variance between the required rate, RR, and the applied

D. Goense

1997-01-01

55

Chemical characterization and bioavailability of phosphorus in water-insoluble fractions of three mono-ammonium phosphate fertilizers.  

PubMed

Elemental impurities in mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) fertilizers, such as Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, and F, result in compounds other than NH4H2PO4. The phosphorus availability of the impurity compounds was determined in 3 commercial MAP fertilizers produced from North Carolina, Florida, and Idaho phosphate rocks. Soluble compounds, including NH4H2PO4, were washed out of the fertilizers, and the water-insoluble fraction was collected. The North Carolina, Florida, and Idaho MAP fertilizers contained 13, 16, and 17% water-insoluble fractions, respectively. Availability of phosphorus in each MAP fertilizer and water-insoluble fraction was determined in a greenhouse pot study using sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor) as the test crop. There were no differences in dry matter weights or phosphorus uptake between reagent grade MAP and each MAP fertilizer. Lower dry matter weights and phosphorus uptake were produced from the water-insoluble North Carolina, Florida, and Idaho fractions (NC greater than FL greater than ID). Chemical analysis and characterization with optical microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffractometry indicated 77.3, 73.8, and 73.6% NH4H2PO4 in the North Carolina, Florida, and Idaho MAP fertilizers, respectively. MgAl(NH4)2H(PO4)2F2, AlNH4HPO4F2, and FeNH4(HPO4)2 were identified as water-insoluble phosphorus compounds. There was a significant negative correlation between the percent phosphorus present as MgAl(NH4)2H(PO4)2F2 and the phosphorus availability. Increased crystallinity of the various water-insoluble compounds also contributed to reduced phosphorus availability. PMID:2553660

Sikora, F J; Dillard, E F; Copeland, J P; Mullins, G L

1989-01-01

56

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2013-07-01

57

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2012-07-01

58

Chemical sensors for space applications.  

PubMed

There will be a great need for a wide variety of chemical analyses, both for biomedical experimentation and for the monitoring of water and air recycling processes on Space Station Freedom and later long-term space missions. The infrequent logistics flights of the Space Shuttle will necessitate onboard analysis. Chemical sensors offer several advantages over conventional analysis onboard a spacecraft. They require less crew time, space, and power. A chemical sensor consists of a selector which selectively interacts with the analyte present in a mixture of substances, and a transducer which produces an electric signal in response to the interaction of analyte and selector. The transducer signal thus provides a quantitative and selective measurement of the analyte. Types and requirements for chemical sensors to be used in biomedical experimentation and monitoring of water recycling during long-term space missions are discussed. With chemical sensors, a wide variety of analytes can be determined selectively without separation steps. In principle, chemical sensors can provide (near) real-time monitoring of many important analytes. In some cases they can even provide continuous monitoring of such analytes. The sensors, and even the ancillary instruments, are small compared to conventional analytical instruments. Their power consumption is low. Sensor measurements do not require extensive sample treatment before analysis. In most cases a sensor can simply be inserted in, or be attached to, the organism; or be placed in the water flowing through the water recycling system. Since the sensor signal can usually be provided in digitized form, rapid transmission to the ground is possible. The use of sensors thus provides an efficient use of the scarce resources of crew time, pressurized volume, and power. PMID:1342247

Bonting, S L

1992-01-01

59

Chemical applications of solar thermal energy  

SciTech Connect

The technology is known for solar-activated chemical applications ranging from desalination of salt water to producing elemental phosphorous with a high-temperature solar furnace. Researchers have also experimented with solar furnaces in a number of chemical applications including coal gasification and water-splitting cycles to form hydrogen. Federal budget cuts in solar research may concentrate industrial interest in the high-temperature area. 1 figure. (DCK)

Whaley, T.

1983-01-17

60

Conservation headlands for rare arable weeds: The effects of fertilizer application and light penetration on plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to promoting agricultural wildlife in general, conservation headlands may be a method of providing a refuge to endangered arable weeds. The conservation headland technique excludes herbicide and insecticide use in the outer 2–3 m of the arable field, but does not restrict fertilizer inputs. We studied the effects of fertilizer application on the weed vegetation in relation to

David Kleijn; Leonie A. C. van der Voort

1997-01-01

61

Scheduling fertilizer applications as a simple mitigation option for reducing N2O emission in intensively managed mown grassland systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general principle in all proposed N2O mitigation options is the fertilization according to plants' requirements. Meanwhile the amount of N fertilization allowed is regulated in many countries. Due to the high pressure from food security and the need for economic efficiency the given limits are generally used up. In mown grassland systems a simple mitigation option is to optimize the timing of the fertilizer applications. Application of fertilizer, both organic manure and mineral fertilizer, is generally scheduled after each cut in a narrow time window. In practice, the delay between cut and fertilizer application is determined by weather conditions, management conditions and most important by the planning and experience of the individual farmer. Many field experiments have shown that enhanced N2O emissions tend to occur after cuts but before the application of fertilizer, especially when soils are characterized by a high WFPS. These findings suggest that the time of fertilizer application has an important implications for the N2O emission rate and that scheduling fertilization according to soil conditions might be a simple, cheap and efficient measure to mitigate N2O emissions. In this paper we report on results from a sensitivity analysis aiming at quantifying the effects of the timing of the fertilizer applications on N2O emissions from intensively managed, mown grasslands. Simulations for different time schedules were carried out with the comprehensive ecosystem model "ECOSYS" . To our knowledge this aspect has not been systematically investigated from a scientific point of view, but might have been always there within the experiences of attentive environmentally concerned farmers.

Neftel, Albrecht; Calanca, Pierluigi; Felber, Raphael; Grant, Robert; Conen, Franz

2014-05-01

62

Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

2013-01-01

63

A conserved fertility signal despite population variation in the cuticular chemical profile of the trap-jaw ant Odontomachus brunneus.  

PubMed

Contact pheromones in the form of cuticular hydrocarbons are widespread among insects. Eusocial insects present a special challenge for understanding the evolution of the cuticular hydrocarbon profile because this blend is responsible for multiple distinct roles such as nestmate recognition and signalling fertility status. This study investigates these two signalling roles of the hydrocarbon profile in the trap-jaw ant Odontomachus brunneus. We demonstrate that the cuticular hydrocarbon profile is highly variable across populations and provide evidence that these differences are used for nestmate discrimination. Through manipulative experiments we also show that (Z)-9-nonacosene (Z9:C29) is used as a fertility signal and its role is conserved across populations. Our data demonstrate that both fertility and nestmate signalling influence the cuticular hydrocarbon profile and specifically the relative abundance of Z9:C29 on the cuticle of O. brunneus. Our study suggests that natural selection works on the cuticular chemical profile through multiple regulatory pathways, diversifying nestmate signals while conserving fertility signals. PMID:23868840

Smith, Adrian A; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Suarez, Andrew V

2013-10-15

64

The impacts of different long-term fertilization regimes on the bioavailability of arsenic in soil: integrating chemical approach with Escherichia coli arsRp::luc-based biosensor.  

PubMed

An Escherichia coli arsRp::luc-based biosensor was constructed to measure the bioavailability of arsenic (As) in soil. In previous induction experiments, it produced a linear response (R (2)?=?0.96, P?chemical sequential extraction, Community Bureau of Reference recommended sequential extraction procedures (BCR-SEPs) and E. coli biosensor, were employed to assess the impact of different long-term fertilization regimes containing N, NP, NPK, M (manure), and NPK?+?M treatments on the bioavailability of arsenic (As) in soil. Per the BCR-SEPs analysis, the application of M and M?+?NPK led to a significant (P?fertilization treated soil (CK). In addition, direct contact assay of E. coli biosensor with soil particles also supported that bioavailable As in manure-fertilized (M and M?+?NPK) soil was significantly higher (P?fertilization was recommended as a more suitable regime in As-polluted soil especially with high As concentration, and this E. coli arsRp::luc-based biosensor was a more realistic approach in assessing the bioavailability of As in soil since it would not overrate the risk of As to the environment. PMID:24687747

Hou, Qi-Hui; Ma, An-Zhou; Lv, Di; Bai, Zhi-Hui; Zhuang, Xu-Liang; Zhuang, Guo-Qiang

2014-07-01

65

Effect of the long-term application of different fertilization systems on soddy-podzolic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of the control variant of an acid nonlimed soil in which the pH values have remained stable for 40 years should be used as criteria for the maximum permissible loads of mineral fertilizers affecting the agrochemical and biological soil properties. Considerable alteration of these limiting agrochemical and biological soil properties (in the variant with NK application) leads to the soil degradation not only in the plow layer but also in the 1-m-deep layer. The application of lime, especially in combination with complete mineral fertilizer, prevents soil degradation, improves its properties, decreases the uptake of heavy metals by plants, and favors the production of ecologically clean agricultural products.

Gomonova, N. F.; Skvortsova, I. N.; Zenova, G. M.

2007-04-01

66

Impact of chemically enhanced diffusion on dissolved inorganic carbon stable isotopes in a fertilized lake  

E-print Network

in a fertilized lake Darren L. Bade1,2 and Jonathan J. Cole3 Received 25 August 2004; revised 25 July 2005 in a fertilized lake, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C01014, doi:10.1029/2004JC002684. 1. Introduction [2] The flux of CO2, allowing algae to fully utilize other limiting nutrients. This flux is therefore a key factor in supporting

67

Effect of the long-term application of different fertilization systems on soddy-podzolic soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the control variant of an acid nonlimed soil in which the pH values have remained stable for 40 years\\u000a should be used as criteria for the maximum permissible loads of mineral fertilizers affecting the agrochemical and biological\\u000a soil properties. Considerable alteration of these limiting agrochemical and biological soil properties (in the variant with\\u000a NK application) leads to

N. F. Gomonova; I. N. Skvortsova; G. M. Zenova

2007-01-01

68

Surface application of ammonium thiosulfate fertilizer to reduce volatilization of 1,3-dichloropropene from soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric emission of the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) is of environmental concern because of its toxicity and carcinogenicity. Thiosulfate fertilizers have been found to rapidly transform 1,3-D in soil to non-volatile ions which are less toxic. We investigated the use of surface application of ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) for reducing 1,3-D volatilization. In packed soil columns, emission of 1,3-D applied by

Jianying Gan; J Ole Becker; Frederick F Ernst; Chad Hutchinson; James A Knuteson; Scott R Yates

2000-01-01

69

Response of cotton to nitrogen fertilization and early multiple applications of mepiquat chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were conducted for three years to determine the effects of early multiple applications of mepiquat chloride (MC) on field?grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fertilized with high rates of soil?applied urea?N (134, 168, and 202 kg N\\/ha). Foliar treatments of 0, 0.006, and 0.012 kg MC\\/ha in combination with 0 and 0.22 kg B\\/ha were applied when the cotton reached

J. S. McConnell; W. H. Baker; B. S. Frizzell; J. J. Varvil

1992-01-01

70

Successful fertilization, embryo development, and pregnancy in human in vitro fertilization (IVF) using a chemically defined culture medium containing no protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized control trial involving the fertilization and culture of human embryos in culture medium (T6) conraining either 10% maternal serum or no protein or amino acid supplement was carried out to assess the effect of deletion from culture of all fixed nitrogen on fertilization, embryo development, and embryo viability. There was no difference in fertilization rates (68 vs 69%),

Catriona M. Caro; Alan Trounson

1986-01-01

71

Commercial Fertilizers 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a compilation of annual data about fertilizer use in the USA, including statistics about various kinds of fertilizer, how much and where they are used, chemical composition, etc.

Berry, J.T.

1994-12-01

72

Acupuncture and in vitro fertilization: critique of the evidence and application to clinical practice.  

PubMed

Women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) commonly use adjunctive therapies to improve IVF outcomes and reduce stress, anxiety and depression. Among these acupuncture is a popular choice. Despite 40 clinical trials and 9 systematic reviews investigating the efficacy of acupuncture for improving IVF outcomes, evidence-based guidelines are difficult to devise. The methodology used in the clinical trials does not closely resemble the use of acupuncture in real world acupuncture clinics, limiting the applicability of this research. Since many women undergoing IVF are currently using acupuncture there is a pressing need for a broader understanding of the use of acupuncture for female infertility. This paper offers a critical examination of the research on acupuncture and IVF and its limitations, details the differences between these studies and real world clinical practice, and discusses Chinese medicine theory for improving fertility and its possible scientific mechanisms within the context of clinical practice. PMID:23337556

Anderson, Belinda; Rosenthal, Lara

2013-02-01

73

Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates.  

PubMed

Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased ?-, ?-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of ?-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and ?-/?-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi

2014-02-01

74

Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates* #  

PubMed Central

Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased ?-, ?-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of ?-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and ?-/?-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi

2014-01-01

75

FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS  

E-print Network

TRI-STATE FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CORN, SOYBEANS, WHEAT & ALFALFA TRI-STATE FERTILIZER University Extension Bulletin E-2567 (New), July 1995 #12;Tri-state Fertilizer Recommendations for Corn D.B. Mengel, Purdue University FOREWORD When fertilizer first became readily available in the 1930s

Holland, Jeffrey

76

Increase of As release and phytotoxicity to rice seedlings in As-contaminated paddy soils by Si fertilizer application.  

PubMed

Silicon (Si) was shown to be able to reduce arsenic (As) uptake by rice in hydroponic culture or in low As soils using high Si application rates. However, the effect of Si application on As uptake of rice grown in As-contaminated soils using Si fertilizer recommendation rate has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of Si application using Si fertilizer recommendation rate on As release and phytotoxicity in soils with different properties and contents of As was examined. The results show that the concentrations of As in soil solutions increased after Si applications due to competitive adsorption between As and Si on soil solids and the Si concentrations in soil solutions were also elevated to beneficial levels for rice growth. The rice seedlings accumulated more As and its growth was inhibited by Si application in As contaminated/spiked soils. The results indicate that there is an initial aggravation in As toxicity before the beneficial effects of Si fertilizing to rice were revealed when Si application based on fertilizer recommendation rate to As-contaminated paddy soils. Therefore, for As-contaminated paddy soils with high levels of As, the application of Si fertilizer could result in increasing As phytotoxicity and uptake by rice. PMID:24892775

Lee, Chia-Hsing; Huang, Hsuan-Han; Syu, Chien-Hui; Lin, Tzu-Huei; Lee, Dar-Yuan

2014-07-15

77

Slug responses to grassland cutting and fertilizer application under plant functional group removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current studies on trophic interactions in biodiversity experiments have largely relied on artificially sown gradients in plant diversity, but removal experiments with their more natural plant community composition are more realistic. Slugs are a major part of the invertebrate herbivore community, with some species being common pests in agriculture. We therefore investigated how strongly slugs are influenced by grassland management, plant biodiversity and composition. Here we analysed the effects of cutting frequency, fertilizer application and plant functional group composition on slug densities and their contribution to herbivory on Rumex acetosa in a removal experiment within a >100-year old grassland in Northern Germany. The experiment was laid out as a Latin rectangle with full factorial combinations of (i) plant functional group removal (3 levels) using herbicides, (ii) fertilizer application (2 levels) and (iii) cutting frequency (2 levels). The resulting 12 treatment combinations were replicated 6 times, resulting in 72 plots. We collected a total of 1020 individuals belonging to three species Arion distinctus (60.4% of individuals), Deroceras reticulatum (34.7%) and Arion lusitanicus (4.9%) using a cover board technique and additionally measured herbivore damage to R. acetosa. We found the highest slug abundance on plots with a low cutting frequency and high food resource availability (increased cover of forbs and taller vegetation). Fertilizer application had no significant effect on slug abundance, but caused higher herbivore damage to on R. acetosa, possibly as a result of increased tissue quality. The negative effect of higher cutting frequency on slug abundance was lowest in control plots with their naturally developed graminoid-forb communities (cutting reduced slug density by 6% in the control vs. 29% in herbicide plots). Our experiments therefore support the idea that more natural plant species compositions reduce the impact of disturbances (e.g. through cutting or grazing) on invertebrates.

Everwand, Georg; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja

2013-04-01

78

Research and Application of Mobile Precision Irrigation and Fertilizing Compound Machine for Greenhouse and Horticulture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces a intelligent equipment, which can inject fertilizing and control fertilizing quantity when irrigating crop with irrigation drip belt. The pipes of the machine can link fleetly with greenhouse with quick fitting,so it is mobile to use to different greenhouse and fit to so many different kind of fertilizing, also fit to many flowers and vegetable fertilizing and

Ma Wei; Zhang Mei; Zhou Zhou; Chen Liping; Wang Xiu; Mao Yijin

2010-01-01

79

Simultaneous estimation of seed-fertilizer adoption decisions: An application to hybrid maize in Malawi  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous models are often appropriate for estimating high-yielding variety (HYV) adoption, but most empirical investigations have been based on single-equation models. Using the econometric application of a model for hybrid maize adoption in Malawi as an illustration, this paper argues that researchers investigating HYV innovations need to consider methods for estimating simultaneous censored systems. Further work with associated estimation procedures and diagnostic tests is needed to improve the measurement and prediction of seed-fertilizer adoption. 24 refs., 5 tabs.

Smale, M.; Heisey, P.W.

1993-05-01

80

Distributions of rare earths and heavy metals in field-grown maize after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earths are widely applied in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition through the use of fertilizers, yet little is known of their accumulation in field-grown crops. We have studied the distribution of 16 rare earths (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanide elements) in field-grown maize and the concentration of heavy metals in the grains after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer.

Xingkai Xu; Wangzhao Zhu; Zijian Wang; Geert-Jan Witkamp

2002-01-01

81

Phosphorus effectiveness in fertilized soils evaluated by chemical solutions and residual value for wheat growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen soils from the south east of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina) that had been fertilized with moderate amounts of P (10–40 kgP\\/ha) during the last 10 years were used to investigate the effect of time on the decline of P availability as measured by three soil tests (Bray 1, Bray 2, Olsen) and the null-point method. Differences in

R. E. Mendoza

1992-01-01

82

Arsenic in Ironite fertilizer: The absorption by hamsters and the chemical form  

SciTech Connect

We determined the gastrointestinal absorption of the arsenic in Ironite, a readily available fertilizer, for male hamsters (Golden Syrian), considered to be an excellent model for how the human processes inorganic arsenic. Urine and feces were collected after administering an aqueous suspension of Ironite by stomach tube. In addition, we studied the forms and oxidation states of arsenic in Ironite by synchrotron spectroscopic techniques. The absorption of the arsenic in Ironite (1-0-0) was 21.2% and the absorption relative to sodium arsenite was 31.0%. Our results using XANES spectra determinations indicate that Ironite contains scorodite (AsV) as well as previously reported arsenopyrite (As(-1)). Since the 1-0-0 Ironite is readily available for purchase, its risk assessment for children by professionals is recommended. This is especially important because it is used to fertilize large areas of grass in playgrounds and parks where children play. The absorption of the arsenic in it, the hand to mouth activity of children, and the potential of ground water contamination makes the use of 1-0-0 Ironite as a fertilizer a potential environmental hazard.

Aposhian, M.M.; Koch, I.; Avram, M.D.; Chowdhury, U.K.; Smith, P.G.; Reimer, K.J.; Aposhian, H.V.; (Ariz); (Royal)

2009-09-11

83

Compact chemical energy system for seismic applications  

DOEpatents

A chemical energy system is formed for producing detonations in a confined environment. An explosive mixture is formed from nitromethane (NM) and diethylenetriamine (DETA). A slapper detonator is arranged adjacent to the explosive mixture to initiate detonation of the mixture. NM and DETA are not classified as explosives when handled separately and can be safely transported and handled by workers in the field. In one aspect of the present invention, the chemicals are mixed at a location where an explosion is to occur. For application in a confined environment, the chemicals are mixed in an inflatable container to minimize storage space until it is desired to initiate an explosion. To enable an inflatable container to be used, at least 2.5 wt % DETA is used in the explosive mixture. A barrier is utilized that is formed of a carbon composite material to provide the appropriate barrel geometry and energy transmission to the explosive mixture from the slapper detonator system.

Engelke, Raymond P. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedges, Robert O. (Los Alamos, NM); Kammerman, Alan B. (Los Alamos, NM); Albright, James N. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01

84

Nonsurgical fertility control for managing free-roaming dog populations: a review of products and criteria for field applications.  

PubMed

About 75% of dogs worldwide are free to roam and reproduce, thus creating locally overabundant populations. Problems caused by roaming dogs include diseases transmitted to livestock and humans, predation on livestock, attacks on humans, road traffic accidents, and nuisance behavior. Nonsurgical fertility control is increasingly advocated as more cost-effective than surgical sterilization to manage dog populations and their impact. The aims of this review were to 1) analyze trends in numbers of scientific publications on nonsurgical fertility control for dogs; 2) illustrate the spectrum of fertility inhibitors available for dogs; 3) examine how differences between confined and free-roaming dogs might affect the choice of fertility inhibitors to be used in dog population management; and 4) provide a framework of criteria to guide decisions regarding the use of nonsurgical fertility control for dog population management. The results showed that the 117 articles published between 1982 and 2011 focussed on long-term hormonal contraceptives, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, immunocontraceptives, and male chemical sterilants. The number of articles published biennially increased from one to five papers produced in the early 1980s to 10 to 20 in the past decade. Differences between confined dogs and free-roaming dogs include reproduction and survival as well as social expectations regarding the duration of infertility, the costs of sterilization, and the responsibilities for meeting these costs. These differences are likely to dictate which fertility inhibitors will be used for confined or free-roaming dogs. The criteria regarding the use of fertility control for dog population management, presented as a decision tree, covered social acceptance, animal welfare, effectiveness, legal compliance, feasibility, and sustainability. The review concluded that the main challenges for the future are evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, sustainability, and effects of mass nonsurgical sterilization campaigns on dog population size and impact as well as integrating nonsurgical fertility control with disease vaccination and public education programs. PMID:23998740

Massei, Giovanna; Miller, Lowell A

2013-11-01

85

Use of Spectroradiometers to Guide In-season Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Irrigated Cotton in West Texas  

E-print Network

1 Use of Spectroradiometers to Guide In-season Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Irrigated Cotton in West Texas Following water, nitrogen (N) is the most important constraint to upland cotton production. Most of the cotton in the semiarid western U.S.A. is irrigated, and in areas like the Southern High

Behmer, Spencer T.

86

Applications of microfluidics in chemical biology Douglas B Weibel1  

E-print Network

Applications of microfluidics in chemical biology Douglas B Weibel1 and George M Whitesides2 This review discusses the application of microfluidics in chemical biology. It aims to introduce the reader to microfluidics, describe characteristics of microfluidic systems that are useful in studying chemical biology

Prentiss, Mara

87

Effects of exposure to four endocrine disrupting-chemicals on fertilization and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17?-estradiol (E2), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT), to sperm motility, fertilization rate, hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study. The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT, 1 ?g L-1 for NP and 100 ?g L-1 for DDE, respectively. The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 ?g L-1 for DDE and NP, respectively. Of the tested properties of S. curriculus, larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 ?g L-1. Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ng L-1 for E2, 10 ng L-1 for TBT and 1 ?g L-1 for NP, respectively. Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations, the hatching rate and larval survival rate of S. curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs. The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S. curriculus. Overall, E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE, while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters. Thus, the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S. curriculus. Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2, DDE, NP and TBT.

Niu, Cuijuan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Ying; Li, Li

2013-09-01

88

Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report  

SciTech Connect

The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1989-04-01

89

[Effects of different organic fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco].  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying different organic fertilizers (refined organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) and their combination with 20% reduced chemical fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco, the resistance of the tobacco against bacterial wilt, and the tobacco yield and quality. As compared with conventional chemical fertilization (CK), applying refined organic fertilizer (ROF) or bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization increased the bacterial number and the total microbial number in the rhizospheric soil significantly. Applying BIO in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization also increased the actinomyces number in the rhizospheric soil significantly, with an increment of 44.3% as compared with that under the application of ROF in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization, but decreased the fungal number. As compared with CK, the ROF and BIO increased the carbon use capacity of rhizospheric microbes significantly, and the BIO also increased the capacity of rhizospheric microbes in using phenols significantly. Under the application of ROF and BIO, the disease incidence and the disease index of bacterial wilt were decreased by 4% and 8%, and 23% and 15.9%, and the proportions of high grade tobacco leaves increased significantly by 10.5% and 9.7%, respectively, as compared with those in CK. BIO increased the tobacco yield and its output value by 17.1% and 18.9% , respectively, as compared with ROF. PMID:24417114

Zhang, Yun-Wei; Xu, Zhi; Tang, Li; Li, Yan-Hong; Song, Jian-Qun; Xu, Jian-Qin

2013-09-01

90

Possible application of solar-thermal energy in the chemical industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight chemicals are identified that require substantial amounts of nonrecoverable energy for their production. The chemicals are: ethylene, vinyl chloride, styrene, propylene, butadiene, isoprene, hydrogen, and phosphorus. These chemicals are used to produce a wealth of products such as plastics, rubbers and fertilizers. In most cases, these energy intensive materials are at the top of a pyramid of subsequent, exothermic reactions and products that do not require additional thermal energy except for separation processes. Their production at present is centralized and done on a large scale, and most of the organics are produced in refineries where hydrocarbon energy is abundant. This association with refineries means at present that direct substitution of solar energy for hydrocarbon fired heaters may not be convenient, even though scientifically feasible. Other solar energy applications are production of caustic soda from thermodynamic cycles, ethylene from ethanol, and butadiene from ethanol.

Martin, L. R.

1982-06-01

91

The application of biosorption for production of micronutrient fertilizers based on waste biomass.  

PubMed

In the present paper, new environmental-friendly fertilizer components were produced in biosorption process by the enrichment of the biomass with zinc, essential in plant cultivation. The obtained new preparations can be used as controlled release micronutrient fertilizers because microelements are bound to the functional groups present in the cell wall structures of the biomass. It is assumed that new fertilizing materials will be characterized by higher bioavailability, gradual release of micronutrients required by plants, and lower leaching to groundwater. The biological origin of the material used in plant fertilization results in the elimination of toxic effect towards plants and groundwater mainly caused by low biodegradability of fertilizers. Utilitarian properties of new formulations enable to reduce negative implications of fertilizers for environmental quality and influence ecological health. In this work, the utilitarian properties of materials such as peat, bark, seaweeds, seaweed post-extraction residues, and spent mushroom substrate enriched via biosorption with Zn(II) ions were examined in germination tests on Lepidium sativum. Obtained results were compared with conventional fertilizers-inorganic salt and chelate. It was shown that zinc fertilization led to biofortification of plant in these micronutrients. Moreover, the mass of plants fertilized with zinc was higher than in the control group. PMID:25108517

Tuhy, Lukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

2014-10-01

92

Soil microbes and plant fertilization.  

PubMed

With respect to the adverse effects of chemical fertilization on the environment and their related expenses, especially when overused, alternative methods of fertilization have been suggested and tested. For example, the combined use of chemical fertilization with organic fertilization and/or biological fertilization is among such methods. It has been indicated that the use of organic fertilization with chemical fertilization is a suitable method of providing crop plants with adequate amount of nutrients, while environmentally and economically appropriate. In this article, the importance of soil microbes to the ecosystem is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and endophytic bacteria in providing necessary nutrients for plant growth and yield production. Such microbes are beneficial to plant growth through colonizing plant roots and inducing mechanisms by which plant growth increases. Although there has been extensive research work regarding the use of microbes as a method of fertilizing plants, it is yet a question how the efficiency of such microbial fertilization to the plant can be determined and increased. In other words, how the right combination of chemical and biological fertilization can be determined. In this article, the most recent advances regarding the effects of microbial fertilization on plant growth and yield production in their combined use with chemical fertilization are reviewed. There are also some details related to the molecular mechanisms affecting the microbial performance and how the use of biological techniques may affect the efficiency of biological fertilization. PMID:21989562

Miransari, Mohammad

2011-12-01

93

In Vitro Fertilization of Mons Ova Obtained By Three Ways and Their Cleavage in Commercially and Chemically Defined Media (*)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study ova were collected from the regularly mated, pseudopregnant, and superovulated females Balblc or C57\\/J6 mice. The ova were in vitro fertilized by sperms collected from the vas deferens and epididymis of male mice in fertilization medium (FM). The fertilized ova were cultured in four types of media (MI6, M2, MCM, KSOM). The results have shown that in

94

Field measurements of ammonia volatilization from surface applications of nitrogen fertilizers to a calcareous soil  

E-print Network

assistance and for their support and personal friendship. I also acknowledge the Allied Chemical Corporation, whose grant funds made possible the construction of the automated device used to measure NH~ losses in the field. TABLE OF CONTENTS... hydrolysis study . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . 71 Table 14 Effect of added soil water and added urease on loss of NH 3 from Solution 32 applied at a rate of 224 kg N/ha in the field Page 72 15 Effect of method of application and added urease...

Hargrove, W. L

2012-06-07

95

Visiting Database Programmer/Application Developer School of Chemical Sciences  

E-print Network

Visiting Database Programmer/Application Developer School of Chemical Sciences University professional as Visiting Database Programmer/Application Developer. This position reports to the Information administrative database environment (specifically Oracle and SQL Server). This is a visiting position, but may

Zimmerman, Steven C.

96

Microbial degradation of benthiocarb, MCPA and 2,4-d herbicides in perfused soils amended with organic matter and chemical fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of benthiocarb, MCPA and 2,4-D in soils amended with rice straw, compost and chemical fertilizers was studied using the soil perfusion technique. In the control (non-amendment) and rice straw treatments, rapid degradation of benthiocarb occurred after a lag period of 12 days. On the other hand, compost and N-P-K amendments, especially the latter, shortened the lag period. Single

Stephen Duah Yentumi; Shozo Kuwatsuka

1982-01-01

97

Wiener number of vertexweighted graphs and a chemical application  

E-print Network

of electroreduction of chlorobenzenes [3], cytostatic and antihistaminic activities of certain drugs [24], protonationWiener number of vertex­weighted graphs and a chemical application Sandi KlavŸzar Department applications in the modelling of physico--chemical, pharmacological and biological properties of organic

Klavzar, Sandi

98

The Rengen Grassland Experiment: Plant species composition after 64 years of fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term fertilizer experiment (the Rengen Grassland Experiment, RGE) was established in 1941 in the Eifel Mountains of Germany on low productive grassland naturally dominated by Calluna vulgaris and Nardus stricta. Six treatments combinations of Ca, N, P, and K fertilizer were applied annually: an unfertilized control, Ca, CaN, CaNP, CaNP–KCl, and CaNP–K2SO4. In mid-June 2005, plant cover was visually

Michal Hejcman; Michaela Klaudisová; Jürgen Schellberg; Dagmar Honsová

2007-01-01

99

Assessment of Fertilization Effect of Fly Ash on High-Analysis Synthetic Compound Fertilizers. Fertilizer Response Test Using Komatsuna, Brassica Campestris L.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New fertilizers were developed to expand the application of fly ash and complement some shortcomings in physical properties of ammonium nitrate and urea fertilizers. These fertilizers are synthetic compound fertilizers containing three elements produced i...

M. Aoki, T. Umezawa, K. Okabe

1987-01-01

100

Fertilizer trends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment de...

R. Donaldson

1992-01-01

101

Fertility Awareness  

MedlinePLUS

... avoided during the fertile period. Continue Protection Against STDs Fertility awareness does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . Couples having sex must always use condoms ...

102

Nutritional Applications of the Chemical Senses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship of taste and smell to ingestion, digestion, and metabolism. Indicates that the response of these physiological systems can be chemical specific and that chemical senses may play different roles in regulating diet during nutrient deficiency and during nutrient surplus situations. (JN)

Naim, Michael; Kare, Morley R.

1984-01-01

103

Quantifying uncertainties in N(2)O emission due to N fertilizer application in cultivated areas.  

PubMed

Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential approximately 298 times greater than that of CO(2). In 2006, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated N(2)O emission due to synthetic and organic nitrogen (N) fertilization at 1% of applied N. We investigated the uncertainty on this estimated value, by fitting 13 different models to a published dataset including 985 N(2)O measurements. These models were characterized by (i) the presence or absence of the explanatory variable "applied N", (ii) the function relating N(2)O emission to applied N (exponential or linear function), (iii) fixed or random background (i.e. in the absence of N application) N(2)O emission and (iv) fixed or random applied N effect. We calculated ranges of uncertainty on N(2)O emissions from a subset of these models, and compared them with the uncertainty ranges currently used in the IPCC-Tier 1 method. The exponential models outperformed the linear models, and models including one or two random effects outperformed those including fixed effects only. The use of an exponential function rather than a linear function has an important practical consequence: the emission factor is not constant and increases as a function of applied N. Emission factors estimated using the exponential function were lower than 1% when the amount of N applied was below 160 kg N ha(-1). Our uncertainty analysis shows that the uncertainty range currently used by the IPCC-Tier 1 method could be reduced. PMID:23226430

Philibert, Aurore; Loyce, Chantal; Makowski, David

2012-01-01

104

[Influences of long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil].  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of long-term organic and inorganic fertilizations on the composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in black soil. Soil samples were collected from 4 treatments (i. e. no fertilizer treatment, CK; organic manure treatment, OM; chemical fertilizer treatment (NPK) and combination of organic and chemical fertilizers treatment (MNPK)) in Gongzhuling Long-term Fertilization Experiment Station. Composition and abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers were analyzed with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), respectively. Denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) and soil properties were also measured. Application of organic fertilizers (OM and MNPK) significantly increased the DEAs of black soil, with the DEAs in OM and MNPK being 5.92 and 6.03 times higher than that in CK treatment, respectively, whereas there was no significant difference between NPK and CK. OM and MNPK treatments increased the abundances of nirS-type denitrifiers by 2.73 and 3.83 times relative to that of CK treatment, respectively. The abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers in NPK treatment was not significantly different from that of CK. The T-RFLP analysis of nirS genes showed significant differences in community composition between organic and inorganic treatments, with the emergence of a 79 bp T-RF, a significant decrease in relative abundance of the 84 bp T-RF and a loss of the 99 bp T-RF in all organic treatments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the airS-type denitrifiers in the black soil were mainly composed of alpha, beta and gamma-Proteobacteria. The 79 bp-type denitrifiers inhabiting exclusively in organic treatments (OM and MNPK) were affiliated to Pseudomonadaceae in gamma-Proteobacteria and Burkholderiales in beta-Proteobacteria. The 84 bp-types were related to Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales. Correlation analysis indicated that pH, concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC), nitrate (NO3(-) -N) and ammonia (NH4(+) -N) were significantly related to abundances of nirS-denitrifers (r = 0.724-0.922, P < 0.05) and the DEA (r = 0.453-0.938, P < 0.01). In addition, the DEAs were linearly and positively correlated with the abundances of nirS-type denitrifers (r = 0.85, P < 0.01). Redundancy analysis showed that except moisture, pH and concentrations of TP, TP, TOC, NH4(+) -N and NO3(-) -N were significantly correlated with the community structure of nirS-type denirifiers (r = 0.440-0.862, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the DEAs were significantly correlated with the compositions of nirS-denirifiers (r = 0.863, P < 0.01). In conclusion, the airS-type denitrifiers in the black soil are more responsive to the organic treatments than to the inorganic treatments in terms of community composition and abundance, both of which are correlated with the changes of DEAs. PMID:23323433

Yin, Chang; Fan, Fen-Liang; Li, Zhao-Jun; Song, A-Lin; Zhu, Ping; Peng, Chang; Liang, Yong-Chao

2012-11-01

105

A novel mobile dual-wavelength laser altimetry system for improved site-specific Nitrogen fertilizer applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing fertilizer inputs while maintaining yield would increase farmer's profits and similarly lessen the adverse environmental effects of production agriculture. The development of technologies that allow precise, site-specific application of Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has thus been an important research goal over the past decades. Remote sensing of foliar crop properties and function with tractor-mountable optical sensors has thought to be useful to optimize N fertilizer applications. However, on-the-go sensing of foliar crop properties and function has proven difficult, particularly during early crop growth stages when fertilizer decisions are often made. This difficulty arises from the fact that the spectral signal measured by on-the-go sensors is dominated by soil reflectance during early crop growth stages. Here, we present the basic principles behind a novel, dual-wavelength, tractor mountable laser altimetry system that measures the laser return intensity of the reflected green and red laser light. The green (532 nm) and the red (660 nm) wavelength combination allows calculation of a modified Photochemical Reflectance Index (mPRI) that have shown to be sensitive to both crop function and foliar chemistry. The small field of view of the laser points (diameter: 4 mm) combined with its high sampling rate (1000 points sec-1) allows vegetation returns to be isolated from ground returns by using simple thresholds. First tests relating foliar N of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with laser derived mPRI are promising (r2 = 0.72). Further research is needed to test the relationship between laser derived spectral indices and crop function.

