Note: This page contains sample records for the topic chemical fertilizers application from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON BABY CORN YIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fertilizer application effect being studied to evaluate the quality, yield and yield components of baby corn was conducted at the TOP\\/AVRDC field of Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng San Campus, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand. Its purpose was to evaluate the effect of third fertilizer application on yield and third ear yield of baby corn. Application of different chemical fertilizer as basal and

CHALERM MALASAM

2

Effect of bio-phosphate and chemical phosphorus fertilizer accompanied with micronutrient foliar application on growth, yield and yield components of maize (Single Cross 704)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of bio-phosphate, chemical phosphorus fertilizer and micronutrient foliar application on growth, yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.) were studied in a field experiment at Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre (Iran). A split plot experiment based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with four replications was followed in the study. The micronutrient foliar application

Khatoon Yosefi; Mohammad Galavi; Mahmod Ramrodi; Sayed Roholla Mousavi

2011-01-01

3

Leaf and seed micronutrient accumulation in soybean cultivars in response to integrated organic and chemical fertilizers application.  

PubMed

Plant nutrients can be influenced by organic materials of soils. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of organic amendments on elements uptake by soybean cultivars in a silty loam soil in Mazandaran province, Iran. The experiment was carried out in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2006. Main plots were included 8 fertilizer treatments consisted of 20 and 40 Mg ha(-1) Municipal Solid Waste Compost (MSW), Vermicompost (VC) and Sewage Sludge (SS) which enriched with 50% chemical fertilizers needed by soil, only chemical fertilizer treatment and control. Sub plots consisted of three genotypes of soybean (032, 033 and JK). Grain yield was determined and soybean leaves and seeds were digested and analyzed for Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe. Results showed that yield and elements content in soybean leaves and seeds (Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe) were influenced by all treatments. The 40 Mg ha(-1) of sewage sludge enriched with chemical fertilizers produced maximum grain yield. Different soybean cultivars had also significant differences in terms of leaf and seed micronutrients accumulation. Maximum grain yield was observed in JK and 033. Mean comparisons showed that interaction effects of fertilizer and cultivar had significant differences on Mn, Cu and Fe content in soybean leaves, so that the maximum Cu content was observed in 032 cultivars with 40 Mg ha(-1) enriched sewage sludge and municipal waste compost. Also the highest amount of Fe was obtained for JK cultivar when the 40 Mg ha(-1) of municipal compost was used. Among different mentioned traits, Fe and Cu content in leaf and seed and Zn content in leaf had a positive and significant correlation with grain yield. PMID:18819530

Mottaghian, Alaleh; Pirdashti, Hemmatollah; Bahmanyar, Mohammad Ali; Abbasian, Arastoo

2008-05-01

4

Effect of Bio-phosphate and Chemical Phosphorus Fertilizer Accompanied with Foliar Application of Micronutrients on Yield, Quality and Phosphorus and Zinc Concentration of Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiment was conducted at Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Centre (Iran) during 2008-2009 to evaluate the effect of bio-fertilizer, phosphorus and foliar application of micronutrients on dry matter accumulation, yield, and phosphorus and zinc concentration of maize (Zea mays L.). A split plot experiment based on randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with four replications was followed in the

Mohammad Galavi; Khatoon Yosefi; Mahmod Ramrodi

2011-01-01

5

Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large amount of chemicals is annually applied at the agricultural soils as fertilizers and pesticides. Such applications\\u000a may result in the increase of heavy metals particularly Cd, Pb, and As. The objective of this study was to investigate the\\u000a variability of chemical applications on Cd, Pb, and As concentrations of wheat-cultivated soils. Consequently, a study area\\u000a was designed and

Zahra Atafar; Alireza Mesdaghinia; Jafar Nouri; Mehdi Homaee; Masoud Yunesian; Mehdi Ahmadimoghaddam; Amir Hossein Mahvi

2010-01-01

6

Emissions of NO and NH3 from a Typical Vegetable-Land Soil after the Application of Chemical N Fertilizers in the Pearl River Delta  

PubMed Central

Cropland soil is an important source of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3). Chinese croplands are characterized by intensive management, but limited information is available with regard to NO emissions from croplands in China and NH3 emissions in south China. In this study, a mesocosm experiment was conducted to measure NO and NH3 emissions from a typical vegetable-land soil in the Pearl River Delta following the applications of 150 kg N ha?1 as urea, ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC), respectively. Over the sampling period after fertilization (72 days for NO and 39 days for NH3), mean NO fluxes (± standard error of three replicates) in the control and urea, AN and ABC fertilized mesocosms were 10.9±0.9, 73.1±2.9, 63.9±1.8 and 66.0±4.0 ng N m?2 s?1, respectively; mean NH3 fluxes were 8.9±0.2, 493.6±4.4, 144.8±0.1 and 684.7±8.4 ng N m?2 s?1, respectively. The fertilizer-induced NO emission factors for urea, AN and ABC were 2.6±0.1%, 2.2±0.1% and 2.3±0.2%, respectively. The fertilizer-induced NH3 emission factors for the three fertilizers were 10.9±0.2%, 3.1±0.1% and 15.2±0.4%, respectively. From the perspective of air quality protection, it would be better to increase the proportion of AN application due to its lower emission factors for both NO and NH3.

Li, Dejun

2013-01-01

7

Emissions of NO and NH3 from a typical vegetable-land soil after the application of chemical N fertilizers in the Pearl River Delta.  

PubMed

Cropland soil is an important source of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3). Chinese croplands are characterized by intensive management, but limited information is available with regard to NO emissions from croplands in China and NH3 emissions in south China. In this study, a mesocosm experiment was conducted to measure NO and NH3 emissions from a typical vegetable-land soil in the Pearl River Delta following the applications of 150 kg N ha(-1) as urea, ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium bicarbonate (ABC), respectively. Over the sampling period after fertilization (72 days for NO and 39 days for NH3), mean NO fluxes (± standard error of three replicates) in the control and urea, AN and ABC fertilized mesocosms were 10.9±0.9, 73.1±2.9, 63.9±1.8 and 66.0±4.0 ng N m(-2) s(-1), respectively; mean NH3 fluxes were 8.9±0.2, 493.6±4.4, 144.8±0.1 and 684.7±8.4 ng N m(-2) s(-1), respectively. The fertilizer-induced NO emission factors for urea, AN and ABC were 2.6±0.1%, 2.2±0.1% and 2.3±0.2%, respectively. The fertilizer-induced NH3 emission factors for the three fertilizers were 10.9±0.2%, 3.1±0.1% and 15.2±0.4%, respectively. From the perspective of air quality protection, it would be better to increase the proportion of AN application due to its lower emission factors for both NO and NH3. PMID:23527173

Li, Dejun

2013-01-01

8

Content and chemical form of mercury and selenium in soil, sludge, and fertilizer materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content and chemical from of Hg and Se were determined for several samples of municipal sewage sludge and sludge ash, garden soil having a history of sludge and residential compost application, and selected fertilizer materials (peat moss, cow manure, residential compost, composted municipal refuse and sewage sludge, Miloganite). Municipal sewage sludge had the highest levels of total Hg (averaging

Chris J. Cappon

1984-01-01

9

Effect of chemical fertilizers on the fractionation of Cu, Cr and Ni in contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of chemical fertilizers (urea, NH4Cl, Ca(NO3)2, KCl and KH2PO4) on the fractionation of Cu, Cr and Ni was studied by a 4-month incubation experiment. Using sequential extraction procedure,\\u000a it was found that the application of fertilizers could change the distribution of Cu, Cr and Ni in the fractions of soil.\\u000a Applying urea (CO(NH2)2) significantly decreased the concentrations of Cu,

Jie Liu; Chang-Qun Duan; Yi-Nian Zhu; Xue-Hong Zhang; Cheng-Xian Wang

2007-01-01

10

Effect of Different Fertilizer Application on the Soil Fertility of Paddy Soils in Red Soil Region of Southern China  

PubMed Central

Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (P<0.05). The application of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (P<0.05). During the experimental period, the average AN and AP contents were highest in OM treatment (about 1.6 and 29.6 times of that in the CK, respectively) and second highest in NPK treatment (about 1.2 and 20.3 times of that in the CK). Unlike AN and AP, the highest value of AK content was observed in NPK treatments with 38.10 mg·kg?1. Thus, these indicated that organic manure should be recommended to improve soil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region.

Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

2012-01-01

11

Impact of combined exposure of chemical, fertilizer, bio-fertilizer and compost on growth, physiology and productivity of Brassica campestries in old alluvial soil.  

PubMed

Field experiment was carried out during November 2006 to February 2007 under old alluvial soil to evaluate the impact of combined dose of chemical fertilizer, biofertilizer in combination with compost for the yellow sarson (Brassica campestries cv. B9) in a randomized block design replicated thrice. Various morpho-physiological parameters viz., plant population, length of shoot and root, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), yield attributes viz., number of siliquae per plant, number of seeds/siliquae, 1000 seed weight (test weight), seed yield, stover yield and physiological and biochemical parameters viz., pigment content, sugar, amino acid, protein, ascorbic acid content in physiologically active leaf were performed. The treatment T1 i.e., 40% less N fertilizer 25% less P fertilizer K fertilizer constant + 12 kg ha(-1) biofertilizer (Azophos) and organic manure (compost) @ 5Mt ha(-1), showed the maximum chlorophyll accumulation (10. 231 mg g(-1) freshweight), highest seed/siliquae (25.143), test weight of seeds (4. 861g) and highest seed yield (10.661 tha(-1)). A comparison between all the morphological, anatomical, physiological and biochemical parameters due to application of chemical fertilizer; bio-fertilizer and compost alone and in combination and their impact on soil microorganism, flora and fauna will throw a sound environmental information. PMID:20143708

Datta, J K; Banerjee, A; Sikdar, M Saha; Gupta, S; Mondal, N K

2009-09-01

12

Effect of bio-regulator and foliar fertilizers on chemical composition and yield of soybean.  

PubMed

Current study evaluates the effects of bio-regulator associated with foliar fertilizers on the yield components, productivity and chemical composition of soybean. The experimental design was entirely randomized blocks, with four replications. The treatments consisted of: T1-absolute control, T2-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate in R1 stage of development, T3-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1, T4-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1; T5-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1, T6-application of 3 L h(-1) Sett in R1 and 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R5.1 and T7-application of 0.25 L h(-1) Stimulate and 2 L h(-1) Mover in R1. Application of Sett and Mover is a potentially efficient handling as it favors the soybean agronomic performance in R1 stage. Chemical composition of processed grains has influence with applying bio-regulator and foliar fertilizers. PMID:24511692

Piccinin, Gleberson Guillen; Braccini, Alessandro Lucca; da Silva, Luiz Henrique; Mariucci, Giovanna Emanuêlle Gonçalves; Suzukawa, Andréia Kazumi; Dan, Lilian Gomes de Morais; Tonin, Telmo António

2013-11-15

13

Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH4H2PO4 solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200° C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca7Mg2P6O24) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid-phosphorus.

Myojin, Sachi; Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi

2010-11-01

14

Effect of conjoint use of bio-organics and chemical fertilizers on yield, soil properties under French bean–cauliflower-based cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of conjoint use of bio-organics (biofertilizers + crop residues + FYM) and chemical fertilizers on yield, physical–chemical and microbial properties of soil in a ‘French bean–cauliflower’-based cropping system of mid hills of the north-western Himalayan Region (NWHR) of India. Conjoint bio-organics at varied levels of NPK chemical fertilizers increased yield of ‘cauliflower’ over corresponding single application. Incorporation of crop

Satish Kumar Bhardwaj; Som Dev Sharma; Pramod Kumar

2012-01-01

15

Effect of conjoint use of bio-organics and chemical fertilizers on yield, soil properties under French bean–cauliflower-based cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of conjoint use of bio-organics (biofertilizers + crop residues + FYM) and chemical fertilizers on yield, physical–chemical and microbial properties of soil in a ‘French bean–cauliflower’-based cropping system of mid hills of the north-western Himalayan Region (NWHR) of India. Conjoint bio-organics at varied levels of NPK chemical fertilizers increased yield of ‘cauliflower’ over corresponding single application. Incorporation of crop

Satish Kumar Bhardwaj; Som Dev Sharma; Pramod Kumar

2011-01-01

16

THE COMBINED USE OF CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND\\/OR BIOFERTILIZER FOR CROP GROWTH AND SOIL FERTILITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant nutrients are essential for the production of crops and healthy food for the world's expanding population. Plant nutrients are therefore a vital component of sustainable agriculture. Increased crop production largely relies on the type of fertilizers used to supplement essential nutrients for plants. The nature and the characteristics of nutrient release of chemical, organic and biofertilizers are different, and

Jen-Hshuan Chen

17

Effect of Bio and Chemical Fertilizers on Seed Production and Quality of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was carried out during two successive winter seasons (2002-2003 & 2003-2004) at Kaha Vegetable Farm, Horticulture Research Institute, ARC. It studies the effect of bio-fertilizers (Azotobacter chroccocum & phosphorein) singly or in combination with different rates of N and P chemical fertilizers on growth, yield, sex ratio, seeds (yield & quality) of spinach plants cv. Dokki. Results

F. M. M. EL-ASSIOUTY; S. A. ABO-SEDERA; Dokki Giza

18

Effects of farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers on the nutritional status of the loquat trees.  

PubMed

The nutritional status of the loquat trees was investigated using cattle manure and commercial fertilizers for three years. The farmyard manure increased N, P, K, Mg, Fe and Zn contents of the leaves. No significant difference was found between the fertilizer types for trunk growth. Yield efficiency was nearly doubled by application of farmyard manure. Fertilizers did not affect the weight and shape of the fruits; however, commercial fertilizers led the lower total acidity in fruits. It was concluded that the loquat trees grown in sandy soils could fulfill their principal nutrient requirements for growth and commercial yield with application of farmyard manure. PMID:15259609

Doran, I; Kaya, Z; Caglar, S

2003-07-01

19

Impacts of Vermicompost and Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium application on Soil Fertility Status in Arecanut Grown on a Laterite Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment (1998 to 2010) investigated the effects of vermicompost (VC) and chemical fertilizer (CF) application alone or in combination on soil fertility status in arecanut. Vermicompost significantly increased the soil pH (6.3) over CF and integrated treatments (5.7–5.8). Higher soil organic carbon was noticed with VC (2.85–3.00%) than CF (1.72–1.89%) and VC+CF (1.89–2.55%) in 2009. Soil test phosphorus

S. Sujatha; Ravi Bhat

2012-01-01

20

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CHEMICAL AND FERTILIZER MINERAL INDUSTRY, STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

Air and water pollutants are generated during the conversion of naturally occurring minerals into suitable forms for use in chemical and fertilizer production. These minerals are barite, borates, fluorspar, lithium minerals, mineral pigments, phosphate rock, potash, salt, sodium ...

21

Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200 deg. C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca{sub 7}Mg{sub 2}P{sub 6}O{sup 24}) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid--phosphorus.

Myojin, Sachi; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi [Research Institute of Aqua Science and Technology 107 Ko, Sakawa-cho, Takaoka-gun, Kochi 789-1201 (Japan); Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru [Research Institute of Technology, Konoshima Chemical Co., Ltd. 80 Koda, Takuma-cho, Mitoyo-city, Kagawa 769-1103 (Japan)

2010-11-24

22

The effect of organic manure and chemical fertilizer on growth and development of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of organic manure and chemical fert ilizer on growth and development of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni had been studied in experimental plots in Qingdao Agricultural University. The results showed that organic manure cultivation promoted root activity in 40 days after transplanting compared with the chemical fertilizer cultivation, and the dry weight of the above-ground has exceeded chemical fert ilizer

Xiangyang Liu; Guangxi Ren; Yan Shi

2011-01-01

23

[Silkworm excrement organic fertilizer: its nutrient properties and application effect].  

PubMed

In this paper, silkworm excrement was harmless-treated via controlled fermentation to prepare silkworm excrement organic fertilizer (SEOF). The nutrient properties of the SEOF were determined, and a pot experiment was conducted to examine the application effect of the fertilizer. After fermentation, the total N, P, and K contents in the SEOF had a significant increase, being 58.0%, 84.4% , and 29.7% higher than those in the raw material, respectively. The addition of microbial inoculants shortened the fermentation period, and decreased the carbon and nitrogen losses during fermentation. With the application of SEOF, the seed germination index of cabbage and tomato was higher than 80% , suggesting that the fertilizer had no inhibitory effect on the seed germination. The application of SEOF not only increased the Chinese cabbage yield and its nutrients and Vc contents, decreased the plant nitrate content, but also improved the soil pH value, and increased the soil available nutrients and organic matter contents and soil enzyme activities, with better effect than applying composted goat feces. PMID:22007458

Chen, Xiao-ping; Xie, Ya-jun; Luo, Guang-en; Shi, Wei-yong

2011-07-01

24

Chemistry of metal–humic complexes contained in Megalopolis lignite and potential application in modern organomineral fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignite samples from two deposits located in the Megalopolis Basin, Southern Greece, were evaluated for their potential applicability as raw materials for the production of organomineral fertilizers. Fundamental chemical analyses were carried out to demonstrate high humic substances and metal contents. To determine their relative distribution in the Megalopolis lignite extract, eight elements, namely Na, K, Cd, Mn, Mg, Pb,

Konstantinos Chassapis; Maria Roulia; Dimitra Tsirigoti

2009-01-01

25

Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as: soil pH< available phosphorus < humus content < exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ < exchangeable K+. Inorganic fertilizers in high and temperate rates decrease 137Cs transfer to crops in 2.3-5.5 times. Organic fertilizers are less efficient, but its application can decrease 137Cs accumulation by farm crops during 2-3 years. Correlation analysis shows inversely proportional dependence between organic matter content and exchangeable form of 137Cs in soil (r2 = 0.81). A linear relation between 137Cs transfer factors (TF) to plants and exchangeable radionuclide content has been found (r2=0.68). Inversely proportional relation between the mobility level of potassium, its mobile form content and TF 137Cs was detected (r2 = 0.78).

Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

2012-04-01

26

INFLUENCE OF MINERAL FERTILIZATION ON SELECTED PHYSICAL FEATURES AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ARONIA FRUIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t . Aronia melanocarpa (Michx) Elliot, called also black chokeberry, is a species with lower cultivation requirements within the Rosaceae family. The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of foliar fertilization with Mn, 'Alkalin' (N, K and S i) and Mn + 'Alkalin' on physical features and chemical composition of

Katarzyna Skupie?; Ireneusz Ochmian; Józef Grajkowski

27

Grape response to phosphorus fertilizer: Petiole to blade P ratio as a guide for fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two?year fertilizer study on a mature vineyard of grapes (Vitis vinifera L., cv. ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ and ‘Sauvignon blanc') was conducted on a White House sandy loam (fine, mixed, thermic Ustollic Haplargid) soil at the University of Arizona Oracle Agricultural Center. Two cultivars were grown and treated with different levels of N and P fertilizer and tested for total P

M. M. Janat; J. L. Stroehlein; M. Pessarakli; T. C. Knowles

1990-01-01

28

Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato-radish-pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers + lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers + medium rate of COM (T3), and chemical fertilizers + high rate of COM (T4) were designed in the present experiment. The supplied doses of N, P, and K were equal for all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoot biomass and market yields of tomato, radish and pakchoi among treatments ( P > 0.05). It was found that positive P and K balance existed in the tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system of all treatments. Compared with no manure treatment (T1), application of medium rate of COM (T3) decreased N, P runoff losses, increased N, P, K contents in crop tissues except N, P in pakchoi shoot, and lessened P, K accumulation in soils, accordingly, improved the efficiency of macronutrient. It was concluded that appropriate COM used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers could not only meet the crops’ nutrient requirement, but also improved the efficiency of macronutrient and remained positive balance of P and K in the intensive tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system, which can be regarded as an effective measure for a contribution towards sustainable agriculture and a control pathway for reducing the potential risk of castoff to water environment.

Lu, H. J.; Ye, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. L.; Lin, X. Y.; Ni, W. Z.

29

[Effect of municipal sludge and chemical fertilizers on phthalic acid esters (PAEs) contents in Ipomoea aquatica grown on paddy soils].  

PubMed

GC/MS determinations on six phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in Ipomoea aquatic grown on potted paddy soil fertilized with municipal sludge and chemical fertilizers showed that the total contents of PAEs (sigma PAEs) in Ipomoea aquatic aboveground parts ranged from 2.129 mg.kg-1 to 7.111 mg.kg-1, decreasing in order of Guangzhou sludge + fertilizers (7.111 mg.kg-1) > Guangzhou sludge (4.767 mg.kg-1) > Foshan sludge (3.569 mg.kg-1) > Foshan sludge + fertilizers (3.305 mg.kg-1) > fertilizers (2.638 mg.kg-1) > control (2.129 mg.kg-1), indicating that compared with control, fertilization increased sigma PAEs in Ipomoea aquatica to a different extent. Only certain compounds of PAEs in different treatments of Ipomoea aquatica were dominant, e.g., butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) in control, chemical fertilizers, Foshan sludge, and Guangzhou sludge accounted for 40% to 80% of sigma PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate(DnBP) in foshan sludge + chemical fertilizers accounted for 56%, while di-n-octyl phthalate(DnOP), di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate(DEHP) and BBP in Guangzhou sludge + chemical fertilizers accounted for approximately 30%. sigma PAEs and the contents of its most compounds were higher in the plants of Ipomoea aquatica than in its roots to a different extent. PMID:14997666

Cai, Quanying; Mo, Cehui; Zhu, Xizhen; Wu, Qitang; Wang, Boguang; Jiang, Chengai; Li, Haiqin

2003-11-01

30

Effect of tillage systems and P-fertilization on soil physical and chemical properties, crop yield and nutrient uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a long-term fertilization trial at the Institute for Crop and Soil Science in Braunschweig, Germany were used to evaluate the influence of tillage systems and phosphorus (P) fertilization on the physical and chemical properties of soil, P accumulation in soils, yield of various crops, and P uptake. The trial was set up in 1985. In 1998 two tillage

Iris Vogeler; Jutta Rogasik; Ute Funder; Kerstin Panten; Ewald Schnug

2009-01-01

31

Chemical Applications of Mössbauer Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tutorial Lecture begins with a brief recapitulation of the hyperfine interactions and the relevant parameters observable in a Mössbauer spectrum. The main chapter with selected examples of chemical applications of Mössbauer spectroscopy follows and is subdivided into sections on: basic information on structure and bonding; switchable molecules (thermal spin transition in mono- and oligonuclear coordination compounds, light-induced spin transition, nuclear-decay-induced spin transition, spin transition in metallomesogens); mixed-valency in biferrocenes and other iron coordination compounds, and in an europium intermetallic compound; electron transfer in Prussian blue-analog complexes; molecule-based magnetism; industrial chemical problems like corrosion; application of a portable miniaturized Mössbauer spectrometer for applications outside the laboratory and in space. The Lecture ends with concluding remarks and an outlook to future developments.

Gütlich, Philipp; Garcia, Yann

32

AN AMMONIA EMISSION INVENTORY FOR FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. (R826371C006)  

EPA Science Inventory

Fertilizer application represents a significant fraction of ammonia emissions from all sources in the United States. Previously published ammonia inventories have generally suffered from poor spatial and temporal resolution, erroneous activity levels, and highly uncertain emis...

33

Natural radioactivity levels and heavy metals in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The present work deals with identifying and determining the activity levels of natural occuring radionuclides, (226)Ra and (232)Th series, their decay products and (40)K, in chemical and organic fertilizers used in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 30 samples: 20 phosphatic fertilizers (single super-phosphate SSP and triple super-phosphate,TSP) and 10 organic fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) collected from markets and farms. The gamma-ray spectrometer consists of NaI(Tl) detector and its electronic circuit was used for measuring ?-ray spectra. The ranges of radioactivity levels of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in chemical fertilizers are 51.5±5.2-106.3±7.5, 5.1±1.6-9.9±3.2. and 462.6±21-607.3±14Bqkg(-1), respectively. The activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in natural fertilizers (cow, sheep and chicken) are lower than the activities in chemical fertilizers. The obtained data are compared with available reported data from other countries in literature. The Ra(eq) in chemical fertilizer ranges from 100.37 to 161.43Bqkg(-1) and in organic fertilizer ranges from 34.07 to 102.19Bqkg(-1), which are lower than the limit of 370Bqkg(-1) adopted from NEA-OECD (1979). The average heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr) contents of the fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are also determined and within the limits of those used worldwide. PMID:21906958

El-Taher, A; Althoyaib, S S

2012-01-01

34

THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS FERTILIZERS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES OF EIGHT MODULES, IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SUBJECT MATTER AREAS ARE (1) CHEMICAL NUTRITION OF PLANTS, (2) PLANT GROWTH, (3) TERMINOLOGY,…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

35

Effects of vegetation and fertilization on weathered particles of coal gob in Shanxi mining areas, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined application of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizer in weathered particles of coal gob (WPCG) was studied by pot-scale trials. The accumulation of available nutrients and weathering process of coal gob piles were also investigated by field trial. It was showed that combined application of sewage sludge and chemical fertilizer increased yields of tall fescue, improved WPCG fertility especially its

Suqing Li; Dongmei Wu; Jintun Zhang

2005-01-01

36

Effect of continuous compost application on humus composition and nitrogen fertility of soils in a field subjected to double cropping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of continuous compost application on humus composition and N fertility of soils in a field subjected to double cropping (paddy rice and barley) for 25 years. Soil samples were collected from three different plots: (a) No-NF, fertilizer containing P and K but no N; (b) F, fertilizer containing N, P, and K; and (c) F+C, fertilizer plus

Haruo Shindo; Osamu Hirahara; Miho Yoshida; Akio Yamamoto

2006-01-01

37

Fertilizer trends  

SciTech Connect

This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

Donaldson, R.

1992-12-31

38

Fertilizer trends  

SciTech Connect

This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

Donaldson, R.

1992-01-01

39

Irrigated Mountain Meadow Fertilizer Application Timing Effects on Overland Flow Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

application timing related to environmental issues. Therefore, studies are needed to determine the appro- Nonpoint-source pollution from agricultural activities is currently priate application timing of fertilizer to minimize im- the leading cause of degradation of waterways in the United States. Applying best management practices to flood-irrigated mountain pacts to environmental variables such as water quality. meadows may improve agricultural runoff

Shawn K. White; Joe E. Brummer; Wayne C. Leininger; Gary W. Frasier; Reagan M. Waskom; Troy A. Bauder

2003-01-01

40

Quantitative analysis of perfluorinated chemicals in media for in vitro fertilization and related samples.  

PubMed

The actual standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol recommends an overnight gamete co-incubation. All of the culture media used for human IVF are supplemented with serum or albumin. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in IVF media (IVFM) and related samples by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The results indicated that the concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the protein source were higher than those in the IVFM samples. Compared with human plasma concentrations of PFCs, PFCs in all of the IVFM samples, such as PFBS, PFHxS and PFOA, were either not detected or present at only trace levels, even when protein source was added. LC/MS/MS could be used to determine PFCs in IVFM samples in future studies of the effects of PFC exposure on intrauterine insemination. PMID:22440637

Iwasaki, Yusuke; Terayama, Emi; Kato, Azusa; Ito, Rie; Saito, Koichi; Makino, Tsunehisa; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

2012-07-01

41

Potential applications of equine genomics in dissecting diseases and fertility.  

PubMed

Following the recent development of high-resolution gene maps and generation of several basic tools and resources to use them in analyzing traits that are economically important to horse owners, genome analysis in horses is witnessing a shift towards developing an ability to analyze complex traits. The likelihood of this happening in the very near future is great, mainly because of the recent availability of the whole genome sequence in the horse. The latter has triggered the development of novel tools like SNP-chip and expression arrays that will permit rapid genome-wide analysis. While these tools will be used for a range of multi-factorial disease traits, attempts are underway to develop focused tools that can target reproduction, fertility and sex determination. For this, a catalog of sex and reproduction related (SRR) genes is being developed in horses. A recently developed dense map of the horse Y chromosome will provide genes that are expressed exclusively in males and, therefore, have an impact on stallion fertility. Overall, these advances in equine genome analysis hold promise for improved diagnosis and treatment of various conditions in horses. PMID:18524508

Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Paria, Nandina; Raudsepp, Terje

2008-09-01

42

Chemical analysis and molecular models for calcium-oxygen-carbon interactions in black carbon found in fertile amazonian anthrosoils.  

PubMed

Carbon particles containing mineral matter promote soil fertility, helping it to overcome the rather unfavorable climate conditions of the humid tropics. Intriguing examples are the Amazonian Dark Earths, anthropogenic soils also known as "Terra Preta de Índio'' (TPI), in which chemical recalcitrance and stable carbon with millenary mean residence times have been observed. Recently, the presence of calcium and oxygen within TPI-carbon nanoparticles at the nano- and mesoscale ranges has been demonstrated. In this work, we combine density functional theory calculations, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of TPI-carbons to elucidate the chemical arrangements of calcium-oxygen-carbon groups at the molecular level in TPI. The molecular models are based on graphene oxide nanostructures in which calcium cations are strongly adsorbed at the oxide sites. The application of material science techniques to the field of soil science facilitates a new level of understanding, providing insights into the structure and functionality of recalcitrant carbon in soil and its implications for food production and climate change. PMID:24892495

Archanjo, Braulio S; Araujo, Joyce R; Silva, Alexander M; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Falcão, Newton P S; Jorio, Ado; Achete, Carlos A

2014-07-01

43

Laser Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The seventh topical meeting on Lasers and Applications to Chemical and Environmental Analysis continued the tradition of state-of-the-art research and applications and was presented in an informal atmosphere designed to foster communication among research...

J. A. Thorner

2000-01-01

44

Source assessment: chemical and fertilizer mineral industry, state-of-the-art. Final report, October 1976August 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air and water pollutants are generated during the conversion of naturally occurring minerals into suitable forms for use in chemical and fertilizer production. These minerals are barite, borates, fluorspar, lithium minerals, mineral pigments, phosphate rock, potash, salt, sodium sulfate, sulfur, and trona ore. The representative plant size for each mineral, except borates, was determined by dividing the total annual production

J. C. Ochsner; T. R. Blackwood

1978-01-01

45

Effect of Growing Media and Mineral Fertilization on Growth, Flowering, Bulbs Productivity and Chemical Constituents of Hippeastrum vittatum, Herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The present study was designed to study the effect of different growing media (clay, composted leaves and sand + composted leaves (1: 1 v\\/v) and fertilizer rates of mineral NPK (19: 19: 19) at 0.0, 2.5, 5 g \\/ plant and their combined effect on the vegetative growth, flowering qualities, bulbs production and chemical constituents of leaves of

A. H. El-Naggar; A. B. El-Nasharty

2009-01-01

46

An approach to revegetation of Egyptian deserts. III. Chemical processing of low quality dolomite rock for production of granulated compound fertilizer  

SciTech Connect

The low quality dolomite rock from Abu-Rawash, Giza, was reacted with sulfuric acid to prepare a compound fertilizer comprising all secondary nutrient and micronutrient elements. The fertilizer product was mixed with 20 weight percent of ground bentonite ore, and was granulated using potassium sulfate solution as binder. Application of the new fertilizer for cultivating maize in sandy soil was very effective in improving the morphology of the plant. The compound fertilizer is recommended for reclamation of sandy soil.

Estefan, S.F.; Awadalla, F.T. (National Research Centre, Cario (Egypt))

1989-01-01

47

Reducing fertilizer-derived N2O emission: Point injection vs. surface application of ammonium-N fertilizer at a loamy sand site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N2O emitted from soil originates either from denitrification of nitrate and/or nitrification of ammonium. N fertilization can have an important impact on N2O emission rates. Injection of nitrate-free ammonium-N fertilizer, in Germany also known as CULTAN (Controlled Uptake Long-Term Ammonium Nutrition), results in fertilizer depots with ammonium concentrations of up to 10 mg N g-1 soil-1. High concentrations of ammonium are known to inhibit nitrification. However, it has not yet been clarified how N2O fluxes are affected by CULTAN. In a field experiment, two application methods of nitrogen fertilizer were used at a loamy sand site: Ammonium sulphate was applied either by point injection or by surface application. 15N-ammonium sulphate was used to distinguish between N2O originating from either fertilizer-N or soil-N. Unfertilized plots and plots fertilized with unlabeled ammonium sulphate served as control. N2O emissions were measured using static chambers, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were determined in soil extracts. Stable isotope analysis of 15N in N2O, nitrate and ammonium was used to calculate the contribution of fertilizer N to N2O emissions and the fertilizer turnover in soil. 15N analysis clearly indicated that fertilizer derived N2O fluxes were higher from surface application plots. For the period of the growing season, about 24% of the flux measured in surface application treatment and less than 10% from injection treatment plots originated from the fertilizer. In addition, a lab experiment was conducted to gain insight into processes leading to N2O emission from fertilizer depots. One aim was to examine whether the ratio of N2O to nitrate formation differs depending on the ammonium concentration. Loamy sand soil was incubated in microcosms continuously flushed with air under conditions favouring nitrification. 15N-labeled nitrate was used to differentiate between nitrification and denitrification. Stable isotope analyses of 15N were performed on N2O in the gas phase and on ammonium and nitrate extracted from soil samples.

Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Kücke, Martin; Flessa, Heinz

2013-04-01

48

Nitrogen isotopic signature of soil-released nitric oxide (NO) after fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen isotopic signatures are very useful for identifying sources of atmospheric NOx or NO3?. Although soil is a major source of atmospheric nitric oxide (NO), yet nitrogen isotopic composition of soil-released NO has not been directly measured. Since a large portion of soil NO emission is induced by fertilizer application in food production, in the present study we determined N

Dejun Li; Xinming Wang

2008-01-01

49

Trace metal concentration in durum wheat from application of sewage sludge and commercial fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive application of commercial fertilizer continually introduces potentially toxic trace metals to the soil. Such metallic elements are not biodegradable, accumulate in the soil, and are subsequently taken up by food crops. Sewage sludge, often disposed of in landfills, contains high nutrient and organic contents and is now being recycled and beneficially applied to agricultural land worldwide in increasing amounts.

Heather L Frost; Lloyd H Ketchum

2000-01-01

50

Acidification and Soil Productivity of Allophanic Andosols Affected by Heavy Application of Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acidification of allophanic Andosols by fertilizer application in relation to soil productivity was studied with special reference to the soil colloidal composition. Among the Japanese cultivated allophanic Andosols, in 95% of the samples, the exchange acidity y1 was < 6, while in 5% of the samples (30 soil samples) the exchange acidity y1 was ? 6. The strongly acidic

Nobuhiko Matsuyama; Masahiko Saigusa; Eiji Sakaiya; Kazunaga Tamakawa; Zenzo Oyamada; Keiichi Kudo

2005-01-01

51

The accuracy of farm machinery for precision agriculture: a case for fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work quality, capacity and reliability are important criteria for design and evaluation of farm equipment. With the introduction of precision agriculture, the ability to adapt to spatially variable soil and crop conditions, becomes an additional aspect. A calculation method was developed to find the precision of site specific fertilizer application. The variance between the required rate, RR, and the applied

D. Goense

1997-01-01

52

Effect of continuous application of manures and fertilizers on rhizosphere microflora in arecanut palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The rhizosphere microflora of arecanut palm under continuous application of organic manures and inorganic fertilizers was\\u000a studied. The nutrients applied are 100 g N, 40 g P2O5 and 140 g K2O\\/palm\\/year in the form of organics and inorganics. The application of organic manure increased the microbial population.\\u000a The increase in microbial population was observed between the rhizosphere samples collected at

B. M. Bopaiah; N. T. Bhat

1981-01-01

53

Short-Term Increase of Nitrogen Leaching in a Tea Field after Heavy Application of Organic Fertilizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1999, the annual amount of fertilizer applied to tea fields has been restricted to 50 kgN/10a as much as possible to avoid nitrate pollution of groundwater; however, the nitrogen application tends to be similar to the previous high fertilizer levels to sustain high yields and superior tea quality in recent years. We investigated how this restoration of the previous heavy application affects nitrogen leaching and the forms of nitrogen in the soil. According to our measurements, the increase in the application of organic fertilizer from 50 to 87-100 kgN/10a increased the concentration of nitrate leaching into underdrainage after ten months of heavy application. After another month, the nitrate concentration in the underdrainage reached the levels obtained previously under heavy application of organic fertilizer. This period (11 months) was six months shorter than the period required for the reduction of nitrate concentration to a prescribed plateau following the restriction of nitrogen application. Protein-like organic nitrogen in the soil increased one year after the heavy application of organic fertilizer with little increase in total nitrogen content. These results show that restoration of reduced nitrogen application to areas with previous heavy application rapidly increases nitrate leaching from the tea field with little increase in nitrogen accumulation in the soil. Our results suggest that restoration of the previous heavy application of organic fertilizer has the effect of rapidly increasing nitrogen loading to groundwater in tea cultivation areas.

Miura, Nobuyuki; Uchimura, Koji; Nakamura, Takahisa; Karasuyama, Mitsuaki; Ae, Noriharu

54

Scheduling fertilizer applications as a simple mitigation option for reducing N2O emission in intensively managed mown grassland systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general principle in all proposed N2O mitigation options is the fertilization according to plants' requirements. Meanwhile the amount of N fertilization allowed is regulated in many countries. Due to the high pressure from food security and the need for economic efficiency the given limits are generally used up. In mown grassland systems a simple mitigation option is to optimize the timing of the fertilizer applications. Application of fertilizer, both organic manure and mineral fertilizer, is generally scheduled after each cut in a narrow time window. In practice, the delay between cut and fertilizer application is determined by weather conditions, management conditions and most important by the planning and experience of the individual farmer. Many field experiments have shown that enhanced N2O emissions tend to occur after cuts but before the application of fertilizer, especially when soils are characterized by a high WFPS. These findings suggest that the time of fertilizer application has an important implications for the N2O emission rate and that scheduling fertilization according to soil conditions might be a simple, cheap and efficient measure to mitigate N2O emissions. In this paper we report on results from a sensitivity analysis aiming at quantifying the effects of the timing of the fertilizer applications on N2O emissions from intensively managed, mown grasslands. Simulations for different time schedules were carried out with the comprehensive ecosystem model "ECOSYS" . To our knowledge this aspect has not been systematically investigated from a scientific point of view, but might have been always there within the experiences of attentive environmentally concerned farmers.

Neftel, Albrecht; Calanca, Pierluigi; Felber, Raphael; Grant, Robert; Conen, Franz

2014-05-01

55

THE INFLUENCE OF VARIED NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON YIELD AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SWISS CHARD (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The examinations were aimed at determining the dependence between form and rate of applied nitrogen fertilizer vs. yield and chemical composition of leaves of Swiss chard cultivated in greenhouse in spring. Nitrogen was applied in a form of urea, potas- sium nitrate, and ammonium nitrate at three amounts: 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 g N·dm-3 of substrate. Following items were assessed: yield,

Katarzyna Dzida; Karolina Pitura

56

Influence of irrigation and organic/inorganic fertilization on chemical quality of almond (Prunus amygdalus cv. Guara).  

PubMed

The chemical quality of almonds variety Guara cultivated in nonirrigated farming (NI) and drip-irrigated farming (DI) conditions with different fertilizing treatments, two organic treatments (T1 and T2) and a mineral treatment (C), all of them with a N-P-K proportion of 1-2-1, is studied. Almonds obtained in irrigated farming showed higher content in sugars and organic acids and a better quality of oil. Among the fertilizing treatments employed, the organic ones have shown the best results related to chemical quality, regardless of the quantity of fertilizer employed (9.5 kg per T1 tree vs 4.5 kg per T2 tree). The organic treatments produced almonds with a higher content of sugar, organic acids and fiber and a similar fat content. These results are interesting from a commercial point of view since the consumers, even under the same conditions of chemical quality, prefer those products cultivated under organic conditions due to their benefits for health and because these practices are environment-friendly. PMID:18847209

Sánchez-Bel, P; Egea, I; Martínez-Madrid, M C; Flores, B; Romojaro, F

2008-11-12

57

Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

2013-01-01

58

The impacts of different long-term fertilization regimes on the bioavailability of arsenic in soil: integrating chemical approach with Escherichia coli arsRp::luc-based biosensor.  

PubMed

An Escherichia coli arsRp::luc-based biosensor was constructed to measure the bioavailability of arsenic (As) in soil. In previous induction experiments, it produced a linear response (R (2)?=?0.96, P?chemical sequential extraction, Community Bureau of Reference recommended sequential extraction procedures (BCR-SEPs) and E. coli biosensor, were employed to assess the impact of different long-term fertilization regimes containing N, NP, NPK, M (manure), and NPK?+?M treatments on the bioavailability of arsenic (As) in soil. Per the BCR-SEPs analysis, the application of M and M?+?NPK led to a significant (P?fertilization treated soil (CK). In addition, direct contact assay of E. coli biosensor with soil particles also supported that bioavailable As in manure-fertilized (M and M?+?NPK) soil was significantly higher (P?fertilization was recommended as a more suitable regime in As-polluted soil especially with high As concentration, and this E. coli arsRp::luc-based biosensor was a more realistic approach in assessing the bioavailability of As in soil since it would not overrate the risk of As to the environment. PMID:24687747

Hou, Qi-Hui; Ma, An-Zhou; Lv, Di; Bai, Zhi-Hui; Zhuang, Xu-Liang; Zhuang, Guo-Qiang

2014-07-01

59

Transformation of Fall-Banded Urea: Application Date, Landscape Position, and Fertilizer Additive Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-yr study was initiated in the fall of 2000 to generate fundamental information on the effects of application date, landscape position, and a combined urease and nitrification inhibitor (NBPT (N-(n-butyl) thio- phosphoric triamide) and DCD (dicyandiamide), respectively) on the rate of transformation of fall-banded urea fertilizer into NH4 1 and eventually NO3 2 under conditions typical for Manitoba, Canada.

Kevin H. D. Tiessen; Donald N. Flaten; Paul R. Bullock; David L. Burton; Cynthia A. Grant; Rigas E. Karamanos

60

Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

1998-01-01

61

A conserved fertility signal despite population variation in the cuticular chemical profile of the trap-jaw ant Odontomachus brunneus.  

PubMed

Contact pheromones in the form of cuticular hydrocarbons are widespread among insects. Eusocial insects present a special challenge for understanding the evolution of the cuticular hydrocarbon profile because this blend is responsible for multiple distinct roles such as nestmate recognition and signalling fertility status. This study investigates these two signalling roles of the hydrocarbon profile in the trap-jaw ant Odontomachus brunneus. We demonstrate that the cuticular hydrocarbon profile is highly variable across populations and provide evidence that these differences are used for nestmate discrimination. Through manipulative experiments we also show that (Z)-9-nonacosene (Z9:C29) is used as a fertility signal and its role is conserved across populations. Our data demonstrate that both fertility and nestmate signalling influence the cuticular hydrocarbon profile and specifically the relative abundance of Z9:C29 on the cuticle of O. brunneus. Our study suggests that natural selection works on the cuticular chemical profile through multiple regulatory pathways, diversifying nestmate signals while conserving fertility signals. PMID:23868840

Smith, Adrian A; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hanks, Lawrence M; Suarez, Andrew V

2013-10-15

62

Chemical Applications of Neutron Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron scattering represents a versatile technique for chemists, as it explores the structure and dynamics of materials at the atomic scale. This review gives an outline of the neutron scattering formalism and describes diffraction and inelastic and quasielastic scattering techniques. Applications to chemistry are illustrated by examples from recent work on crystalline and liquid organic materials, including heterogeneous systems, bulk

F. R. Trouw; D. L. Price

1999-01-01

63

Effectiveness of Organic\\/BioFertilizer Supplemented with Chemical Fertilizers for Improving Soil Water Retention, Aggregate Stability, Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an organic-fertilizer was prepared by composting fruit and vegetable wastes in a locally fabricated unit and enriching it with N applied at the rate of 147 g kg compost. This “organic-fertilizer” was also used as a carrier for PGPR strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (N3) containing ACC-deaminase to formulate a bio-fertilizer. The organic- and\\/or bio-fertilizers were applied

Rizwan Ahmad; Muhammad Arshad; Azeem Khalid; Zahir A. Zahir

2008-01-01

64

Engineered biochar reclaiming phosphate from aqueous solutions: mechanisms and potential application as a slow-release fertilizer.  

PubMed

This work explored the potential application of an engineered biochar prepared from Mg-enriched tomato tissues to reclaim and reuse phosphate (P) from aqueous solution. Findings from batch sorption experiments suggested that, although sorption of P on the biochar was controlled by relatively slow kinetics, the maximum P sorption capacity of the biochar could reach >100 mg·g(-1). Mathematical modeling and postsorption characterization results indicated that the sorption was mainly controlled by two mechanisms: precipitation of P through chemical reaction with Mg particles and surface deposition of P on Mg crystals on biochar surfaces. Most of the P retained in the engineered biochar was bioavailable and could be released equally at multiple successive extractions. In addition, the P-laden biochar significantly stimulated grass seed germination and growth. These results suggested the postsorption biochar can be cycled back directly to soils as an effective slow-release P-fertilizer. PMID:23848524

Yao, Ying; Gao, Bin; Chen, Jianjun; Yang, Liuyan

2013-08-01

65

Commercial Fertilizers 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a compilation of annual data about fertilizer use in the USA, including statistics about various kinds of fertilizer, how much and where they are used, chemical composition, etc.

Berry, J.T.

1994-12-01

66

Properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.  

PubMed

The vast and yet largely unexplored family of graphene materials has great potential for future electronic devices with novel functionalities. The ability to engineer the electrical and optical properties in graphene by chemically functionalizing it with a molecule or adatom is widening considerably the potential applications targeted by graphene. Indeed, functionalized graphene has been found to be the best known transparent conductor or a wide gap semiconductor. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms driving the functionalization of graphene with hydrogen is proving to be of fundamental interest for energy storage devices. Here we discuss recent advances on the properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene. PMID:24045655

Craciun, M F; Khrapach, I; Barnes, M D; Russo, S

2013-10-23

67

Properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast and yet largely unexplored family of graphene materials has great potential for future electronic devices with novel functionalities. The ability to engineer the electrical and optical properties in graphene by chemically functionalizing it with a molecule or adatom is widening considerably the potential applications targeted by graphene. Indeed, functionalized graphene has been found to be the best known transparent conductor or a wide gap semiconductor. At the same time, understanding the mechanisms driving the functionalization of graphene with hydrogen is proving to be of fundamental interest for energy storage devices. Here we discuss recent advances on the properties and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

Craciun, M. F.; Khrapach, I.; Barnes, M. D.; Russo, S.

2013-10-01

68

Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates.  

PubMed

Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased ?-, ?-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of ?-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and ?-/?-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi

2014-02-01

69

Fundamentals and applications of chemical sensors  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the articles on the fundamental and applications of a wide variety of chemical sensors. It discusses a range of topics from the development of new sensor concepts to improvement in sensors that have been mass produced for several years. Specific types of sensors discussed include oxygen, electrochemical, microbial, drug, and glucose sensors.

Schuetzle, D.; Hammerle, R.

1986-01-01

70

Fertilizer induced morphological and chemical responses of a quaking Aspen stand in interior Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four treatments (control, N, NP, NPK) of an ongoing long-term fertilizer study in an interior Alaska aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) stand were chosen to characterize the response of selected attributes of the leaves to supplemental nutrients. Vertical differentiation of the canopy with respect to mean and total leaf area and mass, total leaf number, foliar nutrient concentrations, and indices of

P. I. Coyne; K. Van Cleve

1977-01-01

71

Increase of As release and phytotoxicity to rice seedlings in As-contaminated paddy soils by Si fertilizer application.  