Eitel, J.; Magney, T. S.; Vierling, L. A.; Brown, T. T.; Huggins, D. R.

2012-12-01

106

Phosphorus leaching risk assessment with manure fertilizer application in south China.  

PubMed

To investigate the phosphorus (P) leaching risk caused by applying manure fertilizer, six different manure fertilizers, namely, 0 (CK), 3,000 (F200), 4,500 (F300), 7,500 (F500), 10,500 (F700), and 15,000 kg ha(-2) (F1000), were applied to the surface soil (0-20 cm) prior to vegetable planting. The maximum Olsen P decreased with increasing amounts of the manure fertilizer. Total P did not change with treatments below 7,500, but decreased in the higher manure treatments. Water dissolved P (WDP) was highest in the upper (0-20 cm soil) layer, intermediate in the middle (20-40 cm soil) layer, and lowest in the lower (40-60 cm soil) layer. The 7,500, 10,500, and 15,000 treatments increased the WDPs in both the middle and lower soil layers and enhanced the degree of P saturation in the lower layer. This indicates that vertical leachate movement of P accumulation in the middle soil layer may be underestimated and the P leaching risk is enhanced using manure fertilizer levels >7,500 kg ha(-2). PMID:24718499

Ding, Xiaodong; Wei, Changbin; Wang, Rongping; Liao, Xinrong; Li, Shuyi

2014-07-01

107

Soil phosphorus fractions after 111 years of animal manure and fertilizer applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulated soil P in agricultural soils is a major source of soluble and particulate forms of P entering water resources and degrading water quality. However, few research sites are currently available to evaluate the long-term effects of different cropping systems and fertility practices on soil inorganic and organic P accumulation. The objectives of this study were: (1) to compare the

P. P. Motavalli; R. J. Miles

2002-01-01

108

Neural subtype specification of fertilization and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells and application in parkinsonian mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing protocols for the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells require extended in vitro culture, yield variable differentiation results or are limited to the generation of selected neural subtypes. Here we provide a set of coculture conditions that allows rapid and efficient derivation of most central nervous system phenotypes. The fate of both fertilization- and nuclear transfer–derived ES

Tiziano Barberi; Peter Klivenyi; Noel Y Calingasan; Hyojin Lee; Hibiki Kawamata; Kathleen Loonam; Anselme L Perrier; Juan Bruses; Maria E Rubio; Norbert Topf; Viviane Tabar; Neil L Harrison; M Flint Beal; Malcolm A S Moore; Lorenz Studer

2003-01-01

109

FERTILIZATION BY SPERM MICROINJECTION AND ZONA DRILLING: APPLICATIONS IN THE BASIC AND CLINICAL SCIENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental manipulation of fertilization provides an exciting research approach for studying mechanisms involved in sperm/egg interaction and holds great promise as a means for overcoming some forms of human infertility. The report will focus on three methods for assisted ferti...

110

Simazine application inhibits nitrification and changes the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in a fertilized agricultural soil.  

PubMed

s-Triazine herbicides are widely used for weed control, and are persistent in soils. Nitrification is an essential process in the global nitrogen cycle in soil, and involves ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA). In this study, we evaluated the effect of the s-triazine herbicide simazine on the nitrification and on the structure of ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities in a fertilized agricultural soil. The effect of simazine on AOB and AOA were studied by PCR-amplification of amoA genes of nitrifying Bacteria and Archaea in soil microcosms and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses. Simazine [50 ?g g(-1) dry weight soil (d.w.s)] completely inhibited the nitrification processes in the fertilized agricultural soil. The inhibition by simazine of ammonia oxidation observed was similar to the reduction of ammonia oxidation by the nitrification inhibitor acetylene. The application of simazine-affected AOB community DGGE patterns in the agricultural soil amended with ammonium, whereas no significant changes in the AOA community were observed. The DGGE analyses strongly suggest that simazine inhibited Nitrosobacteria and specifically Nitrosospira species. In conclusion, our results suggest that the s-triazine herbicide not only inhibits the target susceptible plants but also inhibits the ammonia oxidation and the AOB in fertilized soils. PMID:22066929

Hernández, Marcela; Jia, Zhongjun; Conrad, Ralf; Seeger, Michael

2011-12-01

111

Computer Applications in Balancing Chemical Equations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses computer-based approaches to balancing chemical equations. Surveys 13 methods, 6 based on matrix, 2 interactive programs, 1 stand-alone system, 1 developed in algorithm in Basic, 1 based on design engineering, 1 written in HyperCard, and 1 prepared for the World Wide Web. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

Kumar, David D.

2001-01-01

112

Microwave Technology--Applications in Chemical Synthesis  

EPA Science Inventory

Microwave heating, being specific and instantaneous, is unique and has found a place for expeditious chemical syntheses. Specifically, the solvent-free reactions are convenient to perform and have advantages over the conventional heating protocols as summarized in the previous se...

113

Chemical Applications of Electrohydraulic Cavitation for Hazardous Waste Control  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROHVDRAULIC CAVITATION FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTROL MICHAEL R. HOFFMANN, PROFESSOR, CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PASADENA, CA 91125 Abstract We have been investigating the fundamental chemistry..., production of hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms, hydrogen peroxide and aquated electrons. The chemical changes of compounds in water pulsed with these different sources of power are induced in part by the violent collapse of cavitation bubbles...

Hoffmann, M. R.

114

40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory §...

2010-07-01

115

40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory §...

2011-07-01

116

40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory §...

2011-07-01

117

The Effects of Manure and Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a High-Input Cropping System  

PubMed Central

With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure. PMID:24830463

Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

2014-01-01

118

Chemical structure representations and applications in computational toxicity.  

PubMed

Efficient storage and retrieval of chemical structures is one of the most important prerequisite for solving any computational-based problem in life sciences. Several resources including research publications, text books, and articles are available on chemical structure representation. Chemical substances that have same molecular formula but several structural formulae, conformations, and skeleton framework/scaffold/functional groups of the molecule convey various characteristics of the molecule. Today with the aid of sophisticated mathematical models and informatics tools, it is possible to design a molecule of interest with specified characteristics based on their applications in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, biotechnology, nanomaterials, petrochemicals, and polymers. This chapter discusses both traditional and current state of art representation of chemical structures and their applications in chemical information management, bioactivity- and toxicity-based predictive studies. PMID:23007430

Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

2012-01-01

119

Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL`s Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs.

Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

1993-05-01

120

Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs.

Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

1993-05-01

121

Free energy calculations: Applications to chemical and biochemical phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author will review the applications of free energy calculations employing molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo methods to a variety of chemical and biochemical phenomena. The focus is on the applications of such calculations to molecular solvation, molecular association, macromolecular stability, and enzyme catalysis. The molecules discussed range from monovalent ions and small molecules to proteins and nucleic acids.

Peter. Kollman

1993-01-01

122

N2O emissions due to nitrogen fertilizer applications in two regions of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), N2O has the highest global warming potential. N2O emission is mainly connected to agricultural activities, increasing as nitrogen concentrations increase in the soil with nitrogen fertilizer application. We evaluated N2O emissions due to application of increasing doses of ammonium nitrate and urea in two sugarcane fields in the mid-southern region of Brazil: Piracicaba (São Paulo state) and Goianésia (Goiás state). In Piracicaba, N2O emissions exponentially increased with increasing N doses and were similar for urea and ammonium nitrate up to a dose of 107.9 kg ha-1 of N. From there on, emissions exponentially increased for ammonium nitrate, whereas for urea they stabilized. In Goianésia, N2O emissions were lower, although the behavior was similar to that at the Piracicaba site. Ammonium nitrate emissions increased linearly with N dose and urea emissions were adjusted to a quadratic equation with a maximum amount of 113.9 kg N ha-1. This first effort to measure fertilizer induced emissions in Brazilian sugarcane production not only helps to elucidate the behavior of N2O emissions promoted by different N sources frequently used in Brazilian sugarcane fields but also can be useful for future Brazilian ethanol carbon footprint studies.

Signor, D.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Conant, R.

2013-03-01

123

The crucial factor of non-point pollution(N, P) controlling in Weihe River basin—Study and evaluation of SlowRelease compound Fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the analysis of major pollution source in Weihe River basin, we found that agricultural non-point pollution(N, P) is the main source of water pollution, and a large number of application of chemical fertilizers and the low utilization rate is the main cause of this pollution. Therefore, reducing application of agricultural fertilizers, increasing their utilization and decreasing the basin of

Liu Fangrong; Guo Yan; Zhao Pei; He Yunhua

2011-01-01

124

High Temperature Materials for Chemical Propulsion Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation or passively cooled thrust chambers are used for a variety of chemical propulsion functions including apogee insertion, reaction control for launch vehicles, and primary propulsion for planetary spacecraft. The performance of these thrust chambers is limited by the operating temperature of available materials. Improved oxidation resistance and increased operating temperatures can be achieved with the use of thermal barrier coatings such as zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hafnium oxide (HfO2). However, previous attempts to include these materials showed cracking and spalling of the oxide layer due to poor bonding. Current research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has generated unique, high temperature material options for in-space thruster designs that are capable of up to 2500 C operating temperatures. The research is focused on fabrication technologies to form low cost Iridium,qF_.henium (Ir/Re) components with a ceramic hot wall created as an integral, functionally graded material (FGM). The goal of this effort is to further de?celop proven technologies for embedding a protective ceramic coating within the Ir/Re liner to form a robust functional gradient material. Current work includes the fabrication and testing of subscale samples to evaluate tensile, creep, thermal cyclic/oxidation, and thermophysical material properties. Larger test articles have also being fabricated and hot-fire tested to demonstrate the materials in prototype thrusters at 1O0 lbf thrust levels.

Elam, Sandra; Hickman, Robert; O'Dell, Scott

2007-01-01

125

The effect of long-term fertilizer application on the group and fractional composition of humus in a soddy-podzolic light loamy soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of lime and organic and mineral fertilizers on the fractional and group composition of the humus in a light loamy soddy-podzolic soil was studied in a long-term experiment. The application of lime increased the content of the agronomically valuable fraction of humic acids (HA-2) by 2.6 times on the average. The application of mineral fertilizers at the rate of N83P61K112 (kg/ha per year) increased the mobility of the humic substances; the application of farmyard manure (12.5 t/ha per) has an opposite effect. In general, various fertilizer systems exerted a favorable effect on the qualitative composition of the humus with an increase in the percentage of humic acids, though the humate-fulvate type of humus was preserved in all the variants of the experiment.

Lapa, V. V.; Seraya, T. M.; Bogatyreva, E. N.; Biryukova, O. M.

2011-01-01

126

Microwave digestion of fertilizers and soil amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trace element pollution hazard of the continuous and large scale application of fertilizers and other amendments to soils depends in part on the chemical composition of these materials. Complete sample dissolution is generally required prior to total elemental analyses. The objectives of this study were to evaluate closed vessel microwave digestion procedures, using HNO3, HF, H2O2, and H3BO3, for

K. P. Raven; R. H. Loeppert

1996-01-01

127

Effectiveness of three different Zn fertilizers and two methods of application for the control of 'little-leaf' in peach trees in south Texas  

E-print Network

EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE DIFFERENT ZN FERTILIZERS AND TWO METHODS OF APPLICATION FOR THE CONTROL OF 'LITTLE-LEAF' IN PEACH TREES IN SOUTH TEXAS A Thesis by Juan Pablo Arce Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Horticulture EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE DIFFERENT ZN FERTILIZERS AND TWO METHODS OF APPLICATION FOR THE CONTROL OF 'LITTLE-LEAF' IN PEACH TREES IN SOUTH...

Arce, Juan Pablo

2012-06-07

128

40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.  

... 2014-07-01 false Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations...Facilities § 63.747 Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations...owner or operator of a new or existing chemical milling maskant operation subject...

2014-07-01

129

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

2013-07-01

130

40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

131

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

2012-07-01

132

40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11...CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES General Provisions § 721...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. (a)...

2012-07-01

133

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

2014-07-01

134

40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

135

40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

136

40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11...CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES General Provisions § 721...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. (a)...

2013-07-01

137

40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

138

Carbon sequestration and methane emission from a tropical rice field under intensive rice cultivation with long-term application of compost and inorganic fertilizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of long-term intensive rice-rice cropping system with different managements on soil organic carbon content (SOC) and methane emission was studied using a 36-year-old fertility experiment under tropical climate. Intensive rice production systems are important sinks of carbon but at the same time these are the major anthropogenic sources of atmospheric CH4, a major greenhouse gas. A significant increase in soil organic carbon in the treatments receiving compost or compost + inorganic fertilizer was observed. But the Control treatment where there is no fertilizer amendment, the SOC content decreased slightly. 36 years of application of compost and inorganic fertilizer application resulted in 32% increase in SOC content over the control treatment. Methane emission varied significantly among the treatments, growth stages and growth seasons. Treatments with combined application of compost and inorganic fertilizer showed highest CH4 emission during both dry and wet season. About 3.9 to 10.8 % of the total annual carbon input was lost through CH4 emission. CH4 emission showed significant positive correlation with soil parameters such as ferrous iron content, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase activity and plant parameters such as grain yield and straw yield. Step-wise regression analysis showed ferrous iron content of soil and straw yield explained more than 80% of variability in CH4 emission during both dry and wet season.

Nayak, D. R.; Yeluriapti, J.; Adhya, T. K.

2009-04-01

139

Soil pH Changes from Fertilizer Site as Affected by Application of Monocalcium Phosphate and Potassium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory incubation experiment using soil columns was conducted to study the effects of monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and potassium chloride (KCl) on soil pH changes in fertilizer microsites with two Chinese soils. Mixtures of two fertilizers at two rates (0 and 0.26 g per column) were added to the surface of soil cylinders. The results shown that both fertilizers significantly

Zhenyu Du; Jianmin Zhou; Huoyan Wang; Xiaoqin Chen; Qinghua Wang

2010-01-01

140

SOCIOLOGICAL METHODS & RESEARCHLewis, Raftery / FERTILITY DECLINE This article describes an interesting application of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC).  

E-print Network

- Metropolis estimates are used to compute Bayes factors for comparing alternative mod- els. The new methods.5 billion, the need for reducing human fertility is as great as ever. Although fertility rates in most modernization was proposed by many as the best predictor of reduced human fertility. In formulat- ing

Raftery, Adrian

141

Phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glycosides of organic and mineral-base fertilized cassava tubers.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted to determine the effect of organic and mineral-based fertilizers on phytochemical contents in the tubers of two cassava varieties. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design with three replicates. The main plot was fertilizer source (vermicompost, empty fruit bunch compost and inorganic fertilizer) and sub-plot was cassava variety (Medan and Sri Pontian). The amount of fertilizer applied was based on 180 kg K(2)O ha-1. The tubers were harvested and analyzed for total flavonoids, total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cyanogenic glucoside content. Total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. Different sources of fertilizer, varieties and their interactions were found to have a significant effect on phytochemical content. The phenolic and flavonoid content were significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the vermicompost treatment compared to mineral fertilizer and EFB compost. The total flavonoids and phenolics content of vermicompost treated plants were 39% and 38% higher, respectively, than those chemically fertilized. The antioxidant activity determined using the DPPH and FRAP assays were high with application of organic fertilizer. Cyanogenic glycoside levels were decreased with the application of organic fertilizer. Among the two types of compost, vermicompost resulted in higher nutritional value of cassava tubers. Medan variety with application of vermicompost showed the most promising nutritional quality. Since the nutritional quality of cassava can be improved by organic fertilization, organic fertilizer should be used in place of chemical fertilizer for environmentally sustainable production of better quality cassava. PMID:22370524

Omar, Nur Faezah; Hassan, Siti Aishah; Yusoff, Umi Kalsom; Abdullah, Nur Ashikin Psyquay; Wahab, Puteri Edaroyati Megat; Sinniah, Umarani

2012-01-01

142

[Effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency].  

PubMed

A field experiment was carried to study the effects of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers on rice yield, nitrogen (N) use efficiency, soil N supply, and soil microbial diversity. Rapeseed cake compost (RCC), pig manure compost (PMC), and Chinese medicine residue compost (MRC) were mixed with chemical N, P and K fertilizers. All the treatments except CK received the same rate of N. The results showed that all N fertilizer application treatments had higher rice yield (7918.8-9449.2 kg x hm(-2)) than the control (6947.9 kg x hm(-2)). Compared with that of chemical fertilizers (CF) treatment (7918.8 kg x hm(-2)), the yield of the three organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers treatments ranged in 8532.0-9449.2 kg x hm(-2), and the increment was 7.7%-19.3%. Compared with treatment CF, the treatments of organic-inorganic mixed fertilizers were significantly higher in N accumulation, N transportation efficiency, N recovery rate, agronomic N use efficiency, and physiological N use efficiency. These mixed fertilizers treatments promoted rice N uptake and improved soil N supply, and thus, increased N use efficiency, compared with treatments CF and CK. Neighbor joining analysis indicated that soil bacterial communities in the five treatments could be classified into three categories, i.e., CF and CK, PMC and MRC, and RCC, implying that the application of exogenous organic materials could affect soil bacterial communities, while applying chemical fertilizers had little effect on them. PMID:19637602

Zhang, Xiao-li; Meng, Lin; Wang, Qiu-jun; Luo, Jia; Huang, Qi-wei; Xu, Yang-chun; Yang, Xing-ming; Shen, Qi-rong

2009-03-01

143

Exchange-coupled nanocomposites: chemical synthesis, characterization and applications.  

PubMed

Nanocomposites containing soft and hard magnetic phases have attracted immense attention for energy-related and biomedical applications. With exchange coupling between nanoscale grains in the composites, magnetization of the soft magnetic phase can rotate coherently with that of the hard magnetic phase. In particular, good control of the soft and hard phases at the nanoscale in the composites is of great importance for effective exchange coupling, allowing us to make the best of the strengths of soft and hard magnetic phases and to optimize the magnetic properties for targeted applications. In this review, we present the recent progress in the chemical synthesis and applications of exchange-coupled nanocomposites. Firstly, the principle of nanomagnetism and exchange coupling is introduced. Secondly, the characterization of exchange-coupled nanocomposites is summarized. Thirdly, the chemical methods for the production of different exchange-coupled nanocomposites are presented. Finally, applications of exchange-coupled nanocomposites in magnetic energy storage and biomedicine are addressed. PMID:25130706

Liu, Fei; Hou, Yanglong; Gao, Song

2014-12-01

144

Comparative response of varied irrigated maize to organic and inorganic fertilizer application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of varied irrigated maize (Zea mays) to organic and inorganic fertilizer N, was evaluated at Kasinthula Agricultural Station (2003-2006), Malawi to determine the optimum nutrient and irrigation frequency combinations for soil-water and nutrient management which will address water stress and low soil fertility problem. Hybrid maize variety (DK 8031) was planted on ridges spaced at 0.75 × 0.25 m in a split-plot design replicated three times, with four irrigation frequencies as main plots and fertilizer sources as subplots. Irrigation frequencies comprised: water balance scheduling at 40% depletion, and irrigating 40 mm every 3-4 days, 7 days and 14 days. The nitrogen sources were compost (C), farmyard manure (FYM), urea (U) and their mixtures [(2U:C); (U:2C); (2U:FYM); and (U:2FYM)]. Organic manure was banded three weeks before planting. Data on grain yield was collected and subjected to ANOVA using the Genstat and LSD 0.05 test separating statistical significant means. There was positive ( P < 0.01) and highly significant interactions between maize grain yield, crop water productivity (CWP) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). The water balance scheduling at 40% soil moisture depletion had highest grain yields, CWP and NUE among the four irrigation frequencies that was not significantly different to 40 mm every 3-4 days and every 7 days obtained with nitrogen sourced from sole Urea which were not significantly different to mean grain yields, CWP and NUE from (2U:C) and (2U:FYM). CWP was optimally maximised in sole urea (9.8, 8.8 kg mm -1 ha -1) and mixed treatments of 2U:C (8.2, 7.2 kg mm -1 ha -1) or 2U:FYM (8.2-8.9 kg mm -1 ha -1) for maize irrigated every 7 days and at 40% depletion using soil water balance schedule respectively. The greatest NUE of 53.5 kg kg N -1 under (2U:FYM) treatments was experienced at 40% depletion irrigation schedule and was also not significantly different to sole urea and (2U:FYM) treatments (52.8 and 51.6 kg kg N -1) irrigated at 40% depletion and every 3-4 days irrigation schedule respectively. The minimum NUE 19.8 kg kg N -1was observed in FYM treatments irrigated every 14 days. Generally, yields were optimized in the 40% depletion and 40 mm in 7 days in the 2U:C and 2U:FYM treatment. Maize fertilized with sole organic N sources was lowest in CWP and NUE in all irrigation regimes, and exhibited high water dependencies. An increase in irrigation frequency and urea ratio increased maize yield and NUE, while CWP decreased. It can, therefore, be concluded that with adequate water and high inorganic N ratio, there is great potential to facilitate N release from organic matter. In times of water shortage, sole urea can better or more easily be utilized than organic nitrogen sources.

Fandika, I. R.; Kadyampakeni, D.; Bottomani, C.; Kakhiwa, H.

145

Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

2014-01-01

146

Synthesis and chemical modification of carbon nanostructures for materials applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the structure, chemical reactivities, electromagnetic response, and materials properties of various carbon nanostructures, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite, and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Efficient production and modification of these unique structures, each with their own distinct properties, will make them more accessible for applications in electronics, materials, and biology. A method is reported

Amanda Lynn Higginbotham

2009-01-01

147

Effect of current-season application of calcitic lime and phosphorus fertilization on soil pH, potato growth, yield, dry matter content, and cadmium concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two glasshouse and three field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of current-season application of calcitic lime and phosphorus (P) fertilizer on (i) soil pHw, (ii) growth of haulms (tops), (iii) tuber number, yield and dry matter content, and (iv) cadmium (Cd) concentrations in tubers of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Russet Burbank, Crystal, and Pontiac grown in

N. A. Maier; M. J. McLaughlin; M. Heap; M. Butt; M. K. Smart

2002-01-01

148

Soil organic matter content and quality: effects of fertilizer applications, burning and trash retention on a long-term sugarcane experiment in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of crop residue management and fertilizer applications on soil organic matter (SOM) content and labile soil organic fractions were examined on a long-term (59 years) field trial under sugarcane situated at Mount Edgecombe, South Africa. Treatments at the site included pre-harvest burning with harvest residues removed (Bto), burning with harvest residues left at the soil surface (Bt) and

M. H. Graham; R. J. Haynes; J. H. Meyer

2002-01-01

149

Effects of field application of phosphate fertilizers on the availability and uptake of lead, zinc and cadmium by cabbage ( Brassica chinensis L.) in a mining tailing contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field trial was conducted to evaluate the reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals including lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in a soil contaminated by mining tailings in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China. Three commercial phosphate (P) fertilizers including phosphate rock (PR), calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), and single superphosphate (SSP) were applied to the plot at three P application rates,

Biling WANG; Zhengmiao XIE; Jianjun CHEN; Juntao JIANG; Qiufeng SU

2008-01-01

150

Accumulation and Chemical Fractionation of Heavy Metals in Andisols after a Different, 6-year Fertilization Management (8 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background   Andisols are widespread in Japan and have some special properties such as high anion exchange capacity, low bulk density,\\u000a and high organic matter content, which might influence the accumulation or chemical fractionation of heavy metals. However,\\u000a few such data exist in Japanese andisols. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and chemical

Bingzi ZHAO; Morihiro Maeda; Jiabao Zhang; Anning Zhu; Yasuo Ozaki

2006-01-01

151

Controlling Fertility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

Donnay, France

1991-01-01

152

Farmers practices in organic and inorganic fertilization  

E-print Network

Farmers practices in organic and inorganic fertilization on crops, trees and vegetables Nguyen Duy Phuong, Vu Dinh Tuan, Tran Duc Toan #12;146 Farmers practices in organic and inorganic fertilization on crops, trees and vegetables Introduction Before the large use of chemical fertilizers, farm-yard animal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

1998-01-01

154

Applications of artificial neural networks in chemical engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing literature within the field of chemical engineering describing the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) has evolved\\u000a for a diverse range of engineering applications such as fault detection, signal processing, process modeling, and control.\\u000a Because ANN are nets of basis functions, they can provide good empirical models of complex nonlinear processes useful for\\u000a a wide variety of purposes.

David M. Himmelblau

2000-01-01

155

Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

2010-06-01

156

Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education1  

PubMed Central

The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal–organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout. PMID:20877495

Battle, Gary M.; Ferrence, Gregory M.; Allen, Frank H.

2010-01-01

157

Integration of Chemical Sensors with LSI Technology — History and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical sensors are one of the oldest fields of research closely related to the semiconductor technology. From the Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors (ISFET) in the 70's, through Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) sensors from the end of the 80's, chemical sensors are combining in the 90's MEMS technology with LSI intelligence to devise more selective, sensitive and autonomous devices to analyse complex mixtures. A brief history of chemical sensors from the ISFET to the nowadays LSI integrated sensors is first detailed. Then the states-of-the-art of LSI integrated chemical sensors and their wide range of applications are discussed. Finally the authors propose a brand-new usage of integrated wireless MEMS sensors for remote surveillance of chemical substances, such as food-industry or pharmaceutical products, that are stored in closed environment like a bottle, for a long period. In such environment, in-situ analyse is necessary, and electrical cables, for energy supply or data transfer, cannot be used. Thanks to integrated MEMS, an autonomous long-term in-situ quality deterioration tracking system is possible.

Tixier-Mita, Agnès; Takahashi, Takuya; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

158

The subtle danger of symmetry restrictions in time series regressions, with application to fertility models.  

PubMed

It is widely known that linear restrictions involve bias. What is not known is that some linear restrictions are especially dangerous for hypothesis testing. For some, the expected value of the restricted coefficient does not lie between (among) the true unconstrained coefficients, which implies that the estimate is not a simple average of these coefficients. In this paper, the danger is examined regarding the additive linear restriction almost universally imposed in statistical research--the restriction of symmetry. Symmetry implies that the response of the dependent variable to a unit decrease in an expanatory variable is identical, but of opposite sign, to the response to a unit increase. The 1st section of the paper demonstrates theoretically that a coefficient restricted by symmetry (unlike coefficients embodying other additive restrictions) is not a simple average of the unconstrained coefficients because the relevant interacted variables are inversly correlated by definition. The next section shows that, under the restriction of symmetry, fertility in Finland from 1885-1925 appears to respond in a prolonged manner to infant mortality (significant and positive with a lag of 4-6 years), suggesting a response to expected deaths. However, unscontrained estimates indicate that this finding is spurious. When the restriction is relaxed, the dominant response is rapid (significant and positive with a lag of 1-2 years) and stronger for declines in mortality, supporting an aymmetric response to actual deaths. For 2 reasons, the danger of the symmetry restriction may be especially pervasive. 1st, unlike most other linear constraints, symmetry is passively imposed merely by ignoring the possibility of asymmetry. 2nd, modles in a wide range of fields--including macroeconomics (e.g., demand for money, consumption, and investment models, and the Phillips curve), international economics (e.g., intervention models of central banks), and labor economics (e.g., sticky wage models)--predict asymmetry. The conclusion of the study is that, to avoid spurious hypothesis testing, empirical research should systematically test for asymmetry, especially when predicted by theory. PMID:12339352

Haynes, S E

1983-10-01

159

Effects of fertilizer and pesticide use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When used properly, fertilizer and pesticide application can help protect crops and encourage their growth. However, fertilizers and pesticides can run off into bodies of water and contaminate water sources.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-25

160

[Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth. PMID:24417126

Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

2013-09-01

161

Biochar application to temperate soils - effects on soil fertility and crop yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar (BC) application to soil as a potential soil amendment is currently intensively explored. Depending on feedstock and highest treatment temperature (HTT), BC application to soil may contribute to the soil nutrient status by directly adding nutrients to the soil as well as by increasing pH, cation exchange and water holding capacity. These parameters are known to play an important role in the soil nutrient status and nutrient availability. A positive effect on plant growth after BC application to tropical soils has been observed repeatedly; however, the effect of BC application to soils in temperate climate regions is much less explored. We investigated the effect of BC to temperate soils and crop yield using a randomized pot experiment in a greenhouse with three agricultural soils (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four BC types (from straw, mixed woodchips and vineyard pruning, all pyrolyzed at 525°C). In order to analyze the effect of pyrolysis temperature, we additionally applied vineyard pruning BC pyrolyzed at 400°C. Selected treatments were planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.), followed by barley (Hordeum vulgare). Soil sampling was carried out after barley harvest. Investigated soil parameters included pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC), CAL-extractable P and K, EDTA extractable Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn as well as nitrogen supplying potential (NSP). Biomass production of the two crops was determined as well as its elemental composition. Biochar application (3% wood-based BC) caused a considerable pH increase for the acidic Planosol. The effect of BC application on CEC was dependent on the original status of the soil, notably soil pH and texture. 3 % BC application (wood) decreased CEC by 3.5 % and 10 % for the Chernozem and Cambisol, respectively, but increased CEC by 35 % for the acidic, sandy Planosol, which may be due to the strong liming effect found for the Planosol. BC application significantly raised CAL-extractable K for all soils. CAL-extractable P only increased in the Planosol and Cambisol at 3% application rate. Mustard yield decreased by 67% for vineyard pruning BC if nitrogen deficiency was not compensated for, straw-derived BC only caused a 2 % decrease of mustard yield. Barley yield was still significantly lower in most BC-treated pots compared to the controls, however, plant yields were less reduced for the second crop. Only straw-derived BC treatments showed a significantly higher barley yield (1955 ± 40 g m-2) compared to the control (1837 ± 70 g m-2). The results of the elemental composition of the barley grains showed that Al uptake in the Planosol significantly decreased after application of wood and straw BC, which may be due to the pH increase after BC application. In addition, Ca uptake in barley grains was significantly higher in the 3% wood BC treatment compared to the control. This may be caused by a higher Ca content of the wood BC as revealed by XRF. Mn uptake, on the other hand, was significantly reduced after BC application.

Kloss, S.; Zehetner, F.; Feichtmair, S.; Wimmer, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Kitzler, B.; Watzinger, A.; Soja, G.

2012-04-01

162

ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION OF PRODUCING FERTILIZER FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS: APPLICATION OF BULGARIAN EXPERIENCE TO CASE STUDY OF PORTUGAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Bulgarian project at Maritsa East power station demonstrated the proper transformation of air pollutants (SOx and NOx) into nitrogen fertilizer. Although this technology has not been put into practice in Bulgaria, it seems feasible on an industrial scale and so it may help to ease Portugal's reliance on imports of nitrogen fertilizer and thereby contain the outfl ow of

Ryunosuke KIKUCHI; Yontcho G. PELOVSKI; Sandra M. SANTOS

2005-01-01

163

40 CFR 414.80 - Applicability; description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory.  

...description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability;...

2014-07-01

164

40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.  

...description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.60 Applicability;...

2014-07-01

165

Application of kernel functions for accurate similarity search in large chemical databases  

E-print Network

Background: Similaritysearch in chemical structure databases is an important problem with many applications in chemical genomics, drug design, and efficient chemical probe screening among others. It is widely believed that ...

Wang, Xiaohong; Huan, Jun; Smalter, Aaron Matthew; Lushington, Gerald H.

2010-04-29

166

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS: APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. athematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibrated by application to data ...