PubMed

Silicon (Si) was shown to be able to reduce arsenic (As) uptake by rice in hydroponic culture or in low As soils using high Si application rates. However, the effect of Si application on As uptake of rice grown in As-contaminated soils using Si fertilizer recommendation rate has not been investigated. In this study, the effect of Si application using Si fertilizer recommendation rate on As release and phytotoxicity in soils with different properties and contents of As was examined. The results show that the concentrations of As in soil solutions increased after Si applications due to competitive adsorption between As and Si on soil solids and the Si concentrations in soil solutions were also elevated to beneficial levels for rice growth. The rice seedlings accumulated more As and its growth was inhibited by Si application in As contaminated/spiked soils. The results indicate that there is an initial aggravation in As toxicity before the beneficial effects of Si fertilizing to rice were revealed when Si application based on fertilizer recommendation rate to As-contaminated paddy soils. Therefore, for As-contaminated paddy soils with high levels of As, the application of Si fertilizer could result in increasing As phytotoxicity and uptake by rice. PMID:24892775

Lee, Chia-Hsing; Huang, Hsuan-Han; Syu, Chien-Hui; Lin, Tzu-Huei; Lee, Dar-Yuan

2014-07-15

72

A literature review of nonbiological remediation technologies which may be applicable to fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites  

SciTech Connect

The National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center at TVA has initiated a Window of Opportunity (WOO) project for the Development of Waste Treatment and Site Remediation Technologies for Fertilizer Dealers.'' The overall objectives of this project are to identify, evaluate, modify, research, develop, demonstrate, introduce, and market waste treatment and site remediation technologies/strategies for fertilizer dealers.'' This bulletin supports the WOO project by providing a general literature overview of the more prominent nonbiological remediation technologies that may be applicable to fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites. The technologies discussed are: incineration, anaerobic pyrolysis, in situ vitrification, thermal desorption, air stripping (soil), air stripping (water), steam stripping, soil washing, solvent extraction, solidification/stabilization, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical water oxidation. The advantages, disadvantages, applicability to remediation of contaminated sites, and need for further research are discussed.

Enlow, P.D.

1990-10-01

73

A literature review of nonbiological remediation technologies which may be applicable to fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites  

SciTech Connect

The National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center at TVA has initiated a Window of Opportunity (WOO) project for the ``Development of Waste Treatment and Site Remediation Technologies for Fertilizer Dealers.`` The overall objectives of this project are ``to identify, evaluate, modify, research, develop, demonstrate, introduce, and market waste treatment and site remediation technologies/strategies for fertilizer dealers.`` This bulletin supports the WOO project by providing a general literature overview of the more prominent nonbiological remediation technologies that may be applicable to fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites. The technologies discussed are: incineration, anaerobic pyrolysis, in situ vitrification, thermal desorption, air stripping (soil), air stripping (water), steam stripping, soil washing, solvent extraction, solidification/stabilization, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical water oxidation. The advantages, disadvantages, applicability to remediation of contaminated sites, and need for further research are discussed.

Enlow, P.D.

1990-10-01

74

Slug responses to grassland cutting and fertilizer application under plant functional group removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current studies on trophic interactions in biodiversity experiments have largely relied on artificially sown gradients in plant diversity, but removal experiments with their more natural plant community composition are more realistic. Slugs are a major part of the invertebrate herbivore community, with some species being common pests in agriculture. We therefore investigated how strongly slugs are influenced by grassland management, plant biodiversity and composition. Here we analysed the effects of cutting frequency, fertilizer application and plant functional group composition on slug densities and their contribution to herbivory on Rumex acetosa in a removal experiment within a >100-year old grassland in Northern Germany. The experiment was laid out as a Latin rectangle with full factorial combinations of (i) plant functional group removal (3 levels) using herbicides, (ii) fertilizer application (2 levels) and (iii) cutting frequency (2 levels). The resulting 12 treatment combinations were replicated 6 times, resulting in 72 plots. We collected a total of 1020 individuals belonging to three species Arion distinctus (60.4% of individuals), Deroceras reticulatum (34.7%) and Arion lusitanicus (4.9%) using a cover board technique and additionally measured herbivore damage to R. acetosa. We found the highest slug abundance on plots with a low cutting frequency and high food resource availability (increased cover of forbs and taller vegetation). Fertilizer application had no significant effect on slug abundance, but caused higher herbivore damage to on R. acetosa, possibly as a result of increased tissue quality. The negative effect of higher cutting frequency on slug abundance was lowest in control plots with their naturally developed graminoid-forb communities (cutting reduced slug density by 6% in the control vs. 29% in herbicide plots). Our experiments therefore support the idea that more natural plant species compositions reduce the impact of disturbances (e.g. through cutting or grazing) on invertebrates.

Everwand, Georg; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja

2013-04-01

75

Distributions of rare earths and heavy metals in field-grown maize after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earths are widely applied in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition through the use of fertilizers, yet little is known of their accumulation in field-grown crops. We have studied the distribution of 16 rare earths (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanide elements) in field-grown maize and the concentration of heavy metals in the grains after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer.

Xingkai Xu; Wangzhao Zhu; Zijian Wang; Geert-Jan Witkamp

2002-01-01

76

Biomass and chemical composition of fertilized and\\/or irrigated Pinus resinosa Ait. plantations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates were made of the above-ground biomass and contents of ash, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Al, Fe, Zn, and Cu by plant\\u000a components for a 40-year-old Pinus resinosa Ait. plantation growing on a known K-deficient site and treated with KCl fertilizer and\\/or irrigation. Regression equations\\u000a were developed from sample-tree data, obtained by total tree analysis techniques, for

Robert F. Wittwer; Albert L. Leaf; Donald H. Bickelhaupt

1975-01-01

77

Integrated approach for disease management and growth enhancement of Sesamum indicum L. utilizing Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2 and chemical fertilizer.  

PubMed

Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2, an isolate of wheat rhizosphere displayed plant growth promoting attributes including indole acetic acid, HCN, siderophore production, solubilization of inorganic phosphate and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. In addition, it showed strong antagonistic effect against Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum. It also caused degradation and digestion of cell wall components, resulting in hyphal perforations, empty cell (halo) formation, shrinking and lysis of fungal mycelia along with significant degeneration of conidia. Fertilizer adaptive variant strain of A. chroococcum TRA2 was studied with Tn5 induced streptomycin resistant transconjugants of wild type tetracycline-resistant TRA2 (designated TRA2(tetra+strep+)) after different durations. The strain was significantly competent in rhizosphere, as its population increased by 15.29 % in rhizosphere of Sesamum indicum. Seed bacterization with the strain TRA2 resulted in significant increase in vegetative growth parameters and yield of sesame over the non-bacterized seeds. However, application of TRA2 with half dose of fertilizers showed sesame yield almost similar to that obtained by full dose treatment. Moreover, the oil yield increased by 24.20 %, while protein yield increased by 35.92 % in treatment receiving half dose of fertilizer along with TRA2 bacterized seeds, as compared to untreated control. PMID:22828791

Maheshwari, D K; Dubey, R C; Aeron, Abhinav; Kumar, Bhavesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Tewari, Sakshi; Arora, Naveen Kumar

2012-10-01

78

Community Structure of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria under Long-Term Application of Mineral Fertilizer and Organic Manure in a Sandy Loam Soil?  

PubMed Central

The effects of mineral fertilizer (NPK) and organic manure on the community structure of soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in a long-term (16-year) fertilizer experiment. The experiment included seven treatments: organic manure, half organic manure N plus half fertilizer N, fertilizer NPK, fertilizer NP, fertilizer NK, fertilizer PK, and the control (without fertilization). N fertilization greatly increased soil nitrification potential, and mineral N fertilizer had a greater impact than organic manure, while N deficiency treatment (PK) had no significant effect. AOB community structure was analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of the amoA gene, which encodes the ? subunit of ammonia monooxygenase. DGGE profiles showed that the AOB community was more diverse in N-fertilized treatments than in the PK-fertilized treatment or the control, while one dominant band observed in the control could not be detected in any of the fertilized treatments. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the DGGE bands derived from N-fertilized treatments belonged to Nitrosospira cluster 3, indicating that N fertilization resulted in the dominance of Nitrosospira cluster 3 in soil. These results demonstrate that long-term application of N fertilizers could result in increased soil nitrification potential and the AOB community shifts in soil. Our results also showed the different effects of mineral fertilizer N versus organic manure N; the effects of P and K on the soil AOB community; and the importance of balanced fertilization with N, P, and K in promoting nitrification functions in arable soils.

Chu, Haiyan; Fujii, Takeshi; Morimoto, Sho; Lin, Xiangui; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Hu, Junli; Zhang, Jiabao

2007-01-01

79

In Vivo Applications of Fiberoptic Chemical Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As stated at the beginning of this volume, the term “biosensor” refers to sensors that use biomolecules in the molecular recognition\\u000a or transduction processes. Although there have been many proposals to use fiberoptic biosensors in vivo, almost all the work\\u000a to date has been in vitro. In the more general class of fiberoptic chemical sensors, in vivo applications have progressed

Amos Gottlieb; Skip Divers; Henry K. Hui

80

Nonsurgical fertility control for managing free-roaming dog populations: a review of products and criteria for field applications.  

PubMed

About 75% of dogs worldwide are free to roam and reproduce, thus creating locally overabundant populations. Problems caused by roaming dogs include diseases transmitted to livestock and humans, predation on livestock, attacks on humans, road traffic accidents, and nuisance behavior. Nonsurgical fertility control is increasingly advocated as more cost-effective than surgical sterilization to manage dog populations and their impact. The aims of this review were to 1) analyze trends in numbers of scientific publications on nonsurgical fertility control for dogs; 2) illustrate the spectrum of fertility inhibitors available for dogs; 3) examine how differences between confined and free-roaming dogs might affect the choice of fertility inhibitors to be used in dog population management; and 4) provide a framework of criteria to guide decisions regarding the use of nonsurgical fertility control for dog population management. The results showed that the 117 articles published between 1982 and 2011 focussed on long-term hormonal contraceptives, such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, immunocontraceptives, and male chemical sterilants. The number of articles published biennially increased from one to five papers produced in the early 1980s to 10 to 20 in the past decade. Differences between confined dogs and free-roaming dogs include reproduction and survival as well as social expectations regarding the duration of infertility, the costs of sterilization, and the responsibilities for meeting these costs. These differences are likely to dictate which fertility inhibitors will be used for confined or free-roaming dogs. The criteria regarding the use of fertility control for dog population management, presented as a decision tree, covered social acceptance, animal welfare, effectiveness, legal compliance, feasibility, and sustainability. The review concluded that the main challenges for the future are evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, sustainability, and effects of mass nonsurgical sterilization campaigns on dog population size and impact as well as integrating nonsurgical fertility control with disease vaccination and public education programs. PMID:23998740

Massei, Giovanna; Miller, Lowell A

2013-11-01

81

Enrichment of some B-vitamins in plants with application of organic fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the literature showed that plants grown with organic fertilizers often contain higher concentrations of vitamins B1 (thiamin) and B12 (cyanocobalamin) as compared with plants grown with inorganic fertilizers. Since plant roots were recently shown to be able to absorb B1 and B12, it was thus suspected that organic fertilizers (such as manure of diverse sources or sewage

A. Mozafar

1994-01-01

82

Chemical application of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method gives a stochastic solution to the Schroedinger equation. This approach is receiving increasing attention in chemical applications as a result of its high accuracy. However, reducing statistical uncertainty remains a priority because chemical effects are often obtained as small differences of large numbers. As an example, the single-triplet splitting of the energy of the methylene molecule CH sub 2 is given. The QMC algorithm was implemented on the CYBER 205, first as a direct transcription of the algorithm running on the VAX 11/780, and second by explicitly writing vector code for all loops longer than a crossover length C. The speed of the codes relative to one another as a function of C, and relative to the VAX, are discussed. The computational time dependence obtained versus the number of basis functions is discussed and this is compared with that obtained from traditional quantum chemistry codes and that obtained from traditional computer architectures.

Reynolds, P. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.

1984-01-01

83

Phosphorus Fertilization of Late-Planted Winter Wheat after Chemical Fallow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is planted in low precipitation areas of the Columbia Plateau after 14 months of fallow. Tillage is conducted during the fallow period to retain seed- zone moisture and control weeds. Chemical fallow is an alternative to the tillage-based method. The disadvantage of chemical fallow is the loss of seed-zone moisture and inability to plant early.

Larry Lutcher; William Schillinger; Don Wysocki; Stewart Wuest; Neil Christensen

84

Chemical composition of sewage sludges and analysis of their potential use as fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) was used to provide information concerning the chemical bonding of zinc and copper present in the sludge obtained from the Dayton, Ohio sewage treatment plant. The binding energy of the Zn 2Pââ electron in sludge when placed under a vacuum of 10⁻⁷ Torr was 1023.8 +- 0.2 eV and the binding energy of the

L. E. Sommers

1977-01-01

85

Effects of fertilizer rate, application timing and plant spacing on yield and nutrient content of bell pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var annuum L.), cv Pip, transplants were established at 31 and 46 cm in?rows on bare soil and drip irrigated on a twice weekly schedule. A base rate of fertilizer was applied either in one preplant application or in two (preplant and first flower set) or three (preplant, first flower set, after the midseason harvest) split

V. M. Russo

1991-01-01

86

Spatial variation of soil nutrients in a dairy farm and its implications for site-specific fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variation of extractable (Morgan's) soil phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), pH and lime requirement (LR) in a permanent dairy farm in southeastern Ireland, was investigated using conventional statistics, geostatistics and a geographical information system (GIS) to produce nutrient maps and to provide information for site-specific fertilizer application. A total of 537 soil samples were collected based on

Weijun Fu; Hubert Tunney; Chaosheng Zhang

2010-01-01

87

The Influence of Different Organic Fertilizers on Yield and PhysicoChemical Properties of Organically Grown Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of adequate organic fertilization is necessary to promote organic crop production. Organic nutrient sources including compost, manure, compost extract, and authorized fertilizers could be combined and used in order to achieve a balanced nutrient supply and an improved organic tomato yield and quality. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of different organic fertilizer treatments

A. Riahi; C. Hdider; M. Sanaa; N. Tarchoun; M. Ben Kheder; I. Guezal

2009-01-01

88

Integrated Use of Organic Manure and Chemical Fertilizer on Growth, Yield, and Quality of Sugarcane in High Ganges River Floodplain Soils of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of integrated use of organic wastes such as press mud, farmyard manure (FYM), and green manure (Crotalaria juncea) along with chemical fertilizer on the yield and quality of sugarcane in High Ganges River Floodplain soils of Bangladesh. Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b contents of cane leave tissues were slightly increased by organic

S. M. Bokhtiar; K. Sakurai

2005-01-01

89

The effects of crop rotation and fertilization on wheat productivity in the Pampean semiarid region of Argentina. 1. Soil physical and chemical properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat in the semiarid region of Argentina has often been grown as a low-input crop. Rainfall scarcity and distribution are the main characteristics of this region. The knowledge of the combined effects of crop rotation and fertilization on soil physical and chemical properties are the key for a sustainable crop production. Soil properties for an Entic Haplustoll in the semiarid

A. M Miglierina; J. O Iglesias; M. R Landriscini; J. A Galantini; R. A Rosell

2000-01-01

90

[Effects of different organic fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco].  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying different organic fertilizers (refined organic fertilizer and bio-organic fertilizer) and their combination with 20% reduced chemical fertilizers on the microbes in rhizospheric soil of flue-cured tobacco, the resistance of the tobacco against bacterial wilt, and the tobacco yield and quality. As compared with conventional chemical fertilization (CK), applying refined organic fertilizer (ROF) or bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization increased the bacterial number and the total microbial number in the rhizospheric soil significantly. Applying BIO in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization also increased the actinomyces number in the rhizospheric soil significantly, with an increment of 44.3% as compared with that under the application of ROF in combining with 20% reduced chemical fertilization, but decreased the fungal number. As compared with CK, the ROF and BIO increased the carbon use capacity of rhizospheric microbes significantly, and the BIO also increased the capacity of rhizospheric microbes in using phenols significantly. Under the application of ROF and BIO, the disease incidence and the disease index of bacterial wilt were decreased by 4% and 8%, and 23% and 15.9%, and the proportions of high grade tobacco leaves increased significantly by 10.5% and 9.7%, respectively, as compared with those in CK. BIO increased the tobacco yield and its output value by 17.1% and 18.9% , respectively, as compared with ROF. PMID:24417114

Zhang, Yun-Wei; Xu, Zhi; Tang, Li; Li, Yan-Hong; Song, Jian-Qun; Xu, Jian-Qin

2013-09-01

91

Possible application of solar-thermal energy in the chemical industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight chemicals are identified that require substantial amounts of nonrecoverable energy for their production. The chemicals are: ethylene, vinyl chloride, styrene, propylene, butadiene, isoprene, hydrogen, and phosphorus. These chemicals are used to produce a wealth of products such as plastics, rubbers and fertilizers. In most cases, these energy intensive materials are at the top of a pyramid of subsequent, exothermic reactions and products that do not require additional thermal energy except for separation processes. Their production at present is centralized and done on a large scale, and most of the organics are produced in refineries where hydrocarbon energy is abundant. This association with refineries means at present that direct substitution of solar energy for hydrocarbon fired heaters may not be convenient, even though scientifically feasible. Other solar energy applications are production of caustic soda from thermodynamic cycles, ethylene from ethanol, and butadiene from ethanol.

Martin, L. R.

1982-06-01

92

Soil Aggregates and Organic Carbon Distribution in Red Soils after Long-term Fertilization with Different Fertilizer Treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red soils, a typical Udic Ferrosols, widespread throughout the subtropical and tropical region in southern China, support the majority of grain production in this region. The red soil is naturally low in pH values, cation exchange capacity, fertility, and compaction, resulting in low organic matter contents and soil aggregation. Application of chemical fertilizers and a combination of organic-chemical fertilizers are two basic approaches to improve soil structure and organic matter contents. We studied the soil aggregation and the distribution of aggregate-associated organic carbon in red soils with a long-term fertilization experiment during 1988-2009. We established treatments including 1) NPK and NK in the chemical fertilizer plots, 2) CK (Control), and 3) CK+ Peanut Straw (PS), CK+ Rice Straw (RS), CK+ Fresh Radish (FR), and CK + Pig Manure (PM) in the organic-chemical fertilizer plots. Soil samples were fractionated into 6 different sized aggregate particles through the dry-wet sieving method according to the hierarchical model of aggregation. Organic carbon in the aggregate/size classes was analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of mechanically stable aggregates in red soils after long-term fertilization decreased with the size, from > 5mm, 5 ~ 2 mm, 2 ~ 1 mm, 1~ 0.25 mm, to < 0.25 mm, but the distribution of water-stable aggregates did not follow this pattern. Compared with the chemical fertilizer application alone, the addition of pig manure and green manure can significantly improve the distribution of aggregates in the 5-2 mm, 2-1 mm and 1-0.25 mm classes. The organic carbon (OC) contents in red soils were all increased after the long-term fertilization. Compared with Treatment NK, soil OC in Treatment NPK was increased by 45.4%. Compared with Treatment CK (low chemical fertilizer), organic fertilizer addition increased soil OC. The OC in the different particle of water-stable aggregates were all significantly increased after long-term fertilization. OC mainly existed in the macroaggregate (> 0.25 mm) of red soils after the long-term fertilization, and the organic matter was the most important colloid material for macroaggregates. We conclude that the long-term, appropriate application of chemical fertilizer and the combination with organic manure were the most effective measures to improve soil structure and organic carbon contents in red soil regions.

Tang, J.; Wang, Y.

2013-12-01

93

Preplant SlowRelease Nitrogen Fertilizers Produce Similar Bell Pepper Yields as Split Applications of Soluble Fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

applications of urea (Brown et al., 1988). Highest fruit yield of bell pepper grown on plastic mulch was obtained Slow-release N materials are used to reduce N leaching losses from with broadcast-applied SCU or isobutylidene diurea sandy soils and extend N availability over a growing season. The objective of this research was to examine the effectiveness of preplant (IBDU), when

Elizabeth A. Guertal

2000-01-01

94

Chemical Exposure: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural chemicals comprise thousands of formulations, including petroleum products, pesticides, growth regulators, buffers, nutrients and fertilizers, and veterinary medications. These chemicals may be used as solids in granular, powder, pellet, or block form; liquids in mists and sprays; or in gaseous forms as fumigants or fuels. Application of chemicals to crops may be by sprays of liquids from aircraft or

JAMES E. LESSENGER

95

1984 Fertilizer summary data  

SciTech Connect

''Fertilizer Summary Data'' is published every two years as part of TVA's fertilizer research, development, and education program. It brings together historical fertilizer use and crop statistics, application rates, and farm income and expense data for use in production planning and market evaluation. This edition summarizes US consumption (including Puerto Rico) of fertilizer and plant nutrients through the year ended June 30, 1984. It also includes TVA distribution of fertilizer materials in the industry demonstration program for 1981 through 1984. The summaries are presented for regions of USA.

Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

1985-06-01

96

Effect of the nitrogen fertilizer forms and time of their application on the yield of herb and essential oil of Ocimum americanum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

2) was studied in two succes - sive seasons. in both seasons the total yields of fresh and dry herb after the application of ammonium sulfate surpassed that of ammonium nitrate and urea. dividing the full amount of fertilizer into two equal portions gave the highest yields in most cuts. Nitrogen fertilizers affected the percentage of essential oil in most

ELSAyEd A. OMEr; A. ELSA; EL-L Athy

97

CFD Applications in Chemical Propulsion Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present research is aimed at developing analytical procedures for predicting the performance and stability characteristics of chemical propulsion engines. Specific emphasis is being placed on understanding the physical and chemical processes in the sm...

C. L. Merkle

1991-01-01

98

Microheater as an alternative to lasers for in-vitro fertilization applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade various lasers have been applied to drilling of the micrometer-sized holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes for in-vitro fertilization applications. In this paper we describe an alternative approach to laser instrumentation based on microfabricated device capable of precise drilling of uniform holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes. This device consists of a thin (1 micrometer) film microheater built on the tip of glass capillary with a diameter varying between a few to a few tens of micrometers. Duration of the pulse of heat produced by this microheater determines the spatial confinement of the heat wave in the surrounding liquid medium. We have demonstrated that gradual microdrilling of the zona pellucida can be accomplished using a series of pulses with duration of about 300 microseconds when the microheater was held in contact with the zona pellucida. Pulse energy applied to 20 micrometer tip was about 4 (mu) J. In vitro development and hatching of 127 micromanipulated embryos was compared to 103 non-drilled control embryos. The technique was found to be highly efficient in creating round, uniform, well defined holes with a smooth wall surface, matching the size of the heating source. The architecture of the surrounding zona pellucida was unaffected by the drilling, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Micromanipulated embryos presented no signs of thermal damage under light microscopy. The rate of blastocyst formation and hatching was similar in the micromanipulated and control groups. Following further testing in animal models, this methodology may be used as a cost- effective alternative to laser-based instrumentation in clinical applications such as assisted hatching and embryo biopsy.

Palanker, Daniel V.; Turovets, Igor; Glazer, Rima; Reubinoff, Benjamin E.; Hilman, Dalia; Lewis, Aaron

1999-06-01

99

Distributions of rare earths and heavy metals in field-grown maize after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer.  