167

Effect of continuous olive mill wastewater applications, in the presence and absence of nitrogen fertilization, on the structure of rhizosphere-soil fungal communities.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is rich in potentially toxic organics precluding its disposal into water receptors. However, land application of diluted OMW may result in safe disposal and fertilization. In order to investigate the effects of OMW on the structure of soil fungal groups, OMW was applied daily to pepper plants growing in a loamy sand and a sandy loam at two doses for a period of 3 months (total OMW equivalents 900 and 1800 m(3) ha(-1)). Nitrogen (N) fertilization alleviated N scarcity and considerably enhanced plant biomass production; however, when applied in combination with the high OMW dose, it induced plant stress. OMW applications resulted in marked changes in the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns of soil basidiomycete communities, while concurrent N fertilization reduced these effects. In contrast, the ascomycete communities required N fertilization to respond to OMW addition. Cloning libraries for the basidiomycete communities showed that Cryptococcus yeasts and Ceratobasidium spp. dominated in the samples treated with OMW. In contrast, certain plant pathogenic basidiomycetes such as Thanatephorus cucumeris and Athelia rolfsii were suppressed. The observed changes may be reasonably explained by the capacity of OMW to enrich soils in organic substrates, to induce N immobilization and to directly introduce OMW-derived basidiomycetous yeasts. PMID:19799632

Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Rousidou, Constantina; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K; Bekris, Fotios; Zervakis, Georgios I; Singh, Brajesh K; Ehaliotis, Constantinos

2009-12-01

168

Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological\\u000a indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in\\u000a response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage\\u000a systems (NT: no tillage, DH:

Silvina Vargas Gil; Analia Becker; Claudio Oddino; Mónica Zuza; Adriana Marinelli; Guillermo March

2009-01-01

169

Chemical, microbiological and plant analysis of soil fertilized with alkaline hydrolysate of sheep’s wool waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of adding alkaline hydrolysate of sheep’s wool waste on the chemical and microbiological properties of a park soil\\u000a (Sofia, Bulgaria) has been assessed in a 9 month laboratory experiment. The waste product contained 75–80% water-soluble materials:\\u000a peptides, amino acids, salts, dyes, lipids, some carbohydrates, potassium ions, and it seemed likely that the hydrolysate\\u000a obtained could be used as a

Maya Nustorova; Diana Braikova; Adriana Gousterova; Evgenia Vasileva-Tonkova; Peter Nedkov

2006-01-01

170

Physiological Response of Wheat to Foliar Application of Zinc and Inoculation with some Bacterial Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pot experiment, sterilized sandy soil (irrigated with Long-Ashton nutrient solution containing a half of the recommended dose of ZnSO4 · 7H2O) was used to study the effects of zinc (Zn) foliar-application, and soil biofertilization on some physiological traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Sakha 155) plant grown for 70 days in greenhouse under controlled conditions. The treatments comprised different levels

Mohsen K. H. Ebrahim; Magda M. Aly

2005-01-01

171

ASSESSMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perchlorate has been positively detected only in those materials known to be derived from Chilean caliche, which constitute less than 0.2% of U.S. fertilizer application. The data obtained in the preponderance of investigations suggest that fertilizers do not contribute to envir...

172

Fertilizer-derived uranium and sulfur in rangeland soil and runoff: A case study in central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fertilizer applications to rangeland and pastures in central Florida have potential impact on the nutrient-sensitive ecosystems of Lake Okeechobee and the Northern Everglades. To investigate the effects of fertilizer applications, three soil profiles from variably managed and improved rangeland, and four samples of surface runoff from both fertilized and unfertilized pasture were collected. In addition to determining nutrient concentrations, isotopic analyses of uranium (U) and sulfur (S) were performed to provide isotopic evidence for U derived from historically applied phosphate (P)-bearing fertilizer ( 234 U 238U activity ratio =1.0 ?? 0.05), and Sderived from recently applied ammonium sulfate fertilizer(??34 S=3.5permil).The distribution and mobility of fertilizer-derived U in these samples is considered to be analogous to that of fertilizer-derived phosphate.Variations of U concentrations and 234 U/238 U activity ratios in soils indicate contribution of fertilizer-derived U in the upper portions of the fertilized soil (15-}34 percent of total U). The U isotope data for runoff from the fertilized field also are consistent with some contribution from fertilizer-derived U. Parallel investigations of S showed no consistent chemical or isotopic evidence for significant fertilizer-derived sulfate in rangeland soil or runoff. Relatively abundant and isotopically variable S present in the local environment hinders detection of fertilizer-derived sulfate. The results indicate a continuing slow-release of fertilizer-derived U and, by inference, P, to the P-sensitive ecosystem, and a relatively rapid release of sulfate of possible natural origin. ?? Springer 2006.

Zielinski, R.A.; Orem, W.H.; Simmons, K.R.; Bohlen, P.J.

2006-01-01

173

The Application of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensor Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing miniature chemical sensors for a variety of applications including fire detection, emissions monitoring, fuel leak detection, and environmental monitoring. Smart Lick and Stick sensor technology which integrates a sensor array, electronics, telemetry, and power into one microsystem are being developed. These microsystems require low power consumption for long-term aerospace applications. One approach to decreasing power consumption is the use of nanotechnology. Nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) carbon monoxide (CO) sensors developed previously by this group have been successfully used for fire detection and emissions monitoring. This presentation will briefly review the overall NASA GRC chemical sensor program and discuss our further effort in nanotechnology applications. New carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing material using doped nanocrystalline SnO2 will be discussed. Nanocrystalline SnO2 coated solid electrolyte CO2 sensors and SnO2 nanorod and nanofiber hydrogen (H2) sensors operated at reduced or room temperatures will also be discussed.

Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.

2007-01-01

174

EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY, AND FUSARIUM WILT IN  

E-print Network

content and fertility, and can support the growth of soil-borne pathogens. Some growers choose to apply or to increase organic matter and improve soil fertility. The objective of this on-farm study was to determine, fusarium wilt incidence was not affected by soil treatment. Single applications of organic amendments

Ma, Lena

175

Influence of Different Fertilization on moisture Characteristics of Black Soil under Drought Year in Semi-arid Regions in Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water was a mainly limited factor for crop yield in rain-feed agriculture of semi-arid region. Whereas, fertilization can regulate capability of soil water supply. Therefore, field experiments were set up at the National Field Research Station of Agroecosystem of Chinese Academy of Science in Hailun County, Heilongjiang Province, China, in 1990, including three fertilizer treatments: no fertilizer (NF), applying chemical nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer (NP), applying chemical nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer plus organic manure (NPM). The experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of different fertilization on soil water supply, water consumption of maize, water use efficiency under drought year. The results showed that rainfall didn't satisfy water need of maize in drought year, the deficient water was compensated by soil water reservoir, Fertilizer application, especially organic manure application, can improve the capability of soil water supply, the ratio between soil water supply and water consumption of NF, NP, NPM were 22.23%?23.58% and 25.99% in the whole development period of maize, respectively. Total water consumption and water consumption rate of maize were significantly impacted by different fertilization and increased with application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, results showed total water consumption of maize were 485.82mm?494.83mm and 509.91mm for NF, NP and NPM, respectively, while water consumption rates were 3.18mm d-1?3.23mm d-1 and 3.33mm d-1 for NF, NP and NPM, respectively. The effect of fertilizer application on water use efficiency was in the order of NPM > NP > NF. From the study, it can be concluded that soil water supply buffered and regulated soil water condition, and played an important role on guaranteeing crop yield; fertilizer application, can enhance soil water supply, increase crop yield and water use efficiency, especially organic manure application.

Han, X.; Zou, W.

2009-04-01

176

Influence of Different Fertilization on moisture Characteristics of Black Soil under Drought Year in Semi-arid Regions in Northeast China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water was a mainly limited factor for crop yield in rain-feed agriculture of semi-arid region. Whereas, fertilization can regulate capability of soil water supply. Therefore, field experiments were set up at the National Field Research Station of Agroecosystem of Chinese Academy of Science in Hailun County, Heilongjiang Province, China, in 1990, including three fertilizer treatments: no fertilizer (NF), applying chemical nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer (NP), applying chemical nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer plus organic manure (NPM). The experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of different fertilization on soil water supply, water consumption of maize, water use efficiency under drought year. The results showed that rainfall didn't satisfy water need of maize in drought year, the deficient water was compensated by soil water reservoir, Fertilizer application, especially organic manure application, can improve the capability of soil water supply, the ratio between soil water supply and water consumption of NF, NP, NPM were 22.23%, 23.58% and 25.99% in the whole development period of maize, respectively. Total water consumption and water consumption rate of maize were significantly impacted by different fertilization and increased with application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, results showed total water consumption of maize were 485.82mm, 494.83mm and 509.91mm for NF, NP and NPM, respectively, while water consumption rates were 3.18mm/d, 3.23mm/d and 3.33mm/d for NF, NP and NPM, respectively. The effect of fertilizer application on water use efficiency was in the order of NPM > NP > NF. From the study, it can be concluded that soil water supply buffered and regulated soil water condition, and played an important role on guaranteeing crop yield; fertilizer application, can enhance soil water supply, increase crop yield and water use efficiency, especially organic manure application.

Han, X.; Zou, W.

2009-04-01

177

Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, Gary W.

2005-01-01

178

Tree Fertilization Soil Analysis  

E-print Network

Tree Fertilization #12;Soil Analysis vs. Foliar Analysis #12;Macronutrients N P K Mg S Ca N/ "DBH Timing ­ water availability -- spring and fall #12;Application Techniques Surface broadcast ·Least time ·Simple equipment ·Water thoroughly ·Grass is competition #12;#12;#12;Drill Hole Method

179

Cottonseed, Protein, Oil Yields and Oil Properties as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization and Foliar Application of Potassium and a Plant Growth Retardant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were conducted in two successive seasons, at the Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt. The aim was to investigate the effect of N-fertilization rate (95.2 and 142.8 kg of N\\/ha, applied as ammonium nitrate containing 33.5% N in two equal doses at 6 and 8 weeks after sowing), together with foliar application of potassium (applied as potassium sulfate containing

Zakaria M. Sawan; Saeb A. Hafez; Ahmed E. Basyony; Abou-El-Ela R. Alkassas

2006-01-01

180

Growth of Nursery-grown Bamboo Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in two Tropical Soil Typeswith and without Fertilizer Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nursery experiment was conducted to assess the effect of bioinoculants (Glomus aggregatum, Bacillus polymixa, Azospirillum brasilense) on seedling growth promotion of bamboo (Dendrocalamus strictus (Roxb.) Nees.) in two soil types (alfisol, vertisol) with or without fertilizer application. Bamboo seedlings were grown\\u000a in the presence or absence of bioinoculants either individually or in all combinations for 180 days in field soil

T. Muthukumar; K. Udaiyan

2006-01-01

181

Nutrient Composition of Selected Sweet Potato [Ipomea batatas (L) Lam] Varieties as Influenced by Different Levels of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: Total ß-carotene content of four varieties of Sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam) a s influenced by different levels of nitrogen fertilizer were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) The proximate composition and mineral contents were also determined. The nitrogen fertilizer treatments were combinations of four levels of 0kgN\\/ha(control), 40 kgN\\/ha, 80 kg\\/Nha, 120 kgN\\/ha on the

A. N. Ukom; P. C. Ojimelukwe; D. A. Okpara

2009-01-01

182

Bioinspired greigite magnetic nanocrystals: chemical synthesis and biomedicine applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large scale greigite with uniform dimensions has stimulated significant demands for applications such as hyperthermia, photovoltaics, medicine and cell separation, etc. However, the inhomogeneity and hydrophobicity for most of the as prepared greigite crystals has limited their applications in biomedicine. Herein, we report a green chemical method utilizing ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to synthesize bioinspired greigite (Fe3S4) magnetic nanocrystals (GMNCs) with similar structure and magnetic property of magnetosome in a large scale. ?-CD and PEG is responsible to control the crystal phase and morphology, as well as to bound onto the surface of nanocrystals and form polymer layers. The GMNCs exhibit a transverse relaxivity of 94.8 mM-1s-1 which is as high as iron oxide nanocrystals, and an entrapment efficiency of 58.7% for magnetic guided delivery of chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. Moreover, enhanced chemotherapeutic treatment of mice tumor was obtained via intravenous injection of doxorubicin loaded GMNCs.

Feng, Mei; Lu, Yang; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Yun-Jun; Gao, Huai-Ling; Dong, Liang; Xu, Wei-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

2013-10-01

183

Effect of level of endophyte infection, nitrogen fertilization rate, grazing period, and paddock exchange on some chemical properties of four bovine tissues.  

PubMed

Three grazing experiments were conducted to determine the effect of level of endophyte infection, rate of N fertilization of tall fescue grass, grazing period, and paddock exchange on selected chemical properties of four bovine carcass tissues. Samples of semitendinosus and longissimus muscle and of subcutaneous and perinephric adipose tissue were excised from the left side of each carcass. In Exp. 1, percentage of stearic acid was higher (P less than .05) and percentages of palmitoleic and oleic acid were lower (P less than .05) in all tissues from steers grazed on LELN Au-Triumph fescue than in tissues from steers grazed on LELN KY-31 fescue. Grazing periods of 175 or 245 d or paddock exchange (Exp. 2) had no significant effect on proximate composition of semitendinosus and longissimus muscles; however, moisture content was higher (P less than .05) in the semitendinosus muscle from steers grazed on 100% (100E) endophyte-infected KY-31 fescue. Forage treatment, grazing period, and paddock exchange (Exp. 2 and 3) had no significant effect on percentage of saturated fatty acids in the subcutaneous, semitendinosus, and longissimus tissue samples. In Exp. 2 and 3, percentages of saturated fatty acids were higher (P less than .05) in subcutaneous and perinephric adipose tissue samples from steers grazed on 100E than in samples from steers grazed on zero endophyte (OE) fescue.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1653201

Townsend, W E; Snook, M E; Stuedemann, J A; Wilson, R L

1991-07-01

184

The impact of long-term nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon in a dryland cereal cropping system of the Loess Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over food security and global climate change require an improved understanding of how to achieve optimal crop yields whilst minimizing net greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. In the semi-arid Loess Plateau region of China, as elsewhere, fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs are necessary to increase yields and improve local food security. In a dryland annual cropping system, we evaluated the effects of N fertilizers on crop yield, its long term impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations and stock sizes, and the distribution of carbon (C) within various aggregate-size fractions. A current version (RothC) of the Rothamsted model for the turnover of organic C in soil was used to simulate SOC measurements. Five N application rates [0 (N0), 45 (N45), 90 (N90), 135 (N135), and 180 (N180) kg N ha-1] were applied to plots for 25 years (1984-2009) on a loam soil (Cumulic Haplustoll) at the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, China. Crop yield varied with year, but increased over time in the fertilized plots. Average annual grain yields were 1.15, 2.46, 3.11, 3.49, and 3.55 Mg ha-1 with the increasing N application rates, respectively. Long-term N fertilizer application significantly (P<0.05) increased SOC concentrations and stocks in the 0-20 cm horizon. Using RothC, the calculated annual inputs of plant C (in roots, stubble, root exudates, etc.) to the soil were 0.61, 0.74, 0.78, 0.86, and 0.97 t C ha-1 year-1 in N0, N45, N90, N135 and N180 treatments, respectively. The modeled turnover time of SOC (excluding inert organic C) in the continuous wheat cropping system was 26 years. The SOC accumulation rate was estimated to be 40.0, 48.0, 68.0, and 100.0 kg C ha-1 year-1 for the N45, N90, N135 and N180 treatments over 25 years, respectively. As aboveground biomass was removed, the increases in SOC stocks with higher N application are attributed to increased inputs of root biomass and root exudates. Increasing N application rates significantly improved C concentrations in the macroaggregate fractions (>1 mm). The increase in SOC with N fertilizer applications contributed to improved soil quality as well as crop productivity.

Guo, S.

2011-12-01

185

STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center  

E-print Network

STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center Women's Lifestyle Center The Women's Lifestyle with the improved lifestyle. Also, we work together with the Strong Fertility Center to coordinate your fertility fertility treatments. · A complete nutritional consultation with our registered dietician, Tracy Cherry, RD

Goldman, Steven A.

186

LWIR hyperspectral imaging application and detection of chemical precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection and identification of Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) represent a major challenge to protect and sustain first responder and public security. In this context, passive Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is a promising technology for the standoff detection and identification of chemical vapors emanating from a distant location. To investigate this method, the Department of National Defense and Public Safety Canada have mandated Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier to develop and test Very Long Wave Infrared (VLWIR) HSI sensors for standoff detection. The initial effort was focused to address the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), surrogates and precursors. Sensors such as the Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) and the Multi-option Differential Detection and Imaging Fourier Spectrometer (MoDDIFS) were developed for this application. This paper presents the sensor developments and preliminary results of standoff detection and identification of TICs and precursors. The iCATSI and MoDDIFS sensors are based on the optical differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometric technology and are able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify small leak at ranges in excess of 1 km. Results from a series of trials in asymmetric threat type scenarios are reported. These results serve to establish the potential of passive standoff HSI detection of TICs, precursors and surrogates.

Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Dubé, Denis

2012-10-01

187

Marine derived polysaccharides for biomedical applications: chemical modification approaches.  

PubMed

Polysaccharide-based biomaterials are an emerging class in several biomedical fields such as tissue regeneration, particularly for cartilage, drug delivery devices and gelentrapment systems for the immobilization of cells. Important properties of the polysaccharides include controllable biological activity, biodegradability, and their ability to form hydrogels. Most of the polysaccharides used derive from natural sources; particularly, alginate and chitin, two polysaccharides which have an extensive history of use in medicine, pharmacy and basic sciences, and can be easily extracted from marine plants (algae kelp) and crab shells, respectively. The recent rediscovery of poly-saccharidebased materials is also attributable to new synthetic routes for their chemical modification, with the aim of promoting new biological activities and/or to modify the final properties of the biomaterials for specific purposes. These synthetic strategies also involve the combination of polysaccharides with other polymers. A review of the more recent research in the field of chemical modification of alginate, chitin and its derivative chitosan is presented. Moreover, we report as case studies the results of our recent work concerning various different approaches and applications of polysaccharide-based biomaterials, such as the realization of novel composites based on calcium sulphate blended with alginate and with a chemically modified chitosan, the synthesis of novel alginate-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers and the development of a family of materials based on alginate and acrylic polymers of potential interest as drug delivery systems. PMID:18830142

d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Malinconico, Mario; Laurienzo, Paola

2008-01-01

188

Responses of a Marl Lake to Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shallow marl lake was fertilized during three consecutive years with inorganic fertilizer. Application was made in midsummer and evaluation of its effect was made by comparing data gathered in a pretreatment and a posttreatment period each year. Fertilization brought about an immediate increase in suspended solids and a decrease in transparency. These changes appeared to be caused by a

F. F. Hooper; R. C. Ball

1964-01-01

189

Interfacial characterization and analytical applications of chemically-modified surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this work is to explore several new strategies and approaches to the surface modification and the microscopic characterization of interfaces in the areas mainly targeting sensor technologies that are of interest to environmental control or monitoring, and scanning probe microscopies techniques that can monitor interfacial chemical reactions in real time. Centered on the main theme, four specific topics are presented as four chapters in this dissertation following the general introduction. Chapter 1 describes the development of two immobilization schemes for covalently immobilizing fluoresceinamine at cellulose acetate and its application as a pH sensing film. Chapter 2 investigates the applicability of SFM to following the base-hydrolysis of a dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at gold in situ. Chapter 3 studies the mechanism for the accelerated rate of hydrolysis of the dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at Au(111) surface. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of an electrochemical approach to the elimination of chloride interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis of waste water. The procedures, results and conclusions are described in each chapter. This report contains the introduction, references, and general conclusions. Chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base. 95 refs.

Wang, J.

1998-02-23

190

Commercial Fertilizers in 1910 - 1911.  

E-print Network

are :(5) (a) Guarantee.-The amount of plant food guaranteed manufacturer to be present in the fertilizer. (b) Valuation.-The valuation of the fertilizer as already based on the guaranteed composition. (c) Manufacturer's Sample.-The chemical... the old law, has now been superseded by the new law previously referr AnaJyses were made by S. E. Asbury, T. L. Ogier, J. B. Herron, R. Gottlieb, and L. C. Ludlum. I I Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers. Season of I Phosphoric Acid Manufacturer. P1...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1911-01-01

191

A case study of a precision fertilizer application task generation for wheat based on classified hyperspectral data from UAV combined with farm history data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different remote sensing methods for detecting variations in agricultural fields have been studied in last two decades. There are already existing systems for planning and applying e.g. nitrogen fertilizers to the cereal crop fields. However, there are disadvantages such as high costs, adaptability, reliability, resolution aspects and final products dissemination. With an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based airborne methods, data collection can be performed cost-efficiently with desired spatial and temporal resolutions, below clouds and under diverse weather conditions. A new Fabry-Perot interferometer based hyperspectral imaging technology implemented in an UAV has been introduced. In this research, we studied the possibilities of exploiting classified raster maps from hyperspectral data to produce a work task for a precision fertilizer application. The UAV flight campaign was performed in a wheat test field in Finland in the summer of 2012. Based on the campaign, we have classified raster maps estimating the biomass and nitrogen contents at approximately stage 34 in the Zadoks scale. We combined the classified maps with farm history data such as previous yield maps. Then we generalized the combined results and transformed it to a vectorized zonal task map suitable for farm machinery. We present the selected weights for each dataset in the processing chain and the resultant variable rate application (VRA) task. The additional fertilization according to the generated task was shown to be beneficial for the amount of yield. However, our study is indicating that there are still many uncertainties within the process chain.

Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Kleemola, Jouko; Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Honkavaara, Eija; Saari, Heikki; Mäkynen, Jussi; Rajala, Ari

2013-10-01

192

Fertility Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUBSTANTIVE ISSUES The 20th century was witness to major demographic changes, both in the industrial North and the less developed South. Population growth rates in the North oscillated as fertility declined to below replacement levels in many countries during the Great Depression and then rose during the course of the postwar ‘‘baby boom.’’ In the South, as death rates declined

Joseph E. Potter; Axel I. Mundigo

193

Modelling of nitrate leaching from arable land into unsaturated soil and chalk 1. Development of a management model for applications of sewage sludge and fertilizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model has been produced to examine the impact of sewage sludge and fertilizer application to arable land and the effect of different crop regimes on the amount of nitrate leached to chalk groundwater. Previous work on nitrate leaching has concentrated on either a soil science or a hydrogeological approach with little overlap between the two. This study considered both fields to obtain an overall picture of the nitrate leaching process. IMPACT is a layered deterministic N-leaching model which predicts the nitrogen loads entering groundwater daily from arable land, and can be used as a management tool in development of sludge application and agricultural policy. The model relates nitrogen species movement resulting from the application of sewage sludge and fertilizer to differing vegetation-soil-hydrogeological conditions. Field data collected at three sites on the unconfined chalk aquifer of East Anglia, England over a two and a half year period was used to produce an initial conceptual model and to constrain the mathematical model during development. IMPACT simulates nitrogen and transport processes in the soil and unsaturated zone of the chalk. The nitrogen processes include: mineralisation of soil organic-N and sewage sludge organic-N, nitrification; crop uptake; volatilization; denitrification; and N inputs from fertilizers and precipitation. A mixing cell method is used to model solute transport in both the soil and chalk. Matrix flow and combined fissure-matrix flow are considered for the chalk. The model enables examination of the relationship between the arable/hydrogeological systems and the environmental implications of sludge application and of different arable regimes. Results are of use in developing strategies for arable farming and sludge application in areas sensitive to nitrate leaching. This Part 1 paper describes the model development approach. Results of associated modelling scenarios are presented separately in the associated Part 2 paper.

Andrews, R. J.; Lloyd, J. W.; Lerner, D. N.

1997-12-01

194

[Fertility as the outcome of the length of exposure. Methodology and application to Sudan, Syria, and Tunisia].  

PubMed

A graduate student applied World Fertility Survey data from Syria, Sudan, and Tunisia to a fertility model that takes into account duration of exposure to risk of pregnancy. The 11 variables of this model have been grouped into three categories: nuptiality, maternal period, and birth spacing variables. Syria had the youngest age at first birth. The interval between marriage and first birth was only 11 months in Syria, but 16 months in Tunisia and 24 months in Sudan. The researcher thought that it was relatively improbable that new brides used contraception in Sudan, so it appears that involuntary subfecundity occurred in Sudan. After 15 years of marriage, marriage stability was much lower for Sudan. Fertility was the lowest in Sudan (6.23 vs. 6.81 for Tunisia and 7.7 for Syria). Remarried Sudanese women had lower fertility than those in a first union, while this was the opposite in Tunisia and Syria. Women from Syria had a longer maternal period (by about two years) and a shorter birth interval (by 6 months compared to Sudan and by 9 months compared to Tunisia), so they had the highest total fertility (7.03 vs. 5.17 for Tunisia and 5.7 for Sudan). Fertility levels determined by the model corresponded with those of national reports. Tunisia had the lowest breast feeding levels (33% vs. 47% in Syria and 62% in Sudan) and contraceptive use was rather high (37% vs. 16% for Sudan and 34% for Syria). The sterilization level was highest in Tunisia (8.1% vs. 0.3% in Sudan and 0.4% in Syria). Subfecundity was more or less the same in Syria and Tunisia (18% and 20%, respectively) while it was 64% in Sudan. This high rate of subfecundity was probably due to female genital mutilation practices. True infertility was 20% for Sudan and Tunisia and 15% for Syria. PMID:12346231

Kouaouci, A

1993-01-01

195

Food benefit and climate warming potential of nitrogen fertilizer uses in China  

E-print Network

Chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer has long been used to help meet the increasing food demands in China, the top N fertilizer consumer in the world. Growing concerns have been raised on the impacts of N fertilizer uses on ...

Tian, Hanqin

196

Chemical modification of silicon surfaces for biological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) to porous Si surfaces via Si-C bonds using simple chemical techniques and commercially available starting materials is described. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is often used to prevent nonspecific binding for a variety of biological applications. The covalent attachment of a short-chain PEG linker leads to a hydrophilic surface that is capable of admitting sucrose and bovine serum albumin (BSA) while leaving an acid terminus that can be used for further biological modification. Response of the linker-modified porous Si surface to introduction of sucrose in aqueous solutions is assessed. This PEG linking chemistry should also be a generally useful biological attachment scheme that can be applied to crystalline silicon surfaces.

Schwartz, Michael P.; Cunin, Frédérique; Cheung, Ronnie W.; Sailor, Michael J.

2005-06-01

197

Advances in anion supramolecular chemistry: from recognition to chemical applications.  

PubMed

Since the start of this millennium, remarkable progress in the binding and sensing of anions has been taking place, driven in part by discoveries in the use of hydrogen bonding, as well as the previously under-exploited anion-? interactions and halogen bonding. However, anion supramolecular chemistry has developed substantially beyond anion recognition, and now encompasses a diverse range of disciplines. Dramatic advance has been made in the anion-templated synthesis of macrocycles and interlocked molecular architectures, while the study of transmembrane anion transporters has flourished from almost nothing into a rapidly maturing field of research. The supramolecular chemistry of anions has also found real practical use in a variety of applications such as catalysis, ion extraction, and the use of anions as stimuli for responsive chemical systems. PMID:25204549

Evans, Nicholas H; Beer, Paul D

2014-10-27

198

Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

2009-01-01

199

NLP-inspired structural pattern recognition in chemical application q J. Sidorova  

E-print Network

NLP-inspired structural pattern recognition in chemical application q J. Sidorova , M. Anisimova Computational Biochemistry Research Group, Department of Computer Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology recognition Grammar inference Natural language processing Chemical descriptors SMILES Activity prediction a b

Anisimova, Maria

200

New industrial heat pump applications to a specialty chemicals refinery  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a study sponsored by US DOE Office of Industrial Programs titled Advanced Heat Pump Application and Evaluation.'' Two energy conservation retrofit options as described below, are identified with a combined total savings of about $245,000/year giving a payback period of 1.3 years. These savings represent about 41% reduction of current energy consumption in the chemical industry. Passive heat integration option calls for increasing the process to process heat exchanger area in the HDS and Main Fractionation Units by 3426 square feet. The semi-open cycle (Mechanical Vapor Recompression -- MVR) heat pump option compresses the overhead vapors of the deisohexanizer (T-7) column and condenses it to partially supply the heat required by the same column reboiler. Several electrically driven MVR heat pump applications were studied. Heat integration alone looks very attractive; however, it cannot satisfy the total reboiler duty of the deisohexanizer column (T-7). A combination of heat integration and MVR heat pump completely satisfies the T-7 reboiler duty and eliminates the fired heater from service. The combined option yields a payback period of 1.3 years, which is well within the period specified by the plant. 9 refs., 35 figs., 13 tabs.

Not Available

1990-03-01

201

Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences  

PubMed Central

The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission (PET) scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or 1H) including carbon (13C) or phosphorus (31P). In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region of interest (ROI or voxel) or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI). Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using 13C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-13C]-glycine. This is the first report of 13C CSI in a marine organism. PMID:20948912

Lee, Haakil; Tikunov, Andrey; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.

2010-01-01

202

The effects of host plant defoliation and fertilizer application on larval growth and oviposition behaviour in cinnabar moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defoliated ragwort plants produced regrowth foliage that was higher in alkaloid, but lower in amino acid concentrations than primary foliage. Total N was not affected. 2) Plants fertilized with nitrogen (as ammonium sulphate) had lower amino acid concentrations than unfertilized control plants, slightly increased alkaloid levels but similar total N concentrations. 3) Ovipositing females laid eggs upon plants with equal

A. Wilcox; M. J. Crawley

1988-01-01

203

APPLICATION OF DEMOGRAPHIC ESTIMATION MODELS TO FERTILITY IN A NIGERIAN ETHNIC GROUP: IMPLICATIONS FOR POPULATION GROWTH AND FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAMMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the current level of fertility in a Nigerian ethnic group, the Igbo in Eastern Nigeria, using various modern demographic estimation techniques. The aim is to control for the validity and reliability of estimates derived from these techniques with a view to arriving at more robust estimates . The analysis was from data collected for the study of

CLIFFORD OBBY ODIMEGWU

204

Impact of organic residues and mineral fertilizer application on soil-crop systems I: yield and nutrients content  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five seasons experiment was initiated to study the effects of recycling of some organic residues on soil-crop system of a guar- wheat rotation in a sandy clay loam soil located in the semiarid tropics of Sudan. Treatments included: incorporation of crop residues alone after harvest (Cr), with (FCr) or without (FCr) inorganic fertilizer, sewage sludge (SS) and humentos (H).

F. A. M. Rezig; E. A. Ehadi; A. R. Mubarak

2012-01-01

205

Changes in the biological activity of chestnut soils upon the long-term application of fertilizers in a rotation with oil-bearing crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental studies showed that irrigated chestnut soils on the piedmont of the Zailiiskiy Alatau Range are characterized by the moderate activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. The use of these soils in the crop rotation system increases the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes (invertase, urease, and ATP synthase) by 30% in comparison with the monoculture; at the same time, it does not have a significant impact on the changes in the biological activity of the redox enzymes (catalase and dehydrogenase). The hydrolytic activity of the soils is activated to a greater extent in the crop rotation and in the monoculture against the background application of organic fertilizers. In this case, the recommended rates of mineral fertilizers do not inhibit the activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. An increase in the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes directly affects the yield of oilseed flax. Therefore, indices of the hydrolytic activity of soils can be used as a test for the diagnostics of the efficiency of fertilizers both in crop rotation and monoculture systems.

Eleshev, R. E.; Bakenova, Z. B.

2012-11-01

206

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations 1 Table...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63...Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations As...

2012-07-01

207

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations 1 Table...Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63...Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations As...

2013-07-01

208

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop. Global Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Publication Date: 1/24/2011 Copyright 2011. The Trustees of Columbia University

Columbia University

209

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Publication Date: 1/24/2011 Copyright 2011. The Trustees of Columbia University

Columbia University

210

Toxicokinetic modeling and its applications in chemical risk assessment.  

PubMed

In recent years physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has found frequent application in risk assessments where PBPK models serve as important adjuncts to studies on modes of action of xenobiotics. In this regard, studies on mode of action provide insight into both the sites/mechanisms of action and the form of the xenobiotic associated with toxic responses. Validated PBPK models permit calculation of tissue doses of xenobiotics and metabolites for a variety of conditions, i.e. at low-doses, in different animal species, and in different members of a human population. In this manner, these PBPK models support the low-dose and interspecies extrapolations that are important components of current risk assessment methodologies. PBPK models are sometimes referred to as physiological toxicokinetic (PT) models to emphasize their application with compounds causing toxic responses. Pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling in general has a rich history. Data-based PK compartmental models were developed in the 1930's when only primitive tools were available for solving sets of differential equations. These models were expanded in the 1960's and 1970's to accommodate new observations on dose-dependent elimination and flow-limited metabolism. The application of clearance concepts brought many new insights about the disposition of drugs in the body. In the 1970's PBPK/PT models were developed to evaluate metabolism of volatile compounds of occupational importance, and, for the first time, dose-dependent processes in toxicology were included in PBPK models in order to assess the conditions under which saturation of metabolic and elimination processes lead to non-linear dose response relationships. In the 1980's insights from chemical engineers and occupational toxicology were combined to develop PBPK/PT models to support risk assessment with methylene chloride and other solvents. The 1990's witnessed explosive growth in risk assessment applications of PBPK/PT models and in applying sensitivity and variability methods to evaluate model performance. Some of the compounds examined in detail include butadiene, styrene, glycol ethers, dioxins and organic esters/aids. This paper outlines the history of PBPK/PT modeling, emphasizes more recent applications of PBPK/TK models in health risk assessment, and discusses the risk assessment perspective provided by modern uses of these modeling approaches. PMID:12559690

Andersen, Melvin E

2003-02-18

211

Effects of field application of phosphate fertilizers on the availability and uptake of lead, zinc and cadmium by cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in a mining tailing contaminated soil.  

PubMed

A field trial was conducted to evaluate the reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals including lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in a soil contaminated by mining tailings in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China. Three commercial phosphate (P) fertilizers including phosphate rock (PR), calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), and single superphosphate (SSP) were applied to the plot at three P application rates, 50, 300, and 500 g/m2 with 9 treatments and control (CK). Plants, water soluble and exchangeable (WE) extraction procedure and modified toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) were employed. It was found that the addition of all three P fertilizers significantly decreased WE Pb (22.0%-81.4%), Cd (1.5%-30.7%) and Zn (11.7%-75.3%, exception of SSP treatments with no significant difference) and TCLP Pb concentration (27.1%-71.2%), compared with the control, leading to reduced uptake of Pb (16.0%-58.0%), Cd (16.5%-66.9%) and Zn (1.2%-73.2%) by cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.). It was suggested that P fertilizers induced immobilization of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, and Zn. CMP provided the most effective method of reducing metal toxicity, mobility, and phytoavailability. At the P application rate of 300 g/m2, CMP would be cost-effective to decrease WE Pb, Zn, and Cd concentration from 666 to 137 mg/kg, from 31.2 to 8.71 mg/kg, and from 1.69 to 1.36 mg/kg, respectively. SSP was more effective in reducing Pb bioavailability than PR but had variable effects on Zn bioavailability. Cd uptake by cabbage was negatively correlated with soil pH rather than with WE or TCLP, indicating that Cd uptake by cabbage was a complex process. It should be careful to evaluate the impact of phosphate application on Cd availability in soil. PMID:19143319

Wang, Biling; Xie, Zhengmiao; Chen, Jianjun; Jiang, Juntao; Su, Qiufeng

2008-01-01

212

Synthesis and chemical modification of carbon nanostructures for materials applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the structure, chemical reactivities, electromagnetic response, and materials properties of various carbon nanostructures, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite, and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Efficient production and modification of these unique structures, each with their own distinct properties, will make them more accessible for applications in electronics, materials, and biology. A method is reported for controlling the permittivity from 1--1000 MHz of SWCNT-polymer composites (0.5 wt%) for radio frequency applications including passive RF antenna structures and EMI shielding. The magnitude of the real permittivity varied between 20 and 3.3, decreasing as higher fractions of functionalized-SWCNTs were added. The microwave absorbing properties and subsequent heating of carbon nanotubes were used to rapidly cure ceramic composites. With less than 1 wt% carbon nanotube additives and 30--40 W of directed microwave power (2.45 GHz), bulk composite samples reached temperatures above 500°C within 1 min. Graphite oxide (GO) polymer nanocomposites were developed at 1, 5, and 10 wt% for the purpose of evaluating the flammability reduction and materials properties of the resulting systems. Microscale oxygen consumption calorimetry revealed that addition of GO reduced the total heat release in all systems, and GO-polycarbonate composites demonstrated very fast self-extinguishing times in vertical open flame tests. A simple solution-based oxidative process using potassium permanganate in sulfuric acid was developed for producing nearly 100% yield of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by lengthwise cutting and unraveling of MWCNT sidewalls. Subsequent chemical reduction of the GNRs resulted in restoration of electrical conductivity. The GNR synthetic conditions were investigated in further depth, and an improved method which utilized a two-acid reaction medium was found to produce GNRs with fewer defects and/or holes on the basal plane and higher aspect ratio. Two different covalent functionalization methods for GNRs based on diazonium chemistry were developed. The resulting functionalized GNRs (f-GNRs) are readily soluble in organic solvents which increase their solution processability. The f-GNRs were also found to be in a reduced state, with minimal sp2 carbon disruption, while also keeping the ribbon shape.

Higginbotham, Amanda Lynn

213

Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from CVD diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.

1995-01-01

214

Chemical vapor deposition of silver films for superconducting wire applications  

SciTech Connect

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to deposit silver films for superconducting wire applications. Silver halide and silver organometallic reagents were initially tested for use as CVD precursors. AgI, silver trifluoroacetate (Ag(TFA)), and perfluoro-1-methylpropenylsilver (Ag(PF)) produced the most promising silver films. CVD processing was optimized on these three precursors to produce the best possible silver films. Thermodynamic calculations were preformed using a modified version of the SOLGASMIX-PV computer program to assist the optimization studies. The model tested the effects of temperature, pressure, and hydrogen concentration on the CVD process. Experiments done with AgI, Ag(TFA), and Ag(PF) were compared to the results of the program. Ag(PF) was found to produce continuous silver films by CVD at 300 C and 30 torr. YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) was deposited on top of the silver films and silver was deposited on top of YBCO. A fiber which contained a silver barrier layer and a YBCO overlayer was found to be a superconductor at 72 K.

Shapiro, M.J.

1991-01-01

215

Variations in the Natural (15)N Abundance of Brassica chinensis Grown in Uncultivated Soil Affected by Different Nitrogen Fertilizers.  

PubMed

To further investigate the method of using ?(15)N as a marker for organic vegetable discrimination, the effects of different fertilizers on the ?(15)N in different growing stages of Brassica chinensis (B. chinensis) grown in uncultivated soil were investigated with a pot experiment. B. chinensis was planted with uncultivated soil and different fertilizer treatments and then harvested three times in three seasons consecutively. For the spring experiments in the years of 2011 and 2012, the ?(15)N value of B. chinensis, which increased due to organic manure application and decreased due to chemical fertilizer application, was significantly different (p < 0.05) with manure treatment and chemical treatment. The ?(15)N value of vegetables varied among three growing stages and ranged from +8.6‰ to +11.5‰ for the control, from +8.6‰ to +12.8‰ for the compost chicken manure treatment, from +2.8‰ to +7.7‰ for the chemical fertilizer urea treatment, and from +7.7‰ to +10.9‰ for the compost-chemical fertilizer treatment. However, the ?(15)N values observed in the autumn experiment of 2011 without any fertilizer application increased ranging from +13.4‰ to +15.4‰, + 11.2‰ to +17.7‰, +10.7‰ to +17.1‰, and +10.6‰ to +19.1‰, respectively, for the same treatments mentioned above. This result was not significantly different between manure treatment and chemical treatment. The ?(15)N values of soil obtained in the spring of 2011 during three growing stages were slightly affected by fertilizers and varied in the range of +1.6‰ to +2.5‰ for CK, +4.7‰ to +6.5‰ for compost treatment, +2.1‰ to +2.4‰ for chemical treatment, and +2.7‰ to +4.6‰ for chemical-compost treatment, respectively. High ?(15)N values of B. chinensis were observed in these experiments, which would be useful to supplement a ?(15)N database for discriminating organic vegetables. Although there was a significant difference between manure treatment and chemical treatment, it was still difficult to discriminate whether a labeled organic vegetable was really grown without chemical fertilizer just with a fixed high ?(15)N value, especially for the vegetables planted simultaneously with chemical and compost fertilizer. PMID:25369912

Yuan, Yuwei; Hu, Guixian; Zhao, Ming; Chen, Tianjin; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Qiang

2014-11-26

216

Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic ``dead zones,'' and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol)

M. E. Gallagher; W. C. Hockaday; S. Snapp; C. McSwiney; J. Baldock

2010-01-01

217

Chemical-Help Application for Classification and Identification of Stormwater Constituents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A computer application called Chemical Help was developed to facilitate review of reports for the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The application provides a tool to quickly find a proper classification for any constituent in the NDAMS review sheets. Chemical Help contents include the name of each water-quality property, constituent, or parameter, the section number within the NDAMS review sheet, the organizational levels within a classification hierarchy, the database number, and where appropriate, the chemical formula, the Chemical Abstract Service number, and a list of synonyms (for the organic chemicals). Therefore, Chemical Help provides information necessary to research available reference data for the water-quality properties and constituents of potential interest in stormwater studies. Chemical Help is implemented in the Microsoft help-system interface. (Computer files for the use and documentation of Chemical Help are included on an accompanying diskette.)

Granato, Gregory E.; Driskell, Timothy R.; Nunes, Catherine

2000-01-01

218

Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.  

PubMed

Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions. PMID:23562689

Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

2013-06-01

219

Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fission are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for /sup 239/Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

1982-07-07

220

Discriminative application of string similarity methods to chemical and non-chemical names for biomedical abbreviation clustering  

PubMed Central

Background Term clustering, by measuring the string similarities between terms, is known within the natural language processing community to be an effective method for improving the quality of texts and dictionaries. However, we have observed that chemical names are difficult to cluster using string similarity measures. In order to clearly demonstrate this difficulty, we compared the string similarities determined using the edit distance, the Monge-Elkan score, SoftTFIDF, and the bigram Dice coefficient for chemical names with those for non-chemical names. Results Our experimental results revealed the following: (1) The edit distance had the best performance in the matching of full forms, whereas Cohen et al. reported that SoftTFIDF with the Jaro-Winkler distance would yield the best measure for matching pairs of terms for their experiments. (2) For each of the string similarity measures above, the best threshold for term matching differs for chemical names and for non-chemical names; the difference is especially large for the edit distance. (3) Although the matching results obtained for chemical names using the edit distance, Monge-Elkan scores, or the bigram Dice coefficients are better than the result obtained for non-chemical names, the results were contrary when using SoftTFIDF. (4) A suitable weight for chemical names varies substantially from one for non-chemical names. In particular, a weight vector that has been optimized for non-chemical names is not suitable for chemical names. (5) The matching results using the edit distances improve further by dividing a set of full forms into two subsets, according to whether a full form is a chemical name or not. These results show that our hypothesis is acceptable, and that we can significantly improve the performance of abbreviation-full form clustering by computing chemical names and non-chemical names separately. Conclusions In conclusion, the discriminative application of string similarity methods to chemical and non-chemical names may be a simple yet effective way to improve the performance of term clustering. PMID:22759617

2012-01-01

221

Agricultural Chemical Usage. Postharvest Applications: Apples and Potatoes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The agricultural chemical use estimates in this report are based on data compiled from the Postharvest Chemical Use Surveys. Separate surveys were conducted for apples and potatoes in the summer of 1997, covering the 1996 crop. All results refer to pestic...

1998-01-01

222

Chemical named entities recognition: a review on approaches and applications.  

PubMed

The rapid increase in the flow rate of published digital information in all disciplines has resulted in a pressing need for techniques that can simplify the use of this information. The chemistry literature is very rich with information about chemical entities. Extracting molecules and their related properties and activities from the scientific literature to "text mine" these extracted data and determine contextual relationships helps research scientists, particularly those in drug development. One of the most important challenges in chemical text mining is the recognition of chemical entities mentioned in the texts. In this review, the authors briefly introduce the fundamental concepts of chemical literature mining, the textual contents of chemical documents, and the methods of naming chemicals in documents. We sketch out dictionary-based, rule-based and machine learning, as well as hybrid chemical named entity recognition approaches with their applied solutions. We end with an outlook on the pros and cons of these approaches and the types of chemical entities extracted. PMID:24834132

Eltyeb, Safaa; Salim, Naomie

2014-01-01

223

Definition and applications of a versatile chemical pollution footprint methodology.  

PubMed

Because of the great variety in behavior and modes of action of chemicals, impact assessment of multiple substances is complex, as is the communication of its results. Given calls for cumulative impact assessments, we developed a methodology that is aimed at expressing the expected cumulative impacts of mixtures of chemicals on aquatic ecosystems for a region and subsequently allows to present these results as a chemical pollution footprint, in short: a chemical footprint. Setting and using a boundary for chemical pollution is part of the methodology. Two case studies were executed to test and illustrate the methodology. The first case illustrates that the production and use of organic substances in Europe, judged with the European water volume, stays within the currently set policy boundaries for chemical pollution. The second case shows that the use of pesticides in Northwestern Europe, judged with the regional water volume, has exceeded the set boundaries, while showing a declining trend over time. The impact of mixtures of substances in the environment could be expressed as a chemical footprint, and the relative contribution of substances to that footprint could be evaluated. These features are a novel type of information to support risk management, by helping prioritization of management among chemicals and environmental compartments. PMID:25111657

Zijp, Michiel C; Posthuma, Leo; van de Meent, Dik

2014-09-16

224

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Australia Albers  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: Australia Albers 0 500 Kilometers Amount. (2010). Global Fertilizer Application and Manure Production. Data distributed by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer

Columbia University

225

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection Amount of nitrogen in manure produced. Source: Potter, P., and N. Ramankutty, et al. (2010). Global Fertilizer Application and Manure Production. Data distributed by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer

Columbia University

226

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: Asia Lambert Conformal  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: Asia Lambert Conformal 0 500 Kilometers Amount in the City of New York. Source: Potter, P., and N. Ramankutty, et al. (2010). Global Fertilizer Application and Manure Production. Data distributed by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer

Columbia University

227

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection Amount of phosphorus in manure produced. Source: Potter, P., and N. Ramankutty, et al. (2010). Global Fertilizer Application and Manure Production. Data distributed by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer

Columbia University

228

Dynamic generation of fertilizer maps using GPS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis about traditional techniques of fertilizer application in agriculture. As a result of this study a help system for the uniform application of fertilizer was developed. The system uses GPS technology to generate real-time fertilizer concentration color maps and statistical data

J. GomezGill; M. M. Zarzuela; F. J. D. Pernas; J. F. D. Higuera; D. G. Ortega; D. B. Giralda

2005-01-01

229

Commercial Fertilizers in 1916-1917.  

E-print Network

. In- formation concerning'the nature and use of fertilizers is to be found in . Bulletin 16'7, copies of which will be sent free on application. The quantity of commercial fertilizers sold in Texas for the last sev era1 seasons is RS fellows... pound. : 1 ......................... Available phosphoric acid. 6 Total phosphoric acid in tankage and bone. ......... 4 t I Nitrogen in mixed fertilizers, bat guano. ............ 20 ..................... Nitrogen in bone and tankage. 19 Potash 6 I...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1917-01-01

230

Selection of chemical products for oilfield applications in Arctic environments  

SciTech Connect

The Kuparuk Oil Field is located on the North Slope of Alaska, well above the Arctic Circle. Kuparuk uses chemicals for a variety of different oil production needs, including corrosion inhibition, emulsion breaking, defoaming, biofouling control, and scale inhibition. The North Slope`s isolated location demands unique logistical support, but it is otherwise accessible by an unpaved road and air service. The Arctic climate provides difficult challenges and requirements for any chemical selection. This article describes some criteria and practical experiences related to selecting the proper chemical products to be used in the Arctic environment.

Powell, D.E.; VanderWende, E. [ARCO, Alaska Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1997-04-01

231

Fertility preservation for age-related fertility decline.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of eggs or ovarian tissue to preserve fertility for patients with cancer has been studied since 1994 with R G Gosden's paper describing restoration of fertility in oophorectomised sheep, and for decades previously by others in smaller mammals. Clinically this approach has shown great success. Many healthy children have been born from eggs cryopreserved with the Kuwayama egg vitrification technique for non-medical (social) indications, but until now very few patients with cancer have achieved pregnancy with cryopreserved eggs. Often, oncologists do not wish to delay cancer treatment while the patient goes through multiple ovarian stimulation cycles to retrieve eggs, and the patient can only start using the oocytes after full recovery from cancer. Ovarian stimulation and egg retrieval is not a barrier for patients without cancer who wish to delay childbearing, which makes oocyte cryopreservation increasingly popular to overcome an age-related decline in fertility. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is an option if egg cryopreservation is ruled out. More than 35 babies have been born so far with cryopreserved ovarian tissue in patients with cancer who have had a complete return of hormonal function, and fertility to baseline. Both egg and ovarian tissue cryopreservation might be ready for application to the preservation of fertility not only in patients with cancer but also in countering the increasing incidence of age-related decline in female fertility. PMID:25283572

Stoop, Dominic; Cobo, Ana; Silber, Sherman

2014-10-01

232

Chemically functionalized gold nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on the development and application of gold nanoparticle based detection systems and biomimetic structures. Each class of modified nanoparticle has properties that are defined by its chemical moieties that interface with solution and the gold nanoparticle core. In Chapter 2, a comparison of the biomolecular composition and binding properties of various preparations of antibody oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle conjugates is presented. These constructs differed significantly in terms of their structure and binding properties. Chapter 3 reports the use of electroless gold deposition as a light scattering signal enhancer in a multiplexed, microarray-based scanometric immunoassay using the gold nanoparticle probes evaluated in Chapter 2. The use of gold development results in greater signal enhancement than the typical silver development, and multiple rounds of metal development were found to increase the resulting signal compared to one development. Chapter 4 describes an amplified scanometric detection method for human telomerase activity. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with specific oligonucleotide sequences can efficiently capture telomerase enzymes and subsequently be elongated. Both the elongated and unmodified oligonucleotide sequences are simultaneously measured. At low telomerase concentrations, elongated strands cannot be detected, but the unmodified sequences, which come from the same probe particles, can be detected because their concentration is higher, providing a novel form of amplification. Chapter 5 reports the development of a novel colorimetric nitrite and nitrate ion assay based upon gold nanoparticle probes functionalized with Griess reaction reagents. This assay takes advantage of the distance-dependent plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles and the ability of nitrite ion to facilitate the cross coupling of novel nanoparticle probes. The assay works on the concept of a kinetic end point and can be triggered at the EPA limit for this ion in drinking water. Finally, Chapter 6 describes the synthesis of high density lipoprotein biomimetic nanoparticles capable of binding cholesterol. These structures use a gold nanoparticle core to template the assembly of a mixed phospholipid layer and the adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I. These synthesized structures have the general size and surface composition of natural HDL and bind free cholesterol with a Kd of 4 nM.

Daniel, Weston Lewis

233

Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications  

E-print Network

Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

2009-01-01

234

Chemical burn caused by topical application of garlic under occlusion.  

PubMed

Allium sativum (garlic) can cause an irritant contact dermatitis, secondary to naturopathic practices. We report an unusually severe case of chemical burn following garlic applied under occlusion. PMID:24456964

Xu, Shuai; Heller, Marissa; Wu, Peggy A; Nambudiri, Vinod E

2014-01-01

235

Application of Reversible Chemical Reactions for Temperature Amplification  

E-print Network

temperature thermal energy, mechanical and absorption type heat pumps have been proposed and developed so far. This paper addresses itself to the concept of a heat reaction chemical heat pump (HRCHP). The HRCHP concept is aimed to upgrade low temperature...

Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Suciu, D. F.

236

Mechanism and Applications of Chemical and Mechanical Polishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The mechanism of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is so complicated because there is synergy between chemical and mechanical\\u000a action. We studied the effect of particels in CMP by MD simulation theoreticaly and liquid jet simulation experimentaly. The\\u000a results show that MD simulation and slurry jet test have the similar result. For MD simulation, during the collision there\\u000a are material adhesion

Xinchun Lu; Guoshun Pan; Jianbin Luo

237

Application of pharmacokinetic principles to exposure to chemical mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Kinetic interactions among chemicals present in a mixture can influence the relationship between administered and delivered or effective dose; these interactions are distinct from dynamic interactions such as, for example, competition between two chemicals for receptor binding sites. The relationship between administered and effective dose depends on a number of biochemical, physiological, and physical factors such as age, sex, level of physical activity, route of administration, dose pattern, and bioavailability. In addition, interactions among chemicals may limit or increase the effective dose relative to the administered dose for any of the chemicals of a mixture. If the mechanism of the interaction is known, the direction and general magnitude of its effects may be predictable. A variety of potential interactions is briefly reviewed, and selected illustrations of these interactions are given. Two types of interactions likely to be pervasive in mixtures of chemically related bioactive materials are considered in greater detail. These interactions are induction of metabolizing enzymes such as the mixed-function oxidases, and competition of structurally similar chemicals for active sites on metabolizing enzymes. Simulations are presented to illustrate the consequences of these interactions, and examples of their occurrence are given. 17 references.

O'Flaherty, E.J. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

1989-10-01

238

Total Fertility Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chart of fertility rates by country showing the very high fertility rates in the least developed countries and the very low fertility rates in the most developed countries as of 2008 according to the CIA world factbook. To maintain stable population, fertility rates must be slightly above 2.

239

Utilization of biosensors and chemical sensors for space applications.  

PubMed

There will be a need for a wide array of chemical sensors for biomedical experimentation and for the monitoring of water and air recycling processes on Space Station Freedom. The infrequent logistics flights of the Space Shuttle will necessitate onboard analysis. The advantages of biosensors and chemical sensors over conventional analysis onboard spacecraft are manifold. They require less crew time, space, and power. Sample treatment is not needed. Real time or near-real time monitoring is possible, in some cases on a continuous basis. Sensor signals in digitized form can be transmitted to the ground. Types and requirements for chemical sensors to be used in biomedical experimentation and monitoring of water recycling during long-term space missions are discussed. PMID:1457091

Bonting, S L

1992-01-01

240

Utilization of biosensors and chemical sensors for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There will be a need for a wide array of chemical sensors for biomedical experimentation and for the monitoring of water and air recycling processes on Space Station Freedom. The infrequent logistics flights of the Space Shuttle will necessitate onboard analysis. The advantages of biosensors and chemical sensors over conventional analysis onboard spacecraft are manifold. They require less crew time, space, and power. Sample treatment is not needed. Real time or near-real time monitoring is possible, in some cases on a continuous basis. Sensor signals in digitized form can be transmitted to the ground. Types and requirements for chemical sensors to be used in biomedical experimentation and monitoring of water recycling during long-term space missions are discussed.

Bonting, S. L.

1992-01-01

241

Surface acoustic wave device for chemical and biological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor for chemical and biological detector as measuring the frequency shift based on adsorption quantities of chemical analyte on SAW propagation path. Important features that define the performance of these sensors are selectivity, sensitivity, stability, response time and dynamic range. In this paper, two inter-digital transducers (IDT) for working frequency of 50MHz, 100 MHz were designed and fabricated using conventional lift-off technique. The shift in SAW velocity due to surface loading leads to a shift in phase, which in turn generates a shift in frequency of the oscillator is confirmed. By different concentration of chemical vapor, the sensitivity of SAW devices will be presented.

Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Young-Jun; Jung, Dongsoo; Kim, Joo-Hyung

2014-04-01

242

Commercial Fertilizers in 1919-20.  

E-print Network

of commercial fertilizers. Information concerning the nature and use of fertilizers is to be found in Rulletin 167, copies of wl~ich mill be sent free on application. The quantities of commercial fertilizers sold in Texas for several seasons are as follows... September 1, and the prices may ~hange~before tlie active fertilizer season, from February to April. Table 1-Relation of valuation and selling price, 1919-1920. Number A Averaged. Val I I- Acid Phosphate 16 Per Cent.. ...................... Basic Phos...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

1920-01-01

243

Nanosized and Nanostructured II-VI Semiconductors: Chemical Sensor Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principles of chemical sensing are considered and examples from the literature of chemical sensors including II-VI semiconductor nanomaterials are given. A new method for improving the discrimination of semiconductor thin-film gas sensors is introduced, which uses the amplitude and phase of the photocurrent response to a modulated light source. Preparation of nanocrystalline CdS and CdSe thin films of various thicknesses (30-200 nm) by physical vapour deposition is described. Data from room temperature studies of the effect of exposure to a set of vapours (water, ethanol, ammonia, acetone) on the film resistance and quartz-crystal microbalance frequency are presented.

Nesheva, Diana

244

REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS OF LUMINESCENCE TO MONITORING OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent analytical literature on the application of luminescence techniques to the measurement of various classes of environmentally significant chemicals has been reviewed. uminescent spectroscopy based methods are compared to other current techniques. lso, examples of recent...

245

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications  

E-print Network

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

246

Application of extended kalman filtering to chemical reactor fault detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a method for detecting faults that can appear in some parts of a chemical plant. This method is based on statistical information generated by the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and is designed to reveal any drift from the normal behavior of the process. Although this method was originally developed for linear systems, our contribution consists

Y. Chetouani; N. Mouhab; J. M. Cosmao; L. Estel

2002-01-01

247

Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy applications of chemical interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments designed to acquire chemical shifts, scalar coupling, dipolar coupling, and quadrupolar coupling, as well as spin-lattice relaxation, spin-spin relaxation, and nuclear Overhauser enhancement are outlined. The computer programs LAOCOON 3, MARIP, and NUMARIT, used in analysis of spectra obtained in isotropic media, and LEQUOR and LAOCOONOR, used in analysis of spectra obtained in anisotropic media, are discussed. Several examples

R. R. Inners

1979-01-01

248

Carbon Footprint Calculations: An Application of Chemical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics commonly taught in a general chemistry course can be used to calculate the quantity of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by various human activities. Each calculation begins with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction that produces the CO[subscript 2] gas. Stoichiometry, thermochemistry, the ideal gas law, and dimensional…

Treptow, Richard S.

2010-01-01

249

Modified NASA-Lewis chemical equilibrium code for MHD applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A substantially modified version of the NASA-Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Code was recently developed. The modifications were designed to extend the power and convenience of the Code as a tool for performing combustor analysis for MHD systems studies. The effect of the programming details is described from a user point of view.

Sacks, R. A.; Geyer, H. K.; Grammel, S. J.; Doss, E. D.

1979-01-01

250

Applicability of Chemical Cleaning Process to Steam Generator Secondary Side, (III)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the chemical cleaning process to dissolve and remove scales and sludge by chemicals is being planned at the Japanese pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in order to maintain a designed heat transfer condition and to prevent the steam generator (SG) tube degradation. In this paper, the affects of the EPRI process and the KWU process on the

Hirotaka KAWAMURA; Kazutoshi FUJIWARA; Hiromi KANBE; Hideo HIRANO; Hideki TAKIGUCHI; Kouji YOSHINO; Shuuichi YAMAMOTO; Toshio SHIBATA; Kenkichi ISHIGURE

2006-01-01

251

Application of solar technology to fuel production chemical processing, and thermochemical energy transport: Status and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of investigations into the application of solar thermal technology to fuel production, chemical processes, and thermochemical energy transport and storage in several countries around the world is discussed. In addition, the concept of a direct catalytic absorption receiver (DCAR) and the potential role this concept may play in the future of solar fuels and chemicals are presented.

Fish, J. D.

252

Application of toxicokinetics to improve chemical risk assessment: Implications for the use of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

While toxicokinetics has become an integral part of pharmaceutical safety assessment over the last two decades, its use in the chemical industry is relatively new. However, it is recognised as a potentially important tool in human health risk assessment and recent initiatives have advocated greater application of toxicokinetics as part of an improved assessment strategy for crop protection chemicals that

Stuart Creton; Richard Billington; Will Davies; Matthew P. Dent; Gabrielle M. Hawksworth; Simon Parry; Kim Z. Travis

2009-01-01

253

The development and characterization of sol-gel substrates for chemical and optical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sol gel process can be used to make monolithic porous glass for various scientific and engineering uses. The porosity of the material imparts a large surface area which is advantageous in applications such as catalyst supports or in the study of surface mediated chemical reactions. The chemical stability and transparency of the porous glass also make it suitable for

Kevin William Powers

1998-01-01

254

Anodic plasma-chemical treatment of CP titanium surfaces for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anodic plasma-chemical (APC) process was used to modify CP titanium surfaces for biomedical applications. This technique allows for the combined chemical and morphological modification of titanium surfaces in a single process step. The resulting conversion coatings, typically several micrometer thick, consist mainly of titanium oxide and significant amounts of electrolyte constituents. In this study, a new electrolyte was developed

V. M Frauchiger; F Schlottig; B Gasser; M Textor

2004-01-01

255

Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon coatings on Mg alloy for biomedical application  

E-print Network

Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon coatings on Mg alloy for biomedical application M was prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of SiH4 on WE43 alloy for biomedical by silicon film. As PECVD is a commonly used method to deposit silicon-based coatings, therefore, in our

Zheng, Yufeng

256

Chemical vapor deposition coating of fibers using microwave application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical vapor deposition coating is carried out in a cylindrical cavity. The fibers are heated by a microwave source that is uses a TM0N0 mode, where O is an integer, and produces a field that depends substantially only on radius. The fibers are observed to determine their heating, and their position can be adjusted. Once the fibers are uniformly heated, a CVD reagent is added to process the fibers.

Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Hoover, Gordon (Inventor); Jackson, Henry W. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

257

Wheat growth from phosphorus fertilizers as affected by time and method of application in soil with an acidic subsurface layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using soils with an acidic subsurface layer, three glasshouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of placement method and application rate of triple superphosphate (TSP) and North Carolina phosphate rock (NCPR) on dry matter (DM) yields. Time of application of NCPR on DM yield response of wheat was also studied.

E. Purnomo; A. S. Black

1994-01-01

258

Dermal absorption of chemicals: effect of application of chemicals as a solid, aqueous paste, suspension, or in volatile vehicle.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the dermal absorption of chemicals in different physical forms when applied to female F344 rats. Chemicals were applied either as a solid, aqueous paste, suspension, or dissolved in the volatile vehicle ethanol. The chemicals investigated were [14C]-2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNBP, 4.2 mumol), 2,4,5,2',4',5'-[14C]-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB, 2.3 mumol), and 3,4,3',4'-[14C]-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB, 0.5 mumol). The chemicals were applied on the clipped mid-dorsal region of the rat over a 2.54-cm2 treatment area, which was then occluded. Urine and feces were collected and assayed for radioactivity. Twenty-four hours post-application, the treated skin was washed with a mixture (1:1) of soap and water, dried, and reoccluded. The animals were sacrificed at 120 h by exsanguination under ether anesthesia. Radioactivity in the blood, skin (treated and untreated), and carcass was assayed. Dermal absorption of DNBP-derived radioactivity was approximately 50% of the recovered dose after application in the four physical forms, and the major route of excretion was via the urine. Twelve percent of the absorbed dose of DNBP was retained in the body. Dermal penetration of HCB-derived radioactivity was 5-8% of the recovered dose after application in the four forms, and the major route of excretion was via the feces. Greater than 90% of the absorbed dose of HCB-derived radioactivity was retained in the body. Dermal penetration of TCB-derived radioactivity was 6-8% of the recovered dose in the four forms, and the major route of excretion was via the feces. Approximately 21% of the absorbed dose was retained in the body at 120 h. Absorption of each chemical applied either as solid, aqueous paste, or suspension was compared to the absorption of the same chemical in ethanol. Absorption of HCB applied as a solid was significantly higher (p less than or equal to .05) as compared to HCB applied in ethanol. There were no other significantly differences in the comparisons of absorption. The data indicate that the chemicals examined in this study can penetrate the skin as readily when applied either as a solid, aqueous paste, or suspension, as when applied in the volatile vehicle ethanol. PMID:1522614

Hughes, M F; Shrivastava, S P; Sumler, M R; Edwards, B C; Goodwin, J H; Shah, P V; Fisher, H L; Hall, L L

1992-09-01

259

Characterization and analysis of the active contents of nano-chemicals for textile application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two nano-chemicals in the form of nano-suspensions were obtained commercially from the market. These two nano-chemicals\\u000a were claimed to have UV-protective and anti-bacterial functions, but the active ingredients of these nano-chemicals were not\\u000a disclosed. This was commonly found in commercial nano-chemicals used for textile application. Therefore, the aim of this paper\\u000a was to use some simple analytical

C. W. M. Yuen; C. W. Kan; Y. W. Wong

2009-01-01

260

Microbial functional diversity, metabolic quotient, and invertase activity of a sandy loam soil as affected by long-term application of organic amendment and mineral fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Organic and inorganic fertilizers are used primarily to increase nutrient availability to plants. Monitoring balanced versus\\u000a unbalanced fertilization effects on soil microbes could improve our understanding of soil biochemical processes and thus help\\u000a us to develop sound management strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term fertilization\\u000a regimes on soil microbial community functional diversity, metabolic

Junli Hu; Xiangui Lin; Junhua Wang; Jue Dai; Ruirui Chen; Jiabao Zhang; Ming Hung Wong

2011-01-01

261

Fertilizer profitability in East Africa: A Spatially Explicit Policy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though it is clear that Substantial growth in inorganic fertilizer use is a prerequisite for sustained agricultural growth in Africa, fertilizer use is still one of the factors explaining lagging agricultural productivity growth in SSA. High transport costs and less policy support pose a significant barrier to make fertilizer application profitable in Africa. This paper is aimed to identify

Zhe Guo; Jawoo Koo; Stanley Wood

2009-01-01

262

Evaluation of controlled-release compound fertilizers in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of compound controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) in the soil is essential in order to establish an appropriate soil management and fertilizer application technique. A compound fertilizer containing about 15% nitrogen (N), 2% phosphorus (P), 16% potassium (K), 4% calcium (Ca), 1% magnesium (Mg), and 1% copper (Cu) was prepared and subsequently coated with natural rubber (NR), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyacrylamide

M. M. Hanafi; S. M. Eltaib; M. B. Ahmad; S. R. Syed Omar

2002-01-01

263

Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased Corganic and Pextractable concentrations, compared to treatments without plants, reaching the highest values in the treatments combining amendments and plants. After one month of incubation, the dehydrogenase activities in wastes were more than twice in the amended treatments (1.71-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate and sampling period). Nevertheless, wastes from treatments with plants had higher dehydrogenase activities (9.66-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate) than in treatments using only amendments (4.98-22.30 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1), but both were higher than control. The plants in control presented lower fresh biomass than in amended treatments. Plants growth in control was not sufficient to enhance dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes (1.51 and 1.72 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, with/without plants, respectively). The extractable nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn) increased with amendment application, an advantage for remediation purposes. Although extractable Al, As, Na also increased in the same treatments, they remained small. In contrast, extractable Cu and Pb were, generally, lower in amended treatments than in control. The presence of the plant did not increase the concentration of elemental in the extractant solution.

Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

2013-04-01

264

Application of surface chemical analysis tools for characterization of nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is\\u000a described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy\\u000a (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), low-energy ion scattering\\u000a (LEIS), and scanning-probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic

Donald R. Baer; Daniel J. Gaspar; Ponnusamy Nachimuthu; Sirnegeda D. Techane; David G. Castner

2010-01-01

265

APPLICABILITY OF PASSIVE MONITORING DEVICES TO MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Commercial passive monitoring devices for volatile organic chemicals were evaluated to determine their potential application to ambient air concentrations (0.1 to 50 ppbv). A high-performance passive device was developed for short-term, low-level monitoring applications. The stai...

266

SYLLABUS for CH 841 and CH 841L Chemical Applications of NMR Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

. The second dimension (2D NMR): Quantum- mechanical approach; coherence transfer; phase cycling and coherenceSYLLABUS for CH 841 and CH 841L Fall 2009 Chemical Applications of NMR Spectroscopy Catalog Description: Basic concepts of NMR spectroscopy with application to organic, inorganic, physical

Stuart, Steven J.

267

Variation of rhizosphere bacterial community in watermelon continuous mono-cropping soil by long-term application of a novel bioorganic fertilizer.  

PubMed

The application method for a novel bioorganic fertilizer (BIO) was developed to improve its biocontrol efficacy of Fusarium wilt (Ling et al. 2010). However, its efficacy on controlling Fusarium wilt and the variations of microbial community after long-term application for watermelon production had not been elucidated. To clarify, a 4-years pot experiment of mono-cropping watermelon was conducted. The results revealed that though the disease incidences were increased in all treatments with the increase of continuous cropping years, the treatment of BIO application both in nursery and pot soil always maintained the lowest disease incidence. The real-time PCR results showed that the population of Paenibacillus polymyxa was decreased with continuous cropping years, but in all seasons, the treatment with BIO application both in nursery and pot soil had a highest population of P. polymyxa than the other treatments. On the other hand, the abundance of the pathogen FON was increased with the increase of continuous cropping years and the lowest rate of increase was found by BIO application in both nursery and pot soil. DGGE patterns showed that the bacterial diversity was weakened after mono-cropping of watermelon for 4 years, but the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage resulted in the minimal change of bacterial diversity. More detailed differences on bacterial diversity between control and double application of BIO treatment after 4-years monoculture were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing, which showed the dominant phyla found in both samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the consecutive applications of BIO recruited more beneficial bacteria than control, such as Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Haliangium, Streptomyces. Overall, these results, to a certain extent, approved that the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage could effectively suppress watermelon Fusarium wilt by regulating the rhizosphere bacterial diversity. These results could give some clues that how to regulate the soil microbial community to an appropriate level which can keep the plant healthy and thus control the soil-borne diseases. PMID:24263158

Ling, Ning; Deng, Kaiying; Song, Yang; Wu, Yunchen; Zhao, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

268

Baseflow and peakflow chemical responses to experimental applications of ammonium sulphate to forested watersheds in north-central West Virginia, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream water was analysed to determine how induced watershed acidification changed the chemistry of peakflow and baseflow and to compare the relative timing of these changes. Two watersheds in north-central West Virginia, WS3 and WS9, were subjected to three applications of ammonium sulphate fertilizer per year to induce acidification. A third watershed, WS4, was the control. Samples were collected for 8 years from WS9 and for 9 years from WS3. Prior to analyses, concentration data were flow adjusted, and the influence of natural background changes was removed by accounting for the chemical responses measured from WS4. This yielded residual values that were evaluated using robust locally weighted regression and Mann-Kendall tests. On WS3, analyte responses during baseflow and peakflow were similar, although peakflow responses occurred soon after the first treatment whereas baseflow responses lagged 1-2 years. This lag in baseflow responses corresponded well with the mean transit time of baseflow on WS3. Anion adsorption on WS3 apparently delayed increases in SO4 leaching, but resulted in enhanced early leaching losses of Cl and NO3. Leaching of Ca and Mg was strongly tied, both by timing and stoichiometrically, to NO3 and SO4 leaching. F-factors for WS3 baseflow and peakflow indicated that the catchment was insensitive to acid neutralizing capacity reductions both before and during treatment, although NO3 played a large role in reducing the treatment period F-factor. By contrast, the addition of fertilizer to WS9 created an acid sensitive system in both baseflow and peakflow. On WS9, baseflow and peakflow responses also were similar to each other, but there was no time lag after treatment for baseflow. Changes in concentrations generally were not as great on WS9 as on WS3, and several ions showed no significant changes, particularly for peakflow. The lesser response to treatment on WS9 is attributed to the past abusive farming and site preparation before larch planting that resulted in poor soil fertility, erosion, and consequently, physical and chemical similarities between upper and lower soil layers. Even with fertilizer-induced NO3 and SO4 leaching increases, base cations were in low supplies and, therefore, unavailable to leach via charge pairing. The absence of a time lag in treatment responses for WS9 baseflow indicates that it has substantially different flow paths than WS3. The different hydrologies on these nearby watersheds illustrates the importance of understanding watershed hydrology when establishing a monitoring programme to detect ecosystem change. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Edwards, Pamela J.; Wood, Frederica; Kochenderfer, James N.