PubMed

Rare earths are widely applied in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition through the use of fertilizers, yet little is known of their accumulation in field-grown crops. We have studied the distribution of 16 rare earths (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanide elements) in field-grown maize and the concentration of heavy metals in the grains after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer. When maize entered the vigorous vegetation growth stage (e.g. early stem-elongation stage), rare earth-containing fertilizer was applied to the soil with irrigation water. At 10 days after application of the rare earths, significantly dose-dependent accumulative effects of individual rare earth concentrations in the roots and the plant tops of maize were observed, with the exception of Sc and Lu. At the level of 2 kg rare earths ha(-1), accumulative concentrations of most light rare earths (e.g. La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and Gd in the plant tops were much larger than those in the control. Concentrations of individual rare earths in a field-grown maize after application of rare earths decreased in the order of root>leaf>stem>grain. During the maize growth period, selective accumulation of individual rare earths (e.g. La, Ce) in the roots seemed to be in dynamic equilibrium, and the distribution of these elements in the plant tops was variable. At a dosage of less than 10 kg rare earths ha(-1), no apparent accumulative concentrations of individual rare earths appeared in the maize grains. Under the experimental conditions, application of rare earth-containing fertilizer did not induce an increase in the concentrations of heavy metals in the grains. We conclude that the present dosage of rare earths (<0.23 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) currently applied in China can hardly affect the safety of maize grains in arable soil, even over a long period. PMID:12109484

Xu, Xingkai; Zhu, Wangzhao; Wang, Zijian; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

2002-07-01

100

Change in Some Chemical Parameters of two Environment Polluting Waste (Fertilizer Factory Effluent and Sweetmeat Factory Waste) Media After Culture of Three Important Microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some chemical parameters of fertilizer factory effluent (FFE) and sweetmeat factory waste (SFW) were analyzed before and after culture of three important microalgae (Spirulina platensis, Chlorella ellipsoidea and Scenedesmus obliquus) to make the waste environment friendly and to develop their economic use. Among the two wastes significantly (P<0.05) higher phosphate phosphorus (116.09 mg\\/l), ammonia nitrogen (17.39), total suspended solids (TDS,

M. A. Toyub; M. I. Miah; M. A. B. Habib

2007-01-01

101

Comparative Effects of Nitrogen Fertigation and Granular Fertilizer Application on Growth and Availability of Soil Nitrogen during Establishment of Highbush Blueberry  

PubMed Central

A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. “Bluecrop”). Treatments included four methods of N application (weekly fertigation, split fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls) and four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150?kg·ha?1?N). Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with a liquid urea solution; weekly fertigation was applied once a week from leaf emergence to 60 d prior to the end of the season while split fertigation was applied as a triple-split from April to June. Non-fertigated controls were fertilized with granular ammonium sulfate, also applied as a triple-split, and irrigated by drip or microsprinklers. Weekly fertigation produced the smallest plants among the four fertilizer application methods at 50?kg·ha?1?N during the first year after planting but the largest plants at 150?kg·ha?1?N in both the first and second year. The other application methods required less N to maximize growth but were less responsive than weekly fertigation to additional N fertilizer applications. In fact, 44–50% of the plants died when granular fertilizer was applied at 150?kg·ha?1?N. By comparison, none of the plants died with weekly fertigation. Plant death with granular fertilizer was associated with high ammonium ion concentrations (up to 650?mg·L?1) and electrical conductivity (>3?dS·m?1) in the soil solution. Early results indicate that fertigation may be less efficient (i.e., less plant growth per unit of N applied) at lower N rates than granular fertilizer application but is also safer (i.e., less plant death) and promotes more growth when high amounts of N fertilizer is applied.

Bryla, David R.; Machado, Rui M. A.

2011-01-01

102

Comparative Effects of Nitrogen Fertigation and Granular Fertilizer Application on Growth and Availability of Soil Nitrogen during Establishment of Highbush Blueberry.  

PubMed

A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. "Bluecrop"). Treatments included four methods of N application (weekly fertigation, split fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls) and four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150?kg·ha(-1)?N). Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with a liquid urea solution; weekly fertigation was applied once a week from leaf emergence to 60 d prior to the end of the season while split fertigation was applied as a triple-split from April to June. Non-fertigated controls were fertilized with granular ammonium sulfate, also applied as a triple-split, and irrigated by drip or microsprinklers. Weekly fertigation produced the smallest plants among the four fertilizer application methods at 50?kg·ha(-1)?N during the first year after planting but the largest plants at 150?kg·ha(-1)?N in both the first and second year. The other application methods required less N to maximize growth but were less responsive than weekly fertigation to additional N fertilizer applications. In fact, 44-50% of the plants died when granular fertilizer was applied at 150?kg·ha(-1)?N. By comparison, none of the plants died with weekly fertigation. Plant death with granular fertilizer was associated with high ammonium ion concentrations (up to 650?mg·L(-1)) and electrical conductivity (>3?dS·m(-1)) in the soil solution. Early results indicate that fertigation may be less efficient (i.e., less plant growth per unit of N applied) at lower N rates than granular fertilizer application but is also safer (i.e., less plant death) and promotes more growth when high amounts of N fertilizer is applied. PMID:22639596

Bryla, David R; Machado, Rui M A

2011-01-01

103

Effects of leguminous plant residues and NPK fertilizer application on the performance of yam (Dioscorea rotundata ‘c.v.’ ewuru) in south-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cultivating and incorporating residues of previous tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) and soybean (Glycine max) with application of NPK fertilizer on yam performance were evaluated at the teaching and research farm, LAUTECH, Nigeria. There were nine treatments: incorporation of legume residues (5 t DM ha), application of recommended fertilizer rate for yam (90–50–75 kg NPK ha) in the zone or

Gani Oladejo Kolawole

2012-01-01

104

Quantifying Uncertainties in N2O Emission Due to N Fertilizer Application in Cultivated Areas  

PubMed Central

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential approximately 298 times greater than that of CO2. In 2006, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated N2O emission due to synthetic and organic nitrogen (N) fertilization at 1% of applied N. We investigated the uncertainty on this estimated value, by fitting 13 different models to a published dataset including 985 N2O measurements. These models were characterized by (i) the presence or absence of the explanatory variable “applied N”, (ii) the function relating N2O emission to applied N (exponential or linear function), (iii) fixed or random background (i.e. in the absence of N application) N2O emission and (iv) fixed or random applied N effect. We calculated ranges of uncertainty on N2O emissions from a subset of these models, and compared them with the uncertainty ranges currently used in the IPCC-Tier 1 method. The exponential models outperformed the linear models, and models including one or two random effects outperformed those including fixed effects only. The use of an exponential function rather than a linear function has an important practical consequence: the emission factor is not constant and increases as a function of applied N. Emission factors estimated using the exponential function were lower than 1% when the amount of N applied was below 160 kg N ha?1. Our uncertainty analysis shows that the uncertainty range currently used by the IPCC-Tier 1 method could be reduced.

Philibert, Aurore; Loyce, Chantal; Makowski, David

2012-01-01

105

Nutritional Applications of the Chemical Senses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship of taste and smell to ingestion, digestion, and metabolism. Indicates that the response of these physiological systems can be chemical specific and that chemical senses may play different roles in regulating diet during nutrient deficiency and during nutrient surplus situations. (JN)

Naim, Michael; Kare, Morley R.

1984-01-01

106

[Effects of irrigation mode and N application rate on cotton field fertilizer N use efficiency and N losses].  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation modes (drip irrigation and furrow irrigation) and different N application rates (0, 240, 360 and 480 kg N x hm(-2)) on the fertilizer N use efficiency and N losses in a cotton field in Xinjiang, Northwest China. The main N cycling pathways, such as the N uptake by cotton plant, NO3(-)-N residual in soil, NH3 volatilization, NO3(-)-N leaching, and nitrification-denitrification, were quantitatively monitored. Compared with furrow irrigation, drip irrigation increased the seed cotton yield, plant N uptake, and fertilizer N use efficiency significantly. The NO3(-)-N residual in soil was significantly greater under furrow irrigation than under drip irrigation. With the application of fertilizer N, the N loss from NH3 volatilization under drip irrigation occupied 0.06% -0.14% of applied N, and was significantly greater than that under furrow irrigation. The N loss from NO3(-)-N leaching under drip irrigation and furrow irrigation was 4.4% and 8.8% of the applied N, respectively. Compared with furrow irrigation, drip irrigation could significantly decrease the NO3(-)-N leakage rate in leakage water. The nitrification-dinetrification loss under drip irrigation and furrow irrigation was 17.9% and 16.8% of the applied N, respectively. It was suggested that NO3(-)-N leaching and nitrification-denitrification were the main N losses in the cotton fields of Xinjiang. PMID:23359936

Wang, Xiao-Juan; Wei, Chang-Zhou; Zhang, Jun; Dong, Peng; Wang, Juan; Zhu, Qi-Chao; Wang, Jin-Xin

2012-10-01

107

A novel mobile dual-wavelength laser altimetry system for improved site-specific Nitrogen fertilizer applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing fertilizer inputs while maintaining yield would increase farmer's profits and similarly lessen the adverse environmental effects of production agriculture. The development of technologies that allow precise, site-specific application of Nitrogen (N) fertilizer has thus been an important research goal over the past decades. Remote sensing of foliar crop properties and function with tractor-mountable optical sensors has thought to be useful to optimize N fertilizer applications. However, on-the-go sensing of foliar crop properties and function has proven difficult, particularly during early crop growth stages when fertilizer decisions are often made. This difficulty arises from the fact that the spectral signal measured by on-the-go sensors is dominated by soil reflectance during early crop growth stages. Here, we present the basic principles behind a novel, dual-wavelength, tractor mountable laser altimetry system that measures the laser return intensity of the reflected green and red laser light. The green (532 nm) and the red (660 nm) wavelength combination allows calculation of a modified Photochemical Reflectance Index (mPRI) that have shown to be sensitive to both crop function and foliar chemistry. The small field of view of the laser points (diameter: 4 mm) combined with its high sampling rate (1000 points sec-1) allows vegetation returns to be isolated from ground returns by using simple thresholds. First tests relating foliar N of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with laser derived mPRI are promising (r2 = 0.72). Further research is needed to test the relationship between laser derived spectral indices and crop function.

Eitel, J.; Magney, T. S.; Vierling, L. A.; Brown, T. T.; Huggins, D. R.

2012-12-01

108

[Quantitative analysis of contents in compound fertilizer and application research using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy].  

PubMed

In the present study, a new approach to fast determining the content of urea, biuret and moisture in compound fertilizer composed of urea, ammonium dihydrogenphosphate and potassium chloride was proposed by using near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. After preprocessing the original spectrum, partial least squares (PLS) models of urea, biuret and moisture were built with the R2 values of 0.9861, 0.9770 and 0.9713 respectively, the root mean square errors of cross validation were 2.59, 0.38, 0.132 respectively. And the prediction correlation factors were 0.9733, 0.9215 and 0.9679 respectively. The authors detected six kinds of compound fertilizer in market for the model verification, the correlation factors were 0.9237, 0.9786 and 0.9874 respectively. The data implied that the new method can be used for situ quality control in the production process of compound fertilizer. PMID:24783536

Song, Le; Zhang, Hong; Ni, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Lin; Liu, Bin-Mei; Yu, Li-Xiang; Wang, Qi; Wu, Yue-Jin

2014-01-01

109

Phosphorus leaching risk assessment with manure fertilizer application in South china.  

PubMed

To investigate the phosphorus (P) leaching risk caused by applying manure fertilizer, six different manure fertilizers, namely, 0 (CK), 3,000 (F200), 4,500 (F300), 7,500 (F500), 10,500 (F700), and 15,000 kg ha(-2) (F1000), were applied to the surface soil (0-20 cm) prior to vegetable planting. The maximum Olsen P decreased with increasing amounts of the manure fertilizer. Total P did not change with treatments below 7,500, but decreased in the higher manure treatments. Water dissolved P (WDP) was highest in the upper (0-20 cm soil) layer, intermediate in the middle (20-40 cm soil) layer, and lowest in the lower (40-60 cm soil) layer. The 7,500, 10,500, and 15,000 treatments increased the WDPs in both the middle and lower soil layers and enhanced the degree of P saturation in the lower layer. This indicates that vertical leachate movement of P accumulation in the middle soil layer may be underestimated and the P leaching risk is enhanced using manure fertilizer levels >7,500 kg ha(-2). PMID:24718499

Ding, Xiaodong; Wei, Changbin; Wang, Rongping; Liao, Xinrong; Li, Shuyi

2014-07-01

110

FERTILIZATION BY SPERM MICROINJECTION AND ZONA DRILLING: APPLICATIONS IN THE BASIC AND CLINICAL SCIENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental manipulation of fertilization provides an exciting research approach for studying mechanisms involved in sperm/egg interaction and holds great promise as a means for overcoming some forms of human infertility. The report will focus on three methods for assisted ferti...

111

Neural subtype specification of fertilization and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells and application in parkinsonian mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing protocols for the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells require extended in vitro culture, yield variable differentiation results or are limited to the generation of selected neural subtypes. Here we provide a set of coculture conditions that allows rapid and efficient derivation of most central nervous system phenotypes. The fate of both fertilization- and nuclear transfer–derived ES

Tiziano Barberi; Peter Klivenyi; Noel Y Calingasan; Hyojin Lee; Hibiki Kawamata; Kathleen Loonam; Anselme L Perrier; Juan Bruses; Maria E Rubio; Norbert Topf; Viviane Tabar; Neil L Harrison; M Flint Beal; Malcolm A S Moore; Lorenz Studer

2003-01-01

112

Application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for fertilization and development in birds.  

PubMed

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technology in birds has been hampered due to opacity of oocyte. We developed ICSI-assisted fertilization and gene transfer in quail. This paper reviews recent advances of our ICSI experiments. The oocyte retrieved from the oviduct and a quail sperm was injected into the oocyte under a stereomicroscope. The oocyte was cultured for 24h at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air. The fertilization and development was assessed by microscopic observation. The fertility rate ranged 12-18% and development varied from stage II to V in trials. To improve the fertility rate, phospholipase C (PLC) zeta was injected with a sperm. It was increased to 37-50%. Furthermore, injection of inositol trisphosphate increased to over 85%. Quail oocyte can be fertilized with chicken sperm and so can testicular elongated spermatid. To extend embryonic development, chicken eggshell was used as a surrogate culture at 37°C after the 24h incubation at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air. It survived up to 2days thereafter. Finally, gene transfer was attempted in quail egg. The sperm membrane was disrupted with Triton X-100 (TX-100) and was injected with PLCzeta cRNA and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene in oocyte. The GFP expression was evaluated at 24h incubation at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air in the embryos. While the expression was not detected in the control oocytes, the experimental treatment induced blastoderm development (44%) of the oocytes and 86% of blastoderm showed fluorescent emission. In addition, PCR analysis detected EGFP fragments in 50% of GFP-expressing blastoderm. Our ICSI method may be the first step toward the production of transgenic birds. PMID:24239795

Shimada, Kiyoshi; Ono, Tamao; Mizushima, Shusei

2014-01-15

113

Compact chemical energy system for seismic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical energy system is formed for producing detonations in a confined environment. An explosive mixture is formed from nitromethane (NM) and diethylenetriamine (DETA). A slapper detonator is arranged adjacent to the explosive mixture to initiate detonation of the mixture. NM and DETA are not classified as explosives when handled separately and can be safely transported and handled by workers

Raymond P. Engelke; Robert O. Hedges; Alan B. Kammerman; James N. Albright

1998-01-01

114

Microwave Technology--Applications in Chemical Synthesis  

EPA Science Inventory

Microwave heating, being specific and instantaneous, is unique and has found a place for expeditious chemical syntheses. Specifically, the solvent-free reactions are convenient to perform and have advantages over the conventional heating protocols as summarized in the previous se...

115

Chemical, biochemical, and environmental applications of fibers  

SciTech Connect

This book discusses the following topics: Biochemical and biomedical sensors; environmental sensing with optical fibers; optical absorbance-based sensors; fiber optic fluoresensors for sulfur dioxide based on energy transfer and exciplex quenching; novel fibers and techniques for chemical sensing; and evanescent field sensors.

Lieberman, R.A.; Wlodarczyk, M.T.

1988-01-01

116

Chemical mechanical planarization for microelectronics applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progressively decreasing feature size of the circuit components has tremendously increased the need for the global surface planarization of the various thin film layers that constitute the integrated circuit (IC). Global planarization, being one of the major solutions to meet the demands of the industry, needs to be achieved following the most efficient polishing procedure. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP)

Parshuram B. Zantye; Ashok Kumar; A. K. Sikder

2004-01-01

117

Residual effects of sewage-sludge application on plant and soil-profile chemical composition  

SciTech Connect

Long-term effects on plant and soil-profile chemical composition imposed by a residential sewage sludge were studied on an Oxisol from Hawaii. Sludge was applied at 0, 45, 90, and 180 Mg/ha in 1983. An NPK-fertilized treatment was included for comparison. Sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) was grown as a test crop in the 1983-84 and 1986-87 seasons. Soil samples for chemical analysis were taken in 1987 at three depths: 0-23 cm, 23-46 cm, and 46-69 cm. Beneficial effects of sludge, measured 3 years after application (beginning of the 1986's planting), were evident by large yield increases on sludge-amended soils relative to the unamended and the NPK-fertilized soils. The first cutting produced approximately 5 Mg/ha of dry matter from the sludge treatments, regardless of rate, as compared with 3 and 1.5 Mg/ha from the NPK and the 0 treatments. Regrowths showed similar effect, though less dramatic; average yields were 2.6 Mg/ha with sludge and 1.6 Mg/ha without. Heavy-metal concentrations in plants were generally unaffected by sludge applications; probably because (i) heavy-metal contents of the sludge were low, and (ii) soil pH was increased by sludge. Remarkable increases in pH, exchangeable Ca and extractable P, and resultant decreases in exchangeable Al, in all three soil layers of sludge-amended soils suggest that surface application of a low heavy-metal sludge could serve to correct subsoil acidity and enhance subsoil P availability.

Hue, N.V.

1988-01-01

118

The Effects of Manure and Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications on Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a High-Input Cropping System  

PubMed Central

With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure.

Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

2014-01-01

119

Influence of BioFertilizer Foliar Application on Growth and Anatomical Changes of Tagetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the behaviour of plants from Tagetes patula specie at the treatments with Bionat bio-fertilizer, applied in different doses (0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%). There were effectuated bio-metric observations and determinations, correlated with morph-anatomic analyses at stem, sprout and leave level. The recorded results put in light the favourable effect of the treatments with Bionat, in the way of

Lucia DRAGHIA; Elena-Liliana CHELARIU; Violeta DELINSCHI

120

Effect of Planting Date and Fertilizer Application on Yield of Wheat under No till System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-yr field study was carried out in the Research and Experimental Center of Faculty of Agriculture at Moshtohor, Benha University, Egypt, during 2006\\/2007 and 2007\\/2008 seasons. The aim of this study was to study the effect of 3 planting dates (PD) (November 1, November 15 and November 30), 2 bio- fertilization treatments (BF) (with and with out) and 4

Nasser Kh; B. El-Gizawy

2009-01-01

121

[Soil biological activities at maize seedling stage under application of slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizers].  

PubMed

With pot experiment and simulating field ecological environment, this paper studied the effects of different slow/ controlled release N fertilizers on the soil nitrate - reductase and urease activities and microbial biomass C and N at maize seedling stage. The results showed that granular urea amended with dicyandiamide (DCD) and N-(n-bultyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) induced the highest soil nitrate-reductase activity, granular urea brought about the highest soil urease activity and microbial biomass C and N, while starch acetate (SA)-coated granular urea, SA-coated granular urea amended with DCD, methyl methacrylate (MMA) -coated granular urea amended with DCD, and no N fertilization gave a higher soil urease activity. Soil microbial C and N had a similar variation trend after applying various kinds of test slow/controlled release N fertilizers, and were the lowest after applying SA-coated granular urea amended with DCD and NBPT. Coated granular urea amended with inhibitors had a stronger effect on soil biological activities than coated granular urea, and MMA-coating had a better effect than SA-coating. PMID:16964940

Li, Dongpo; Wu, Zhijie; Chen, Lijun; Liang, Chenghua; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Weicheng; Yang, Defu

2006-06-01

122

Chemical structure representations and applications in computational toxicity.  

PubMed

Efficient storage and retrieval of chemical structures is one of the most important prerequisite for solving any computational-based problem in life sciences. Several resources including research publications, text books, and articles are available on chemical structure representation. Chemical substances that have same molecular formula but several structural formulae, conformations, and skeleton framework/scaffold/functional groups of the molecule convey various characteristics of the molecule. Today with the aid of sophisticated mathematical models and informatics tools, it is possible to design a molecule of interest with specified characteristics based on their applications in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, biotechnology, nanomaterials, petrochemicals, and polymers. This chapter discusses both traditional and current state of art representation of chemical structures and their applications in chemical information management, bioactivity- and toxicity-based predictive studies. PMID:23007430

Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

2012-01-01

123

Effect of application of phosphate and organic manure-based fertilizers on arsenic transformation in soil columns.  

PubMed

The mobility of arsenic in Cambisol under the influence of added barnyard manure and application of a phosphate solution to the soil was described on the basis of column experiments. A soil sample containing 126 mg/kg total As and 3.72 mg/kg specifically-sorbed As was extracted using demineralized water (DIW) or a 28 micromol/l phosphate solution in a column containing untreated soil and in a column with added barnyard fertilizer. The pH, Eh, alkalinity, main components, including DOC, and selected trace elements (Al, Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Ba and As) were determined in the extracts. Hydrodynamic tests of the flow and transport of the substances in the columns were carried out. The addition of barnyard manure was manifested in elevated concentrations of the main inorganic components, DOC and Al and a decrease in the Eh value and Mn concentration. Application of a phosphate solution was manifested in a decrease in the NO(3) and SO(4) concentrations, probably as a result of the effect of increased biological fixation. The As concentration in extracts varied from 8.8 to 15.5 microg/l and was not dependent on the composition of the extracting solution or the addition of barnyard fertilizer. PMID:17370134

Sisr, Ludek; Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Strnad, Ladislav; Sebek, Ondrej

2007-12-01

124

N2O emissions due to nitrogen fertilizer applications in two regions of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O), N2O has the highest global warming potential. N2O emission is mainly connected to agricultural activities, increasing as nitrogen concentrations increase in the soil with nitrogen fertilizer application. We evaluated N2O emissions due to application of increasing doses of ammonium nitrate and urea in two sugarcane fields in the mid-southern region of Brazil: Piracicaba (São Paulo state) and Goianésia (Goiás state). In Piracicaba, N2O emissions exponentially increased with increasing N doses and were similar for urea and ammonium nitrate up to a dose of 107.9 kg ha-1 of N. From there on, emissions exponentially increased for ammonium nitrate, whereas for urea they stabilized. In Goianésia, N2O emissions were lower, although the behavior was similar to that at the Piracicaba site. Ammonium nitrate emissions increased linearly with N dose and urea emissions were adjusted to a quadratic equation with a maximum amount of 113.9 kg N ha-1. This first effort to measure fertilizer induced emissions in Brazilian sugarcane production not only helps to elucidate the behavior of N2O emissions promoted by different N sources frequently used in Brazilian sugarcane fields but also can be useful for future Brazilian ethanol carbon footprint studies.

Signor, D.; Cerri, C. E. P.; Conant, R.

2013-03-01

125

The effect of long-term fertilizer application on the group and fractional composition of humus in a soddy-podzolic light loamy soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of lime and organic and mineral fertilizers on the fractional and group composition of the humus in a light loamy soddy-podzolic soil was studied in a long-term experiment. The application of lime increased the content of the agronomically valuable fraction of humic acids (HA-2) by 2.6 times on the average. The application of mineral fertilizers at the rate of N83P61K112 (kg/ha per year) increased the mobility of the humic substances; the application of farmyard manure (12.5 t/ha per) has an opposite effect. In general, various fertilizer systems exerted a favorable effect on the qualitative composition of the humus with an increase in the percentage of humic acids, though the humate-fulvate type of humus was preserved in all the variants of the experiment.

Lapa, V. V.; Seraya, T. M.; Bogatyreva, E. N.; Biryukova, O. M.

2011-01-01

126

High Temperature Materials for Chemical Propulsion Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation or passively cooled thrust chambers are used for a variety of chemical propulsion functions including apogee insertion, reaction control for launch vehicles, and primary propulsion for planetary spacecraft. The performance of these thrust chambers is limited by the operating temperature of available materials. Improved oxidation resistance and increased operating temperatures can be achieved with the use of thermal barrier coatings such as zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hafnium oxide (HfO2). However, previous attempts to include these materials showed cracking and spalling of the oxide layer due to poor bonding. Current research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has generated unique, high temperature material options for in-space thruster designs that are capable of up to 2500 C operating temperatures. The research is focused on fabrication technologies to form low cost Iridium,qF_.henium (Ir/Re) components with a ceramic hot wall created as an integral, functionally graded material (FGM). The goal of this effort is to further de?celop proven technologies for embedding a protective ceramic coating within the Ir/Re liner to form a robust functional gradient material. Current work includes the fabrication and testing of subscale samples to evaluate tensile, creep, thermal cyclic/oxidation, and thermophysical material properties. Larger test articles have also being fabricated and hot-fire tested to demonstrate the materials in prototype thrusters at 1O0 lbf thrust levels.

Elam, Sandra; Hickman, Robert; O'Dell, Scott

2007-01-01

127

Chemical application of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method gives a stochastic solution to the Schroedinger equation. As an example the singlet-triplet splitting of the energy of the methylene molecule CH2 is given. The QMC algorithm was implemented on the CYBER 205, first as a direct transcription of the algorithm running on our VAX 11/780, and second by explicitly writing vector code for all loops longer than a crossover length C. The speed of the codes relative to one another as a function of C, and relative to the VAX is discussed. Since CH2 has only eight electrons, most of the loops in this application are fairly short. The longest inner loops run over the set of atomic basis functions. The CPU time dependence obtained versus the number of basis functions is discussed and compared with that obtained from traditional quantum chemistry codes and that obtained from traditional computer architectures. Finally, preliminary work on restructuring the algorithm to compute the separate Monte Carlo realizations in parallel is discussed.

Reynolds, P. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.

1983-10-01

128

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: concepts and chemical applications.  

PubMed

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has become a mature vibrational spectroscopic technique during the last decades and the number of applications in the chemical, material, and in particular life sciences is rapidly increasing. This Review explains the basic theory of SERS in a brief tutorial and-based on original results from recent research-summarizes fundamental aspects necessary for understanding SERS and provides examples for the preparation of plasmonic nanostructures for SERS. Chemical applications of SERS are the centerpiece of this Review. They cover a broad range of topics such as catalysis and spectroelectrochemistry, single-molecule detection, and (bio)analytical chemistry. PMID:24711218

Schlücker, Sebastian

2014-05-01

129

The applications of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics to planetary atmospheres research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the applications of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics to planetary atmospheres research during the past four decades is presented with an emphasis on chemical equilibrium models and thermochemical kinetics. Several current problems in planetary atmospheres research such as the origin of the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets, atmosphere-surface interactions on Venus and Mars, deep mixing in the atmospheres of the gas giant planets, and the origin of the atmospheres of outer planet satellites all require laboratory data on the kinetics of thermochemical reactions for their solution.

Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

1990-01-01

130

Communities of methanogenic bacteria in paddy field soils with long-term application of organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanogenic communities were investigated in paddy field soil that had received long-term (over 30 y) applications of organic matter. Methanogenic bacteria were enumerated by the most probable number (MPN) method and by the analysis of ether-linked lipids. Three fields, one with chemical fertilizer (CF), one with application of rice straw plus chemical fertilizer (RS), and one with application of rice

Susumu Asakawa; Masayo Akagawa-Matsushita; Yosuke Koga; Koichi Hayano

1998-01-01

131

Harmony Search Applications in Mechanical, Chemical and Electrical Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary aim of this chapter is to introduce the state of the art applications of the harmony search (HS) algorithm in\\u000a mechanical, chemical and electrical engineering fields. The HS algorithm has been broadly utilized in complex optimization\\u000a problems arising in most engineering applications. It has been reported to be a viable alternative to other conventional optimization\\u000a techniques in these

Mohammad Fesanghary

132

Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer

R. S. Balmer; J. R. Brandon; S. L. Clewes; H. K. Dhillon; J. M. Dodson; I. Friel; P. N. Inglis; T. D. Madgwick; M. L. Markham; T. P. Mollart; N. Perkins; G. A. Scarsbrook; D. J. Twitchen; A. J. Whitehead; J. J. Wilman; S. M. Woollard

2009-01-01

133

Chemical design of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles for medical applications.  

PubMed

Iron oxide nanoparticles are one of the most versatile and safe nanomaterials used in medicine. Recent progress in nanochemistry enables fine control of the size, crystallinity, uniformity, and surface properties of iron oxide nanoparticles. In this review, the synthesis of chemically designed biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles with improved quality and reduced toxicity is discussed for use in diverse biomedical applications. PMID:23233377

Ling, Daishun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

2013-05-27

134

Synthesis and chemical modification of carbon nanostructures for materials applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation explores the structure, chemical reactivities, electromagnetic response, and materials properties of various carbon nanostructures, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite, and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Efficient production and modification of these unique structures, each with their own distinct properties, will make them more accessible for applications in electronics, materials, and biology. A method is reported

Amanda Lynn Higginbotham

2009-01-01

135

Effects of field application of phosphate fertilizers on the availability and uptake of lead, zinc and cadmium by cabbage ( Brassica chinensis L.) in a mining tailing contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field trial was conducted to evaluate the reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals including lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in a soil contaminated by mining tailings in Shaoxing, Zhejiang, China. Three commercial phosphate (P) fertilizers including phosphate rock (PR), calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), and single superphosphate (SSP) were applied to the plot at three P application rates,

Biling WANG; Zhengmiao XIE; Jianjun CHEN; Juntao JIANG; Qiufeng SU

2008-01-01

136

Soil organic matter content and quality: effects of fertilizer applications, burning and trash retention on a long-term sugarcane experiment in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of crop residue management and fertilizer applications on soil organic matter (SOM) content and labile soil organic fractions were examined on a long-term (59 years) field trial under sugarcane situated at Mount Edgecombe, South Africa. Treatments at the site included pre-harvest burning with harvest residues removed (Bto), burning with harvest residues left at the soil surface (Bt) and

M. H. Graham; R. J. Haynes; J. H. Meyer

2002-01-01

137

Expanding applications of chemical genetics in signal transduction  

PubMed Central

Chemical genetics represents an expanding collection of techniques applied to a variety of signaling processes. These techniques use a combination of chemical reporters and protein engineering to identify targets of a signaling enzyme in a global and non-directed manner without resorting to hypothesis-driven candidate approaches. In the last year, chemical genetics has been applied to a variety of kinases, revealing a much broader spectrum of substrates than had been appreciated. Here, we discuss recent developments in chemical genetics, including insights from our own proteomic screen for substrates of the kinase ERK2. These studies have revealed that many kinases have overlapping substrate specificity, and they often target several proteins in any particular downstream pathway. It remains to be determined whether this configuration exists to provide redundant control, or whether each target contributes a fraction of the total regulatory effect. From a general perspective, chemical genetics is applicable in principle to a broad range of posttranslational modifications (PTMs), most notably methylation and acetylation, although many challenges remain in implementing this approach. Recent developments in chemical reporters and protein engineering suggest that chemical genetics will soon be a powerful tool for mapping signal transduction through these and other PTMs.

Carlson, Scott M.; White, Forest M.

2012-01-01

138

USING INSURANCE TO ENHANCE NITROGEN FERTILIZER APPLICATION TIMING TO REDUCE NITROGEN LOSSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen applied before planting is more vulnerable to loss to the environment than nitrogen applied during the growing season, but the growing season application can increase the risk of lower yields caused by adverse weather that prohibits farmers to complete N application. An expected utility framework is used to illustrate the potential economic benefit of insurance for a farmer to

Wen-Yuan Huang

2002-01-01

139

Controlling Fertility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

Donnay, France

1991-01-01

140

Preparation, forms and properties of controlled-release phosphate fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled-release phosphate fertilizers include phosphate rocks (PRs) for direct application, partially acidulated phosphate\\u000a rocks (PAPRs) and thermal phosphates. Phosphate rocks contain apatite as the main P containing mineral, the composition and\\u000a the chemical nature of which vary between PRs. Based on the solubility in chemical extractants PRs are broadly grouped into\\u000a ‘reactive’ and ‘unreactive’. The ‘reactivity’ of PRs is influenced

N. S. Bolan; M. J. Hedley; P. Loganathan

1993-01-01

141

Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

2012-04-16

142

CURRENT STATUS OF BIO-FERTILIZERS DEVELOPMENT, FARMERS' ACCEPTANCE AND UTILIZATION, AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVE IN TAIWAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan is a subtropical-tropical island characterized by high temperature and heavy rainfall. Intensive agricultural practices have served as a strong foundation for Taiwan's commercial and industrial economic miracle. In recent years, chemical pesticides and fertilizers were extensively applied to obtain higher crop yield. Overusing agrochemicals led to several agricultural problems such as poor cropping system. The excessive application of chemical

Shiuan-Yuh Chien; Chiu-Chung Young; Ching-Li Wang

143

Impact of Organic Amendments with and Without Mineral Fertilizers on Soil Microbial Respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of Sewage Sludge (SS), Municipal Waste Compost (MWC) and Vermicompost (VC) with and without chemical fertilizer (Urea, 50 kg ha-1 + Potassium sulfate, 100 kg ha-1 + Triple super phosphate, 127.5 kg ha-1) on Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in a soil cropped to soybean. Experiment was arranged in a complete block design with three replications. Organic amendments were added to soil at rate of 0 (control treatment), 20 and 40 Mg ha-1. Furthermore each level of organic fertilizers with ½ normal of chemical fertilizer was also enriched. Soil samples were taken after one year of fertilization. Results illustrated that application of organic amendments increased TOC and SMR and soybean yield compared to control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Sewage sludge amended soils showed higher SMR, TOC and soybean yield than that of other organic amendment treatments. An increasing trend was observed in all studied parameters, as rates of application increased. All parameters were greater in treatments receiving a combination of chemical fertilizers and organic amendments (enriched treatments) compared to soils receiving organic amendments alone. Results obtained by discriminate analysis indicated that rates of application were more effective to create discriminating among treatments. This study showed that TOC was significantly correlated with SMR. Significant correlation was also observed between SMR and soybean yield.

Gilani, S. S.; Bahmanyar, M. A.

144

Hexachlorobenzene dechlorination as affected by organic fertilizer and urea applications in two rice planted paddy soils in a pot experiment.  

PubMed

Reductive dechlorination is a crucial pathway for HCB degradation, the applications of organic materials and nitrogen can alter microbial activity and redox potential of soils, thus probably influence HCB dechlorination. To evaluate hexachlorobenzene (HCB) dechlorination as affected by organic fertilizer (OF) and urea applications in planted paddy soils, a pot experiment was conducted in two types of soils, Hydragric Acrisols (Ac) and Gleyi-Stagnic Anthrosols (An). After 18 weeks of experiment, HCB residues decreased by 28.2-37.5% of the initial amounts in Ac, and 42.1-70.9% in An. The amounts of HCB metabolites showed that dechlorination rates in An were higher than in Ac, which was mainly attributed to the higher pH and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content of An. Both in Ac and An, the additions of 1% and 2% OF had negative effect on HCB dechlorination, which was probably because excessive nitrogen in OF decreased degraders' activity and the degradation of organic carbon in OF accepted electrons. The application of 0.03% urea could enhance HCB dechlorination rates slightly, while 0.06% urea accelerated HCB dechlorination significantly both in Ac and An. It could be assumed that urea served as an electron donor and stimulated degraders to dechlorinate HCB. In addition, the methanogenic bacteria were involved in dechlorination process, and reductive dechlorination in planted paddy soil might be impeded for the aerenchyma and O(2) supply into the rhizosphere. Results indicated that soil types, rice root system, methanogenic bacteria, OF and urea applications all had great effects on dechlorination process. PMID:19889446

Liu, C Y; Jiang, X; Yang, X L; Song, Y

2010-01-15

145

Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeronautic and Space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of most interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring emission monitoring and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensor is based on progress two types of technology: 1) Micro-machining and micro-fabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this micro-fabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

Hunter, G. W.; Chen, L. Y.; Neudeck, P. G.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Zhou, H. J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.

1998-01-01

146

The subtle danger of symmetry restrictions in time series regressions, with application to fertility models.  

PubMed

It is widely known that linear restrictions involve bias. What is not known is that some linear restrictions are especially dangerous for hypothesis testing. For some, the expected value of the restricted coefficient does not lie between (among) the true unconstrained coefficients, which implies that the estimate is not a simple average of these coefficients. In this paper, the danger is examined regarding the additive linear restriction almost universally imposed in statistical research--the restriction of symmetry. Symmetry implies that the response of the dependent variable to a unit decrease in an expanatory variable is identical, but of opposite sign, to the response to a unit increase. The 1st section of the paper demonstrates theoretically that a coefficient restricted by symmetry (unlike coefficients embodying other additive restrictions) is not a simple average of the unconstrained coefficients because the relevant interacted variables are inversly correlated by definition. The next section shows that, under the restriction of symmetry, fertility in Finland from 1885-1925 appears to respond in a prolonged manner to infant mortality (significant and positive with a lag of 4-6 years), suggesting a response to expected deaths. However, unscontrained estimates indicate that this finding is spurious. When the restriction is relaxed, the dominant response is rapid (significant and positive with a lag of 1-2 years) and stronger for declines in mortality, supporting an aymmetric response to actual deaths. For 2 reasons, the danger of the symmetry restriction may be especially pervasive. 1st, unlike most other linear constraints, symmetry is passively imposed merely by ignoring the possibility of asymmetry. 2nd, modles in a wide range of fields--including macroeconomics (e.g., demand for money, consumption, and investment models, and the Phillips curve), international economics (e.g., intervention models of central banks), and labor economics (e.g., sticky wage models)--predict asymmetry. The conclusion of the study is that, to avoid spurious hypothesis testing, empirical research should systematically test for asymmetry, especially when predicted by theory. PMID:12339352

Haynes, S E

1983-10-01

147

Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

1998-01-01

148

Applications of the chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) has been developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory for military applications. For example, the COIL is to be use as the laser device for the ABL. A high power laser is useful for applications that require the delivery of a substantial amount of energy to a very small focused laser spot. The COIL is a member of the class of high power lasers that are also useful for industrial applications, including the materials processing task of high speed cutting and drilling. COIL technology has received considerable interest over the last several years due to its short, fiber- deliverable wavelength, scalability to very high powers, and demonstrated nearly diffraction-limited optical quality. These unique abilities make it an ideal candidate for nuclear reactor decommissioning and nuclear warhead dismantlement. Japanese researchers envision using a COIL for disaster cleanup and survivor rescue. It is also being studied by the oil and gas industry for well drilling. Any commercial or industrial application that requires very rapid, precise, and noninvasive cutting or drilling, could be readily accomplished with a COIL. Because of the substantial power levels available with a COIL, the laser could also be used for broad area applications such as paint stripping. This paper includes a collection of experiments accomplished at the Air Force Research Laboratory Chemical Laser Facility, including metal cutting, hole drilling, high power fiber optic transmission, and rock crushing.

Latham, William P.; Kendrick, Kip R.; Quillen, Brian

2000-01-01

149

ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION OF PRODUCING FERTILIZER FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS: APPLICATION OF BULGARIAN EXPERIENCE TO CASE STUDY OF PORTUGAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Bulgarian project at Maritsa East power station demonstrated the proper transformation of air pollutants (SOx and NOx) into nitrogen fertilizer. Although this technology has not been put into practice in Bulgaria, it seems feasible on an industrial scale and so it may help to ease Portugal's reliance on imports of nitrogen fertilizer and thereby contain the outfl ow of

Ryunosuke KIKUCHI; Yontcho G. PELOVSKI; Sandra M. SANTOS

2005-01-01

150

Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education1  

PubMed Central

The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal–organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout.

Battle, Gary M.; Ferrence, Gregory M.; Allen, Frank H.

2010-01-01

151

Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

2010-06-01

152

Integration of Chemical Sensors with LSI Technology — History and Applications —  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical sensors are one of the oldest fields of research closely related to the semiconductor technology. From the Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors (ISFET) in the 70's, through Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) sensors from the end of the 80's, chemical sensors are combining in the 90's MEMS technology with LSI intelligence to devise more selective, sensitive and autonomous devices to analyse complex mixtures. A brief history of chemical sensors from the ISFET to the nowadays LSI integrated sensors is first detailed. Then the states-of-the-art of LSI integrated chemical sensors and their wide range of applications are discussed. Finally the authors propose a brand-new usage of integrated wireless MEMS sensors for remote surveillance of chemical substances, such as food-industry or pharmaceutical products, that are stored in closed environment like a bottle, for a long period. In such environment, in-situ analyse is necessary, and electrical cables, for energy supply or data transfer, cannot be used. Thanks to integrated MEMS, an autonomous long-term in-situ quality deterioration tracking system is possible.

Tixier-Mita, Agnès; Takahashi, Takuya; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

153

Studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of Rosa micrantha: an alternative antioxidants source for food, pharmaceutical, or cosmetic applications.  

PubMed

Rose species have long been used for food and medicinal purposes. Rosa micrantha is one of the rose species that grow feral in the northeastern Portuguese region so-called Nordeste Transmontano. For the first time, chemical composition and bioactivity of their petals, fertilized flowers, unripe, ripening, and overripe hips were evaluated in order to valorize them as sources of important phytochemicals. Chemical characterization included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars, by HPLC-RI, fatty acids by GC-FID, tocopherols by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid by spectrophotometric techniques. Bioactivity was evaluated through screening of antioxidant properties: radical scavenging effects, reducing power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Ripening and overripe hips showed high nutritional value including proteins, carbohydrates, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, energy, sugars, particularly the reducing sugars fructose and glucose, and ascorbic acid (>693 mg/100 g). Fertilized flowers and petals revealed the highest antioxidant activity (EC(50) > 152 microg/mL) and phenolics, flavonoids, and tocopherols contents (>35 mg/100 g). Furthermore, petals, ripening, and overripe hips are important sources of carotenoid pigments (>64 mg/100 g). Because of the diversity and abundance of antioxidants found in this species, some food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications could be explored. PMID:20426454

Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2010-05-26

154

Investigation of chemical modifiers for the determination of lead in fertilizers and limestone using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction and slurry sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, chemical modifiers in solution (Pd/Mg, NH4H2PO4 and NH4NO3/Pd) were compared with permanent modifiers (Ir and Ru) for the determination of lead in fertilizer and limestone samples using slurry sampling and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman-effect background correction. The analytical line at 283.3 nm was used due to some spectral interference observed at 217.0 nm. The NH4H2PO4 was abandoned due to severe spectral interference even at the 283.3-nm line. For Pd/Mg and NH4NO3/Pd the optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 900 °C and 1900 °C, respectively. For Ru and Ir, the integrated absorbance signal was stable up to pyrolysis temperatures of 700 °C and 900 °C, respectively, and up to atomization temperature of 1700 °C. The limit of detection (LOD) was 17 ng g- 1 using Pd/Mg and 29 ng g- 1 using NH4NO3/Pd. Among the permanent modifiers investigated, the LOD was 22 ng g- 1 Pb for Ir and 10 ng g- 1 Pb for Ru. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using the certified reference material NIST SRM 695. Although Ru provided lower LOD, which can be attributed to a lower blank signal, only the modifiers in solution showed concordant values of Pb concentration for the NIST SRM 695 and the most of analyzed samples. Moreover, the Pd/Mg modifier provided the highest sensitivity and for this reason it is more suitable for the determination of Pb in fertilizers samples in slurry; besides this it presented a better signal-to-noise ratio than NH4NO3/Pd.

Borges, Aline R.; Becker, Emilene M.; Dessuy, Morgana B.; Vale, Maria Goreti R.; Welz, Bernhard

2014-02-01

155

40 CFR 414.80 - Applicability; description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80...

2013-07-01

156

MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PLANT UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS: APPLICATION TO EXPERIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Uptake, transport, and accumulation of organic chemicals by plants are influenced by characteristics of the plant and properties of the chemical, soil, and environmental conditions. athematical model for uptake of organic chemicals by plants was calibrated by application to data ...

157

40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section...Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability...metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions...

2013-07-01

158

Preserving Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Negative impact of modern cancer treatment methods on human reproduction has been recognized. In this chapter, we first summarize\\u000a the facts about cancer and treatment-related adverse outcomes in female reproductive function, then discuss the needs, and\\u000a outline the current strategies and the future directions of fertility preservation and ovarian cryopreservation and transplantation\\u000a in adult and adolescent female patients whose fertility

Kutluk Oktay; Ozgur Oktem

159

Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Two areas of particular interest are safety monitoring and emission monitoring. In safety monitoring, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen at potentially low temperatures is important while for emission monitoring the detection of nitrogen oxides, hydrogen, hydrocarbons and oxygen is of interest. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. (2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this general area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

1997-01-01

160

Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications.  

PubMed

Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer audio, magnetometry and novel lasers. Often the material is synthesized in planar form; however, non-planar geometries are also possible and enable a number of key applications. This paper reviews the material properties and characteristics of single crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond, and how these can be utilized, focusing particularly on optics, electronics and electrochemistry. It also summarizes how CVD diamond can be tailored for specific applications, on the basis of the ability to synthesize a consistent and engineered high performance product. PMID:21832327

Balmer, R S; Brandon, J R; Clewes, S L; Dhillon, H K; Dodson, J M; Friel, I; Inglis, P N; Madgwick, T D; Markham, M L; Mollart, T P; Perkins, N; Scarsbrook, G A; Twitchen, D J; Whitehead, A J; Wilman, J J; Woollard, S M

2009-09-01

161

Demetalation of Fe, Mn, and Cu chelates and complexes: application to the NMR analysis of micronutrient fertilizers.  

PubMed

The application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the quality control of fertilizers based on Fe(3+), Mn(2+), and Cu(2+) chelates and complexes is precluded by the strong paramagnetism of metals. Recently, a method based on the use of ferrocyanide has been described to remove iron from commercial iron chelates based on the o,o-EDDHA [ethylenediamine-N,N'bis(2-hydroxyphenylacetic)acid] chelating agent for their analysis and quantification by NMR. The present work extended that procedure to other paramagnetic ions, manganese and copper, and other chelating, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), IDHA [N-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)-d,l-aspartic acid], and complexing agents, gluconate and heptagluconate. Results showed that the removal of the paramagnetic ions was complete, allowing us to obtain (1)H NMR spectra characterized by narrow peaks. The quantification of the ligands by NMR and high-performance liquid chromatography showed that their complete recovery was granted. The NMR analysis enabled detection and quantification of unknown impurities without the need of pure compounds as internal standards. PMID:22077518

López-Rayo, Sandra; Lucena, Juan J; Laghi, Luca; Cremonini, Mauro A

2011-12-28

162

Effect of rotation, nitrogen fertilization and management of crop residues on some chemical, microbiological and biochemical properties of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term experiment, which started in 1971 near Perugia, central Italy, was performed to investigate the effect of different\\u000a crop residue management practices and rotation systems on some soil properties. Twenty years after the beginning of the experiment,\\u000a chemical (organic C, total N, humified organic C, humic and fulvic acids), microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial\\u000a biomass, global hydrolase activity, dehydrogenase

P. Perucci; U. Bonciarelli; R. Santilocchi; A. A. Bianchi

1997-01-01

163

Miniaturised wireless smart tag for optical chemical analysis applications.  

PubMed

A novel miniaturised photometer has been developed as an ultra-portable and mobile analytical chemical instrument. The low-cost photometer presents a paradigm shift in mobile chemical sensor instrumentation because it is built around a contactless smart card format. The photometer tag is based on the radio-frequency identification (RFID) smart card system, which provides short-range wireless data and power transfer between the photometer and a proximal reader, and which allows the reader to also energise the photometer by near field electromagnetic induction. RFID is set to become a key enabling technology of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), hence devices such as the photometer described here will enable numerous mobile, wearable and vanguard chemical sensing applications in the emerging connected world. In the work presented here, we demonstrate the characterisation of a low-power RFID wireless sensor tag with an LED/photodiode-based photometric input. The performance of the wireless photometer has been tested through two different model analytical applications. The first is photometry in solution, where colour intensity as a function of dye concentration was measured. The second is an ion-selective optode system in which potassium ion concentrations were determined by using previously well characterised bulk optode membranes. The analytical performance of the wireless photometer smart tag is clearly demonstrated by these optical absorption-based analytical experiments, with excellent data agreement to a reference laboratory instrument. PMID:24274311

Steinberg, Matthew D; Kassal, Petar; Tkal?ec, Biserka; Murkovi? Steinberg, Ivana

2014-01-15

164

[The application of statistical methods in chemical experiments].  