2002-08-01

269

Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application  

PubMed Central

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

270

Loss of Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Loss of Fertility Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel ... who wish to father children after treatment for prostate cancer, the best chance for fertility is sperm banking. ...

271

Age and Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... women in their 20s with proven fertility are ideal donors. 9 FERTILITY PRESERVATION Women who wish to ... by high-frequency sound waves viewed as an image on a video screen; used to monitor growth ...

272

The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fertility of soil is a capacity for ensuring plants by water, nutrients, air and capacity for making optimal conditions for growth and development of plants. The result of it is a yield. The main characteristic of fertility of soil is maintenance of humus. The humus is important part of organic matter. The supporting of soil fertility is impossible by traditional methods. The amount of receiving mineral fertilizers in agriculture will not increase in future, because mineral fertilizers are very expensive. The mineral fertilizers don't influence on maintenance of total amount of humus in soil and improve the circulation of nutrients. Every hectare of fields have to receive no less than 8-10 tons of organic fertilizers, therefore we will have self-supporting balance of humus and the fertility of soils will be increasing. Consequently we are looking for new types of organic materials and we include them in modern agro technologies. One of them is an organomineral fertilizer (lignitic materials). The humic chemicals in the form of lignitic materials of natrium, potassium and ammonium are permitted for using them in agriculture at the beginning of 1984. The Department of agriculture in Russian Federation considered the problem of using humic chemicals and made a decision to use them on the fields of our country, because the lignitic materials can restore the fertility of our fields. The lignitic materials increase the amount of spore-forming bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycete. Therefore the organic decomposition occurs more strongly, the processes of humification increase the speed and the amount of humus rises in the soil. The new forming humus has a high biological activity and it improves chemical and physical soil properties. The addition of lignitic materials in soil activates different groups of microorganisms, which influence on mobilization of nutrients and transformation from potential to effective fertility. The inclusion of humic fertilizers improves physical, physicochemical properties of soils, its air, water and thermal rate. Humic acids with mineral and organomineral particles of soil form the soil absorbent complex. The inclusion of humic fertilizers promotes the process when humic substances form a very valuable water-stable clumpy-granular structure, which improves water-carrying and water-holding capacity, its air permeability by agglutination of mineral particles with each other. The soils, where humic fertilizers are carried in soils regularly, are more stable for influence of chemical polluting substances (for example, radioactive nuclides, heavy metals, pesticides) than poor soils. The inclusion of humic fertilizers is very important in period of urbanization and cropping on the plough-lands not far from a big industrial area. The lignitic materials tie together the detrimental compounds formed the insoluble complex in soil solution. The detrimental compounds don't go into plants, subsoil waters and atmosphere. The lignitic watering of soils (in concentration from 0.1 to 0.01%) increases biological activity of soil in a man-caused zones and it promotes to stability of plants to detrimental emission of enterprises. Today the problem of processing of sugar-beet industry is very important. In the result of storing sugar-beet wastes the pollution of environment is occurred, examples of this pollution are gassing, salinization of soils and ground waters by filtrational sediments. One of these wastes is defecation sludge. The defecation sludge consists of CaCO3, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and microelements. The technology of receiving N-Ca fertilizer based on defecate was developed because of impossibility of using this waste in pure form. For available data, using of these fertilizers improves the soil fertility and degree of pollution by heavy metals don't exceed an acceptance limits.

Vyborova, Oxana

2010-05-01

273

Time series hyperspectral chemical imaging data: challenges, solutions and applications.  

PubMed

Hyperspectral chemical imaging (HCI) integrates imaging and spectroscopy resulting in three-dimensional data structures, hypercubes, with two spatial and one wavelength dimension. Each spatial image pixel in a hypercube contains a spectrum with >100 datapoints. While HCI facilitates enhanced monitoring of multi-component systems; time series HCI offers the possibility of a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of such systems and processes. This implies a need for modeling strategies that can cope with the large multivariate data structures generated in time series HCI experiments. The challenges posed by such data include dimensionality reduction, temporal morphological variation of samples and instrumental drift. This article presents potential solutions to these challenges, including multiway analysis, object tracking, multivariate curve resolution and non-linear regression. Several real world examples of time series HCI data are presented to illustrate the proposed solutions. PMID:21962370

Gowen, A A; Marini, F; Esquerre, C; O'Donnell, C; Downey, G; Burger, J

2011-10-31

274

Application of Surface Chemical Analysis Tools for Characterization of Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS); low energy ion scattering (LEIS); and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), are briefly summarized. Examples describing the characterization of engineered nanoparticles are provided. Specific analysis considerations and issues associated with using surface analysis methods for the characterization of nanoparticles are discussed and summarized, along with the impact that shape instability, environmentally induced changes, deliberate and accidental coating, etc., have on nanoparticle properties. PMID:20052578

Baer, DR; Gaspar, DJ; Nachimuthu, P; Techane, SD; Castner, DG

2010-01-01

275

Primary rat hepatocytes in chemical testing and QSAR predictive applicability.  

PubMed

Primary rat hepatocytes were used to test acute toxicities of 16 neutral aliphatic alcohols, ketones and esters. Their effects on cell viability and metabolic function (ureogenesis, i.e. biotransformation of ornithine to urea) were measured and expressed as EC50 values. Log EC50 values from both tests correlated with the log partition coefficients for the chemicals between n-octanol and water and log P(ow)-based QSAR models were derived. Log EC50 (viability) tightly correlates with log EC50 (ureogenesis): log EC50 (viability)=0.91 log EC50 (ureogenesis)+0.06. Each of these toxic indices can be substituted by the other one. The toxic indices for both cell viability and metabolic disorder can be estimated using log EC50 for movement inhibition in the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex and the respective QSAR equation. It eliminates a usage of rats. Their correlations were proved and justified. PMID:19735719

Tichý, Milon; Pokorná, Adéla; Hanzlíková, Iveta; Nerudová, Jana; Tumová, Jana; Uzlová, Rút

2010-02-01

276

Nitrogenous fertilizers: Global distribution of consumption and associated emissions of nitrous oxide and ammonia  

SciTech Connect

The global distribution of nitrogen input via application of chemical nitrogenous fertilizers to agricultural ecosystems is presented. The suite of 1{degrees} (latitude/longitude) resolution data bases includes primary data on fertilizer consumption, as well as supporting data sets defining the distribution and intensity of agriculture associated with fertilizer use. The data were developed from a variety of sources and reflect conditions for the mid-1980s. East Asia, where fertilizer use is increasing at {approximately}10%/year, accounted for {approximately}37% of the total, while North America and western Europe, where fertilizer use is leveling off, accounted for 40% of the world`s total in the mid-1980s. While almost every country consumes urea, {approximately}75% of the large East Asian fertilizer use is supplied by this one fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate, used primarily in the former centrally planned economies of Europe, in West Asia, and in Africa, accounted for about one quarter of global consumption. These data were used to estimate distributions of the annual emission of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) associated with the use of fertilizers. Applying published ranges of emission coefficients for fertilizer types in the data base yields a median emission of 0.1 Tg N{sub 2}O-N, with lower and upper values of 0.03 and 2.0 Tg N{sub 2}O-N in 1984. This equals <1% to {approximately}3% of the total nitrogen applied via commercial fertilizers and represents ,=<1% to 15% of the annual emission of N{sub 2}O from terrestrial sources. Assuming that the {approximately}4% annual increase in consumption of nitrogenous fertilizers during the 1980s corresponds to a {approximately}4% rise in the release of N{sub 2}O-N, yearly increases in emissions from fertilizer use are <0.01 to 0.08 Tg N{sub 2}O-N equal to <1% to 3% of the current growth of atmospheric nitrous oxide. 98 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Matthews, E.

1994-12-01

277

Fertilizing Texas Patures.  

E-print Network

Fertilizing Texas Pastures 1- TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION&ERVICE J. E. HUTCHISON. DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Fertilizing Texas Pastures E. M. TREW, Extension Pasture Specialist W. F. BENNETT, Extension...Fertilizing Texas Pastures 1- TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION&ERVICE J. E. HUTCHISON. DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Fertilizing Texas Pastures E. M. TREW, Extension Pasture Specialist W. F. BENNETT, Extension...

Trew, E. M.; Bennett, W. F.

1960-01-01

278

Fertilizers in agroforestry systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review encompasses results of fertilization experiments on several agroforestry systems—alley cropping, perennial shade systems, home gardens—in which fertilizer use is a likely management alternative. Fertilizer response was found to be most common in alley cropping, variable in perennial shade systems, and rarely reported in home gardens. Level of nutrient removal in harvested products is probably the overriding factor in

L. T. Szott; D. C. L. Kass

1993-01-01

279

Organic Fertilization In A \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of alternative to mineral fertilizers is an important issue in organic systems. A four-year field experiment to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizers on yield and quality of processing tomato and proteic pea in rotation, was carried out in Southern Italy. The fertilization treatments aimed to supply 100 kg ha -1 of N for tomato and 60 kg

M. Rinaldi; A. V. Vonella; P. Garofalo

280

Stochastic models in floral biology and its application to the study of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) fertility  

E-print Network

Stochastic models in floral biology and its application to the study of oilseed rape (Brassica physiological processes that can be modeled with stochastic laws. Experiments were made on oilseed rape is the first step towards a dynamic model taking into account the complexity of the oilseed rape architecture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

Formulation of engineered particulate systems for chemical mechanical polishing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is widely used in the microelectronics industry to achieve planarization and patterning of metal and dielectric layers for microelectronic device manufacturing. Rapid advances in the microelectronics industry demand a decrease in the sizes of the devices, resulting in the requirement of a very thin layer of material removal with atomically flat and clean surface finish by CMP. Furthermore, new materials, such as copper and polymeric dielectrics, are introduced to build faster microprocessors, which are more vulnerable to defect formation and also demand more complicated chemistries. These trends necessitate improved control of the CMP that can be achieved by studying the slurry chemical and particulate properties to gain better fundamental understanding on the process. In this study, the impacts of slurry particle size distribution and stability on pad-particle-surface interactions during polishing are investigated. One of the main problems in CMP is the scratch or pit formation as a result of the presence of larger size particles in the slurries. Therefore, in this investigation, impacts of hard and soft (transient) agglomerates on polishing performance are quantified in terms of the material removal rate and the quality of the surface finish. It is shown that the presence of both types of agglomerates must be avoided in CMP slurries and robust stabilization schemes are needed to prevent the transient agglomerate formation. To stabilize the CMP slurries at extreme pH and ionic strength environments, under applied shear and normal forces, repulsive force barriers provided by the self-assembled surfactant structures at the solid/liquid interface are utilized. A major finding of this work is that slurry stabilization has to be achieved by controlling not only the particle-particle interactions, but also the pad-particle-substrate interactions. Perfect lubrication of surfaces by surfactants prevented polishing. Thus, effective slurry formulations are developed by studying the frictional forces, which are representative of the particle-substrate interactions, while achieving stability by introducing adequate interparticle repulsion. Finally, optimal slurry particulate properties are examined by analyzing the material removal mechanisms for silica-silica polishing. Based on the reported findings, a slurry design criterion is developed to achieve optimal polishing performance.

Basim, Gul Bahar

282

Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique in chemical diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range completely noninvasively from outside a container (e.g., pipe, tank, reactor vessel, etc.,). These acoustic parameters, along with their frequency-dependence, can be used to identify various chemicals. This technique can be adapted for a range of chemical diagnostic applications, particularly, in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals may provide appropriate feedback information. Both experimental data and theoretical modeling are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are discussed.

Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Lizon, D.; Hasse, R.

1996-09-01

283

Application of Key Events Analysis to Chemical Carcinogens and Noncarcinogens  

PubMed Central

The existence of thresholds for toxicants is a matter of debate in chemical risk assessment and regulation. Current risk assessment methods are based on the assumption that, in the absence of sufficient data, carcinogenesis does not have a threshold, while noncarcinogenic endpoints are assumed to be thresholded. Advances in our fundamental understanding of the events that underlie toxicity are providing opportunities to address these assumptions about thresholds. A key events dose-response analytic framework was used to evaluate three aspects of toxicity. The first section illustrates how a fundamental understanding of the mode of action for the hepatic toxicity and the hepatocarcinogenicity of chloroform in rodents can replace the assumption of low-dose linearity. The second section describes how advances in our understanding of the molecular aspects of carcinogenesis allow us to consider the critical steps in genotoxic carcinogenesis in a key events framework. The third section deals with the case of endocrine disrupters, where the most significant question regarding thresholds is the possible additivity to an endogenous background of hormonal activity. Each of the examples suggests that current assumptions about thresholds can be refined. Understanding inter-individual variability in the events involved in toxicological effects may enable a true population threshold(s) to be identified. PMID:19690995

BOOBIS, ALAN R.; DASTON, GEORGE P.; PRESTON, R. JULIAN; OLIN, STEPHEN S.

2009-01-01

284

Unplanned releases and injuries associated with aerial application of chemicals, 1995-2002.  

PubMed

For this article, records of the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were reviewed to identify and describe acute, unplanned releases of agricultural chemicals and associated injuries related to aerial application during 1995-2002. Records of aerial-application accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board were also reviewed. Of the 54,090 events in the HSEES system for 1995-2002, 91 were identified as aerial-application events. The most commonly released substance was malathion. There were 56 victims; 12 died, and 34 required treatment at a hospital. A higher percentage of HSEES aerial-applicator events involved injury and death than did other HSEES transportation events. The relatively high number of injuries and fatalities underscores the need for precautions such as monitoring and limiting pilot cumulative exposures to pesticides, and using appropriate personal protective equipment and decontamination equipment. Emergency responders should be educated about the hazards associated with chemicals at aerial-application crash sites. PMID:16334093

Rice, Nancy; Messing, Rita; Souther, Larry; Berkowitz, Zahava

2005-11-01

285

The development of micro/nano chemical sensor systems for aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerospace applications require a range of chemical sensing technologies to monitor conditions related to both space exploration and aeronautic aircraft operations. These applications include leak detection, engine emissions monitoring, fire detection, human health monitoring, and environmental monitoring. This paper discusses efforts to produce microsensor platforms and Smart Sensor Systems that can be tailored to measure a range of chemical species. This technology development ranges from development of base sensor platforms to the evaluation of more mature systems in relevant environments. Although microsensor systems can have a significant impact on aerospace applications, extensive application testing is necessary for their long-term implementation. The introduction of nanomaterials into microsensor platforms has the potential to significantly enable improved sensor performance, but control of those nanostructures is necessary in order to achieve maximum benefits. Examples will be given of microsensor platform technology, Smart Sensor Systems, application testing, and efforts to integrate and control nanostructures into sensor structures.

Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Evans, L.; Biaggi-Labiosa, A.; Ward, B. J.; Rowe, S.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Dutta, P.; Berger, G. M.; Vander Wal, R. L.

2010-04-01

286

Agronomy Facts 51 Starter Fertilizer  

E-print Network

Agronomy Facts 51 Starter Fertilizer Starter Fertilizer BeneFitS Starter fertilizers are most fertility. Using a starter is especially important in conservation tillage systems. Crops planted in late spring or early fall generally do not require a starter fertilizer unless soil fertility levels are low

Kaye, Jason P.

287

Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2\\/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the

E. J. Hanseth; Y. S. Won; L. P. Seibowitz

1980-01-01

288

Commercial fertilizers 1992  

SciTech Connect

Fertilizer consumption information in the USA for 1992 submitted by state regulatory officials is presented. This includes total sales or shipments for farm and non-farm use. Liming materials were excluded. Materials used for manufacture or blending of reported fertilizers or for use in other fertilizers are excluded to avoid double-counting. The consumption of multiple-nutrient and single-nutrient fertilizers is listed. Dry bulk, fluid, and bagged classes are given. Typical fertilizers include: anhydrous ammonia, aqua ammonia, nitrogen solutions, urea, ammonium nitrates, ammonium sulfates, phosphoric acid, superphosphates, potassium chlorides, and potassium sulfates.

Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

1992-12-01

289

Assortative fertilization in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The concept of gametic isolation has its origins in the 1937 edition of T. Dobzhansky’s Genetics and the Origin of Species. Involving either positive assortative fertilization (as opposed to self-incompatibility) or negative assortative fertilization, it occurs after mating but prior to fertilization. Gametic isolation is generally subsumed under either prezygotic or postmating isolation and thus has not been the subject of extensive investigation. Examples of assortative fertilization in Drosophila are reviewed and compared with those of other organisms. Potential mechanisms leading to assortative fertilization are discussed, as are their evolutionary implications. PMID:9223260

Markow, Therese Ann

1997-01-01

290

Best Management Practices for Silvicultural Chemicals and the Science Behind Them  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silvicultural chemicals include fertilizers and pesticides applied for forest management. All states east of the Rockies have at least some form of silvicultural chemical best management practices (SCBMPs) and it is widely accepted that SCBMPs effect some protection of water quality. All SCBMPs recommend handling and application precautions and a minimum width streamside management zone (SMZ) on each side of

Jerry L. Michael

2004-01-01

291

Effects of Different Sources of Fertilizer Nitrogen on Growth and Nutrition of Western Hemlock Seedlings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve different nitrogen (N) fertilizer treatments were tested on potted western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) seedlings. Fertilizers affected soil N and pH, and growth and foliar chemical composition of seedlings. Urea plus N-Serve and sulfu...

M. A. Radwan, D. S. DeBell

1980-01-01

292

[Dynamics of upland field P pool under a long-term application of fertilizer P in yellow soil area and their effects on P concentration in runoff].  

PubMed

Studies on the dynamics of upland field P pool under a long-term application of fertilizer P in yellow soil area and their effects on P concentration in runoff showed that the contents of A1-P, Fe-P and Ca-P in soil cultivated layer increased greatly, and Olsen-P and algae-available P also accumulated obviously. The correlation coefficients of algae-available P content in the high-P soils (Olsen-P > 25 mg.kg-1) with the quantities of A1-P, Fe-P and Ca-P were 0.859**, 0.903** and 0.650*, respectively, of which, Fe-P was the most important. By a 30-min rainfall simulation experiment with a constant rainfall rate of 63.2 mm.h-1, the concentrations of dissolved reactive P and bio-available P in runoff from low-P upland fields (Olsen-P 4.62-15.9 mg.kg-1) were 2.81-4.17 micrograms.L-1 and 0.723-0.876 mg.L-1, respectively, whereas their concentrations in runoff from high-P upland fields (Olsen-P 29.4-59.2 mg.kg-1) were 0.026-0.714 mg.L-1 and 0.996-1.281 mg.L-1, respectively. Therefore, runoff from high-P upland fields could accelerate water eutrophication. PMID:12827870

Liu, Fang; Huang, Changyong; He, Tengbin; Qian, Xiaogang; Liu, Yuansheng; Luo, Haibo

2003-02-01

293

Global government applications of analogues, SARs and QSARs to predict aquatic toxicity, chemical or physical properties, environmental fate parameters and health effects of organic chemicals.  

PubMed

Faced with the need to predict physical and chemical properties, environmental fate, ecological effects and health effects of organic chemicals in the absence of experimental data, several Government organizations have been applying analogues, Structure Activity Relationships (SARs) and Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) to develop those predictions. To establish some benchmarks for monitoring future increases in applications of analogues, SARs and QSARs by global Government organizations, this paper describes the current applications of analogues, SARs and QSARs by Australian, Canadian, Danish, European, German, Japanese, Netherlands, and United States Government organizations to predict physical and chemical properties, environmental fate, ecological effects and health effects of organic chemicals. PMID:12479375

Walker, J D; Carlsen, L; Hulzebos, E; Simon-Hettich, B

2002-10-01

294

Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Application (Phosphorus and Nitrogen ) for Fertilizer and Manure Applied to Crops (Cropsplit), 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set represents the estimated amount of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers applied to selected crops for the year 2002, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is based on 2002 fertilizer data (Ruddy and others, 2006) and tabulated by crop type per county (Alexander and others, 2007). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5, 7 and 9. MRB4, covering the Missouri River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 10-lower and 10-upper. MRB5, covering the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 8, 11 and 12. MRB6, covering the Rio Grande, Colorado and Great Basin River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 13, 14, 15 and 16. MRB7, covering the Pacific Northwest River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 17. MRB8, covering California River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 18.

Wieczorek, Michael E; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

295

Application of a microcoil probe head in NMR analysis of chemicals related to the chemical weapons convention.  

PubMed

A 1.7-mm microcoil probe head was tested in the analysis of organophosphorus compounds related to the Chemical Weapons Convention. The microcoil probe head demonstrated a high mass sensitivity in the detection of traces of organophosphorus compounds in samples. Methylphosphonic acid, the common secondary degradation product of sarin, soman, and VX, was detected at level 50 ng (0.52 nmol) from a 30-microL water sample using proton-observed experiments. Direct phosphorus observation of methylphosphonic acid with (31)P{(1)H} NMR experiment was feasible at the 400-ng (4.17 nmol) level. Application of the microcoil probe head in the spiked sample analysis was studied with a test water sample containing 2-10 microg/mL of three organophosphorus compounds. High-quality (1)H NMR, (31)P{(1)H} NMR, 2D (1)H-(31)P fast-HMQC, and 2D TOCSY spectra were obtained in 3 h from the concentrated 1.7-mm NMR sample prepared from 1 mL of the water solution. Furthermore, a 2D (1)H-(13)C fast-HMQC spectrum with sufficient quality was possible to measure in 5 h. The microcoil probe head demonstrated a considerable sensitivity improvement and reduction of measurement times for the NMR spectroscopy in identification of chemicals related to the Chemical Weapons Convention. PMID:18547061

Koskela, Harri; Vanninen, Paula

2008-07-15

296

Seasonal variation of soil chemical properties and CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes in unfertilized and P-fertilized pastures in an Ultisol of the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion of the tropical forest to pasture results in changes in the quality and quantity of the soil organic matter (SOM) and other physical and chemical soil properties. Most studies concerning the carbon (C) cycle have focused on soil C stocks. However, little information is available on tropical soil respiration rates. The objectives of this paper are, firstly, to determine

Silvana Aparecida Pavan Fernandes; Martial Bernoux; Carlos C. Cerri; Brigitte J. Feigl; Marisa C. Piccolo

2002-01-01

297

Molecule database framework: a framework for creating database applications with chemical structure search capability  

PubMed Central

Background Research in organic chemistry generates samples of novel chemicals together with their properties and other related data. The involved scientists must be able to store this data and search it by chemical structure. There are commercial solutions for common needs like chemical registration systems or electronic lab notebooks. However for specific requirements of in-house databases and processes no such solutions exist. Another issue is that commercial solutions have the risk of vendor lock-in and may require an expensive license of a proprietary relational database management system. To speed up and simplify the development for applications that require chemical structure search capabilities, I have developed Molecule Database Framework. The framework abstracts the storing and searching of chemical structures into method calls. Therefore software developers do not require extensive knowledge about chemistry and the underlying database cartridge. This decreases application development time. Results Molecule Database Framework is written in Java and I created it by integrating existing free and open-source tools and frameworks. The core functionality includes: •?Support for multi-component compounds (mixtures) •?Import and export of SD-files •?Optional security (authorization) For chemical structure searching Molecule Database Framework leverages the capabilities of the Bingo Cartridge for PostgreSQL and provides type-safe searching, caching, transactions and optional method level security. Molecule Database Framework supports multi-component chemical compounds (mixtures). Furthermore the design of entity classes and the reasoning behind it are explained. By means of a simple web application I describe how the framework could be used. I then benchmarked this example application to create some basic performance expectations for chemical structure searches and import and export of SD-files. Conclusions By using a simple web application it was shown that Molecule Database Framework successfully abstracts chemical structure searches and SD-File import and export to simple method calls. The framework offers good search performance on a standard laptop without any database tuning. This is also due to the fact that chemical structure searches are paged and cached. Molecule Database Framework is available for download on the projects web page on bitbucket: https://bitbucket.org/kienerj/moleculedatabaseframework. PMID:24325762

2013-01-01

298

Long-term fertilization modifies the structures of soil fulvic acids and their binding capability with Al.  

PubMed

The binding characteristics of organic ligands and minerals in fulvic acids (FAs) with Al are essential for understanding soil C sequestration, remain poorly understood. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) analysis was applied for the first time to explore the binding of Al with organic ligands and minerals in soil FAs. For these analyses, two contrasting treatments were selected from a long-term (i.e., 22-year) fertilization experiment: chemical (NPK) fertilization and swine manure (SM) fertilization. The results showed that the long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers to soils had little effect on the compositions of the fluorescent substances and organic ligands in the soil FAs. However, long-term SM fertilization increased the weathered Al and Si concentrations in the soil FAs compared with long-term chemical fertilization. Furthermore, organic ligands in the soil FAs were mainly bound with Al in the NPK treatment, whereas both organic ligands and minerals (Al-O-Si, Si-O) were bound with Al under the M fertilization conditions. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction spectra demonstrated that amorphous and short-range-ordered nanominerals were abundant in the soil FAs from the SM plot in contrast to the soil FAs from the NPK plot. This result illustrates the role nanominerals play in the preservation of soil FAs by during long-term organic fertilization. In summary, the combination of FTIR and 2D correlation spectroscopy is a promising approach for the characterization of the binding capability between soil FAs and Al, and a better understanding FA-Al binding capability will greatly contribute to global C cycling. PMID:25137372

Wu, Jun; Wu, Minjie; Li, Chunping; Yu, Guanghui

2014-01-01

299

Toxicity of pesticide and fertilizer mixtures simulating corn production to eggs of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).  

PubMed

Many reptiles oviposit in soils associated with agricultural landscapes. We evaluated the toxicity of a pesticide and fertilizer regime similar to those used in corn production in Ontario on the survivorship of exposed snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs. The herbicides atrazine, dimethenamid, and glyphosate, the pyrethroid insecticide tefluthrin, and the fertilizer ammonia, were applied to clean soil, both as partial mixtures within chemical classes, as well as complete mixtures. Eggs were incubated in the soil in a garden plot in which these mixtures were applied at a typical field application rate, and higher rates. Otherwise, the eggs were unmanipulated and were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. Eggs were also exposed at male producing temperatures in the laboratory in covered bins in the same soil, where there was less opportunity for loss through volatilization or leaching. Egg mortality was 100% at 10× the typical field application rate of the complete mixture, both with and without tefluthrin. At typical field application rates, hatching success ranged between 91.7 and 95.8%. Eggs exposed only to herbicides were not negatively affected at any application rates. Although fertilizer treatments at typical field application rates did not affect eggs, mortality was remarkably higher at three times this rate, and 100% at higher rates. The frequency of deformities of hatchlings was elevated at the highest application rate of the insecticide tefluthrin. The majority of the toxicity of the mixture was not due to the herbicides or insecticide, but was due to the ammonia fertilizer. At typical field application rates, the chemical regime associated with corn production does not appear to have any detrimental impacts upon turtle egg development; however toxicity dramatically increases if this threshold is passed. PMID:21831407

de Solla, Shane Raymond; Martin, Pamela Anne; Mikoda, Paul

2011-09-15

300

Sensitivity to Urea Fertilization in Three Amphibian Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fertilization with granular urea is a well-established management practice in many forested regions of the world. We\\u000a hypothesize that chemical forest fertilizers may be affecting forest-dwelling wildlife. In the laboratory, we studied the\\u000a effects of fertilization doses of granular urea on three species of forest-dwelling amphibians (Plethodon vehiculum, Rhyacotriton variegatus, and Taricha granulosa). In avoidance experiments, the three species

A. Marco; D. Cash; L. K. Belden; A. R. Blaustein

2001-01-01

301

Commercial Fertilizers in 1928-29 and Their Uses.  

E-print Network

excess of nitrogen, delays maturity of the crop. A well-balanced fertilizer shoulcl be selected, due consideration being given to the soil, the crop, the character of growth, and other conditions. How and when to apply Fertilizer is generally applied.... The approximate amounts to use are indicated below. Side dressings More than one application of fertilizer is not usually recommended for cotton or corn. Under exceptional conditions, however, more than one application may be made for cotton or corn...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

1929-01-01

302

Surface runoff pollution by cattle slurry and inorganic fertilizer spreading: chemical oxygen demand, ortho-phosphates, and electrical conductivity levels for different buffer strip lengths  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a way of dealing with the removal of pollutants from farming practices generated wastewater in the EU, we investigate the effect of spreading cattle slurry and inorganic fertiliser on 8× 5 m2 and 8× 3 m2 areas, referred to surface runoff chemical oxygen demand (COD), ortho-phosphates (o-P) and electrical conductivity (EC) levels, and the efficiency of grass buffer strips

A. Núñez-Delgado; E. López-Periago; F. Quiroga-Lago; F. Díaz-Fierros Viqueira

303

Chemical applications carried out by local pair natural orbital based coupled-cluster methods.  

PubMed

The scope of this review is to provide a brief overview of the chemical applications carried out by local pair natural orbital coupled-electron pair and coupled-cluster methods. Benchmark tests reveal that these methods reproduce, with excellent accuracy, their canonical counterparts. At the same time, the speed up achieved by exploiting the locality of the electron correlation permits us to tackle chemical systems that, due to their size, would normally only be addressable with density functional theory. This review covers a broad variety of the chemical applications e.g. simulation of transition metal catalyzed reactions, estimation of weak interactions, and calculation of lattice properties in molecular crystals. This demonstrates that modern implementations of wavefunction-based correlated methods are playing an increasingly important role in applied computational chemistry. PMID:24676339

Sparta, Manuel; Neese, Frank

2014-07-21

304

Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometer for nonintrusive detection and identification of chemical warfare compounds  

SciTech Connect

Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying chemical warfare (CW) compounds inside sealed munitions. The SFAI technique can rapidly (less than 20 seconds) and accurately determine sound speed and sound attenuation of a liquid inside a container over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 MHz). From the frequency-dependent sound attenuation measurement, liquid density is determined. These three physical properties are used to uniquely identify the CW compounds. In addition, various chemical relaxation processes in liquids and particle size distribution in emulsions can also be determined from the frequency-dependent attenuation measurement. The SFAI instrument is battery-operated and highly portable (< 6 lb.). The instrument has many potential application in industry ranging from sensitive detection (ppm level) of contamination to process control. The theory of the technique will be described and examples of several chemical industry applications will be presented.

Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Han, W.; Lizon, D.; Kogan, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronic Materials and Devices Group

1997-12-01

305

Application of CFD to Predict and Control Chemical and Biological Agent Dispersion in Buildings  

E-print Network

1 Application of CFD to Predict and Control Chemical and Biological Agent Dispersion in Buildings Z) is a reality in our lives. This study applies computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to predict CBA dispersion systems to protect building occupants in case of indoor CBA releases. It is found that the CFD is a useful

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

306

Applicability of Chemical Cleaning Process to Steam Generator Secondary Side, (IV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of chemical cleaning for dissolving and removing scale and sludge is being planned in the Japanese pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant in order to maintain high heat transfer performance and to prevent steam generator (SG) tube degradation. In this paper, the effectiveness of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and German Kraftwerk Union (KWU) processes on the integrity

Kazutoshi FUJIWARA; Hirotaka KAWAMURA; Hiromi KANBE; Hideo HIRANO; Hideki TAKIGUCHI; Kouji YOSHINO; Shuuichi YAMAMOTO; Toshio SHIBATA; Kenkichi ISHIGURE

2006-01-01

307

EVALUATION OF POLYESTER AND METALLIZED-POLYETHYLENE FILMS FOR CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The permeation resistance of thin polyester films and metallized, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films was evaluated to assess their feasibility for use in chemical protective clothing applications. For a 0.002 cm polyester film, permeation tests were conducted with acetone, car...

308

The application of reversible chemical reactions to solar thermal energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed to use reversible thermochemical reactions as a means for storing thermal energy in solar energy systems. The considered approach involves the storage of thermal energy in the form of chemicals created by endothermic reactions. In addition to the storage applications, there is also interest in applying reversible reactions to solar thermal energy transport and solar thermal

R. Mar

1980-01-01

309

Applications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles in the ocean  

E-print Network

. Emerson School of Oceanography This study used measurements of dissolved neon, nitrogen, argon, and oxygenApplications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles in the ocean Roberta Claire Hamme A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

Hamme, Roberta C.

310

Plasma chemical oxidation of phthalic anhydride: application to the treatment of Tunisian landfill  

E-print Network

of additional .OH radicals. The oxidation of Persistent Organic Pollutants present in landfill leachate of TiO2. Keywords Phthalic anhydride, landfill leachate, gliding arc plasma, catalyst, hydroxyl radicalsPlasma chemical oxidation of phthalic anhydride: application to the treatment of Tunisian landfill

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

311

Jaw electromyographic activity induced by the application of algesic chemicals to the rat tooth pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine if the application of mustard oil (MO), a small-fiber excitant and inflammatory irritant, or other algesic chemicals (capsaicin, CAP, and bradykinin, BK) to the rat maxillary molar tooth pulp induces electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and digastric muscles, and also to determine if endogenous opioid mechanisms may be involved in any

M Sunakawa; C. Y Chiang; B. J Sessle; James W Hu

1999-01-01

312

Numerical modeling of D-mappings with applications to chemical kinetics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical modeling of D-mappings was studied and applied to solving nonlinear stiff systems. These mappings were locally linearized for convergence analysis, and some applications were made to chemical kinetics. The technique avoids using multistep implicit codes that require inversion of Jacobian matrices, but depends on the Jacobians for its convergence analysis.