PubMed

Quality of the analyzed data has a major impact on reliability of the results. Application of statistical methods allows to reduce some stages of chemist's work, for example classification of the numerous data sets. The statistical methods are applied for preliminary evaluation of the data quality. In this case it is necessary to verify that the raw data base does not include large errors or outliers, which could influence the result of experiment. Data analysis, which is performed by chemometric techniques, rely on finding the most correlated attributes. Chemometry is used towards creation of the mathematical model of relation between analyzed property and numerous sets of described variables (parameters which affect measure). Modeling requires calculations towards model identification, checking its relevance, evaluation of the adequacy and determination of model's prognostic ability. The obtained model of relation could be used for the system optimization in the technological process, forecasting the values subsidiary conditioned upon known values described, also for control of the analytical system. The statistical methods are applied in chemical studies for data collection and analysis of chemical compounds for more efficient management of flow of the information. They allow to foreseen physical and biological properties of chemical compounds. The statistical methods are also applied for quality management in chemical analysis of contaminants including pesticide residues in foodstuff. PMID:18807909

Korcz, Wojciech; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Czaja, Katarzyna; Struci?ski, Pawe?; Hernik, Agnieszka; Snopczy?ski, Tomasz; Ludwicki, Jan K

2008-01-01

165

The Application of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensor Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing miniature chemical sensors for a variety of applications including fire detection, emissions monitoring, fuel leak detection, and environmental monitoring. Smart Lick and Stick sensor technology which integrates a sensor array, electronics, telemetry, and power into one microsystem are being developed. These microsystems require low power consumption for long-term aerospace applications. One approach to decreasing power consumption is the use of nanotechnology. Nanocrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) carbon monoxide (CO) sensors developed previously by this group have been successfully used for fire detection and emissions monitoring. This presentation will briefly review the overall NASA GRC chemical sensor program and discuss our further effort in nanotechnology applications. New carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing material using doped nanocrystalline SnO2 will be discussed. Nanocrystalline SnO2 coated solid electrolyte CO2 sensors and SnO2 nanorod and nanofiber hydrogen (H2) sensors operated at reduced or room temperatures will also be discussed.

Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.

2007-01-01

166

Effect Of Transplant Method And Fertilizer Application On Growth Of Acer rubrum C. and Fraxinus pennsylvanicum L.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acer rubrum L. 'October Glory' (red maple) and Fraxinus pennsylvanicum L. 'Marshall Seedless' (green ash) were planted in an asphalt parking lot using standard horticultural practices with a factorial combination of treatments that included two planting stocks (bare-root and balled and burlapped) and two fertilizer levels (a control and 1.36 kg of 18-10-10 fertilizer along with 1.36 kg dolomitic limestone

Robert E. Schutzki

167

Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, Gary W.

2005-01-01

168

The impact of long-term nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon in a dryland cereal cropping system of the Loess Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over food security and global climate change require an improved understanding of how to achieve optimal crop yields whilst minimizing net greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. In the semi-arid Loess Plateau region of China, as elsewhere, fertilizer nitrogen (N) inputs are necessary to increase yields and improve local food security. In a dryland annual cropping system, we evaluated the effects of N fertilizers on crop yield, its long term impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) concentrations and stock sizes, and the distribution of carbon (C) within various aggregate-size fractions. A current version (RothC) of the Rothamsted model for the turnover of organic C in soil was used to simulate SOC measurements. Five N application rates [0 (N0), 45 (N45), 90 (N90), 135 (N135), and 180 (N180) kg N ha-1] were applied to plots for 25 years (1984-2009) on a loam soil (Cumulic Haplustoll) at the Changwu State Key Agro-Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi, China. Crop yield varied with year, but increased over time in the fertilized plots. Average annual grain yields were 1.15, 2.46, 3.11, 3.49, and 3.55 Mg ha-1 with the increasing N application rates, respectively. Long-term N fertilizer application significantly (P<0.05) increased SOC concentrations and stocks in the 0-20 cm horizon. Using RothC, the calculated annual inputs of plant C (in roots, stubble, root exudates, etc.) to the soil were 0.61, 0.74, 0.78, 0.86, and 0.97 t C ha-1 year-1 in N0, N45, N90, N135 and N180 treatments, respectively. The modeled turnover time of SOC (excluding inert organic C) in the continuous wheat cropping system was 26 years. The SOC accumulation rate was estimated to be 40.0, 48.0, 68.0, and 100.0 kg C ha-1 year-1 for the N45, N90, N135 and N180 treatments over 25 years, respectively. As aboveground biomass was removed, the increases in SOC stocks with higher N application are attributed to increased inputs of root biomass and root exudates. Increasing N application rates significantly improved C concentrations in the macroaggregate fractions (>1 mm). The increase in SOC with N fertilizer applications contributed to improved soil quality as well as crop productivity.

Guo, S.

2011-12-01

169

Bioinspired greigite magnetic nanocrystals: chemical synthesis and biomedicine applications.  

PubMed

Large scale greigite with uniform dimensions has stimulated significant demands for applications such as hyperthermia, photovoltaics, medicine and cell separation, etc. However, the inhomogeneity and hydrophobicity for most of the as prepared greigite crystals has limited their applications in biomedicine. Herein, we report a green chemical method utilizing ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to synthesize bioinspired greigite (Fe?S?) magnetic nanocrystals (GMNCs) with similar structure and magnetic property of magnetosome in a large scale. ?-CD and PEG is responsible to control the crystal phase and morphology, as well as to bound onto the surface of nanocrystals and form polymer layers. The GMNCs exhibit a transverse relaxivity of 94.8?mM?¹ s?¹ which is as high as iron oxide nanocrystals, and an entrapment efficiency of 58.7% for magnetic guided delivery of chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. Moreover, enhanced chemotherapeutic treatment of mice tumor was obtained via intravenous injection of doxorubicin loaded GMNCs. PMID:24141204

Feng, Mei; Lu, Yang; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Yun-Jun; Gao, Huai-Ling; Dong, Liang; Xu, Wei-Ping; Yu, Shu-Hong

2013-01-01

170

LWIR hyperspectral imaging application and detection of chemical precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection and identification of Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) represent a major challenge to protect and sustain first responder and public security. In this context, passive Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is a promising technology for the standoff detection and identification of chemical vapors emanating from a distant location. To investigate this method, the Department of National Defense and Public Safety Canada have mandated Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier to develop and test Very Long Wave Infrared (VLWIR) HSI sensors for standoff detection. The initial effort was focused to address the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), surrogates and precursors. Sensors such as the Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) and the Multi-option Differential Detection and Imaging Fourier Spectrometer (MoDDIFS) were developed for this application. This paper presents the sensor developments and preliminary results of standoff detection and identification of TICs and precursors. The iCATSI and MoDDIFS sensors are based on the optical differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometric technology and are able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify small leak at ranges in excess of 1 km. Results from a series of trials in asymmetric threat type scenarios are reported. These results serve to establish the potential of passive standoff HSI detection of TICs, precursors and surrogates.

Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Dubé, Denis

2012-10-01

171

Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Aerospace Fire Detection Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of fires on-board commercial aircraft is extremely important for safety reasons. Although dependable fire detection equipment presently exists within the cabin, detection of fire within the cargo hold has been less reliable and susceptible to false alarms. A second, independent method of fire detection to complement the conventional smoke detection techniques, such as the measurement of chemical species indicative of a fire, will help reduce false alarms and improve aircraft safety. Although many chemical species are indicative of a fire, two species of particular interest are CO and CO2. This paper discusses microfabricated chemical sensor development tailored to meet the needs of fire safety applications. This development is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The individual sensor being developed and their level of maturity will be presented.

Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Fralick, Gustave; Thomas, Valarie; Makel, D.; Liu, C. C.; Ward, B.; Wu, Q. H.

2001-01-01

172

Near-field fiber optic chemical sensors and biological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-field optics has been applied in the nanofabrication of subwavelength optical fiber chemical and biological sensors and their operation in chemical and biological analysis. A thousandfold miniaturization of immobilized optical fiber sensors has been achieved by a near- field photo-nanofabrication technique, which is based on nanofabricated optical fiber tips and near-field photopolymerization. This technique has been further developed by multistep near- field nanofabrication and multidye probe fabrication. Multistep nanofabrication can further miniaturize optical fiber sensors, while multidye fabrication results in multifunctional optic and excitonic probes with extremely small size. These probes emit multiwavelength photons or produce excitons of different energy levels, and may have multiple chemical or biological sensitivities. The nondestructive submicrometer sensor has demonstrated its ability to carry out static and dynamic determinations of pH in intact rat conceptuses of varying gestational ages. The ability of the sensors to measure pH changes, in real time, in the intact rat conceptus, demonstrates their potential applications for dynamic analysis in multicellular organisms and single cells. The near-field interaction of photons with matter is discussed.

Tan, Weihong; Shi, Zhong-You; Thorsrud, Bjorn A.; Harris, C.; Kopelman, Raoul

1994-03-01

173

Interfacial characterization and analytical applications of chemically-modified surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this work is to explore several new strategies and approaches to the surface modification and the microscopic characterization of interfaces in the areas mainly targeting sensor technologies that are of interest to environmental control or monitoring, and scanning probe microscopies techniques that can monitor interfacial chemical reactions in real time. Centered on the main theme, four specific topics are presented as four chapters in this dissertation following the general introduction. Chapter 1 describes the development of two immobilization schemes for covalently immobilizing fluoresceinamine at cellulose acetate and its application as a pH sensing film. Chapter 2 investigates the applicability of SFM to following the base-hydrolysis of a dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at gold in situ. Chapter 3 studies the mechanism for the accelerated rate of hydrolysis of the dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at Au(111) surface. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of an electrochemical approach to the elimination of chloride interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis of waste water. The procedures, results and conclusions are described in each chapter. This report contains the introduction, references, and general conclusions. Chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base. 95 refs.

Wang, J.

1998-02-23

174

State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

Not Available

1994-06-01

175

Review of the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the chemical composition, intake, digestion and nutritive value of fresh herbage: consequences on animal nutrition and N balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in agricultural policy and the increased concern about the effects of intensive production systems on the natural environment may lead to a reduction in the levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization on grassland. The aim of this review is to quantify the consequences of lowering N fertilization on dairy cow nutrition. For grass species harvested at the same age

J. L Peyraud; L Astigarraga

1998-01-01

176

A case study of a precision fertilizer application task generation for wheat based on classified hyperspectral data from UAV combined with farm history data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different remote sensing methods for detecting variations in agricultural fields have been studied in last two decades. There are already existing systems for planning and applying e.g. nitrogen fertilizers to the cereal crop fields. However, there are disadvantages such as high costs, adaptability, reliability, resolution aspects and final products dissemination. With an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based airborne methods, data collection can be performed cost-efficiently with desired spatial and temporal resolutions, below clouds and under diverse weather conditions. A new Fabry-Perot interferometer based hyperspectral imaging technology implemented in an UAV has been introduced. In this research, we studied the possibilities of exploiting classified raster maps from hyperspectral data to produce a work task for a precision fertilizer application. The UAV flight campaign was performed in a wheat test field in Finland in the summer of 2012. Based on the campaign, we have classified raster maps estimating the biomass and nitrogen contents at approximately stage 34 in the Zadoks scale. We combined the classified maps with farm history data such as previous yield maps. Then we generalized the combined results and transformed it to a vectorized zonal task map suitable for farm machinery. We present the selected weights for each dataset in the processing chain and the resultant variable rate application (VRA) task. The additional fertilization according to the generated task was shown to be beneficial for the amount of yield. However, our study is indicating that there are still many uncertainties within the process chain.

Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Kleemola, Jouko; Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Honkavaara, Eija; Saari, Heikki; Mäkynen, Jussi; Rajala, Ari

2013-10-01

177

Chemical and electrochemical depositions of platinum group metals and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the chemical and electrochemical depositions of platinum group metals (PGMs) from aqueous solutions. With a brief introduction on the fundamental aspects of chemical\\/electrochemical depositions, the review describes recent advances in chemical and electrochemical deposition technologies. It discusses the properties and applications of the deposits. The review also discusses the applications and recent progress of PGMs as fuel

Chepuri R. K. Rao; D. C. Trivedi

2005-01-01

178

Use of labelled nitrogen to measure gross and net rates of mineralization and microbial activity in permanent pastures following fertilizer applications at different time intervals.  

PubMed

Measurements of some of the main internal N-cycling processes in soil were obtained by labelling the inorganic N pool with the stable isotope of nitrogen ((15)N). The (15)N mean pool dilution technique, combined with other field measurements, enabled gross and net N-mineralization rates to be resolved in grassland soils, which had previously either received fertilizer N (F), or had remained unfertilized (U) for many years. The two soils were subdivided into plots that received N at different time intervals (over 3 weeks), prior to (15)N measurements being made. By this novel approach, possible 'priming' effects over time were investigated to try to overcome some of the temporal problems of isotopic labelling of soil N (native plus fertilizer) and to identify possible changes in a range of primary N-transformation processes. The results suggested that an overall stimulation of microbially mediated processes occurred with all N treatments, but there were inconsistencies associated with the release of N, both in the timing and the degree to which different processes responded to the application of fertilizer N. The rates of these processes were, however, within the range of previously reported data and the (15)N measurements were not adversely affected by the differences in N pools created by the treatments. Thus, the mean pool dilution technique was shown to be applicable to agricultural soils, under conditions relevant to grass swards receiving fertilizer. For example, between the U and F treatments, the size of inorganic N pools increased by five-fold and gross rates of mineralization reached 3.5 and 4.8 microg N g(-1) (dry soil) d(-1), respectively, but did not vary greatly with the timing of N applications. A correlation (r(2) = 0.57) was found between soil respiration (which is relatively simple to measure) and net mineralization (which is more time consuming), suggesting that the former might be used as an indicator of the latter. Although this relationship was stronger in previously unfertilized soils, the similarities found with fertilized soils suggest that this approach could be used to obtain information of wider agronomic value and would, therefore, warrant further work under a range of soil conditions. PMID:12442291

Hatch, David J; Sprosen, Mike S; Jarvis, Steve C; Ledgard, Stewart F

2002-01-01

179

Carbon Nanotube Based Chemical Sensors for Space and Terrestrial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures, such as single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), on a pair of interdigitated electrodes (IDE) processed with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining technique. The IDE fingers were fabricated using photolithography and thin film metallization techniques. Both in-situ growth of nanostructure materials and casting of the nanostructure dispersions were used to make chemical sensing devices. These sensors have been exposed to nitrogen dioxide, acetone, benzene, nitrotoluene, chlorine, and ammonia in the concentration range of ppm to ppb at room temperature. The electronic molecular sensing of carbon nanotubes in our sensor platform can be understood by intra- and inter-tube electron modulation in terms of charge transfer mechanisms. As a result of the charge transfer, the conductance of p-type or hole-richer SWNTs in air will change. Due to the large surface area, low surface energy barrier and high thermal and mechanical stability, nanostructured chemical sensors potentially can offer higher sensitivity, lower power consumption and better robustness than the state-of-the-art systems, which make them more attractive for defense and space applications. Combined with MEMS technology, light weight and compact size sensors can be made in wafer scale with low cost. Additionally, a wireless capability of such a sensor chip can be used for networked mobile and fixed-site detection and warning systems for military bases, facilities and battlefield areas.

Li, Jing; Lu, Yijiang

2009-01-01

180

Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models in Chemical Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting “in silico” tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application—health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The “human PBPK model toolkit” is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures.

Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

2012-01-01

181

Application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models in chemical risk assessment.  

PubMed

Post-exposure risk assessment of chemical and environmental stressors is a public health challenge. Linking exposure to health outcomes is a 4-step process: exposure assessment, hazard identification, dose response assessment, and risk characterization. This process is increasingly adopting "in silico" tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to fine-tune exposure assessments and determine internal doses in target organs/tissues. Many excellent PBPK models have been developed. But most, because of their scientific sophistication, have found limited field application-health assessors rarely use them. Over the years, government agencies, stakeholders/partners, and the scientific community have attempted to use these models or their underlying principles in combination with other practical procedures. During the past two decades, through cooperative agreements and contracts at several research and higher education institutions, ATSDR funded translational research has encouraged the use of various types of models. Such collaborative efforts have led to the development and use of transparent and user-friendly models. The "human PBPK model toolkit" is one such project. While not necessarily state of the art, this toolkit is sufficiently accurate for screening purposes. Highlighted in this paper are some selected examples of environmental and occupational exposure assessments of chemicals and their mixtures. PMID:22523493

Mumtaz, Moiz; Fisher, Jeffrey; Blount, Benjamin; Ruiz, Patricia

2012-01-01

182

Comparative efficacy of ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA application for fertilization of rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread Zn deficiency for rice crop has been reported from different parts of the world, including India. To correct such deficiency, Zn is often applied to the soil as fertilizer. Its concentration in soil solution and its availability to crops is controlled by sorption?–?desorption reactions at the surfaces of soil colloidal materials. The objective of this study was to compare

Tanmoy Karak; Uttam Kumar Singh; Sampa Das; Dilip Kumar Das; Yakov Kuzyakov

2005-01-01

183

Surface Soil Aggregation, Trace, and Heavy Metal Enrichment Under Long-Term Application of Farm Yard Manure and Mineral Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNPK trial was started at Samaru in 1950 to assess the nutrient imbalances resulting from the increasing use of mineral fertilizers on some poorly buffered soils, improve and optimize productivity of these soils under intensive agricultural land use. Aggregation, trace, and heavy metals enrichment were studied in some selected plots under this trial, with a view to identify treatment(s)

J. O. Ogunwole; P. O. Ogunleye

2004-01-01

184

Chemical evaluation of HBED/Fe(3+) and the novel HJB/Fe(3+) chelates as fertilizers to alleviate iron chlorosis.  

PubMed

Iron chelates such as ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyphenylacetic) acid (o,o-EDDHA) and their analogues are the most efficient soil fertilizers to treat iron chlorosis in plants growing in calcareous soil. A new chelating agent, HJB (N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)ethylendiamine-N,N'-diacetic acid) may be an alternative to o,o-EDDHA since its synthesis yields a purer product, but its chemical behavior and efficiency as chlorosis corrector should be evaluated. In this research, a known analogous HBED (N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethylendiamine-N,N'-diacetic acid) has also been considered. First, an ion-pair high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been tested for the HJB/Fe(3+) and HBED/Fe(3+) determination. The ability of HJB and HBED to maintain Fe in solution has been compared with respect to o,o-EDDHA. Theoretical modelization for HBED and HJB in agronomic conditions has been done after the determination of the protonation and Ca(II), Mg(II), Fe(III), and Cu(II) stability constants for HJB. Also, batch interaction experiments with soils and soil materials have been conducted. According to our results, HJB/Fe(3+) and HBED/Fe(3+) present high stability, even when competing cations (Cu(2+), Ca(2+)) are present, and have low reactivity with soils and soil components. The chelating agent HJB dissolves a higher amount of Fe than o,o-EDDHA, and it seems as effective as o,o-EDDHA in keeping Fe in solution. These results indicate that these chelates may be very efficient products to correct Fe chlorosis, and additional plant experiments should demonstrate plants' ability to assimilate Fe from HJB/Fe(3+) and HBED/Fe(3+). PMID:19689133

López-Rayo, Sandra; Hernández, Diana; Lucena, Juan J

2009-09-23

185

Sostanze chimiche e infertilita' maschile: Rassegna degli studi condotti negli ultimi trenta anni. (Chemicals agents and human male fertility: Review of the past thirty years literature).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of several industrial and environmental pollutants on the male reproductive system are known from animal studies, but to date the impact on human fertility is still scarcely documented by epidemiological studies. The literature of the past thi...

M. E. Traina E. Urbani G. Petrelli M. Pasquali F. Pace

1997-01-01

186

Nanohole arrays in chemical analysis: manufacturing methods and applications.  

PubMed

Since the last decade, nanohole arrays have emerged from an interesting optical phenomenon to the development of applications in photophysical studies, photovoltaics and as a sensing template for chemical and biological analyses. Numerous methodologies have been designed to manufacture nanohole arrays, including the use of focus ion beam milling, soft-imprint lithography, colloidal lithography and, more recently, modified nanosphere lithography (NSL). With NSL or colloidal lithography, the experimental conditions control the density of the nanosphere mask and, thus, the aspect of the nanohole arrays. Low surface coverage of the nanosphere mask produces disordered nanoholes. Ordered nanohole arrays are obtained with a densely packed nanosphere mask in combination with electrochemical deposition of the metal, glancing angle deposition (GLAD) or etching of the nanospheres prior to metal deposition. A review of these methodologies is presented here with an emphasis on the optical properties of nanoholes interesting in analytical chemistry. In particular, applications of these novel plasmonic materials will be demonstrated as substrates for a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and in electrochemistry with nano-patterned electrodes. PMID:20358096

Masson, Jean-François; Murray-Méthot, Marie-Pier; Live, Ludovic S

2010-07-01

187

Electrochemical Transistors for Applications in Chemical and Biological Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conjugated polymers can undergo large and reversible physical (conformational) or chemical (redox) changes under the influence of external physical (temperature, light, electric, magnetic, or mechanical) or chemical (pH, chemical agent) stimuli and hence provide an ideal platform for the design and fabrication of Organic Electrochemical Transistor (OECT) based chemical and biological sensors.

Kumar, A.; Sinha, J.

188

Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This

K. Diedrich; B. C. J. M. Fauser; P. Devroey

2011-01-01

189

Review of chemical vapor deposition of graphene and related applications.  

PubMed

Since its debut in 2004, graphene has attracted enormous interest because of its unique properties. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has emerged as an important method for the preparation and production of graphene for various applications since the method was first reported in 2008/2009. In this Account, we review graphene CVD on various metal substrates with an emphasis on Ni and Cu. In addition, we discuss important and representative applications of graphene formed by CVD, including as flexible transparent conductors for organic photovoltaic cells and in field effect transistors. Growth on polycrystalline Ni films leads to both monolayer and few-layer graphene with multiple layers because of the grain boundaries on Ni films. We can greatly increase the percentage of monolayer graphene by using single-crystalline Ni(111) substrates, which have smooth surface and no grain boundaries. Due to the extremely low solubility of carbon in Cu, Cu has emerged as an even better catalyst for the growth of monolayer graphene with a high percentage of single layers. The growth of graphene on Cu is a surface reaction. As a result, only one layer of graphene can form on a Cu surface, in contrast with Ni, where more than one layer can form through carbon segregation and precipitation. We also describe a method for transferring graphene sheets from the metal using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). CVD graphene has electronic properties that are potentially valuable in a number of applications. For example, few-layer graphene grown on Ni can function as flexible transparent conductive electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells. In addition, because we can synthesize large-grain graphene on Cu foil, such large-grain graphene has electronic properties suitable for use in field effect transistors. PMID:23480816

Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Luyao; Zhou, Chongwu

2013-10-15

190

Toxicokinetic modeling and its applications in chemical risk assessment.  

PubMed

In recent years physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling has found frequent application in risk assessments where PBPK models serve as important adjuncts to studies on modes of action of xenobiotics. In this regard, studies on mode of action provide insight into both the sites/mechanisms of action and the form of the xenobiotic associated with toxic responses. Validated PBPK models permit calculation of tissue doses of xenobiotics and metabolites for a variety of conditions, i.e. at low-doses, in different animal species, and in different members of a human population. In this manner, these PBPK models support the low-dose and interspecies extrapolations that are important components of current risk assessment methodologies. PBPK models are sometimes referred to as physiological toxicokinetic (PT) models to emphasize their application with compounds causing toxic responses. Pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling in general has a rich history. Data-based PK compartmental models were developed in the 1930's when only primitive tools were available for solving sets of differential equations. These models were expanded in the 1960's and 1970's to accommodate new observations on dose-dependent elimination and flow-limited metabolism. The application of clearance concepts brought many new insights about the disposition of drugs in the body. In the 1970's PBPK/PT models were developed to evaluate metabolism of volatile compounds of occupational importance, and, for the first time, dose-dependent processes in toxicology were included in PBPK models in order to assess the conditions under which saturation of metabolic and elimination processes lead to non-linear dose response relationships. In the 1980's insights from chemical engineers and occupational toxicology were combined to develop PBPK/PT models to support risk assessment with methylene chloride and other solvents. The 1990's witnessed explosive growth in risk assessment applications of PBPK/PT models and in applying sensitivity and variability methods to evaluate model performance. Some of the compounds examined in detail include butadiene, styrene, glycol ethers, dioxins and organic esters/aids. This paper outlines the history of PBPK/PT modeling, emphasizes more recent applications of PBPK/TK models in health risk assessment, and discusses the risk assessment perspective provided by modern uses of these modeling approaches. PMID:12559690

Andersen, Melvin E

2003-02-18

191

The effect of phosphate bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) on the growth of marigold.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to study the individual and combined effect of bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) and chemical phosphate fertilizer on the floral quality of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). A factorial experiment was carried out which consisted of two factors: i) inoculation of seed, root and seed + root with bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) and control; application of chemical phosphorus at 100 mg I(-1), 200 mg l(-1), 300 mg l(-1) and 400 mg l(-1) levels. In this study, flowering time, display life, fresh and dry weight of flower, available soil phosphorus, shoot phosphorus and carotenoid content were evaluated. Results showed that the combined effect of bio- and chemical fertilizer was insignificant (p < 1 and 5%) for most of the characteristics studied except for shoot phosphorus and carotenoid content in petals. The lowest time to flowering (64.67 days) was obtained in seeds and transplant roots inoculation to bio-fertilizer x 400 mg I(-1) P. Maximum display life (25.35), fresh weight (16.20 g), carotenoid content (3.903 mg g(-1) d. wt.) and concentration of P in shoots (0.352%) were observed in transplant roots inoculation to bio-fertilizer x 400 mg I(-1) P. PMID:24665775

Zaredost, Fatemeh; Hashemabadi, Davood; Ziyabari, Maryam Barari; Torkashvand, Ali Mohammadi; Kaviani, Behzad; Solimandarabi, Maryam Jadid; Zarchini, Mohammad

2014-03-01

192

40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations 1 Table 1 to Subpart...Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV...Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations As required in §...

2013-07-01

193

Development and Application of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors For Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring and control, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. This paper discusses the needs of space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (Nox, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. Demonstration and application these sensor technologies will be described. The demonstrations range from use of a microsystem based hydrogen sensor on the Shuttle to engine demonstration of a nanocrystalline based sensor for NO, detection. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, A.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; Hall, G.

1990-01-01

194

Zinc Fertilization of Avocado Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for Zn fertilization of 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees were evaluated in a 2-year field experiment on a commercial orchard located on a calcareous soil (pH 7.8) in Ventura County, Calif. The fertilization methods included soil- or irrigation-applied ZnSO4; irrigation-applied Zn chelate (Zn- EDTA); trunk injection of Zn(NO3)2, and foliar applications of ZnSO4, ZnO, or Zn metalosate. Other

David E. Crowley; Woody Smith

195

Synthesis and chemical modification of carbon nanostructures for materials applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the structure, chemical reactivities, electromagnetic response, and materials properties of various carbon nanostructures, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite, and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Efficient production and modification of these unique structures, each with their own distinct properties, will make them more accessible for applications in electronics, materials, and biology. A method is reported for controlling the permittivity from 1--1000 MHz of SWCNT-polymer composites (0.5 wt%) for radio frequency applications including passive RF antenna structures and EMI shielding. The magnitude of the real permittivity varied between 20 and 3.3, decreasing as higher fractions of functionalized-SWCNTs were added. The microwave absorbing properties and subsequent heating of carbon nanotubes were used to rapidly cure ceramic composites. With less than 1 wt% carbon nanotube additives and 30--40 W of directed microwave power (2.45 GHz), bulk composite samples reached temperatures above 500°C within 1 min. Graphite oxide (GO) polymer nanocomposites were developed at 1, 5, and 10 wt% for the purpose of evaluating the flammability reduction and materials properties of the resulting systems. Microscale oxygen consumption calorimetry revealed that addition of GO reduced the total heat release in all systems, and GO-polycarbonate composites demonstrated very fast self-extinguishing times in vertical open flame tests. A simple solution-based oxidative process using potassium permanganate in sulfuric acid was developed for producing nearly 100% yield of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by lengthwise cutting and unraveling of MWCNT sidewalls. Subsequent chemical reduction of the GNRs resulted in restoration of electrical conductivity. The GNR synthetic conditions were investigated in further depth, and an improved method which utilized a two-acid reaction medium was found to produce GNRs with fewer defects and/or holes on the basal plane and higher aspect ratio. Two different covalent functionalization methods for GNRs based on diazonium chemistry were developed. The resulting functionalized GNRs (f-GNRs) are readily soluble in organic solvents which increase their solution processability. The f-GNRs were also found to be in a reduced state, with minimal sp2 carbon disruption, while also keeping the ribbon shape.

Higginbotham, Amanda Lynn

196

Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from CVD diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.

1995-01-01

197

Effect of Expansion of Fertilization Width on Nitrogen Recovery Rate in Tea Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cultivation of tea plants, large amounts of nitrogen, compared to amounts used for other crops, have been used for fertilization, resulting in degradation of the soil environment between hedges and an increase in concentrations of nitrate nitrogen in surrounding water systems. To reduce the environmental load, new methods of fertilizer application are needed. This report deals with the effect of expansion of fertilization width on nitrogen recovery rate in tea plants. In the test field, 15 N-labeled ammonium sulfate had been applied over custom fertilization by between-hedges fertilization (fertilization width of 15cm) and wide fertilization (fertilization width of 40cm), nitrogen recovery rates were compared. Expansion of fertilization width resulted in an approximately 30% increase in nitrogen recovery rate compared to that in the case of fertilization between hedges. Increases in nitrogen recovery rates were observed with fallapplied fertilization, spring-applied fertilization, pop-up fertilizer application, and summerapplied fertilization.

Nonaka, Kunihiko; Hirono, Yuhei; Watanabe, Iriki

198

Application of TRIZ creativity intensification approach to chemical process safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a modified method of TRIZ to improve safety in chemical process design. This method is modified by the theory of TRIZ, which is inventive problem solving theory, for retrofit design of chemical process considering safety.The original TRIZ is difficult to access to chemical process safety due to inapplicability and ambiguity of terminology in classification of these parameters.

Junghwan Kim; Jinkyung Kim; Younghee Lee; Wonsub Lim; Il Moon

2009-01-01

199

Phosphorus availability to rice (Oriza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum estivum L.) in a Vertisol after eight years of inorganic and organic fertilizer additions.  

PubMed

Integrated use of inorganic fertilizer N and well decomposed cattle manure (CM) or 30-35 days old Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), a weed grown off site as green manure (GM) under repeated applications of fertilizer P and urea N for eight years in a rice (Oriza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum estivum L.) sequence was studied on transformation of fertilizer P applied to soil at the National Research Center for Weed Science, Jabalpur, India. Based on the results, it appeared that, repeated applications of 52 kg super-phosphate P resulted in a marked increase in Olsen P linearly with time. Conjunctive use of urea fertilizer N with organic manure resulted in a larger increase in Olsen P in the Vertisol. Studies further revealed that the greater accumulation of fertilizer P applied in excess to crop removal occurred in inorganic P in the plots receiving only fertilizer N. However, plots receiving fertilizer N along with organic manures led to P accumulation predominantly in organic forms. The study suggests that these two pools of P acted as a sink when fertilizer P was applied in excess to crop removal and are bio-chemically active. The Olsen P status after 8 cycles of rice-wheat crops revealed that the average amount of fertilizer P required after adjusting for crop uptake to increase Olsen P by 1 mg kg(-1) soil was 7.2 kg Pha(-1) in the plots receiving only fertilizer N. Whereas, application of 5t FYM or 6t GM reduced it to 4.6 kg Pha(-1). The plots receiving manure always maintained a greater concentration of Olsen P. The application of CM or GM with fertilizer N enriched short-term inorganic P as well as long-term organic P fertility. After eight years, larger concentrations of organic P in the subsurface layer (16-30 cm), compared to initial values, indicates downward movement of P in organic forms. PMID:17067794

Singh, Muneshwar; Reddy, K Sammi; Singh, V P; Rupa, T R

2007-05-01

200

Chemical soil properties and bromegrass hay composition as affected by 23 annual fall and spring applications of ammonium nitrate and urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of nitrogen (N) fertilization on grass forage yield and quality as well as soil properties may vary with type of N fertilizer and time of application. The effects of 23 annual applications (from 1974 to 1996) of ammonium nitrate (AN) and urea (112 kg N ha) applied in early fall, late fall, early spring and late spring on

J. T. Harapiak; S. S. Malhi; K. S. Gill

2000-01-01

201

Emission factors for organic fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from Japanese agricultural soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction Agricultural fields are significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is one of the important greenhouse gases with a contribution of 7.9% to the anthropogenic global warming (IPCC, 2007). Direct fertilizer-induced N2O emission from agricultural soil is estimated using the emission factor (EF). National greenhouse gas inventory of Japan defines direct EF for N2O associated with the application of chemical and organic fertilizers as the same value (0.62%) in Japanese agricultural fields. However, it is necessary to estimate EF for organic fertilizers separately, because there are some differences in factors controlling N2O emissions (e.g. nutrient content) between chemical and organic fertilizers. The purpose of this study is to estimate N2O emissions and EF for applied organic fertilizers in Japanese agricultural fields. 2. Materials and Methods We conducted the experiments at 10 prefectural agricultural experimental stations in Japan (Yamagata, Fukushima, Niigata, Ibaraki, Aichi, Shiga, Tokushima, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, and Kagoshima) to consider the variations of cultivation and environmental conditions among regions. Field measurements had been conducted for 2-2.5 years during August 2010-April 2013. Each site set experimental plots with the applications of composted manure (cattle, swine, and poultry), chemical fertilizer, and non-nitrogen fertilizer as a control. The annual amount of applied nitrogen ranged from 16 g-N m-2 y-1 to 60 g-N m-2 y-1 depending on cropping system and cultivated crops (e.g. cabbage, potato) at each site. N2O fluxes were measured using a closed-chamber method. N2O concentrations of gas samples were measured with gas chromatography. The EF value of each fertilizer was calculated as the N2O emission from fertilizer plots minus the background N2O emission (emission from a control plot), and was expressed as a percentage of the applied nitrogen. The soil NH4+ and NO3-, soil temperature, precipitation, and WFPS (water filled pore space) were also measured. 3. Results and Discussion The large N2O emissions from soils were mainly observed after the rain following fertilizer application from spring through fall. However, N2O emissions were limited at some sites where crops were cultivated during winter because of low soil temperature. The mean annual N2O emissions and EFs for sites varied depending on the type of applied fertilizers. The mean annual N2O emission (× standard deviation) for non-nitrogen fertilizer was the smallest (110 × 140 mg-N m-2), followed in order by those for cattle manure (280 × 327 mg-N m-2), swine manure (454 × 463 mg-N m-2), chemical fertilizer (464 × 587 mg-N m-2), and poultry manure (480 × 523 mg-N m-2). Hence, mean EF for cattle manure was 0.31 × 0.28%, followed in order by those for swine manure (0.56 × 0.77%), poultry manure (0.88 × 1.04%), and chemical fertilizer (0.89 × 1.22%), while significant differences in EFs were not found among fertilizers. The N2O emissions and EFs differed among sites. The N2O emissions from Andosol soil were found to be smaller than those from other soil types. There were no significant correlation between annual N2O emission and annual mean air temperature or precipitation. The differences in soil physical and chemical properties would result in variations in N2O emissions and EFs among regions.

Sano, T.; Nishina, K.; Sudo, S.

2013-12-01

202

Dioxin levels in fertilizers from Belgium: determination and evaluation of the potential impact on soil contamination.  

PubMed

Dioxins are harmful persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to which humans are exposed mostly via the consumption of animal products. They can enter the food chain at any stage, including crop fertilization. Fertilizers belong to several categories: synthetic chemicals providing the essential elements (mostly N, P and K) that are required by the crops but also organic fertilizers or amendments, liming materials, etc. Ninety-seven samples of fertilizers were taken in Belgium during the year 2011 and analyzed after a soft extraction procedure for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) using GC-IDHRMS. Only small qualitative differences could be observed between the main fertilizer categories since the PCDD:PCDF:DL-PCB average ratio obtained with the results expressed in TEQ was often close to 30:30:40 (typically for sewage sludge) or 40:30:30 (typically for compost). The median dioxin levels determined were generally lower than recorded previously and were the highest for sewage sludge and compost (5.6 and 5.5 ng TEQ/kg dry weight (dw), respectively). The levels in other fertilizers were lower including manure for which the median value was only 0.2 ng TEQ/kg dw. Several fertilization scenarios relying on the use of those fertilizers were assessed taking into consideration the application conditions prevailing in Belgium. From this assessment it could be concluded that the contribution of fertilizers to the overall soil contamination will be low by comparison of other sources of contamination such as atmospheric depositions. At the field scale, intensive use of compost and sewage sludge will increase dramatically the dioxin inputs compared with other fertilization practices but this kind of emission to the soil will still be relatively low compared to the dioxin atmospheric depositions. PMID:23562689

Elskens, M; Pussemier, L; Dumortier, P; Van Langenhove, K; Scholl, G; Goeyens, L; Focant, J F

2013-06-01

203

Radiogenic isotopes: systematics and applications to earth surface processes and chemical stratigraphy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiogenic isotopes have wide application to chemical stratigraphy, geochronology, provenance studies, and studies of temporal changes in Earth surface processes. This paper briefly reviews the principles of radiogenic isotope geochemistry and the distribution of a number of elements of interest in the environment, and then uses this information to explore the range of applications to chemical stratigraphy and other fundamental

Jay L. Banner

2004-01-01

204

Mexico: The Fertilizer Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A rapidly expanding domestic fertilizer market and a desire to capitalize on indigenous raw material deposits have resulted in Mexico's rapid emergence as a major fertilizer producer. This report reviews Mexico's fertilizer industry in terms of its past p...

1979-01-01

205

Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fission are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for /sup 239/Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

1982-07-07

206

Chemical-Help Application for Classification and Identification of Stormwater Constituents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A computer application called Chemical Help was developed to facilitate review of reports for the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The application provides a tool to quickly find a proper classification for any constituent in the NDAMS review sheets. Chemical Help contents include the name of each water-quality property, constituent, or parameter, the section number within the NDAMS review sheet, the organizational levels within a classification hierarchy, the database number, and where appropriate, the chemical formula, the Chemical Abstract Service number, and a list of synonyms (for the organic chemicals). Therefore, Chemical Help provides information necessary to research available reference data for the water-quality properties and constituents of potential interest in stormwater studies. Chemical Help is implemented in the Microsoft help-system interface. (Computer files for the use and documentation of Chemical Help are included on an accompanying diskette.)

Granato, Gregory E.; Driskell, Timothy R.; Nunes, Catherine

2000-01-01

207

Chemical vapor deposition of nitrides for electronic device applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of boron phosphide (BP), boron nitride (BN), and tungsten nitride (WNx) thin films onto a variety of substrates was investigated. The purpose of the BP and BN studies was to study the viability of depositing and stabilizing the cubic phase of boron nitride (cBN). Tungsten nitride growths were conducted to determine the suitability of novel imido precursors for copper/silicon diffusion barrier applications. Thermodynamic models of various BP, BN, and GaN based systems were developed using BCl3-PCl3-H2, BCl3-NH 3-H2, and Ga-N as reactants, respectively. Results revealed conditions leading to many solid phase domains including BP, cBN, and GaN. Reactant ratios were systematically varied and the influence of HCl and an inert gas (He) was studied. Phase diagrams generated for the strained Ga-N system showed the profound influence of lattice mismatch induced strain energy on a system's thermodynamic equilibrium. The CVD of cubic BP thin films from BCl3, PCl3, and H2 reactants onto silicon, sapphire, diamond, silicon carbide, and nickel substrates revealed a kinetically controlled growth process. Characterization revealed roughly spherical island coalescence growth and little contamination. The BP films were then in-situ nitrided using NH3 diluted in a H2 carrier gas stream in an attempt to obtain cubic BN using the underlying cBP template. Attempts by five other researchers produced contradictory results with film characterization limited mostly to X-ray diffraction (XRD). A much wider array of deposition conditions and analysis techniques were used to characterize films in this study. Results indicate that cBN stabilization may be possible using in-situ cBP nitridation. These are the first results ever confirmed using multiple characterization techniques. Metal-organic CVD (MOCVD) of tungsten nitride thin films was also investigated. Results using a solid-source delivery system were unsuccessful because of the low vapor pressure and poor thermal sublimation profiles of each precursor. Film growths using an ultrasonic delivery system, where the precursors are dissolved into a solvent and injected into the reactor in a nebulized mist, proved to be more successful. Low resistivity WNx films deposited at low temperature were obtained. A U.S. patent application has been submitted as a result of this work.

Johnston, Steven Wayne

208

Chemical, physical and mechanical properties of nanomaterials and its applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of atmospheric aerosols towards radiative forcing has a very high uncertainty due to their short atmospheric lifetime. The aerosol effects are largely controlled by the density, elemental composition, and hygroscopic properties of the aerosol particles. Therefore, we have performed designed new methodology using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM), Atomic force spectroscopy (AFM), micro-FTIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to quantify these important aerosol properties. Hygroscopic properties are quantified by plotting the mass of water on a single particle basis, calculated from STXM, as a function of relative humidity. Alternatively, micro-FTIR spectra have been used to study the effect of composition of aerosol particles on the hygroscopic properties of NaCl. Moreover, a unique combination of STXM and AFM has been utilized to quantify density and elemental composition of micrometer dimensional particles. This method has also been extended towards exploring mixing state of particles, consisting of heterogeneously mixed inorganic and organic compounds. In addition to these above mentioned properties, the fate of an atmospheric particle is often altered by chemical transformation and that in turn is influenced by the atmospheric RH. Therefore, we have studied an unusual keto-enol tautomerism in malonic acid particles at high RH, which is not observed in bulk. This observation could potentially be utilized to significantly improve the models to estimate Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Using STXM and micro-FTIR technique, RH dependent equilibrium constant of the tautomerism reaction has been quantified as well. Organic nanocrystals capable of undergoing solid state photochemical changes in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) manner have been particularly important in fabricating molecular switches, data storage devices etc. Mechanical properties of these nanomaterials may control its SCSC reactivity. In addition, investigation of mechanical stiffness is important to define allowable limit of stiffness towards device application. Therefore, we studied mechanical properties of series organic nano cocrystals primarily consisting of trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene and substituted resorcinol using AFM nanoindentation technique. Dependence of mechanical properties and SCSC reactivity on the resorcinol structure is also investigated as well. Moreover, photolithography on the thin film of these organic cocrystals has been performed to demonstrate its applicability as a photoresist.

Ghorai, Suman

209

Application of chemical precipitation for piggery wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Several series of experiments were conducted to investigate the treatment of piggery wastewater using chemical precipitation (CP) where various types of coagulants such as aluminium sulfate (Al2(SO4)3), poly aluminium chloride (PAC), ferric chloride (FeCl3), ferric sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3), ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) and ferrous chloride (FeCl2) were used. Throughout the experiments, CP was found to achieve high removal efficiencies for organic compounds and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from the piggery wastewater. Experimental results showed the optimal doses of FeCl3, Fe2(SO4)3, FeCl2 and FeSO4 was 2.0 g/L, while 0.31 g/L and 2.5 g/L were the optimum dose for PAC and Al2(SO4)3, respectively. The pH range 4-5 resulted in the best performance to all coagulants except FeCl2 and FeSO4, whose optimum pH were more than 6. Percentage removal efficiencies for COD were in the ranges of 70-80%, 90-95% for SS, 80-90% for organic-N and TP. Those removal efficiencies were achieved within 5 min of operation. Three times of repetition in CP resulted in higher removal efficiencies for COD, SS and colour up to 74%, 99% and 94% respectively, in which Al2(SO4)3 was used as the coagulant. Removal efficiencies of various water quality parameters in a continuously operated reactor were similar to those of the batch experiments. Biodegradable ratios (BOD5/COD) increased up to 65% after the application of CP. PMID:15137448

Lee, S H; Iamchaturapatr, J; Polprasert, C; Ahn, K H

2004-01-01

210

Characterization of ammonia borane for chemical propulsion applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia borane (NH3BH3; AB), which has a hydrogen content of 19.6% by weight, has been studied recently as a potential means of hydrogen storage for use in fuel cell applications. Its gaseous decomposition products have a very low molecular weight, which makes AB attractive in a propulsion application, since specific impulse is inversely related to the molecular weight of the products. AB also contains boron, which is a fuel of interest for solid propellants because of its high energy density per unit volume. Although boron particles are difficult to ignite due to their passivation layer, the boron molecularly bound in AB may react more readily. The concept of fuel depots in low-earth orbit has been proposed for use in deep space exploration. These would require propellants that are easily storable for long periods of time. AB is a solid at standard temperature and pressure and would not suffer from mass loss due to boil-off like cryogenic hydrogen. The goal of this work is to evaluate AB as a viable fuel in chemical propulsion. Many studies have examined AB decomposition at slow heating rates, but in a propellant, AB will experience rapid heating. Since heating rate has been shown to affect the thermolysis pathways in energetic materials, AB thermolysis was studied at high heating rates using molecular dynamics simulations with a ReaxFF reactive force field and experimental studies with a confined rapid thermolysis set-up using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and FTIR absorption spectroscopy diagnostics. Experimental results showed the formation of NH3, H2NBH2, H2, and at later times, c-(N3B3H6) in the gas phase, while polymer formation was observed in the condensed phase. Molecular dynamics simulations provided an atomistic description of the reactions which likely form these compounds. Another subject which required investigation was the reaction of AB in oxidizing environments, as there were no previous studies in the literature. Oxygen bond descriptions were added to the ReaxFF force field and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to identify important species and reactions in the AB oxidation. Since the thermodynamic properties of many of these species were unknown, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed in the Jaguear 7.8 program using the B3LYP functional and 6-311G**++ basis set to calculate enthalpy and entropy of formation, as well as specific heat as a function of temperature. These results were used to create a gas-phase chemical kinetic mechanism for AB combustion. New elementary reactions (57) were combined with those found in the literature for ammonia and boron oxidation, to form a mechanism of 201 reversible reactions. Results from a simple homogenous, constant pressure and energy calculation are presented in this work. The results show that H2NBH2 can be dehydrogenated via radical attack when temperatures are too low to overcome the hydrogen elimination barrier and pressures are low enough to allow sufficient radicals to form. Molecular dynamics calculations require very high pressures to facilitate reactions over a short simulation time, and show the formation of heavy B/N/H/O molecules, such as HNBOH and H2NB(OH)2. On the other hand, the chemical kinetics calculations at 1 atm show that if the HNBO molecule is further oxidized, the products will likely fission with B-N bond cleavage. The final objective towards the research goal was to study how AB can be effectively integrated into a propulsion application. AB was added to a paraffin wax binder to form a heterogeneous solid fuel matrix. Opposed-flow burner experiments were performed where a flow of gaseous oxygen was impinged on the solid fuel surface and regression rates were measured. Regression rates were shown to increase with small additions of AB, but the condensed phase product build-up at higher AB concentrations limited the solid fuel regression. Solid fuel grains with various amounts of AB were manufactured and tested in a lab scale hybrid rocket engine, where performance parameters such as thrust, chamber pre

Weismiller, Michael

211

Soil-fertility management and host preference by European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), on Zea mays L.: A comparison of organic and conventional chemical farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been argued by proponents of organic agriculture that crop losses to insects and diseases are reduced by this farming method, and that reduced susceptibility to pests is a reflection of differences in plant health, as mediated by soil-fertility management. These reports although widespread are mostly anecdotal and largely without experimental foundation. In this study, the effects of

P. L. Phelan; J. F. Mason; B. R. Stinner

1995-01-01

212

Environmental high resolution electron microscopy and applications to chemical science  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environmental cell high resolution electron microscope (EHREM) has been developed for in situ studies of dynamic chemical reactions on the atomic scale. It allows access to metastable intermediate phases of catalysts and to sequences of reversible microstructural and chemical development associated with the activation, deactivation and poisoning of a catalyst. Materials transported through air can be restored or recreated

E. D. Boyes; P. L. Gai

1997-01-01

213

Chemical named entities recognition: a review on approaches and applications  

PubMed Central

The rapid increase in the flow rate of published digital information in all disciplines has resulted in a pressing need for techniques that can simplify the use of this information. The chemistry literature is very rich with information about chemical entities. Extracting molecules and their related properties and activities from the scientific literature to “text mine” these extracted data and determine contextual relationships helps research scientists, particularly those in drug development. One of the most important challenges in chemical text mining is the recognition of chemical entities mentioned in the texts. In this review, the authors briefly introduce the fundamental concepts of chemical literature mining, the textual contents of chemical documents, and the methods of naming chemicals in documents. We sketch out dictionary-based, rule-based and machine learning, as well as hybrid chemical named entity recognition approaches with their applied solutions. We end with an outlook on the pros and cons of these approaches and the types of chemical entities extracted.