Dey, S. K.

1984-01-01

313

Medical Drugs Impairing Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human being is one of the least fertile among the mammals, despite the alarming scene of global overpopulation. Human\\u000a fertility is certainly on the decline. There are several historical, demographic, geographic, social, genetic and environmental\\u000a factors contributing to the decline. Medical drugs do contribute to a decline in the fertility of some couples. Iatrogenic\\u000a causes of medical illness are

N. Pandiyan

314

Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use model chromosomes to simulate the processes of mitosis, meiosis and fertilization, and they answer questions designed to promote understanding of these processes. To demonstrate the principle that genes are transmitted from parents to offspring through the processes of meiosis and fertilization, students follow two alleles of a gene through gametes to zygotes as they model meiosis and fertilization. Students also learn how a mistake in meiosis can result in Down Syndrome.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid; Poethig, Scott; Spindler, Lori

315

Zinc diffusion and extractability as affected by zinc carrier and soil chemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was carried out to evaluate the effect of soil chemical properties, Zn carrier and time elapsed after fertilizer application on the diffusion and extractability of Zn. A soil block technique was used to study zinc diffusion and DTPA extractability from ZnEDTA and ZnSO4 fertilizers in three soils that varied in texture, CaCO3 content, organic matter content, and pH

A. S. Modaihsh

1990-01-01

316

Modified phenol chemical face peels: recognizing the role of application technique.  

PubMed

The use of phenol to achieve chemexfoliation of facial tissue, following the standard Baker-Gordon formula or modifications of that formula, can produce a range of results depending on a variety of factors. This article-based on 16 new cases of modified phenol peels, three human biopsy studies, and one triple-blind study-examines the relative roles of phenol concentration, croton oil concentration, and application technique in the production of the chemical peel result. Results of this data suggest that the application technique is more important than the concentration of phenol or croton oil and underscore the importance of standardizing the application process. PMID:11457700

Stone, P A; Lefer, L G

2001-08-01

317

Analysis of Iron in Lawn Fertilizer: A Sampling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is described which uses a real-world sample of lawn fertilizer in a simple exercise to illustrate problems associated with the sampling step of a chemical analysis. A mixed-particle fertilizer containing discrete particles of iron oxide (magnetite, Fe[subscript 3]O[subscript 4]) mixed with other particles provides an excellent…

Jeannot, Michael A.

2006-01-01

318

Proximate determinants of fertility in peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

The continuing decline in fertility despite a contraction in contraceptive use in Peninsular Malaysia since the mid-1980s has triggered considerable interest in the reasons behind this phenomenon, such as increase in abortion, sterility, and out-of-wedlock pregnancy. Fertility decline has been attributed to rapid socioeconomic development, which can only influence fertility through the intermediate variables. Application of vital statistics, population census, and survey data of Peninsular Malaysia on Bongaarts's model vindicates that marriage postponement and contraceptive use are the 2 most important proximate determinants of fertility, but the effects are not uniform across the ethnic groups. For instance, the predicted total fertility rate for Chinese and Malays are 2.9 and 1.6, respectively, compared with the observed level of 3.0 and 1.9. Postpartum infecundability and abortion also play a part in explaining ethnic fertility differentials. The fertility inhibiting effects of these proximate determinants have significant implications on reproductive health and future population growth. PMID:21490114

Tey, Nai Peng; Ng, Sor Tho; Yew, Siew Yong

2012-05-01

319

Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max).  

PubMed

Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 ± 7.4 nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication. PMID:25023201

Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

2014-01-01

320

Fertility after breast cancer treatment.  

PubMed

In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established fertility preservation strategy, providing a 25-35% chance of pregnancy. In addition, oocyte freezing can be considered as an alternative in patients who are single and in those who do not wish a sperm donor. Although ovarian tissue harvesting appears to be safe, experience regarding ovarian transplantation is still limited due to low utilization, so the true value of this procedure remains to be determined. Nevertheless, in clinical situations in which chemotherapy needs to be started in young patients facing premature ovarian failure, ovarian tissue preservation seems to be a promising option for restoring fertility, especially in conjunction with other options like immature oocyte retrieval, in vitro maturation of oocytes, oocyte vitrification, or embryo cryopreservation. It seems that in vitro maturation is a useful strategy because it improves oocyte or cryopreservation outcome in breast cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation. PMID:24315568

Kasum, Miro; Beketi?-Oreškovi?, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Oreškovi?, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

2014-02-01

321

A 3-year field measurement of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies in China: Effects of water regime, crop residue, and fertilizer application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 3-year field experiment was conducted to simultaneously measure methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from rice paddies under various agricultural managements including water regime, crop residue incorporation, and synthetic fertilizer application. In contrast with continuous flooding, midseason drainage incurred a drop in CH4 fluxes while triggering substantial N2O emission. Moreover, N2O emissions after midseason drainage depended strongly on whether or not fields were waterlogged due to intermittent irrigation. Urea application tended to reduce CH4 emissions but significantly increased N2O emissions. Under a water regime of flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding-moist intermittent irrigation but without water logging (F-D-F-M), both wheat straw and rapeseed cake incorporation increased CH4 emissions by 252%, and rapeseed cake increased N2O by 17% while wheat straw reduced N2O by 19% compared to controls. Seasonal average fluxes of CH4 ranged from 25.4 mg m-2 d-1 when no additional residue was applied under the water regime of flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding to 116.9 mg m-2 d-1 when wheat straw was applied at 2.25 t ha-1 under continuous irrigation flooding. Seasonal average fluxes of N2O varied between 0.03 mg N2O-N m-2 d-1 under continuous flooding and 5.23 mg N2O-N m-2 d-1 under the water regime of F-D-F-M. Both crop residue-induced CH4, ranging from 9 to 15% of the incorporated residue C, and N2O, ranging from 0.01 to 1.78% of the applied N, were dependent on water regime in rice paddies. Estimations of net global warming potentials (GWPs) indicate that water management by flooding with midseason drainage and frequent water logging without the use of organic amendments is an effective option for mitigating the combined climatic impacts from CH4 and N2O in paddy rice production.

Zou, Jianwen; Huang, Yao; Jiang, Jingyan; Zheng, Xunhua; Sass, Ronald L.

2005-06-01

322

Commercial fertilizers 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document contains consumption data for commercial fertilizers in the USA for 1991. Graphical information on the consumption by class is given for the nation. State by state data for consumption of several types of commercial fertilizers are presented. Only numerical data is included.

Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

1991-12-01

323

Geoengineering, Ocean Fertilization,  

E-print Network

Geoengineering, Ocean Fertilization, and the Problem of Permissible Pollution Benjamin Hale1 and Lisa Dilling1 Abstract Many geoengineering projects have been proposed to address climate change fertilization, and other related geoengineering technologies, propose not strictly to clean up carbon emissions

Neff, Jason

324

Fertilization in Fucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are described for the collection, treatment and uniform discharge of large quantities of gametes, and a measure of fertilization control in the monoecious brown alga, Fucus distichus. Fertilization was examined using the techniques of blister-formation, gamete separation experiments, and electron microscopy. Sperm enter the freshly-discharged egg packets through a mesochite pore and juxtaposition with the eggs early. However, experimental

Edward G. Pollock

1970-01-01

325

Bolivia Fertilizer Situation and Recommendations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The second lowest level of fertilizer consumption in South America and exorbitant fertilizer prices are impeding Bolivia's agricultural development. This report reviews Bolivia's fertilizer situation and makes recommendations to improve it. Examined are B...

M. T. Frederick, R. T. Smith

1979-01-01

326

Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC`s Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across` the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

Scheib, R.M. [ed.

1991-11-01

327

1982 fertilizer summary data. Bulletin Y-180  

SciTech Connect

This report describes historical fertilizer use and crop statistics, application rates, and farm income and expense data for use in production planning and market evaluation. This edition summarizes US consumption (including Puerto Rico) of fertilizer and plant nutrients through the year ended June 30, 1982. It also includes TVA distribution of fertilizer materials in the industry demonstration program for 1979 through 1982. Acres harvested and plant nutrients used on corn for grain, wheat, soybeans, and cotton are reported by state. Statistics on plant nutrient use by crop are from an annual survey made by the ESCS, USDA. Totals are shown for states where these crops are the major farm products. Harvested crop acreage is the total of all principal crops, including commercial vegetables. A brief summary of major fertilizer trends in the US since 1962 is included.

Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

1983-05-01

328

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: N. America Albers Equal Area  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: N. America Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers. Ramankutty, et al. (2010). Global Fertilizer Application and Manure Production. Data distributed by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer

Columbia University

329

[Advances on investigation of chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Capparis spinosa].  

PubMed

In this paper, the chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Capparis spinosa had been reviewed. The constituents of C. spinosa include the saccharides and glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and volatile oils, fatty acids and steroides and so on. C. spinosa had many extensive pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, odynolysis, antifungus, hepatoprotective effect, hypoglycemic activity, antioxidation, anti-hyperlipemia, anticoagulated blood, smooth muscle stimulation, anti-stress reaction, improve memory. It was used to treat arthrolithiasis, rheumarthritis and dermatosis in clinic in domestic, and it would have a broad application prospects. PMID:19149246

Yang, Tao; Liu, Yu-Qing; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

2008-11-01

330

Chemical approaches toward graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in energy-related areas.  

PubMed

A 'gold rush' has been triggered all over the world for exploiting the possible applications of graphene-based nanomaterials. For this purpose, two important problems have to be solved; one is the preparation of graphene-based nanomaterials with well-defined structures, and the other is the controllable fabrication of these materials into functional devices. This review gives a brief overview of the recent research concerning chemical and thermal approaches toward the production of well-defined graphene-based nanomaterials and their applications in energy-related areas, including solar cells, lithium ion secondary batteries, supercapacitors, and catalysis. PMID:22121112

Luo, Bin; Liu, Shaomin; Zhi, Linjie

2012-03-12

331

Development of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, fire detection, and environmental monitoring. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to issues of selectivity and cross-sensitivity, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. This paper discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, hydrazine, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, W. H.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

2002-01-01

332

Principles of ESCA and applications to metal corrosion, coating and lubrication. [Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principles of ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) are described by comparison with other spectroscopic techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of ESCA as compared to other surface sensitive analytical techniques are evaluated. The use of ESCA is illustrated by actual applications to oxidation of steel and Rene 41, the chemistry of lubricant additives on steel, and the composition of sputter deposited hard coatings. Finally, a bibliography of material that is useful for further study of ESCA is presented and commented upon.

Wheeler, D. R.

1978-01-01

333

Silver nanoparticles: synthesis through chemical methods in solution and biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical methods provide an easy way to synthesize silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in solution. These metal nanoparticles have\\u000a a great potential for biomedical applications as an antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agent or in wound healing. The\\u000a adjustment of the parameters involved in these reactions permits a precise control over the size, shape, monodispersity, and\\u000a the surfaces of the nanoparticles. These

Jorge García-Barrasa; José M. López-de-Luzuriaga; Miguel Monge

2011-01-01

334

Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at moderate levels (67 kg N ha-1). Increasing fertilizer application beyond the point of diminishing returns for grain (67 kg N ha-1) to double the regionally-recommended amount (202 kg N ha-1) resulted in only marginal increases (25%) in crop residue carbohydrate yield, while increasing lignin yields 41%. In the case of at least this ecosystem, high fertilization rates did not result in large carbohydrate yield increases in the crop residue, and instead produced a lower quality feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production.

Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

2010-12-01

335

Present position of fertilizer experiments in rice in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of fertilizer experiments have been conducted in the country with an object to get a rationalised and economic\\u000a programme of fertilizer for different areas. Results have shown that rice soils in India need both nitrogen and phosphate\\u000a for increasing production. Response to potash application has however not been adequate enough. Nitrogenous fertilizers have\\u000a been found most effective

C. T. Abichandani

1959-01-01

336

Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb  

E-print Network

Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb As gasoline prices at the pump continue to climb above $ 3.00/gallon, fertilizer prices, especially Nitrogen (N) are doing. Just a few years ago we were paying $ 0.21/lb N (Fig. 1). Other sources of N fertilizer have been

Mukhtar, Saqib

337

The region's most experienced fertility center. Strong Fertility Center  

E-print Network

The region's most experienced fertility center. Strong Fertility Center In knowledge, there's hope. #12;How we stand apart among fertility centers. Here are some of the important benefits you can only find at the Strong Fertility Center. · We are part of the University of Rochester Medical Center

Goldman, Steven A.

338

Integrated luminescent chemical microsensors based on GaN LEDs for security applications using smartphones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of PCB-integrateable microsensors for monitoring chemical species is a goal in areas such as lab-on-a-chip analytical devices, diagnostics medicine and electronics for hand-held instruments where the device size is a major issue. Cellular phones have pervaded the world inhabitants and their usefulness has dramatically increased with the introduction of smartphones due to a combination of amazing processing power in a confined space, geolocalization and manifold telecommunication features. Therefore, a number of physical and chemical sensors that add value to the terminal for health monitoring, personal safety (at home, at work) and, eventually, national security have started to be developed, capitalizing also on the huge number of circulating cell phones. The chemical sensor-enabled "super" smartphone provides a unique (bio)sensing platform for monitoring airborne or waterborne hazardous chemicals or microorganisms for both single user and crowdsourcing security applications. Some of the latest ones are illustrated by a few examples. Moreover, we have recently achieved for the first time (covalent) functionalization of p- and n-GaN semiconductor surfaces with tuneable luminescent indicator dyes of the Ru-polypyridyl family, as a key step in the development of innovative microsensors for smartphone applications. Chemical "sensoring" of GaN-based blue LED chips with those indicators has also been achieved by plasma treatment of their surface, and the micrometer-sized devices have been tested to monitor O2 in the gas phase to show their full functionality. Novel strategies to enhance the sensor sensitivity such as changing the length and nature of the siloxane buffer layer are discussed in this paper.

Orellana, Guillermo; Muñoz, Elias; Gil-Herrera, Luz K.; Muñoz, Pablo; Lopez-Gejo, Juan; Palacio, Carlos

2012-09-01

339

A Sodium-Nitrate-Based, Water-Soluble, Granular Fertilizer for Sport Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested a granular, water-soluble, sodium-nitrate-based fertilizer (8% N, 24% P2O5, 15% K2O, and trace elements; per application rates of 8 and 16 kg\\/ha) for potential use in freshwater sport fish ponds and compared it with a liquid fertilization program commonly used in the United States. At 16 kg\\/ha application, the sodium-nitrate-based fertilizer was as effective as the liquid fertilizer

Yalcin Tepe; Claude E. Boyd

2001-01-01

340

A Web Service Infrastructure and its Application for Distributed Chemical Equilibrium Computation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

W3C standardized Web Services are becoming an increasingly popular middleware technology used to facilitate the open exchange of data and perform distributed computation. In this paper we propose a modern alternative to commonly used software applications such as STANJAN and NASA CEA for performing chemical equilibrium analysis in a platform-independent manner in combustion, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics research. Our approach is based on the next generation style of computational software development that relies on loosely-coupled network accessible software components called Web Services. While several projects in existence use Web Services to wrap existing commercial and open-source tools to mine thermodynamic data, no Web Service infrastructure has yet been developed to provide the thermal science community with a collection of publicly accessible remote functions for performing complex computations involving reacting flows. This work represents the first effort to provide such an infrastructure where we have developed a remotely accessible software service that allows developers of thermodynamics and combustion software to perform complex, multiphase chemical equilibrium computation with relative ease. Coupled with the data service that we have already built, we show how the use of this service can be integrated into any numerical application and invoked within commonly used commercial applications such as Microsoft Excel and MATLAB® for use in computational work. A rich internet application (RIA) is presented in this work to demonstrate some of the features of these newly created Web Services.

Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Paolini, Christopher P.; Patterson, Mark

341

Physico-chemical characterization of functionalized polypropylenic fibers for prosthetic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polypropylene (PP) fibers can be manufactured to form nets which can find application as prosthesis in hernioplasty. One of the most important problem to deal with when nets are applied in vivo consists in the reproduction of bacteria within the net fibers intersections. This occurs right after the application of the prosthesis, and causes infections, thus it is fundamental to remove bacteria in the very early stage of the nets application. This paper deals with the physico-chemical characterization of such nets, pre-treated by atmospheric pressure plasma dielectric barrier discharge apparatus (APP-DBD) and functionalized with an antibiotic drug such as chitosan. The physico-chemical characterization of sterilized nets, before and after the functionalization with chitosan, was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with EDS spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, drop shape analysis (DSA), X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses (TGA and DSC). The aim of the work is to individuate a good strategy to characterize this kind of materials, to understand the effects of polypropylene pre-treatment on functionalization efficiency, to follow the materials ageing in order to study the effects of the surface treatment for in vivo applications.

Nisticò, Roberto; Faga, Maria Giulia; Gautier, Giovanna; Magnacca, Giuliana; D'Angelo, Domenico; Ciancio, Emanuele; Piacenza, Giacomo; Lamberti, Roberta; Martorana, Selanna

2012-08-01

342

Optimizing Natural Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... Patient Education Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Optimizing Natural Fertility What can I do ... 2012 For more information on this and other reproductive health topics visit www.ReproductiveFacts.org AMERICAN SOCIETY ...

343

Fertility in cryptorchidism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both hormonal and surgical treatment of cryptorchidism have undergone an evolution, resulting in improved management of this condition. Current factors influencing fertility are reviewed, with regard to present and future treatment.

S. J. Kogan; Macy Pavilion

1987-01-01

344

Fertility and Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... Intolerances Autism Cancer Celiac Disease Diabetes Digestive Health Eating Disorders Fertility and Reproductive Health Heart and Cardiovascular HIV/ ... range of topics including careers in dietetics, healthy eating, the Academy ... benefits, media interviewing skills and the professional role of the ...

345

Measuring adsorption, diffusion and flow in chemical engineering: applications of magnetic resonance to porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are increasingly used to improve our understanding of the multi-component, multi-phase processes encountered in chemical engineering. This review brings together many of the MR techniques used, and often developed specifically, to study chemical engineering systems and, in particular, processes occurring within porous media. Pulse sequences for relaxometry, pulsed field gradient measurements of diffusion, imaging and velocimetry measurements are described. Recent applications of these MR pulse sequences to microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structures are then reviewed. Considering the microporous and mesoporous systems, we focus attention on studies of rock cores, manufactured materials such as cement and gypsum plaster, and catalysts. When considering macroporous structures, the transport through packed beds of particles typical of fixed-bed catalytic reactors is reviewed; a brief overview of the increasing research interest in gas-solid fluidized beds is also presented. We highlight the field of sparse k-space sampling as an area that is in its infancy and suggest that, combined with Bayesian methods, it will offer new opportunities in both extending the application of high-field MR techniques to chemical engineering and increasing the range of measurements that can be carried out using low-field hardware.

Gladden, Lynn F.; Mitchell, Jonathan

2011-03-01

346

Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

1994-01-01

347

Conversion of waste scrubbing liquor into fertilizer  

SciTech Connect

Used, unwanted scrubbing liquor consisting of an equimolar mixture of nitrate and nitrite dissolved in a highly alkaline solution (pH > 13) is now disposed of as a hazardous waste. However, this waste liquor can be converted into nitrate fertilizer by oxidizing the nitrite to nitrate with ozone and neutralizing the alkali with nitric acid to form a nitrate solution at pH 7. This report describes the chemical reactions, procedures, and equipment necessary for converting unwanted, partially depleted scrubbing liquor into nitrate fertilizer. It is concluded that the Hydrazine Waste Water Treatment System at Vandenberg Air Force Base can be used, with only slight modification, to both oxidize and neutralize waste liquor and thereby convert it to fertilizer.

Westberg, K.

1995-02-01

348

Chemical Stimulation of Adherent Cells by Localized Application of Acetylcholine from a Microfluidic System  

PubMed Central

Chemical stimulation of cells is inherently cell type selective in contrast to electro-stimulation. The availability of a system for localized application of minute amounts of chemical stimulants could be useful for dose related response studies to test new compounds. It could also bring forward the development of a novel type of neuroprostheses. In an experimental setup microdroplets of an acetylcholine solution were ejected from a fluidic microsystem and applied to the bottom of a nanoporous membrane. The solution traveled through the pores to the top of the membrane on which TE671 cells were cultivated. Calcium imaging was used to visualize cellular response with temporal and spatial resolution. Experimental demonstration of chemical stimulation for both threshold gated stimulation as well as accumulated dose–response was achieved by either employing acetylcholine as chemical stimulant or applying calcein uptake, respectively. Numerical modeling and simulation of transport mechanisms involved were employed to gain a theoretical understanding of the influence of pore size, concentration of stimulant and droplet volume on the spatial-temporal distribution of stimulant and on the cellular response. Diffusion, pressure driven flow and evaporation effects were taken into account. Fast stimulation kinetic is achieved with pores of 0.82??m diameter, whereas sustained substance delivery is obtained with nanoporous membranes. In all cases threshold concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.015 ?M acetylcholine independent of pore size were determined. PMID:21151808

Zibek, Susanne; Hagmeyer, Britta; Stett, Alfred; Stelzle, Martin

2010-01-01

349

Prediction of cadmium and zinc concentration in wheat grain from soils affected by the application of phosphate fertilizers varying in Cd concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium is an undesirable contaminant in phosphate fertilizer, and may represent a threat to food safety given its tendency\\u000a to be taken up by plants and translocated into the edible parts. In this context, predicting wheat grain cadmium concentration\\u000a from preliminary data would help to prevent exceeding the threshold values. Our study compared different approaches to estimate\\u000a the concentrations of

Matthieu François; Cynthia Grant; Raphaël Lambert; Sébastien Sauvé

2009-01-01

350

Total-Internal-Reflection Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensing platforms based on the principle of total internal reflection (TIR) represent a fairly mature yet still expanding and exciting field of research. Sensor development has mainly been driven by the need for rapid, stand-alone, automated devices for application in the fields of clinical diagnosis and screening, food and water safety, environmental monitoring, and chemical and biological warfare agent detection. The technologies highlighted in this chapter are continually evolving, taking advantage of emerging advances in microfabrication, lab-on-a-chip, excitation, and detection techniques. This chapter describes many of the underlying principles of TIR-based sensing platforms and additionally focusses on planar TIR fluorescence (TIRF)-based chemical and biological sensors.

Sapsford, Kim E.

351

Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the central receiver Rankine system, with thermal storage, to determine the relative merit of plants employing a thermochemical system. As an assessment criterion, the busbar energy costs were compared. Separate but comparable solar energy cost computer codes were used for distributed receiver and central receiver systems. Calculations were performed for capacity factors ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. The results indicate that SO2/SO3 technology has the potential to be more cost effective in transporting the collected energy than in storing the energy for the storage capacity range studied (2-15 hours)

Hanseth, E. J.; Won, Y. S.; Seibowitz, L. P.

1980-08-01

352

Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the central receiver Rankine system, with thermal storage, to determine the relative merit of plants employing a thermochemical system. As an assessment criterion, the busbar energy costs were compared. Separate but comparable solar energy cost computer codes were used for distributed receiver and central receiver systems. Calculations were performed for capacity factors ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. The results indicate that SO2/SO3 technology has the potential to be more cost effective in transporting the collected energy than in storing the energy for the storage capacity range studied (2-15 hours)

Hanseth, E. J.; Won, Y. S.; Seibowitz, L. P.

1980-01-01

353

Synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of a polysialate-hydroxyapatite composite for potential biomedical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New composite materials based on aluminosilicate materials were developed to be used in orthopaedic or maxillo-facial surgery. They are called geopolymers or polysialate-siloxo (PSS) and were studied alone or mixed with hydroxyapatite (HAP). The properties of these materials were investigated for potential use in biological or surgery applications. In this work, the chemistry involved in materials preparation was described. Samples were characterized by some physico-chemical methods like X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrometry (IR) and electron dispersion X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Results indicate that the mixing hydroxyapatite-geopolymer (PSS) leads to a neutral porous composite material with interesting physico-chemical properties. A preliminary evaluation of its cytotoxicity reveals an harmlessness towards fibroblasts. These properties allow to envisage this association as a potential biomaterial.

Zoulgami, M.; Lucas-Girot, A.; Michaud, V.; Briard, P.; Gaudé, J.; Oudadesse, H.

2002-09-01

354

Weather, Fertilizer, Previous Year Yield, and Fertilizer Levels Affect Ensuing Year Fertilizer Response of Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response to fertilizer is a function of several factors including weather, soil condition, previous year yield level, and the actual amount of fertilizer applied. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate if cumulative precipitation (PPT), growing degree days (GDD), soil moisture (SM) and fertilizer can explain variability in long-term grain yield and fertilizer response index (RI); to assess

Kefyalew Girma; Starr L. Holtz; Daryl B. Arnall; Lisa M. Fultz; Travis L. Hanks; Kyle D. Lawles; Clinton J. Mack; Kevin W. Owen; Stewart D. Reed; Jesus Santillano; Olga Walsh; Michael J. White; W. R. Raun

2007-01-01

355

Soil solution chemistry of sewage-sludge incinerator ash and phosphate fertilizer amended soil  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of the soil provides useful information on the feasibility of amending agricultural land with municipal and industrial waste, because the soil solution is the medium for most soil chemical reactions, the mobile phase in soils, and the medium for mineral adsorption by plant roots. The soil solutions studies in this research were from plots in a 4-yr field experiment conducted to evaluate the effects of the trace metals and P in sewage-sludge incinerator ash. Treatments compared ash with equivalent P rates from triple-superphosphate fertilizer and a control receiving no P application. Ash and phosphate fertilizer were applied annually at rates of 35, 70, and 140 kg citrate-soluble P ha{sup -1}. Cumulative ash applications during 4 yr amounted to 3.6, 7.2, and 14.4 Mg ash ha{sup -1}. Soil solutions were obtained by centrifugation-immiscible liquid displacement using a fluorocarbon displacing agent. Following chemical analysis, a chemical speciation model was used to determine possible solubility-controlling minerals for trace metals and P, and correlations between solution composition and plant uptake were analyzed. 37 refs., 5 tabs.

Bierman, P.M.; Rosen, C.J.; Bloom, P.R.; Nater, E.A. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

1995-03-01

356

Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils  

SciTech Connect

Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

2003-03-06

357

A broadband laser plasma x-ray source for application in ultrafast chemical structure dynamics.  

PubMed

A plasma source free from characteristic emission lines is described, based on laser irradiation of a water jet in a helium atmosphere. Various key aspects of the laser interaction are presented along with practical characterization of the observed isotropic approximately 4-10 keV x-ray emissions, measurements of which indicate subpicosecond duration. Observations are consistent with a vacuum heating plasma mechanism at the helium-water interface and indicate strong potential for in-house ultrafast chemical structure dynamics application when coupled to contemporary detector developments. PMID:18052502

Fullagar, Wilfred; Harbst, Michael; Canton, Sophie; Uhlig, Jens; Walczak, Monika; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; Sundström, Villy

2007-11-01

358

A broadband laser plasma x-ray source for application in ultrafast chemical structure dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A plasma source free from characteristic emission lines is described, based on laser irradiation of a water jet in a helium atmosphere. Various key aspects of the laser interaction are presented along with practical characterization of the observed isotropic ˜4-10keV x-ray emissions, measurements of which indicate subpicosecond duration. Observations are consistent with a vacuum heating plasma mechanism at the helium-water interface and indicate strong potential for in-house ultrafast chemical structure dynamics application when coupled to contemporary detector developments.

Fullagar, Wilfred; Harbst, Michael; Canton, Sophie; Uhlig, Jens; Walczak, Monika; Wahlström, Claes-Göran; Sundström, Villy

2007-11-01

359

Promoting Effects of a Single Rhodopseudomonas palustris Inoculant on Plant Growth by Brassica rapa chinensis under Low Fertilizer Input  

PubMed Central

Several Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains have been isolated from rice paddy fields in Taiwan by combining the Winogradsky column method and molecular marker detection. These isolates were initially screened by employing seed germination and seedling vigor assays to evaluate their potential as inoculants. To fulfill the demand in the present farming system for reducing the application of chemical fertilizers, we assessed the plant growth-promoting effects of the R. palustris YSC3, YSC4, and PS3 inoculants on Brassica rapa chinensis (Chinese cabbage) cultivated under a half quantity of fertilizer. The results obtained showed that supplementation with approximately 4.0×106 CFU g?1 soil of the PS3 inoculant at half the amount of fertilizer consistently produced the same plant growth potential as 100% fertility, and also increased the nitrogen use efficiency of the applied fertilizer nutrients. Furthermore, we noted that the plant growth-promotion rate elicited by PS3 was markedly higher with old seeds than with new seeds, suggesting it has the potential to boost the development of seedlings that were germinated from carry-over seeds of poor quality. These beneficial traits suggest that the PS3 isolate may serve as a potential PGPR inoculant for integrated nutrient management in agriculture. PMID:25130882

Wong, Wai-Tak; Tseng, Ching-Han; Hsu, Shu-Hua; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Mo, Chia-Wei; Huang, Chu-Ning; Hsu, Shu-Chiung; Lee, Kung-Ta; Liu, Chi-Te

2014-01-01

360

Frustrated fertility: a population paradox.  

PubMed

This Bulletin examines the causes of subfecundity -- the diminished ability to reproduce -- and its effect today and in the past on the fertility, or actual reproductive performance, of individuals and, hence, populations. By definition, all real populations are subfecund since all experience some degree of involuntary biological factors affecting coitus, conception, or the ability to carry a conceptus to live birth which reduces their fecundity below the estimated biological population maximum of 15 children per woman. Affecting both men and women, these factors fall into 5 categories: genetic factors such as blood group incompatibilities and inherited sickle cell anemia or diabetes; psychopathology, including psychic stress and behavioral disorders (e.g., drug and alcohol abuse); infectious diseases such as gonorrhea, malaria, tuberculosis, and postabortion infection; malnutrrition, including the chronic undernutrition of the 3rd World and the overnutrition of developed societies; and hazards posed by increasing amounts of radiation and toxic chemicals in the environment. Reducing subfecundity requires improved living conditions, avoidance of or protection from known hazards, and adoption of medical advances which now can help 40 to 60% of subfecund couples. But even in the U.S. fertility would certainly rise among the 15% of couples now estimated to be involuntarily childless and the 10% who have fewer children than they want, and among disadvantaged groups, and teenagers. PMID:12335956

Mcfalls Ja, J

1979-05-01

361

Author's personal copy Effects of organic and inorganic fertilization on soil aggregation in an Ultisol as  

E-print Network

soil quality and productivity. Since the 1980s, chemical fertilizers have been widely used in the red improvement of soil structure with organic manure but no improvement with chemical fertilizer. Lai et al bulk density, porosity, or stability to describe soil struc- ture. Knowledge of detailed aggregate

Perfect, Ed

362

Chemical measures of bioavailability/bioaccessibility of PAHs in soil: fundamentals to application.  

PubMed

Risk assessment and remediation of contaminated land is inherently dependent on the contaminants present and their availability for interaction with soil biota. An ever-growing body of evidence suggests that current regulatory procedures over-estimate the 'true' fraction available to biota. Thus, a procedure that predicts the 'bioavailable fraction' would be useful for predicting 'actual' exposure limits and provide a more relevant basis for risk assessment. The aim of this paper is to address several important questions: "How should bioavailability be defined?" "What factors affect bioavailability measurement?" "To what extent have existing protocols measured bioavailability?" "What is actually measured by chemical techniques purported to determine bioavailability?" We offer two definitions (namely 'bioavailability' and 'bioaccessibility') and review commonly employed chemical extraction techniques to measure putative bioavailability. Relative advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are highlighted to elucidate underlying factors for the wide range of conclusions observed in the literature. Although the concept of bioavailability is implicit to contaminated land risk assessment and remediation, explicit reference to and use of adjustment factors is rare amongst regulatory bodies and remediators. Use of chemical determinants for bioavailability, applicable within current legislation and due consideration to inherent variability, are proposed and barriers to their implementation discussed. PMID:23583092

Riding, Matthew J; Doick, Kieron J; Martin, Francis L; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T

2013-10-15

363

Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on cultures being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle. For analysis of microfilaments, microtubules, centrosomes, and calcium-requiring events, our standard laboratory protocols had to be modified substantially for experimentation on the Space Shuttle. All manipulations were carried out in a closed culture chamber containing 35 ml artificial sea water as a culture fluid. Unfertilized eggs stored for 24 hours in these chambers were fertilized with sperm diluted in sea water and fixed with concentrated fixatives for final fixation in formaldehyde, taxol, EGTA, and MgCl2(exp -6)H2O for 1 cell to 16 cell stages to preserve cytoskeletal structures for simultaneous analysis with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 1.5 percent glutaraldehyde and 0.4 percent formaldehyde for blastula and plueus stages. The fixed samples wre maintained in chambers without degradation for up to two weeks after which the specimens were processed and analyzed with routine methods. Since complex manipulations are not possible in the closed chambers, the fertilization coat was removed from fixation using 0.5 percent freshly prepared sodium thioglycolate solution at pH 10.0 which provided reliable immunofluorescence staining for microtubules. Sperm/egg fusion, mitosis, cytokinesis, and calcium deposition during spicule formatin in early embryogenesis were found to be without artificial alterations when compared to cells fixed fresh and processed with conventional methods.

Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Stoecker, Andrew; Schatten, Heide

1995-01-01

364

An optimization method for the reduction of fertilization errors with centrifugal  

E-print Network

An optimization method for the reduction of fertilization errors with centrifugal applicators Jonas The fertilizer spreading consists in supplying nutrients within arable land in order to make up the soil used. While the tractor progresses within the farmland along tramlines, fertilizer granulars contained

Boyer, Edmond

365

Phosphorus fertilizer can increase pea and lentil yield on many Montana soils  

E-print Network

Phosphorus fertilizer can increase pea and lentil yield on many Montana soils December 15, 2006 -- By Carol Flaherty BOZEMAN--Applications of phosphorus fertilizer can increase pea and lentil yield, two of available phosphorus in central Montana found that phosphorus fertilizer improved grain yield of spring pea

Maxwell, Bruce D.

366

DEVELOPMENT OF A SEMI-CONTROLLER FOR A VARIABLE RATE FERTILIZER  

E-print Network

DEVELOPMENT OF A SEMI-CONTROLLER FOR A VARIABLE RATE FERTILIZER APPLICATOR Jianbin Ji 1 , Xiu Wang production, introduced a variable fertilizer controller which suits for a domestic food-producing areas to promote output. The variable rate fertilization controller combined with the current Chinese made

367

Toxicology of chemically modified graphene-based materials for medical application.  

PubMed

This review article aims to provide an overview of chemically modified graphene, and graphene oxide (GO), and their impact on toxicology when present in biological systems. Graphene is one of the most promising nanomaterials due to unique physicochemical properties including enhanced optical, thermal, and electrically conductive behavior in addition to mechanical strength and high surface-to-volume ratio. Graphene-based nanomaterials have received much attention over the last 5 years in the biomedical field ranging from their use as polymeric conduits for nerve regeneration, carriers for targeted drug delivery and in the treatment of cancer via photo-thermal therapy. Both in vitro and in vivo biological studies of graphene-based nanomaterials help understand their relative toxicity and biocompatibility when used for biomedical applications. Several studies investigating important material properties such as surface charge, concentration, shape, size, structural defects, and chemical functional groups relate to their safety profile and influence cyto- and geno-toxicology. In this review, we highlight the most recent studies of graphene-based nanomaterials and outline their unique properties, which determine their interactions under a range of environmental conditions. The advent of graphene technology has led to many promising new opportunities for future applications in the field of electronics, biotechnology, and nanomedicine to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of debilitating diseases. PMID:25234085

Nezakati, Toktam; Cousins, Brian G; Seifalian, Alexander M

2014-11-01

368

Novel ZnO nanorod films by chemical solution deposition for planar device applications.  

PubMed

Smooth and continuous ZnO films consisting of densely packed ZnO nanorods (NRs), which can be used for electronic device fabrication, were synthesized using a hydro-thermo-chemical solution deposition method. Such devices would have the novelty of high performance, benefiting from the inherited unique properties of the nanomaterials, and can be fabricated on these smooth films using a conventional, low cost planar process. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the NR films have much stronger shallow donor to valence band emissions than those from discrete ZnO NRs, and hence have the potential for the development of ZnO light emission diodes and lasers, etc. The NR films have been used to fabricate large area surface acoustic wave devices by conventional photolithography. These demonstrated two well-defined resonant peaks and their potential for large area device applications. The chemical solution deposition method is simple, reproducible, scalable and economic. These NR films are suitable for large scale production on cost-effective substrates and are promising for various fields such as sensing systems, renewable energy and optoelectronic applications. PMID:23743485

Singh, D; Narasimulu, A A; Garcia-Gancedo, L; Fu, Y Q; Soin, N; Shao, G; Luo, J K

2013-07-12

369

Hancornia speciosa latex for biomedical applications: physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic activity.  

PubMed

The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa is used in folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as acne, warts, diabetes, gastritis and inflammation. In this work, we describe the biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic properties of H. speciosa latex and its potential application in medicine. The physical-chemical characterization was carried out following different methodologies (CHN elemental analyses; thermogravimetric analyses and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests in fibroblast mouse cells and the angiogenic properties were evaluated using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay model. The physical-chemical results showed that the structure of Hancornia speciosa latex biomembrane is very similar to that of Hevea brasiliensis (commercially available product). Moreover, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that H. speciosa latex is biocompatible with life systems and can be a good biomaterial for medical applications. The CAM test showed the efficient ability of H. speciosa latex in neovascularization of tissues. The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained in the CAM assay. Our data indicate that the latex obtained from H. speciosa and eluted in water showed significant angiogenic activity without any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on life systems. The same did not occur with H. speciosa latex stabilized with ammonia. Addition of ammonia does not have significant effects on the structure of biomembranes, but showed a smaller cell survival and a significant genotoxicity effect. This study contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of H. speciosa latex as a source of new phytomedicines. PMID:24973907

Almeida, Luciane Madureira; Floriano, Juliana Ferreira; Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Magno, Lais Nogueira; da Mota, Lígia Souza Lima Silveira; Peixoto, Nei; Mrué, Fátima; Melo-Reis, Paulo; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Pablo José

2014-09-01

370

[Application of SOF-FTIR method to measuring ammonia emission flux of chemical plant].  

PubMed

In the present paper, a new method is introduced for real-time monitoring polluted gas emission flux of chemical plant, which is called FTIR based on the solar occultation flux technique (SOF-FTIR). The model to obtain background spectrum, measured spectrum and atmospheric penetration rate surrounding polluted gas under complicated conditions is also proposed. Continuous measurements were preformed at a closed loop surrounding the contaminated areas that need to be mornitored to obtain measured spectrum, and finally column concentration of polluted gas was retrieved by using the nonlinear least squares fitting algorithm (NLLS). Then the flux information combined with the meteorological data and GPS information of the time was obtained when the experiments were done. Using this method, remote sensing experiment of ammonia emission around a chemical plant was done, and the concentration distribution and its emission flux was quantitatively analyzed. Compared with traditional FTIR methods of monitoring, this method is featured by convenient operation and high maneuverability, so it has a good application prospect in pollution monitoring and other applications in regional air pollution contingency monitoring. PMID:20707133

Jin, Ling; Gao, Min-Guang; Liu, Wen-Qing; Lu, Yi-Huai; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Tian-Shu; Xu, Liang; Liu, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Jun

2010-06-01

371

Chemical-radiation degradation of natural oligoamino-polysaccharides for agricultural application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the research was to elaborate the method of degradation of natural aminopolysaccharides to obtain a product applicable as biospecimen in protection and stimulation of the plants growth. Depolymerization of chitosan can be carried out by radiation or chemical degradation combined with irradiation method. The efficiency of these methods was verified by viscometric analysis. The chemical-radiation method was much more appropriate from economical point of view. By application of this method it was possible to obtain product with lower crystalline phase content than initial one, what was proved by X-ray diffraction studies. Finally preliminary agricultural tests on spring rape seeds were performed. The results show that the biggest growth was observed for chitosan (molecular weight 47,000 Da) in concentration of 0.1 g/kg of seeds. The higher concentration did not affect plant's growth. The average growth over-ground plant parts was about 16-22%, diameter of roots was about 11-13%, and mass of roots was about 51-65% higher in comparison to the control.

Chmielewski, A. G.; Migdal, W.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J.; Jakubaszek, U.; Tarnowski, T.

2007-11-01

372

Sputtered titanium oxynitride coatings for endosseous applications: Physical and chemical evaluation and first bioactivity assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titanium oxynitride coatings (TiNxOy) are considered a promising material for applications in dental implantology due to their high corrosion resistance, their biocompatibility and their superior hardness. Using the sputtering technique, TiNxOy films with variable chemical compositions can be deposited. These films may then be set to a desired value by varying the process parameters, that is, the oxygen and nitrogen gas flows. To improve the control of the sputtering process with two reactive gases and to achieve a variable and controllable coating composition, the plasma characteristics were monitored in-situ by optical emission spectroscopy. TiNxOy films were deposited onto commercially pure (ASTM 67) microroughened titanium plates by reactive magnetron sputtering. The nitrogen gas flow was kept constant while the oxygen gas flow was adjusted for each deposition run to obtain films with different oxygen and nitrogen contents. The physical and chemical properties of the deposited films were analyzed as a function of oxygen content in the titanium oxynitride. The potential application of the coatings in dental implantology was assessed by monitoring the proliferation and differentiation of human primary osteoblasts.

Banakh, Oksana; Moussa, Mira; Matthey, Joel; Pontearso, Alessandro; Cattani-Lorente, Maria; Sanjines, Rosendo; Fontana, Pierre; Wiskott, Anselm; Durual, Stephane

2014-10-01

373

Fertility of American Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Census Bureau prepares numerous papers each year, and they are an important source of information for public policy analysts, geographers, economists, and civic leaders. These reports are based on the biannual Current Population Surveys (CPS) conducted across the country. The reports here date back to 1994, and they look at fertility rates among American women in the noninstitutionalized population. Each report contains a detailed analysis of these biannual trends, along with historical tables and notes of the methodologies used in each report. Also, visitors will note that there are also supplemental fertility tables that break the data down into smaller segments such as "Fertility Indicators for Women in Their Thirties" and "Women 15 to 44 Years Old Who Had a Child in the Last Year and Their Percentage in the Labor Force".

374

Commercial Fertilizers 1927-28.  

E-print Network

OF FERTILIZERS, 1927-28 Table 10 contains a list of the samples of fertilizer subjected to analy- sis in the season beginning September 1, 1927. Analyses below guar- antee are brought out in heavy type. Practically a11 the ~amples of fertilizer mere collected... OF FERTILIZERS, 1927-28 Table 10 contains a list of the samples of fertilizer subjected to analy- sis in the season beginning September 1, 1927. Analyses below guar- antee are brought out in heavy type. Practically a11 the ~amples of fertilizer mere collected...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.)

1928-01-01

375

Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Soy Proteins for New Industrial Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite of being environmentally friendly, biocompatible, rich in chemical functionality and abundant as residual materials, soy proteins (SPs) are used for low added value applications. In this work, SPs were studied and used as potentially useful biomacromolecules for different industrial applications with high added value. Initially the effect of acid hydrolysis of soy proteins as a potential route for subsequent surface modification was studied, finding that SP hydrolysates tend to form less aggregates and to adsorb at faster rates compared with unmodified SP; nevertheless, it was also found that the amount of protein adsorbed and water contact angle of the treated surface does not change significantly. Secondly, the gel forming properties of SPs were used to produce aerogels with densities in the order of 0.1 g/cm3. To improve their mechanical properties, the reinforcement of these materials with cellulose nanofibers was studied, obtaining composite aerogels with SP loadings as high as ca. 70% that display a compression modulus of 4.4 MPa, very close to the value obtained from the pure nanofibers aerogels. The composite materials gain moisture (up to 5%) in equilibrium with 50% RH air. Futhermore, their physical integrity is unchanged upon immersion in polar and non-polar solvents, exhibiting sorption rates dependent on the aerogel composition, morphology and swelling abilities. Finally, different soy protein based products and derivatives were used to enhance the dry strength properties of wood fibers in paper production. Experiments using soy flour, soy protein isolate, soy protein isolate hydrolysates, cationized soy flour, and soy flour combined with cationic starch and chitosan were done, obtaining satisfactory results when soy protein flour was utilized in combination with conventional treatments involving cationic polymers. The current results confirm the opportunity to valorize residual soy products that are underutilized today as alternatives to oil derived chemicals used in chemical processes.

Arboleda Fernandez, Julio Cesar

376

Double Fertilization and Post-fertilization Events: Measuring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf includes background information and ideas for lessons involving the processes that occur between fertilization and seed production in Fast Plants. Fertilization is explained and illustrated and an activity for students to observe reproductive development is described.

Program, The W.

377

Historical trends of hypoxia in Changjiang River estuary: Applications of chemical biomarkers and microfossils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades China has become the largest global consumer of fertilizers, which has enhanced river nutrient fluxes and caused eutrophication and hypoxia in the Yangtze (Changjiang) large river delta-front estuary (LDE). In this study, we utilized plant pigments, lignin-phenols, stable isotopes (? 13C and ? 15N) and foraminiferal microfossils in 210Pb dated cores to examine the history of hypoxia in the Changjiang LDE. Two sediment cores were collected onboard R/V Dong Fang Hong 2 using a stainless-steel box-corer; one at a water depth of 24.7 m on Jun. 15, 2006 and the other at 52 m on Nov. 20, 2007, both in the hypoxic region off the Changjiang LDE. There has been a significant increase in the abundance of plant pigments after 1979 that are indicators of enhanced diatom and cyanobacterial abundance, which agrees with post-1980 record of increasing nutrient loads in the Changjiang River. The increased inputs of terrestrially derived materials to the LDE are largely woody plant sources and most likely due to deforestation that began in the early 1950s. However, post-1960 lignin data did not reflect enhanced loading of woody materials despite continued deforestation possibly due to increased trapping from greater dam construction, a reduction of deforestation in the drainage basin since the last 1990s, and soil conservation practices. The lack of linkages between bulk indices (stable isotopes, % OC, molar C/N ratios) and microfossil/chemical biomarkers may reflect relative differences in the amount of carbon tracked by these different proxies. Although NO 3- is likely responsible for most of the changes in phytoplankton production (post 1970s), historical changes in N loading from the watershed and hypoxia on the LDE shelf may not be as well linked in East China Sea (ECS) sediments due to possible denitrification/ammonification processes; finally, increases in low-oxygen tolerant foraminiferal microfossils indicate there has been an increase in the number of hypoxic bottom water events on the Changjiang LDE over the past 60 years.

Li, Xinxin; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Yang, Zuosheng; Osterman, Lisa E.; Allison, Mead A.; DiMarco, Steven F.; Yang, Guipeng

2011-06-01

378

Historical trends of hypoxia in Changjiang River estuary: Applications of chemical biomarkers and microfossils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past two decades China has become the largest global consumer of fertilizers, which has enhanced river nutrient fluxes and caused eutrophication and hypoxia in the Yangtze (Changjiang) large river delta-front estuary (LDE). In this study, we utilized plant pigments, lignin-phenols, stable isotopes (?13C and ?15N) and foraminiferal microfossils in 210Pb dated cores to examine the history of hypoxia in the Changjiang LDE. Two sediment cores were collected onboard R/V Dong Fang Hong 2 using a stainless-steel box-corer; one at a water depth of 24.7 m on Jun. 15, 2006 and the other at 52 m on Nov. 20, 2007, both in the hypoxic region off the Changjiang LDE. There has been a significant increase in the abundance of plant pigments after 1979 that are indicators of enhanced diatom and cyanobacterial abundance, which agrees with post-1980 record of increasing nutrient loads in the Changjiang River. The increased inputs of terrestrially derived materials to the LDE are largely woody plant sources and most likely due to deforestation that began in the early 1950s. However, post-1960 lignin data did not reflect enhanced loading of woody materials despite continued deforestation possibly due to increased trapping from greater dam construction, a reduction of deforestation in the drainage basin since the last 1990s, and soil conservation practices. The lack of linkages between bulk indices (stable isotopes, % OC, molar C/N ratios) and microfossil/chemical biomarkers may reflect relative differences in the amount of carbon tracked by these different proxies. Although NO3? is likely responsible for most of the changes in phytoplankton production (post 1970s), historical changes in N loading from the watershed and hypoxia on the LDE shelf may not be as well linked in East China Sea (ECS) sediments due to possible denitrification/ammonification processes; finally, increases in low-oxygen tolerant foraminiferal microfossils indicate there has been an increase in the number of hypoxic bottom water events on the Changjiang LDE over the past 60 years.

Li, X.; Bianchi, T. S.; Yang, Z.; Osterman, L. E.; Allison, M. A.; DiMarco, S. F.; Yang, G.

2011-01-01

379

Equine in vitro fertilization  

E-print Network

The most general objective of the present study was to mature and fertilize equine oocytes in-vitro and to culture the resulting embryos up to the blastocyst stage. During a one year period 1035 ovaries were collected and processed. Three different...-culturing with equine oviductal epithelial cells, 50 embryos obtained by in-vitro fertilization showed some degree of development. Sixteen embryos developed to the 2-cell stage, three to 3-cell, seven to the 4-cell, one to the S-cell, two to the 6-cell, one...

Vasquez C., Juan Carlos

2012-06-07

380

Testing Bulls for Fertility.  

E-print Network

After the Breeding Season ------------ 7 Three to Five Months After the Breeding Season -------------- 7 TESTING BULLS FOR FERTILITY L. A. MADDOX. JR.. R. 0. BERRY. A. M. SORENSEN U. D. THOMPSON* How much of a problem is the infertile bull in our... After the Breeding Season ------------ 7 Three to Five Months After the Breeding Season -------------- 7 TESTING BULLS FOR FERTILITY L. A. MADDOX. JR.. R. 0. BERRY. A. M. SORENSEN U. D. THOMPSON* How much of a problem is the infertile bull in our...

Berry, R. O.; Thompson, U. D.; Sorensen, A. M.; Maddox, L. A. Jr.

1958-01-01

381

Fertility desires and fertility: Hers, his, and theirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between desired and achieved fertility may be misspecified by excluding husbands’ fertility desires or by\\u000a confounding effects of shared desires with the resolution of conflicting desires. Using couple data from the classic Princeton\\u000a Fertility Surveys, we find relatively large husband effects on fertility outcomes as well as unique effects of spousal disagreement.\\u000a Wives and husbands were equally likely

Elizabeth Thomson; Elaine McDonald; Larry L. Bumpass

1990-01-01

382

Anaerobic digestion of crude glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing using a large-scale pilot plant: methane production and application of digested sludge as fertilizer.  

PubMed

This report is the first to consider methane production energy balance from crude glycerol at a practical rather than a laboratory scale. Crude glycerol was added to the plant progressively at between 5 and 75 L glycerol/30 m(3)-day for 1.5 years, and the energy balance was positive at a loading rate of 30 L glycerol/30 m(3)-day (1 ml/L-day). At this loading rate over one year, an energy output equivalent to 106% of the energy input was achieved. The surplus energy was equivalent to transport for 1200 km, so the proper feedstock-transportation distance was within a 12.5-km radius of the biogas plant. In addition, the digested sludge contained fertilizer components (T-N: 0.11%, P2O5: 0.036%, K2O: 0.19%) that increased grass yield by 1.2 times when applied to grass fields. Thus, crude glycerol is an attractive bioresource that can be used as both a feedstock for methane production and a liquid fertilizer. PMID:23708849

Baba, Yasunori; Tada, Chika; Watanabe, Ryoya; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Chida, Nobuyoshi; Nakai, Yutaka

2013-07-01

383

Fertility disorders and subsequent fertility in dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was directed to the estimation of correlations between fertility disorders and effects of these disorders on subsequent fertility. Disorders were: abortion and repeat breeding, retained placenta, endometritis, irregular heat, no heat and other fertility disorders. Two datasets were used in this study: 7075 records from 24 commercial farms and 3351 records from 9 research herds. Diagnoses were made

W. Ouweltjes; E. A. A. Smolders; L. Elving; P. van Eldik; Y. H. Schukken

1996-01-01

384

Plant–microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizer-use efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued use of chemical fertilizers and manures for enhanced soil fertility and crop productivity often results in unexpected\\u000a harmful environmental effects, including leaching of nitrate into ground water, surface run-off of phosphorus and nitrogen\\u000a run-off, and eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Integrated nutrient management systems are needed to maintain agricultural\\u000a productivity and protect the environment. Microbial inoculants are promising components

Anthony O. Adesemoye; Joseph W. Kloepper

2009-01-01

385

Energy Conservation in Fertilizer Production  

E-print Network

An energy efficient fertilizer production device called the Pipe Cross Reactor (PCR) was developed by the National Fertilizer Development Center (NFDC) of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The Office of Industrial Programs (OIPI of the United...

Mings, W. J.; Sonnett, W. M.

1984-01-01

386

How Intelligence Affects Fertility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data for 4,316 men and 4,782 women--from the 1975 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study of Social and Psychological Factors in Educational and Occupational Aspirations and Achievement--the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and fertility was assessed. The effect of education on family size predicts the direction of evolution of genotypic…

Retherford, Robert D.; Sewell, William H.

1989-01-01

387

Fertilizers and Food Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertilizers provide plants with the nutrients they need for their growth and development. Plants live, grow, and reproduce by taking up water and nutrients, carbon dioxide from the air, and energy from the sun. Apart from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which collectively make up 90-95 percent of the dry matter of all plants, other nutrients needed by plants come essentially

Amit H. Roy

2007-01-01

388

Chemical Functionalization, Self-Assembly, and Applications of Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

This special issue addresses the research studies on chemical functionalization, self-assembly, and applications of nanomaterials and nanocomposites. It contains twentyfour articles including two reviews and twenty-two research articles. It is used to create new functional nanomaterials and nanocomposites with a variety of sizes and morphologies such as Zn/Al layered double hydroxide, tin oxide nanowires, FeOOH-modified anion resin, Au nanoclusters silica composite nanospheres, Ti-doped ZnO sol-composite films, TiO2/ZnO composite, graphene oxide nanocomposites, LiFePO4/C nanocomposites, and chitosan nanoparticles. These nanomaterials and nanocomposites have widespread applications in tissue engineering, antitumor, sensors, photoluminescence, electrochemical, and catalytic properties. In addition, this themed issue includes some research articles about self-assembly systems covering organogels and Langmuir films. Furthermore, B. Blasiak et al. performed a literature survey on the recent advances in production, functionalization, toxicity reduction, and application of nanoparticles in cancer diagnosis, treatment, and treatment monitoring. P. Colson et al. performed a literature survey on the recent advances in nanosphere lithography due to its compatibility with wafer-scale processes as well as its potential to manufacture a wide variety of homogeneous one-, two-, or three-dimensional nanostructures.

Jiao, Tifeng [Yanshan University; Yan, Xingbin [Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Balan, Lavinia [French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), Institute of Materials Science of Mulhouse (IS2M), France; Stepanov, Andrey [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kazan Physical-Technical Institute, Russia; Chen, Xinqing [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL

2014-01-01

389

Estimation of fertility-inhibiting indices using vital registration data.  

PubMed

The Bongaarts model quantifies intermediate variables that have a direct impact on fertility and it is related to the classical analytic framework of intermediate fertility variables (IFVs) introduced by Davis and Blake. The model requires data on age-specific proportions of women currently married, age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs), estimates of postpartum infecundability, and proportion of women currently using effective contraceptive methods. Horne, El-Khorazaty, and Suchindran (1990) developed a childbearing model estimating projected ages at 1st and last birth (AFB, ALB) and the reproductive life span (RLS), making use of only ASFRs available from either vital statistics or sample surveys. The correspondence between Bongaarts-type indices of marriage, contraception, and infecundability and the childbearing indices is discussed. Data on both fertility-inhibiting and childbearing indices were available for 225 subpopulations. Application 1: Characterization of the fertility-inhibiting indices by the childbearing indices. Contraceptive practice is the major fertility-inhibiting factor among women who stop childbearing before age 35 years, but for those women who stop reproducing in their late thirties, long duration of breastfeeding is. Application 2: Decomposition of fertility decline by the childbearing indices. For societies with a low TFR of only 2 births, contraceptive use plays the major role in achieving this low fertility level, regardless of age at 1st birth, and age at last birth not exceeding 35 years. Application 3: Annual fertility-inhibiting indices using ASFRs. In Kuwait the TFR declined from 4.7 births in the early 1960s to well below 2 births in the late 1970s and 1980s owing to direct government support to family planning programs. The correspondence model, using only macro-level vital statistics data, can predict indirectly fertility-inhibiting indices on an annual basis for countries lacking the micro-level data necessary for estimating those indices directly. PMID:12317871

El-khorazaty, M N

1992-01-01

390

Abundance and community structure of sulfate reducing prokaryotes in a paddy soil of southern China under different fertilization regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flooded rice paddy soils represent a typical anaerobic freshwater habitat of microorganisms. The abundance and community structure of sulfate reducing prokaryotes (SRP) were investigated in order to understand their response to different fertilization practices in rice paddy, including control without fertilizers (CT) and arrangements of different chemical fertilizers of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K): N, NP, NK and

Xin-Zhan Liu; Li-Mei Zhang; James I. Prosser; Ji-Zheng He

2009-01-01

391

Commercial Fertilizers in 1937-38.  

E-print Network

................................................ Comparing Costs of Fertilizer ...... 12 Fertilizer Analyses to be Sold in 1938-39 ............................................................ 12 Free Analysis... .......................................................................................................... 1.3 Analysis of Fertilizers, 1937-38 ............................................................................ 13 Averages Below Guarantee .................................................... ...... 15 Non-Acid Forming Fertilizers...

Ogier, T. L. (Thomas Louis); Asbury, S. E. (Samuel E.); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1938-01-01

392

The Impact of Soil Sampling Errors on Variable Rate Fertilization  

SciTech Connect

Variable rate fertilization of an agricultural field is done taking into account spatial variability in the soil’s characteristics. Most often, spatial variability in the soil’s fertility is the primary characteristic used to determine the differences in fertilizers applied from one point to the next. For several years the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has been developing a Decision Support System for Agriculture (DSS4Ag) to determine the economically optimum recipe of various fertilizers to apply at each site in a field, based on existing soil fertility at the site, predicted yield of the crop that would result (and a predicted harvest-time market price), and the current costs and compositions of the fertilizers to be applied. Typically, soil is sampled at selected points within a field, the soil samples are analyzed in a lab, and the lab-measured soil fertility of the point samples is used for spatial interpolation, in some statistical manner, to determine the soil fertility at all other points in the field. Then a decision tool determines the fertilizers to apply at each point. Our research was conducted to measure the impact on the variable rate fertilization recipe caused by variability in the measurement of the soil’s fertility at the sampling points. The variability could be laboratory analytical errors or errors from variation in the sample collection method. The results show that for many of the fertility parameters, laboratory measurement error variance exceeds the estimated variability of the fertility measure across grid locations. These errors resulted in DSS4Ag fertilizer recipe recommended application rates that differed by up to 138 pounds of urea per acre, with half the field differing by more than 57 pounds of urea per acre. For potash the difference in application rate was up to 895 pounds per acre and over half the field differed by more than 242 pounds of potash per acre. Urea and potash differences accounted for almost 87% of the cost difference. The sum of these differences could result in a $34 per acre cost difference for the fertilization. Because of these differences, better analysis or better sampling methods may need to be done, or more samples collected, to ensure that the soil measurements are truly representative of the field’s spatial variability.

R. L. Hoskinson; R C. Rope; L G. Blackwood; R D. Lee; R K. Fink

2004-07-01

393

40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Bulk Organic Chemicals § 414.70...Dihydrochloride Allyl Chloride Benzyl Chloride Carbon Tetrachloride *Chlorinated Paraffins...Other Organic Chemicals Adiponitrile Carbon Disulfide Fatty Nitriles...

2010-07-01

394

High Frequency Performance of Graphene Transistors Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition for Mixed Signal Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper demonstrates high frequency performance of graphene transistors grown by chemical vapor deposition on copper foils. Using Ti/Pd/Au-based ohmic contacts and a hybrid gate dielectric stack of 5 nm SiO2 and 15 nm Al2O3 grown by atomic layer deposition, graphene transistors with an extrinsic current-gain cut-off frequency (fT) of 2 GHz and power-gain cut-off frequency, fmax, of 5.6 GHz were obtained for a gate length of Lg = 1.6 µm. By applying a bias to the Si substrate the access resistances are reduced, which improved the fT and fmax in the devices to 3.5 and 6.5 GHz, respectively. Finally we demonstrate these devices in a real-application circuit for binary-phase shift keying.

Hsu, Allen; Wang, Han; Kim, Ki Kang; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomás

2011-07-01

395

Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Imaging: Description of Technique and Potential Clinical Applications  

PubMed Central

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement technique that enables indirect detection of metabolites with exchangeable protons. Endogenous metabolites with exchangeable protons including many endogenous proteins with amide protons, glycosaminoglycans (GAG), glycogen, myo-inositol (MI), glutamate (Glu), creatine (Cr) and several others have been identified as potential in vivo endogenous CEST agents. These endogenous CEST agents can be exploited as non-invasive and non-ionizing biomarkers of disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring. This review focuses on the recent technical developments in endogenous in vivo CEST MRI from various metabolites as well as their potential clinical applications. The basic underlying principles of CEST, its potential limitations and new techniques to mitigate them are discussed. PMID:23730540

Kogan, Feliks; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

2013-01-01

396

Single crystal chemical vapor deposited diamond detectors for intensity-modulated radiation therapy applications  

SciTech Connect

We report here on first intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) clinical tests performed at the Gustave Roussy Institute in France using one small (0.117 mm{sup 3}) synthetic single crystal diamond detector (SCDD). We report the comparison between the point doses evaluated with our detector, with a PTW semiflex air ionization chamber (0.125 cm{sup 3}) and calculated with the treatment planning system (TPS), respectively. The obtained results show a maximum difference of 2.3% for the diamond detector and of 4.6% for the ionization chamber, as compared with the TPS calculations. These very promising results show the potentiality of chemical vapor deposited SCDD for dosimetry of IMRT fields and opens up the field for diamond dosimeters toward novel applications such as very small beam monitoring.

Rebisz-Pomorska, M.; Tromson, D.; Bergonzo, P. [CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Isambert, A. [Institut Gustave Roussy (IGR), 94805 Villejuif (France); Marczewska, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN), 31-342 Krakow (Poland)

2009-10-15

397

Assessing the validity of QSARs for ready biodegradability of chemicals: an applicability domain perspective.  

PubMed

Several classical and two recently proposed Applicability Domain (AD) approaches were implemented on a set of three classification models retrieved from a published study to assess the ready biodegradability of chemicals. Each model was associated with an optimal AD approach based on its ability to a) retain maximum test molecules within the model's AD, b) be appropriate for the strategy used towards model development and c) show reasonably converging results with those derived with other AD approaches used. A decision criterion was also set to evaluate the AD of two consensus models that were developed in the original study. An overview of test molecules excluded from the AD of all the five biodegradability models was provided including an attempt to identify the major structural features and molecular descriptors possibly relevant in deciding upon their ready biodegradability. Apart from the test set, an overview of the results derived on the external validation set molecules was provided. PMID:24724897

Sahigara, Faizan; Ballabio, Davide; Todeschini, Roberto; Consonni, Viviana

2014-01-01

398

Successful external fertilization in turbulent environments.  

PubMed Central

Mathematical and experimental simulations predict that external fertilization is unsuccessful in habitats characterized by high water motion. A key assumption of such predictions is that gametes are released in hydrodynamic regimes that quickly dilute gametes. We used fucoid seaweeds to examine whether marine organisms in intertidal and subtidal habitats might achieve high levels of fertilization by restricting their release of gametes to calm intervals. Fucus vesiculosus L. (Baltic Sea) released high numbers of gametes only when maximal water velocities were below ca. 0.2 m/s immediately prior to natural periods of release, which occur in early evening in association with lunar cues. Natural fertilization success measured at two sites was always close to 100%. Laboratory experiments confirmed that (i) high water motion inhibits gamete release by F. vesiculosus and by the intertidal fucoids Fucus distichus L. (Maine) and Pelvetia fastigiata (J. Ag.) DeToni (California), and (ii) showed that photosynthesis is required for high gamete release. These data suggest that chemical changes in the boundary layer surrounding adults during photosynthesis and/or mechanosensitive channels may modulate gamete release in response to changing hydrodynamic conditions. Therefore, sensitivity to environmental factors can lead to successful external fertilization, even for species living in turbulent habitats. PMID:11607682

Serrao, E A; Pearson, G; Kautsky, L; Brawley, S H

1996-01-01

399

Development of bismuth tellurium selenide nanoparticles for thermoelectric applications via a chemical synthetic process  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} We synthesized a Bi{sub 2}Te{sub y}Se{sub 3-y} nano-compound via a chemical synthetic process. {yields} The compound was sintered to achieve an average grain size of about 300 nm. {yields} The resulting sintered body showed very low thermal conductivity. It is likely caused by the vigorous phonon scattering of the nano-sized grains. -- Abstract: Bismuth tellurium selenide (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub y}Se{sub 3-y}) nanoparticles for thermoelectric applications are successfully prepared via a water-based chemical reaction under atmospheric conditions. The nanostructured compound is prepared using a complexing agent (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and a reducing agent (ascorbic acid) to stabilize the bismuth precursor (Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) in water and to favor the reaction with reduced sources of tellurium and selenium. The resulting powder is smaller than ca. 100 nm and has a crystalline structure corresponding to the rhombohedral Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.7}Se{sub 0.3}. The nanocrystalline powder is sintered via a spark plasma sintering process to obtain a sintered body composed of nano-sized grains. Important transport properties of the sintered body are measured to calculate its most important characteristic, the thermoelectric performance. The results demonstrate a relationship between the nanostructure of the sintered body and its thermal conductivity.

Kim, Cham [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of) [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hwan; Han, Yoon Soo [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of)] [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jong Shik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, SangHa [Daegu Machinery Institute of Components and Materials (DMI), 12 Horim-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-240 (Korea, Republic of)] [Daegu Machinery Institute of Components and Materials (DMI), 12 Horim-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-240 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soonheum [Department of Nanomaterial Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seokjang-dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nanomaterial Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seokjang-dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoyoung, E-mail: hoykim@dgist.ac.kr [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of)] [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15

400

Tracking chemical changes in a live cell: Biomedical applications of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). We will then present several examples demonstrating the application potentials of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biomedical research. These will include monitoring living cells progressing through the cell cycle, including death, and cells reacting to dilute concentrations of toxins.

Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

2002-07-25

401

Strategies and Applications for Incorporating Physical and Chemical Signal Gradients in Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

From embryonic development to wound repair, concentration gradients of bioactive signaling molecules guide tissue formation and regeneration. Moreover, gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues. Perhaps tissue engineers can take a cue from nature in attempting to regenerate tissues by incorporating gradients into engineering design strategies. Indeed, gradient-based approaches are an emerging trend in tissue engineering, standing in contrast to traditional approaches of homogeneous delivery of cells and/or growth factors using isotropic scaffolds. Gradients in tissue engineering lie at the intersection of three major paradigms in the field—biomimetic, interfacial, and functional tissue engineering—by combining physical (via biomaterial design) and chemical (with growth/differentiation factors and cell adhesion molecules) signal delivery to achieve a continuous transition in both structure and function. This review consolidates several key methodologies to generate gradients, some of which have never been employed in a tissue engineering application, and discusses strategies for incorporating these methods into tissue engineering and implant design. A key finding of this review was that two-dimensional physicochemical gradient substrates, which serve as excellent high-throughput screening tools for optimizing desired biomaterial properties, can be enhanced in the future by transitioning from two dimensions to three dimensions, which would enable studies of cell–protein–biomaterial interactions in a more native tissue–like environment. In addition, biomimetic tissue regeneration via combined delivery of graded physical and chemical signals appears to be a promising strategy for the regeneration of heterogeneous tissues and tissue interfaces. In the future, in vivo applications will shed more light on the performance of gradient-based mechanical integrity and signal delivery strategies compared to traditional tissue engineering approaches. PMID:18803499

Singh, Milind; Berkland, Cory

2008-01-01

402

Chemical and radiation crosslinked polymer electrolyte membranes prepared from radiation-grafted ETFE films for DMFC applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a highly chemically stable polymer electrolyte membrane for application in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), doubly crosslinked membranes were prepared by chemical crosslinking using bifunctional monomers, such as divinylbenzene (DVB) and bis(p,p-vinyl phenyl) ethane (BVPE), and by radiation crosslinking. The membranes were prepared by grafting of m,p-methylstyrene (MeSt) and p-tert-butylstyrene (tBuSt) into poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films and subsequent

Jinhua Chen; Masaharu Asano; Tetsuya Yamaki; Masaru Yoshida

2006-01-01

403

Methane production from anaerobic soil amended with rice straw and nitrogen fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted on the effects of rice straw application and N fertilization on methane (CH4) production from a flooded Louisiana, USA, rice soil incubated under anaerobic conditions. Rice straw application significantly increased CH4 production; CH4 production increased in proportion to the application rate. Urea fertilization also enhanced CH4 production. The maximum production rate was 17% higher, and occurred

Zhengping Wang; Ronald D. Delaune; Charles W. Lindau; William H. Patrick Jr

1992-01-01

404

Long-term fate of nitrate fertilizer in agricultural soils.  

PubMed

Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of surface waters and groundwater has emerged as a major problem in many agricultural areas of the world, resulting in contamination of drinking water resources in aquifers as well as eutrophication of freshwaters and coastal marine ecosystems. Although empirical correlations between application rates of N fertilizers to agricultural soils and nitrate contamination of adjacent hydrological systems have been demonstrated, the transit times of fertilizer N in the pedosphere-hydrosphere system are poorly understood. We investigated the fate of isotopically labeled nitrogen fertilizers in a three-decade-long in situ tracer experiment that quantified not only fertilizer N uptake by plants and retention in soils, but also determined to which extent and over which time periods fertilizer N stored in soil organic matter is rereleased for either uptake in crops or export into the hydrosphere. We found that 61-65% of the applied fertilizers N were taken up by plants, whereas 12-15% of the labeled fertilizer N were still residing in the soil organic matter more than a quarter century after tracer application. Between 8-12% of the applied fertilizer had leaked toward the hydrosphere during the 30-y observation period. We predict that additional exports of (15)N-labeled nitrate from the tracer application in 1982 toward the hydrosphere will continue for at least another five decades. Therefore, attempts to reduce agricultural nitrate contamination of aquatic systems must consider the long-term legacy of past applications of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural systems and the nitrogen retention capacity of agricultural soils. PMID:24145428

Sebilo, Mathieu; Mayer, Bernhard; Nicolardot, Bernard; Pinay, Gilles; Mariotti, André

2013-11-01

405

Long-term fate of nitrate fertilizer in agricultural soils  

PubMed Central

Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of surface waters and groundwater has emerged as a major problem in many agricultural areas of the world, resulting in contamination of drinking water resources in aquifers as well as eutrophication of freshwaters and coastal marine ecosystems. Although empirical correlations between application rates of N fertilizers to agricultural soils and nitrate contamination of adjacent hydrological systems have been demonstrated, the transit times of fertilizer N in the pedosphere–hydrosphere system are poorly understood. We investigated the fate of isotopically labeled nitrogen fertilizers in a three–decade-long in situ tracer experiment that quantified not only fertilizer N uptake by plants and retention in soils, but also determined to which extent and over which time periods fertilizer N stored in soil organic matter is rereleased for either uptake in crops or export into the hydrosphere. We found that 61–65% of the applied fertilizers N were taken up by plants, whereas 12–15% of the labeled fertilizer N were still residing in the soil organic matter more than a quarter century after tracer application. Between 8–12% of the applied fertilizer had leaked toward the hydrosphere during the 30-y observation period. We predict that additional exports of 15N-labeled nitrate from the tracer application in 1982 toward the hydrosphere will continue for at least another five decades. Therefore, attempts to reduce agricultural nitrate contamination of aquatic systems must consider the long-term legacy of past applications of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural systems and the nitrogen retention capacity of agricultural soils. PMID:24145428

Sebilo, Mathieu; Mayer, Bernhard; Nicolardot, Bernard; Pinay, Gilles; Mariotti, André

2013-01-01

406

Conservation tillage, local organic resources and nitrogen fertilizer combinations affect maize productivity, soil structure and nutrient balances in semi-arid Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smallholder land productivity in drylands can be increased by optimizing locally available resources, through nutrient enhancement\\u000a and water conservation. In this study, we investigated the effect of tillage system, organic resource and chemical nitrogen\\u000a fertilizer application on maize productivity in a sandy soil in eastern Kenya over four seasons. The objectives were to (1)\\u000a determine effects of different tillage-organic resource

J. KiharaA; A. Bationo; D. N. Mugendi; C. Martius; P. L. G. Vlek

2011-01-01

407

Fertility, infertility and thrombophilia.  

PubMed

Hypercoagulation has been reported in some studies to be associated with reproductive failures, such as unexplained infertility, IVF implantation failure and recurrent fetal losses. Many pregnancy-related disorders have been interpreted as consequences of impaired microvascular function and might be viewed as a mild form of venous thromboembolic disease. In the absence of clinical guidelines, there is a need for an evidence base regarding thrombophilic screening and antithrombotic therapy in cases of reproductive failure. This article will focus on the controversial effect of congenital and acquired thrombophilia on human fertility, and will review the English literature for relevant studies identified by searching PubMed(®) results between January 1966-November 2010 using the key words: 'thrombophilia', 'fertility' and 'infertility'. PMID:21879823

Kuperman, Amir; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Brenner, Benjamin

2011-09-01

408

Nitrogen leaching from Douglas-fir forests after urea fertilization.  

PubMed

Leaching of nitrogen (N) after forest fertilization has the potential to pollute ground and surface water. The purpose of this study was to quantify N leaching through the primary rooting zone of N-limited Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forests the year after fertilization (224 kg N ha(-1) as urea) and to calculate changes in the N pools of the overstory trees, understory vegetation, and soil. At six sites on production forests in the Hood Canal watershed, Washington, tension lysimeters and estimates of the soil water flux were used to quantify the mobilization and leaching of NO(3)-N, NH(4)-N, and dissolved organic nitrogen below the observed rooting depth. Soil and vegetation samples were collected before fertilization and 1 and 6 mo after fertilization. In the year after fertilization, the total leaching beyond the primary rooting zone in excess of control plots was 4.2 kg N ha(-1) (p = 0.03), which was equal to 2% of the total N applied. The peak NO(3)-N concentration that leached beyond the rooting zone of fertilized plots was 0.2 mg NO(3)-N L(-1). Six months after fertilization, 26% of the applied N was accounted for in the overstory, and 27% was accounted for in the O+A horizon of the soil. The results of this study indicate that forest fertilization can lead to small N leaching fluxes out of the primary rooting zone during the first year after urea application. PMID:18689739

Flint, Cynthia M; Harrison, Rob B; Strahm, Brian D; Adams, A B

2008-01-01

409

The influence of long-term fertilization on cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soil and its uptake by crops.  

PubMed

Continuous application of organic and inorganic fertilizers can affect soil and food quality with respect to heavy metal concentrations. The risk of cadmium (Cd) contamination in a long-term (over 20 years) experimental field in North China with an annual crop rotation of winter wheat and summer maize was investigated. The long-term experiment had a complete randomized block design with seven fertilizer treatments and four replications. The seven fertilizer treatments were (1) organic compost (OM), (2) half organic compost plus half chemical fertilizer (OM + NPK), (3) NPK fertilizer (NPK), (4-6) chemical fertilizers without one of the major nutrients (NP, PK, and NK), and (7) an unamended control (CK). Soil samples from 0 to 20 cm were collected in 1989, 1999, and 2009 to characterize Cd and other soil properties. During the past 20 years, various extents of Cd accumulation were observed in the soil, and the accumulation was mainly affected by atmospheric dry and wet deposition and fertilization. In 2009, the average Cd concentration in the soil was 148 ± 15 ?g kg(-1) and decreased in the order of NPK?? OM + NKP ? PK > NP ? NK > OM ? CK. Sequential extraction of Cd showed that the acid-soluble fraction (F1, 32 ± 7 %) and the residual fraction (F4, 31 ± 5 %) were the dominant fractions of Cd in the soil, followed by the reducible fraction (F2, 22 ± 5 %) and oxidizable fraction (F3, 15 ± 6 %). The acid-soluble Cd fraction in the soil and Cd accumulation in the crops increased with soil plant available K. Fraction F3 was increased by soil organic C (SOC) and crop yields, but SOC reduced the uptake of soil Cd by crops. The long-term P fertilization resulted in more Cd buildup in the soil than other treatments, but the uptake of Cd by crops was inhibited by the precipitation of Cd with phosphate in the soil. Although soil Cd was slightly increased over the 20 years of intensive crop production, both soil and grain/kernel Cd concentrations were still below the national standards for environmental and food safety. PMID:24793068

Wang, Qingyun; Zhang, Jiabao; Zhao, Bingzi; Xin, Xiuli; Zhang, Congzhi; Zhang, Hailin

2014-09-01

410

The fertility decline in Kenya.  

PubMed

In Sub-Saharan Africa Kenya is a prime example of a country experiencing a rapid decline in fertility and greater contraceptive prevalence. These changes have occurred since 1980 when fertility was high at 8.0 children per woman. In 1993 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 5.4, and the growth rate declined to about 2.0%. This transition is swifter than any country in contemporary Asia or historical Europe. The likely projection for Kenya is attainment of replacement level fertility during the 2020s and a leveling of population at about 100 million persons. Fertility has declined the most in urban areas and central and eastern regions. Bongaarts' proximate determinants (TFR, total marital fertility rate, total natural marital fertility rate, and total fecundity) are reduced to the proportion of currently married women using contraception, the proportion in lactational nonfecund status, and the proportion currently married. Actual fertility change is accounted for by total fertility change of 3.0 children. Lactational infecundability accounts for 0.5 potential births, and changes in marital fertility account for 1.0 reduced births per woman. About 70% of fertility reduction is accounted for by contraception and abortion. During 1977-78 80% of fertility control was due to lactational nonfecundity, 10% to nonmarriage, and 10% to contraception. In 1993 lactational nonfecundity accounted for 50% of the reduction, nonmarriage for 20%, and abortion about 30%. Future fertility is expected to be dependent on contraceptive prevalence. Kenya has experienced the Coale paradigm of preconditions necessary for demographic transition (willing, ready, and able). High fertility in Africa is not intractable. Creating the change in attitudes that leads to readiness is linked to education, health, and exposure to modernizing media and urban lifestyles. The public sector family planning program in Kenya has created the opportunity for access and availability of contraception. The key features of reform appear to be political stability, public sector programs, and supply of contraception through the health service. PMID:12319914

Robinson, W C; Harbison, S F

1995-01-01

411

Chinese culture and fertility decline.  

PubMed

Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self-reliance, education and cultivation of moral character, and atheism. Confucian beliefs that interfere with fertility decline are the advocacy of self-sufficient livelihood, the emphasis on family and lineage, autocracy, patriarchy and feudal rule, the 5 constant virtues, contempt for labor and working people, science and technology, and a closed-door policy. Socialism hindered fertility decline by promoting population growth as a symbol of the superiority of socialism and by lack of recognition of population or environmental problems in socialist countries. The goal is to accept Westernization, reduce obstacles, develop economically, and use cultural influence positive to fertility decline. PMID:12317926

Wu, C; Jia, S

1992-01-01

412

[Fertility in Colombia].  

PubMed

Demography, which should be the basis for planning of any program or project, has traditionally been ignored by Colombian governments. No population statistics are available for the pre-Conquest period in Colombia. Statistics during the Colonial era were based on population counts for division of lands, taxation, and similar considerations. The first census was undertaken around 1770. Colombia's most recent census was in 1993, and another is being prepared for 2000. The censuses have been useful for development purposes despite their significant limitations of completeness and accuracy. Colombia's population in 1997 was estimated at 40,300,000, making it the third most populous country of Latin America after Brazil and Mexico. Fertility has declined considerably since 1965. Colombia's crude birth rate is believed to have exceeded 50/1000 in the 18th and 19th centuries and was estimated at 45/1000 by the Latin American Demographic Center for the first half of the 20th century. The crude birth rate was 41.3/1000 in 1968, 33.1/1000 in 1973, 30/1000 in 1980, and around 26/1000 in 1990 and 1995. The total fertility rate was estimated at 7.0 in 1960-65, 6.7 in 1969, 4.5 in 1973, 3.2 in 1985, and 2.9 in 1995. Fertility declined most appreciably before 1975, but rates continue to drop in rural as well as urban areas and in all geographic zones. For Colombia as a whole the total fertility rate is 4.8 for women with less than 5 years of schooling and 2.4 for those with 8 or more years. It is 2.7 in urban and 4.4 in rural areas. PMID:12348802

Ojeda, G

1998-06-01

413

Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton.  

E-print Network

in the cotton-belt states, usually do not contain large amounts of organic matter, because the high temperatures and favorable moisture conditions lead to the rapid decomposition of the organic matter. Under these conditions, the processes of decay... only, the cowpeas receiving the residual effects of the fertilizer. The cowpeas have been harvested for seed and the vines plowed under for soil improvement. The average annual rainfall at Nacogdoehes during the 19 years, 1913 to 1931, inclusive...

Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

1932-01-01

414

Fertilizers and Food Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fertilizers provide plants with the nutrients they need for their growth and development. Plants live, grow, and reproduce\\u000a by taking up water and nutrients, carbon dioxide from the air, and energy from the sun. Apart from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen,\\u000a which collectively make up 90–95 percent of the dry matter of all plants, other nutrients needed by plants come essentially

Amit H. Roy

415

The application of a chemical equilibrium model, SOLTEQ, to predict the chemical speciations in stabilized/solidified waste forms  

E-print Network

by physically and/or chemically immobilizing the waste constituents (I). S/S is a "best demonstrated available technology" (BOAT) under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. In 1987 and 1988, S/S was the second-most-frequently selected method... for source control at Superfund sites (2). The goal of S/S for hazardous wastes is the safe, ultimate disposal of the wastes through landfilling or some other alternatives by containing the waste contaminants and preventing or minimizing the release...

Park, Joo-Yang

2012-06-07

416

Fertility intentions and subsequent fertility behaviour in Matlab: do fertility intentions matter?  

PubMed

This study examines the extent of the interrelationship between future fertility intention and subsequent fertility behaviour in rural Bangladesh using longitudinal data. It confirms that fertility intention is an important predictor of subsequent fertility behaviour for rural Bangladeshi women. Women wanting no more children are over three times less likely to have a child during a 5-year follow-up than those wanting more children. A multivariate model using logistic regression shows that fertility intention is a useful indicator for fertility behaviour, when background and life-cycle variables are controlled. The different patterns of fertility intentions by socioeconomic and demographic subgroups suggest that different programme strategies should be designed for specific target groups. PMID:14621256

Islam, M Mazharul; Bairagi, Radheshyam

2003-10-01

417

Productive soil must be fertile physical fertility  

E-print Network

-'weathering' · physical ­freezing, thawing, wetting, drying, organisms · chemical ­dissolved minerals moved in water ­soil ­loam, silty clay, loamy sand ­changing proportions not recommended · clay also group of minerals · montmorillinite, kaolinite.... · nutrient storehouse #12;#12;Soil organic matter · plants, animals, microorganisms

Balser, Teri C.

418

Plasmonic Properties of Bimetallic Nanostructures and Their Applications in Hydrogen Sensing and Chemical Reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble metal nanocrystals have attracted great interest from a wide range of research fields because of their intriguing properties endowed by their localized surface plasmon resonances, which are the collective oscillations of free electrons. Under resonant excitation, metal nanostructures exhibit very large scattering and absorption cross sections and large near-field enhancement. These extraordinary properties can be used in different applications, such as plasmonic sensing and imaging, plasmon-controlled optics, photothermal therapy, photocatalysis, solar cells, and so on. Gold and Silver nanocrystals have plasmon resonances in the visible and near-infrared regions. However, gold and silver are not suitable for some applications. For example, they are generally inactive for catalyzing chemical reactions. The integration of plasmonic metals with other metals can offer superior or new physical/chemical properties. In this thesis, I prepared Au/Ag and Au/Pd bimetallic nanostructures and studied their plasmonic properties and applications in hydrogen sensing and photocatalysis. Seeds have a crucial importance in the synthesis of bimetallic nanostructures. I therefore first studied the roles of the crystalline structure and shape of seeds on the overgrowth of bimetallic nanostructures. The overgrowth of silver and palladium on single crystalline Au nanorods, multicrystalline Au nanorods, and nanobipyramids were studied under the same conditions for each metal. The growths of silver and palladium on single crystalline Au nanorods gave cuboidal nanostructures, while rod-shaped nanostructures were obtained from the growths of silver and palladium on multicrystalline Au nanorods and nanobipyramids. Moreover, the growths of silver and palladium on multicrystalline Au nanobipyramids started at the stepped side facets, while the growths started at the twin boundaries on multicrystalline Au nanorods. These results unambiguously indicate that the crystalline structure of seeds plays a significant role on the final morphologies of multimetallic nanostructures, while the seed shape has a prominent effect on the growth kinetics. Four plasmon resonance bands were observed in Au/Ag bimetallic nanocrystals. I then studied the evolution and nature of the four plasmon bands during the silver coating on Au nanorods both experimentally and theoretically. Electrodynamic simulations revealed that the lowest-energy peak belongs to the longitudinal dipolar plasmon mode, the second-lowest-energy peak is the transverse dipolar plasmon mode, and the two highest-energy peaks can be attributed to octupolar plasmon modes. The retardation effect and the interference between two perpendicularly polarized excitations along the edge directions are important for the formation of the distinct highest-energy and second-highest-energy octupolar plasmon modes, respectively. As the Ag shell thickness is increased, the longitudinal plasmon mode blue-shifts, the transverse plasmon mode first blue-shifts and then red-shifts slightly, and the two octupolar plasmon modes stay at nearly constant wavelengths. The extinction intensities of all the four plasmon bands increase with the increase of the overall particle size. Palladium is widely used in hydrogen sensing and catalysis. I therefore studied the applications of Au/Pd bimetallic nanostructures in hydrogen sensing and photocatalysis. Two types of Au/Pd bimetallic nanostructures, nanostructures with continuous and discontinuous Pd shells, were employed to study their hydrogen sensing performances. For the nanostructures with continuous Pd shell, the hydrogen sensing performances were improved with the increase in the Pd shell thickness. A plasmon shift of 56 nm was observed when the hydrogen concentration was 4%. The nanostructures with discontinuous Pd shell exhibited smaller plasmon shifts compared with those with continuous Pd shell. For the photocatalytic application of Au/Pd bimetallic nanostructures, I studied their photocatalytic performance for Suzuki coupling reactions. The results indicate that plasmoni

Jiang, Ruibin

419

A Ubiquitous Optical Microsystem Platform with Application to Optical Metrology and Chemical Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is concerned with the development of a novel, versatile optical sensor platform for optical metrology and chemical sensing. We demonstrate the feasibility of embedding optical components between bonded silicon wafers with receptor cavities and optical windows to create a self-contained sensor microsystem that can be used for in-situ measurement of hostile environments. Arrays of these sensors internal to a silicon wafer can enable optical sensing for in-situ, real-time mapping and process development for the semiconductor industry in the form of an instrumented substrate. Single-die versions of these optical sensor platforms can also enable point-of-care diagnostics, high throughput disease screening, bio-warfare agent detection, and environmental monitoring. Our first discussion will focus on a single-wavelength interferometry-based prototype sensor. Several applications are demonstrated using this single wavelength prototype: refractive index monitoring, SiO2 plasma etching, chemical mechanical polishing, photoresist cure and dissolution, copper etch end-point detection, and also nanopore wetting phenomena. Subsequent sections of this dissertation will describe efforts to improve the optical sensor platform to achieve multi-wavelength sensing function. We explore the use of an off-the-shelf commercial RGB sensor for colorimetric monitoring of copper and aluminum thin-film etchings. We then expand upon our prior work and concepts to realize a fully integrated, chip-sized microspectrometer with a photon engine based on a diffraction grating. The design, fabrication, and demonstration of a working prototype with dimensions < 1 mm thick using standard planar microfabrication techniques is described. Proof-of-concept demonstrations indicate the working principle of dispersion, although with a low spectral resolution of 120 nm. With working knowledge of the issues of the first prototype, we present an improved 5-channel microspectrometer with a spectral range 400-900 nm and demonstrate its ability for spectral identification with 3 different phosphor powder samples. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future areas of research.

Gerling, John David

420

Characterizing the Chemical Stability of High Temperature Materials for Application in Extreme Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical stability of high temperature materials must be known for use in the extreme environments of combustion applications. The characterization techniques available at NASA Glenn Research Center vary from fundamental thermodynamic property determination to material durability testing in actual engine environments. In this paper some of the unique techniques and facilities available at NASA Glenn will be reviewed. Multiple cell Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry is used to determine thermodynamic data by sampling gas species formed by reaction or equilibration in a Knudsen cell held in a vacuum. The transpiration technique can also be used to determine thermodynamic data of volatile species but at atmospheric pressures. Thermodynamic data in the Si-O-H(g) system were determined with this technique. Free Jet Sampling Mass Spectrometry can be used to study gas-solid interactions at a pressure of one atmosphere. Volatile Si(OH)4(g) was identified by this mass spectrometry technique. A High Pressure Burner Rig is used to expose high temperature materials in hydrocarbon-fueled combustion environments. Silicon carbide (SiC) volatility rates were measured in the burner rig as a function of total pressure, gas velocity and temperature. Finally, the Research Combustion Lab Rocket Test Cell is used to expose high temperature materials in hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine environments to assess material durability. SiC recession due to rocket engine exposures was measured as a function of oxidant/fuel ratio, temperature, and total pressure. The emphasis of the discussion for all techniques will be placed on experimental factors that must be controlled for accurate acquisition of results and reliable prediction of high temperature material chemical stability.

Opila, Elizabeth

2005-01-01

421

Functionalized bioinspired microstructured optical fiber pores for applications in chemical vapor sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical vapor sensing for defense, homeland security, environmental, and agricultural application is a challenge, which due combined requirements of ppt sensitivity, high selectivity, and rapid response, cannot be met using conventional analytical chemistry techniques. New sensing approaches and platforms are necessary in order to make progress in this rapidly evolving field. Inspired by the functionalized nanopores on moth sensilla hairs that contribute to the high selectivity and sensitivity of this biological system, a chemical vapor sensor based on the micro to nanoscale pores in microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) was designed. This MOF based chemical vapor sensor design utilizes MOF pores functionalized with organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) for selectivity and separations and a gold plasmonic sensor for detection and discrimination. Thin well-controlled gold films in MOF pores are critical components for the fabrication of structured plasmonic chemical vapor sensors. Thermal decomposition of dimethyl Au(II) trifluoroacetylacetonate dissolved in near-critical CO2 was used to deposit gold island films within the MOF pores. Using a 3mercatopropyltrimethoxysilane adhesion layer, continuous gold thin films as thin as 20--30 nm were deposited within MOF pores as small as 500 nm in diameter. The gold island films proved to be SERS active and were used to detect 900 ppt 2,4 DNT vapor in high pressure nitrogen and 6 ppm benzaldehyde. MOF based waveguide Raman (WGR), which can probe the air/silica interface between a waveguiding core and surrounding pores, was developed to detect and characterize SAMs and other thin films deposited in micro to nanoscale MOF pores. MOF based WGR was used to characterize an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) SAM deposited in 1.6 mum diameter pores iv to demonstrate that the SAM was well-formed, uniform along the pore length, and only a single layer. MOF based WGR was used to detect a human serum albumin monolayer deposited on the OTS SAM and monitor in-situ the combustion of an OTS SAM in high pressure oxygen. Light scattering, an optical characterization technique that provides ellipsometric data from micro to nanoscale cylinders, was developed in order to characterize highly smooth wires and MOF pores. Clean, bare gold wires etched from MOF pore templates were found to have angle dependent Psi and Delta values that agree with numerically calculated and finite element modeled values over the full angular 340° collection range. Light scattering was shown to be sensitive to ellipticities in the cross-section of silica, gold, and silicon wires down to 1%. Using alkanethiol SAMs deposited on gold wires, light scattering was demonstrated to be able to detect films as thin as 1.5 nm, and able to distinguish between a decanethiol (1.5 nm) and an octadecanethiol SAM (2.7 mn). The high sensitivity of light scattering will allow it to characterize SAMs and thin films on the inner surfaces of MOF pores. WGR and light scattering provide the analytical tools that will allow for the further development of organic SAMs and thin films within MOF pores for analyte selectivity and chromatographic separations. This high selectivity combined with the sensitivity of a 3-dimensional nanostructured gold plasmonic sensor allows for the fabrication of a chemical vapor sensor inspired by the field performance of moth sensilla hairs.

Calkins, Jacob A.

422

The development and characterization of sol-gel substrates for chemical and optical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sol gel process can be used to make monolithic porous glass for various scientific and engineering uses. The porosity of the material imparts a large surface area which is advantageous in applications such as catalyst supports or in the study of surface mediated chemical reactions. The chemical stability and transparency of the porous glass also make it suitable for use in the emerging field of optical sensors. In this study fluoride catalysis is used to produce sol gel monoliths with pore radii of up to 400 Angstroms, four times larger than any previously reported using conventional drying techniques. Gel monoliths with pore radii of 200 Angstroms were found to have the best combination of surface area, pore volume and optical transparency. Typical monoliths have surface areas of 150 m2/g and pore volumes of 1.60 cm3/g with good transparency. The monoliths are chemically stable, have good mechanical strength and can be easily rehydrated without cracking. The substrates are also suitable for sintering into dense high purity silica glass with little tendency towards foaming. An in-depth study of the catalytic effect of fluoride on the sol gel process is also included. It has been theorized that fluoride serves to expand the coordination sphere of the silicon center making it more subject to nucleophilic attack. In this work an ion-specific fluoride electrode is used to monitor free fluoride concentrations in HF catalyzed sols while silicic acid is added in the form of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). It is found that fluoride is rapidly bound by the silicic acid in a ratio of four to one, indicating the formation of silicon tetrafluoride. A concurrent decrease in pH suggests that a pentacoordinate species is formed that is more stable than previously thought. A polymerization mechanism is proposed that explains the hydrophobicity of fluoride catalyzed gels and the difficulty in retaining structural fluoride in fluoride catalyzed sol gel glasses. Finally, several porous monoliths are doped with colloidal gold and the optical properties evaluated as a function of heat treatment. This demonstrates the feasibility of using porous glass nanocomposites in sensors and other optical components.

Powers, Kevin William

1998-12-01

423

Factors predicting male fertilization success in an external fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In postcopulatory sexual selection both sperm competition and cryptic female choice are considered to be important selective\\u000a agents, but their relative importance for male fertilization success has received little attention. We tested whether sperm\\u000a quality, male spawning coloration, male heterozygosity, and genetic overlap with the female explained a male’s fertilization\\u000a success in controlled in vitro fertilization competition trials between equal

Ståle Liljedal; Geir Rudolfsen; Ivar Folstad

2008-01-01

424

Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (?? 18O and ??2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have ??18O and ??2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (??15N-NO3) values above 10 ??? in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (??15N-NO3 = 4.6-4.9 ???), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N,N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil's Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ichetucknee Springs basin is highly vulnerable to contamination from multiple anthropogenic sources throughout the springs basin. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

Katz, B.G.; Griffin, Dale W.

2008-01-01

425

Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (?18O and ?2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have ?18O and ?2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (?15N NO3) values above 10 ‰ in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (?15N NO3 = 4.6 4.9 ‰), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N, N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil’s Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ichetucknee Springs basin is highly vulnerable to contamination from multiple anthropogenic sources throughout the springs basin.

Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.

2008-08-01

426

Nitrogen Fertilization of Golden Shiner Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonium sulfate and sodium nitrate were used as nitrogen fertilizers in 0.1-ha ponds stocked with golden shiners Notemigonus crysoleucas at Auburn, Alabama. Biweekly from 30 March to 15 October 1999, 9 kg P2O5\\/ha from triple superphosphate and 9 kg N\\/ha were applied to treatment ponds. Control ponds were treated only with biweekly applications of triple superphosphate at 9 kg P2O5\\/ha.

Yalcin Tepe; Claude E. Boyd

2002-01-01

427

OBIS-USA and Ocean Acidification: Chemical and Biological Observation Data, Integrated for Discovery and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OBIS-USA (usgs.gov/obis-usa), a program of USGS Core Science, Analytics and Synthesis, is the US Regional node of the International Ocean Biogeographic Information System (iobis.org). OBIS data records observations of biological occurrences - identifiable species - at known time and coordinates. Within US research and operational communities, OBIS-USA serves an expanding range of applications by capturing details to accompany each observation: information to understand record quality and suitability for applications, details about observation circumstances such as sampling method and sampling conditions, and biological details such as sex, life stage, behavior and other characteristics. The NOAA Ocean Acidification Program and its associated data management effort (led by National Oceanographic Data Center) aim to enable users to locate, understand and use marine data from multiple sources and of multiple types to address questions related to ocean acidification and it impacts on marine ecosystems. By the nature of researching ocean acidification, data-driven applications require users to find and apply datasets that represent different disciplines as well as different researchers, organizations, agencies, funding models, data management practices and formats, and survey and observation methods. We refer to any collection(s) of data having diverse characteristics on these and other dimensions as "heterogeneous data". However, data management and Internet technologies enable the data itself and many of its diverse characteristics to be discoverable and understandable enough for users to build effective models, applications, and solutions. While it may not be simple to make heterogeneous data uniform or "seamless", current technologies enable at least the data characteristics to be sufficiently well-understood that users can consume data and accommodate its diverse characteristics in their process of generating outputs. Via this abstract and accompanying poster presentation, OBIS-USA and the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program describe proposed methods for obtaining diverse data, such as both chemical observations (those necessary to derive calcium carbonate saturation state) and biological marine observations (species occurrence, abundance), in order to use these sources of information in combined analysis for current and future research on ocean acidification and its relation to observed biology. Current OBIS-USA biological observations represent in-situ observations of marine taxa, and in the context of Ocean Acidification and this poster presentation, OBIS-USA shows a path toward including experimental biology observations as well as in-situ.

Fornwall, M.; Jewett, L.; Yates, K.; Goldstein, P.

2012-12-01

428

On using film boiling to thermally decompose liquid organic chemicals: Application to ethyl acetate as a model compound  

E-print Network

On using film boiling to thermally decompose liquid organic chemicals: Application to ethyl acetate 21 August 2013 Keywords: Film boiling Thermal decomposition Pyrolysis Ethyl acetate Critical heat flux (CHF) Leidenfrost point a b s t r a c t Film boiling on a horizontal tube is used to study

Walter, M.Todd

429

Paramagnetic Lanthanide(III) complexes as pH-sensitive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast agents for MRI applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently introduced new class of contrast agents (CAs) based on chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) may have a huge potential for the development of novel applications in the field of MRI. In this work we explored the CEST properties of a series of Lanthanide(III) complexes (Ln Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb) with the macrocyclic DOTAM-Gly ligand, which is

Silvio Aime; Alessandro Barge; Daniela Delli Castelli; Franco Fedeli; Armando Mortillaro; Flemming U. Nielsen; Enzo Terreno

2002-01-01

430

High Resolution Gamma Ray Tomography and its Application to the Measurement of Phase Fractions in Chemical Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied gamma ray tomography to the problem of phase fraction measurement in chemical reactors. Therefore, we used a new tomography device that is operated with a Cs-137 source and a high resolution gamma ray detector. One application example is the reconstruction of the fluid distribution and the measurement of radial gas fraction profiles in a laboratory scale stirred vessel.

Uwe Hampel; Andre Bieberle; Eckhard Schleicher; Günther Hessel; Cornelius Zippe; Hans-Jürgen Friedrich

2007-01-01

431

Application of rye green manure in wheat rotation system alters soil water content and chemical characteristics under dryland condition in Maragheh.  

PubMed

This study was carried out with or without rye green manure along with 4 nitrogen fertilization treatments (0, 26, 103 and 337 (kg N ha(-1)) in 3 rotation system (green manure-wheat). Results showed that, although treatment effects on dryland wheat grain yield was not significant, but maximum grain yield (2484 kg ha(-1)) was obtained from application of rye green manure along with 26 kg N ha(-1); which is 22% more than check (without rye green manure) treatment. Green manure application with or without nitrogen increased EC (dS m(-1)), but decreased OC, P (av.), Cu (av.), Mn (av.), Zn (av.) and sand in the soil. In contrast to green manure, application of nitrogen along with green manure increased saturation and clay. In the stage of stem appearance, soil moisture content decreased 8% in green-manure application but with nitrogen application the moisture increased 6% compared with check in 0-20 cm depth. It can be concluded that, green manure application is useful along with nitrogen fertilizer application in long term. This treatment could increase soil moisture content, which leads to higher wheat grain yield in dryland areas. In addition, green manure application could change some soil characteristics such as soil TNV%, which decreases availability of some essential nutrients for dryland wheat. PMID:19579941

Mosavi, S B; Jafarzadeh, A A; Nishabouri, M R; Ostan, Sh; Feiziasl, V

2009-01-15

432

APPROACHES FOR MEASUREMENTS OF FIELD BIOACCUMULATION OF POPS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO LESS PERSISTENT CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation will focus on where and when field based approaches for assessing bioaccumulation of chemicals in aquatic food webs can be used for predicting bioaccumulation of the thousands of existing chemicals in commerce....

433

Radio-frequency tag with optoelectronic interface for distributed wireless chemical and biological sensor applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A battery-free, wireless optical chemical sensor with integral contactless power and data link is demonstrated. The chemical sensor and its optoelectronic interface form an integral part of a radio-frequency tag which we have developed specifically for use as a wireless chemical and biological sensor, and which is compatible with the International Standards Organisation ISO15693 radio-frequency identification (RFID) protocol. The chemical

Ivana Murkovi? Steinberg; Matthew D. Steinberg

2009-01-01

434

Relating physical and chemical properties of four different biochars and their application rate to biomass production of Lolium perenne on a Calcic Cambisol during a pot experiment of 79days.  

PubMed

Three pyrolysis biochars (B1: wood, B2: paper-sludge, B3: sewage-sludge) and one kiln-biochar (B4: grapevine wood) were characterized by determining different chemical and physical properties which were related to the germination rates and to the plant biomass production during a pot experiment of 79days in which a Calcic Cambisol from SW Spain was amended with 10, 20 and 40tha(-1) of the four biochars. Biochar 1, B2 and B4 revealed comparable elemental composition, pH, water holding capacity and ash content. The H/C and O/C atomic ratios suggested high aromaticity of all biochars, which was confirmed by (13)C solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the aromaticity of all the biochars as well as several specific differences in their composition. The FESEM-EDS distinguished compositional and structural differences of the studied biochars such as macropores on the surface of B1, collapsed structures in B2, high amount of mineral deposits (rich in Al, Si, Ca and Fe) and organic phases in B3 and vessel structures for B4. Biochar amendment improved germination rates and soil fertility (excepting for B4), and had no negative pH impact on the already alkaline soil. Application of B3, the richest in minerals and nitrogen, resulted in the highest soil fertility. In this case, increase of the dose went along with an enhancement of plant production. Considering costs due to production and transport of biochar, for all used chars with the exception of B3, the application of 10tha(-1) turned out as the most efficient for the crop and soil