2014-01-01

214

Self-Evaluation Instrument--Retail Fertilizer Distribution Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A self evaluation survey for the retail fertilizer distribution industry is presented. The questionnaire consists of a series of comments and self evaluation items applicable to various operational and work processes involved in the retail fertilizer indu...

A. V. Malone F. W. Godbey J. D. Massie L. L. Hatch W. C. Copeland

1980-01-01

215

21 CFR 1310.13 - Exemption of chemical mixtures; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...i) The chemical and physical properties of the mixture and how...acetonitrile, acetonitrile: water (⥠50% acetonitrile...methanol, methanol/water (50:50), methanol...acetonitrile, acetonitrile: water (⥠50%...

2013-04-01

216

Multi-view spectral clustering and its chemical application.  

PubMed

Clustering is an unsupervised method that allows researchers to group objects and gather information about their relationships. In chemoinformatics, clustering enables hypotheses to be drawn about a compound's biological, chemical and physical property in comparison to another. We introduce a novel improved spectral clustering algorithm, proposed for chemical compound clustering, using multiple data sources. Tensor-based spectral methods, used in this paper, provide chemically appropriate and statistically significant results when attempting to cluster compounds from both the GSK-Chembl Malaria data set and the Zinc database. Spectral clustering algorithms based on the tensor method give robust results on the mid-size compound sets used here. The goal of this paper is to present the clustering of chemical compounds, using a tensor-based multi-view method which proves of value to the medicinal chemistry community. Our findings show compounds of extremely different chemotypes clustering together, this is a hint to the chemogenomics nature of our method. PMID:23428472

Adefioye, Adeshola A; Liu, Xinhai; De Moor, Bart

2013-01-01

217

Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

1987-10-01

218

Application of pharmacokinetic principles to exposure to chemical mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Kinetic interactions among chemicals present in a mixture can influence the relationship between administered and delivered or effective dose; these interactions are distinct from dynamic interactions such as, for example, competition between two chemicals for receptor binding sites. The relationship between administered and effective dose depends on a number of biochemical, physiological, and physical factors such as age, sex, level of physical activity, route of administration, dose pattern, and bioavailability. In addition, interactions among chemicals may limit or increase the effective dose relative to the administered dose for any of the chemicals of a mixture. If the mechanism of the interaction is known, the direction and general magnitude of its effects may be predictable. A variety of potential interactions is briefly reviewed, and selected illustrations of these interactions are given. Two types of interactions likely to be pervasive in mixtures of chemically related bioactive materials are considered in greater detail. These interactions are induction of metabolizing enzymes such as the mixed-function oxidases, and competition of structurally similar chemicals for active sites on metabolizing enzymes. Simulations are presented to illustrate the consequences of these interactions, and examples of their occurrence are given. 17 references.

O'Flaherty, E.J. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

1989-10-01

219

Effect of organic and bio- fertilizer on quality , grain yield and soil properties of soybean under rice based cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field experiment on soybean was conducted at Phuoc Thoi village, O Mon district, Cantho province with different fertilizer application doses to study the influence of organic and bio- fertilizer on the growth and grain yield of soybean and soil fertility. The experimental results showed that the application of organic and bio-fertilizer could be substantiated for the N inorganic fertilizer

Vu van Thu; Luu Hong; H. Hiraoka

220

Impact of the Application Technique on Nitrogen Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Budgets in Case of Energy Maize Fertilized with Biogas Residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite an increasing cultivation of energy maize fertilized with ammonia-rich biogas residues (BR), little is known about the impact of the application technique on gaseous nitrogen (N) losses as well as N budgets, indicative of N use efficiency. To contribute to closing this knowledge gap we conducted a field experiment supplemented by a laboratory incubation study. The field experiment was carried out in Dedelow, located in the Northeastern German Lowlands and characterized by well-drained loamy sand (haplic luvisol). Two treatments with different application technique for BR fertilization - i) trail hoses and ii) injection - were compared to an unfertilized control (0% N). Seventy percent of the applied N-BR was assumed to be plant-available. In 2013, biweekly nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements were conducted during the time period between BR application and maize harvest (18.04.-11.09.2013; 147 days) using non-flow-through non-steady-state chamber measurements. To quantify soil Nmin status, soil samples were taken from 0-30 cm soil depth in the spring (before fertilization) and autumn (after maize harvest). Immediately after BR application, ammonia (NH3) volatilization was measured intensively using the open dynamic chamber Dräger-Tube method. Export of N due to harvest was determined via plant N content (Nharvest). Based on the measured N gas fluxes, N soil and plant parameters, soil N budgets were calculated using a simple difference approach. Values of N output (Nharvest, NN2O_cum and NNH3_cum) are subtracted from N input values (Nfertilizer and Nmin_autumnminus Nmin_spring). In order to correctly interpret N budgets, other N fluxes must be integrated into the budget calculation. Apart from soil-based mobilization and immobilization turnover processes and nitrate leaching, this applies specifically to N2 losses due to denitrification. Therefore, we measured the N2 emissions from laboratory-incubated undisturbed soil cores (250 cm3) by means of the helium incubation approach. With cumulative field emissions of 2.9±0.8 kg N2O-N ha-1 and 3.9±0.4 kg N2O-N ha-1 after trail hose application and injection, respectively, our results showed no clear application effect. NH3-N losses were higher for trail hose application (7.2 kg NH3-N ha-1) compared to injection (5.2 kg NH3-N ha-1). The calculated N budgets showed negative values (accumulative deficit) up to -6 kg N ha-1 and -32 kg N ha-1 for trail hose application and injection, respectively. But differences between treatments were not significant. Overall N budgets were more influenced by plant N uptake (91-96%) than by gaseous N losses (4-9%). However, results from the laboratory incubation indicate that N2 may also be a potentially important pathway of N loss, contributing to 34% of total gaseous N loss, corresponding to 5 kg N2-N ha-1 yr-1.

Andres, Monique; Fränzke, Manuel; Schuster, Carola; Kreuter, Thomas; Augustin, Jürgen

2014-05-01

221

Laser applications to chemical analysis: an introduction by the feature editors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This issue of Applied Optics features papers on the application of laser technology to chemical analysis. Many of the contributions, although not all, result from papers presented at the Fourth OSA Topical Meeting on Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis, which was held at Jackson Hole, Wyoming, March, 1994. This successful meeting, with nearly one hundred participants, continued the tradition of earlier LACA meetings to focus on the optical science of laser-based measurements of temperature and trace chemical assays in a wide variety of practical applications.

Jeffries, Jay B.; Ramsey, J. Michael; Lucht, Robert P.

1995-06-01

222

Current Fertilizer Salt Index Tables are Misleading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1940s, fertilizer materials that were available at that time were evaluated for changes that occurred in the soil solution osmotic pressure upon application. The term “salt index” was then used to compare the increase in osmotic pressure for 45 fertilizer materials against the same weight of sodium nitrate. During the 1950s a simplified laboratory method was developed where

T. P. Murray; J. G. Clapp

2004-01-01

223

Application of the Raven UAV for chemical and biological detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the plume tracking algorithms developed for a series of outdoor chemical-stimulant testing conducted at Dugway Proving Ground in 2008 and 2009 employing a Raven UAV equipped with a real-time chemical sensor. The flights were conducted as part of the a program under the sponsorship of the Army JPM NBC Contamination Avoidance and in conjunction with the Army PM-Unmanned Aircraft Systems, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. This test demonstrated the Raven's ability to autonomously detect and track a chemical plume during a variety of atmospheric conditions. During the testing, the Raven conducted over a dozen flights, tracking outdoor releases of simulated chemical weapons over significant distances. The Raven was cued to the releases with standoff detection systems through Cursor on Target messages. Upon reaching the plume, the Raven used on-board sensors and on-board meteorological data to track the plume autonomously and determine the extent of the plume. Results were provided in real-time to the UAV operator.

Altenbaugh, Ryan; Barton, Jeff; Chiu, Christopher; Fidler, Ken; Hiatt, Dan; Hawthorne, Chad; Marshall, Steven; Mohos, Joe; McHugh, Vince; Nicoloff, Bill

2010-04-01

224

Surface acoustic wave device for chemical and biological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor for chemical and biological detector as measuring the frequency shift based on adsorption quantities of chemical analyte on SAW propagation path. Important features that define the performance of these sensors are selectivity, sensitivity, stability, response time and dynamic range. In this paper, two inter-digital transducers (IDT) for working frequency of 50MHz, 100 MHz were designed and fabricated using conventional lift-off technique. The shift in SAW velocity due to surface loading leads to a shift in phase, which in turn generates a shift in frequency of the oscillator is confirmed. By different concentration of chemical vapor, the sensitivity of SAW devices will be presented.

Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Young-Jun; Jung, Dongsoo; Kim, Joo-Hyung

2014-04-01

225

Utilization of biosensors and chemical sensors for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There will be a need for a wide array of chemical sensors for biomedical experimentation and for the monitoring of water and air recycling processes on Space Station Freedom. The infrequent logistics flights of the Space Shuttle will necessitate onboard analysis. The advantages of biosensors and chemical sensors over conventional analysis onboard spacecraft are manifold. They require less crew time, space, and power. Sample treatment is not needed. Real time or near-real time monitoring is possible, in some cases on a continuous basis. Sensor signals in digitized form can be transmitted to the ground. Types and requirements for chemical sensors to be used in biomedical experimentation and monitoring of water recycling during long-term space missions are discussed.

Bonting, S. L.

1992-01-01

226

Nanosized and Nanostructured II-VI Semiconductors: Chemical Sensor Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principles of chemical sensing are considered and examples from the literature of chemical sensors including II-VI semiconductor nanomaterials are given. A new method for improving the discrimination of semiconductor thin-film gas sensors is introduced, which uses the amplitude and phase of the photocurrent response to a modulated light source. Preparation of nanocrystalline CdS and CdSe thin films of various thicknesses (30-200 nm) by physical vapour deposition is described. Data from room temperature studies of the effect of exposure to a set of vapours (water, ethanol, ammonia, acetone) on the film resistance and quartz-crystal microbalance frequency are presented.

Nesheva, Diana

227

Tomato derived polysaccharides for biotechnological applications: chemical and biological approaches.  

PubMed

Recent studies concerning the isolation and purification of exopolysaccharides from suspension-cultured tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. San Marzano) cells and the description of a simple, rapid and low environmental impact method with for obtaining polysaccharides from solid tomato-processing industry wastes are reported. Their chemical composition, rheological properties and partial primary structure were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, GC-MS, (1)H-, (13)C-NMR). Moreover, the anticytotoxic activities of exopolysaccharides obtained from cultured tomato cells were tested in a brine shrimp bioassay and the preparation of biodegradable film by chemical processing of polysaccharides from solid tomato industry waste was also reported. PMID:18596664

Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Poli, Annarita; De Rosa, Salvatore; Nicolaus, Barbara

2008-01-01

228

Scanning Probe Lithography for Chemical, Biological and Engineering Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the few short years that the DPN technique for nanofabrication has been utilized, a number of different platforms with different applications have been actively explored. Many of these applications existed before the use of DPN, although no reproducible methods to segue these technologies into the nanoscale were available. The potential of DPN to revolutionize fields ranging from basic biology,

Joseph M. Kinsella; Albena Ivanisevic

229

Dealer model site demonstrations. Program for fertilizer and agrichemical dealers  

SciTech Connect

Model site demonstrations are joint efforts between TVA and cooperating organizations to improve the industry`s environmental stewardship. Program objectives are to develop, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and management practices to help retail fertilizer/agricultural chemical dealers minimize adverse environmental impacts. The model site demonstrations serve as `real life` laboratories for researchers, technologists, educators and participants. The retail dealership is treated as a complete unit. The program recognizes the need to: Develop information and experience to guide others; Test numerous methods of containment, materials of construction, management practices, and monitoring techniques; Strengthen and highlight industry`s commitment to envirorunental stewardship; Identify future research needs; and Provide a catalyst for cooperation across a broad spectrum of groups and organizations to identify problems and develop solutions appropriate for fertilizer and agrichemical dealers. Emphasis is on transferring current technology and developing and introducing needed new technologies. Field testing and applied research are encouraged at demonstration sites. One of the key concepts is to bridge the gap between research findings and their practical application and evaluation in field settings. Primary audiences include fertilizer dealers and professional workers in agriculture, the fertilizer industry, the environmental arena, and related institutions across the nation. Experiences at participating dealer sites are shared through organized tours, open houses, news articles and publications. Sixteen sites have been selected for demonstrations, and at least four more are planned. TVA provides assistance in engineering, design and educational forums. Dealers pay for installation of needed containment and related features.

Mann, H.C.

1992-08-01

230

Graphene oxide as a chemically tunable platform for optical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) is an atomically thin sheet of graphite that has traditionally served as a precursor for graphene, but is increasingly attracting chemists for its own characteristics. It is covalently decorated with oxygen-containing functional groups - either on the basal plane or at the edges - so that it contains a mixture of sp2- and sp3-hybridized carbon

Kian Ping Loh; Qiaoliang Bao; Goki Eda; Manish Chhowalla

2010-01-01

231

Chemical constituents and biological applications of the genus Symplocos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Symplocos has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities including traditional importance of some common species. The plants of this genus contain terpenoids, flavonoids, lignans, phenols, steroids, alkaloids, and iridoids. Terpenoids are the major constituents within the genus Symplocos and most of them exhibit antiproliferative effects. Some phenolic glycoside derivatives showed inhibitory activity against snake-venom phosphodiesterase

Ruchi Badoni; Deepak K. Semwal; Sudhir K. Kothiyal; Usha Rawat

2010-01-01

232

The application of virtual reality to (chemical engineering) education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual reality, VR, offers many benefits to technical education, including the delivery of information through multiple active channels, the addressing of different learning styles, and experiential-based learning. This poster presents work performed by the authors to apply VR to engineering education, in three broad project areas: virtual chemical plants, virtual laboratory accidents, and a virtual UIC campus. The first area

J. T. Bell; H. C. Fogler

2004-01-01

233

Carbon Footprint Calculations: An Application of Chemical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics commonly taught in a general chemistry course can be used to calculate the quantity of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by various human activities. Each calculation begins with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction that produces the CO[subscript 2] gas. Stoichiometry, thermochemistry, the ideal gas law, and dimensional…

Treptow, Richard S.

2010-01-01

234

Metrology and characterization of application specific chemical mechanical polishing pads  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for metrology, characterization, and optimization of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) pad architecture before being put into service. A polishing pad which is made up of polyolefin material instead of conventional polyurethane has been developed. The surface of the pad has been modified to match the hardness of the surface of the material that is being polished.

Parshuram B. Zantye; S. Mudhivarthi; Ashok Kumar; Yaw Obeng

2005-01-01

235

Modified NASA-Lewis chemical equilibrium code for MHD applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A substantially modified version of the NASA-Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Code was recently developed. The modifications were designed to extend the power and convenience of the Code as a tool for performing combustor analysis for MHD systems studies. The effect of the programming details is described from a user point of view.

Sacks, R. A.; Geyer, H. K.; Grammel, S. J.; Doss, E. D.

1979-01-01

236

A REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS OF LUMINESCENCE TO MONITORING OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent analytical literature on the application of luminescence techniques to the measurement of various classes of environmentally significant chemicals has been reviewed. Luminescent spectroscopy based methods are compared to other current techniques. Also, examples of rece...

237

Application of Solar Technology to Fuel Production Chemical Processing, and Thermochemical Energy Transport: Status and Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The status of investigations into the application of solar thermal technology to fuel production, chemical processes, and thermochemical energy transport and storage in several countries around the world is discussed. In addition, the concept of a direct ...

J. D. Fish

1987-01-01

238

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...413.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the...

2013-07-01

239

Assessment of Solar Central Receiver Systems for Fuels and Chemicals Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report assesses the results of studies conducted to date for solar central receiver fuels and chemicals applications. Conceptual system designs using central receivers have been completed for ammonia/nitric acid, ammonia, and activated carbon product...

L. G. Radosevich C. W. Pretzel E. H. Carrell C. E. Tyner

1986-01-01

240

Rapid computation of chemical equilibrium composition - An application to hydrocarbon combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A scheme for rapidly computing the chemical equilibrium composition of hydrocarbon combustion products is derived. A set of ten governing equations is reduced to a single equation that is solved by the Newton iteration method. Computation speeds are approximately 80 times faster than the often used free-energy minimization method. The general approach also has application to many other chemical systems.

Erickson, W. D.; Prabhu, R. K.

1986-01-01

241

Evaluation of accelerated H applications in predicting soil chemical and microbial changes due to acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison was made between three acidified, simulated rain treatments which have been used to assess the impact of acid rain on soil chemical and microbial processes. There were significant differences in effects on chemical and microbial characteristics of soil exposed to the three treatments due to differences in the rate of H ion application, even though the total quantity

Kenneth Killham; Mary K. Firestone

1982-01-01

242

Chemical-radiation degradation of natural oligoamino-polysaccharides for agricultural application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the research was to elaborate the method of degradation of natural aminopolysaccharides to obtain a product applicable as biospecimen in protection and stimulation of the plants growth. Depolymerization of chitosan can be carried out by radiation or chemical degradation combined with irradiation method. The efficiency of these methods was verified by viscometric analysis. The chemical-radiation method

A. G. Chmielewski; W. Migdal; J. Swietoslawski; U. Jakubaszek; T. Tarnowski

2007-01-01

243

Application of the shock tube unsteady expansion wave technique to the study of chemical reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unsteady expansion wave was generated through rupture of a secondary diaphragm by an incident shock wave in a shock tube to study the three-body recombination of iodine atoms. The application to chemical reaction studies has been made possible through an extension of the usable flow time, and a theoretical treatment enables the effect of coupling of chemical reaction to

W. H. Beck; J. C. Mackie

1978-01-01

244

NEIGHBORHOOD COMPLEXITIES AND SYMMETRY OF CHEMICAL GRAPHS AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantitative measures of molecular complexity are calculated through the application of information-theoretic formalism on chemical graphs. The vertex set of a chemical graph is partitioned into disjoint subsets on the basis of the equivalence of various orders of closed neighbor...

245

Coarse grain model for coupled thermo-mechano-chemical processes and its application to pressure-induced endothermic chemical reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend a thermally accurate model for coarse grain dynamics (Strachan and Holian 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 014301) to enable the description of stress-induced chemical reactions in the degrees of freedom internal to the mesoparticles. Similar to the breathing sphere model, we introduce an additional variable that describes the internal state of the particles and whose dynamics is governed both by an internal potential energy function and by interparticle forces. The equations of motion of these new variables are derived from a Hamiltonian and the model exhibits two desired features: total energy conservation and Galilean invariance. We use a simple model material with pairwise interactions between particles and study pressure-induced chemical reactions induced by hydrostatic and uniaxial compression. These examples demonstrate the ability of the model to capture non-trivial processes including the interplay between mechanical, thermal and chemical processes of interest in many applications.

Antillon, Edwin; Banlusan, Kiettipong; Strachan, Alejandro

2014-03-01

246

[The occurrence of Salmonellae in organic fertilizer].  

PubMed

Out of 24 samples of organic and organic-chemical fertilizers which were bought in retail stores ("Bio-Fertilizers") in 25% salmonellas and in 12.5% Clostridium perfringens were isolated. In each of the fertilizers, from which these pathogens were cultivated, products from animal origin were part of the ingredients. In the majority of the cases these were animal fecal residues but also blood meal and horn shavings. The epidemiological importance of these findings is discussed. It is appealed to the legislature to bring the ordinance on fertilizers to bear which demands "rendering to hygienically safe products". It is further necessary to lay down relevant executive orders for the hygienic control of the fertilizers and the supervision of the production plants. This is especially important in the context of the aim to check salmonellosis of man and animals. PMID:3000021

Strauch, D; Philipp, W; Moosmüller, A; Kändler, U

1985-01-01

247

Multidimensional modeling of chemical vapor infiltration: Application to isobaric CVI  

SciTech Connect

Multidimensional (2D and 3D) chemical vapor infiltration models are formulated and used to simulate densification of isotropic or anisotropic preforms of various geometries using SiC deposition from methyltrichlorosilane. A generalized form of the dusty-gas model for mass transport in anisotropic porous structures is used as a flux model in the pore space, and the multidimensional model equations are solved using the Galerkin finite element method. Structures consisting of freely overlapping fibers parallel to a line (one-directional), parallel to a plane (two-directional), or without preferred orientation (three-directional) are employed to model the microstructure of the preforms. The obtained results show that the effects of preform geometry can lead to partial pressure and deposition profiles in the preform that are considerably different from those suggested by one-dimensional analyses of the chemical vapor infiltration process.

Ofori, J.Y.; Sotirchos, S.V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-02-01

248

Induction generator applications for petroleum and chemical plants  

SciTech Connect

A 13000-hp 1200-r/min induction machine has been applied as a motor/generator in a compressor-expander string associated with a fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process. Power factor correction capacitors are connected at the terminals of the induction machine. The specific principles of application, as they apply to generator applications, of induction machines are reviewed. Mechanical design, overspeed, excitation, electrical and mechanical transients, and machine control are studied in detail.

Owen, E.L.; Griffith, G.R.

1983-11-01

249

Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during

Jonathan Leonard; Matthew Stephen Tezak; John E. Brockmann; Brandon Servantes; Andres L. Sanchez; Mark David Tucker; Ashley N. Allen; Mollye C. Wilson; Daniel A. Lucero; Rita G. Betty

2010-01-01

250

Multidimensional modeling of chemical vapor infiltration: Application to isobaric CVI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidimensional (2D and 3D) chemical vapor infiltration models are formulated and used to simulate densification of isotropic or anisotropic preforms of various geometries using SiC deposition from methyltrichlorosilane. A generalized form of the dusty-gas model for mass transport in anisotropic porous structures is used as a flux model in the pore space, and the multidimensional model equations are solved using

John Y. Ofori; Stratis V. Sotirchos

1997-01-01

251

Chemical Modification of Surfaces for Biochemical and Medical Sensor Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable microacoustic sensors capable of detection on the molecular level have recently become of increasing interest. Thin-film\\u000a acoustic sensors based on GaN substrates are of particular merit because of their high chemical stability, high acoustic wave\\u000a velocity and their ability to detect molecules in liquids. In this paper the use of sensitive layers for selective particle\\u000a detection, as well as

V. C. Ayala; K. Moosmann; O. Prucker; J. Rühe; L. M. Reindl

252

Chemical modification: the key to clinical application of RNA interference?  

PubMed Central

RNA interference provides a potent and specific method for controlling gene expression in human cells. To translate this potential into a broad new family of therapeutics, it is necessary to optimize the efficacy of the RNA-based drugs. As discussed in this Review, it might be possible to achieve this optimization using chemical modifications that improve their in vivo stability, cellular delivery, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, potency, and specificity.

Corey, David R.

2007-01-01

253

Metrology and characterization of application specific chemical mechanical polishing pads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for metrology, characterization, and optimization of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) pad architecture before being put into service. A polishing pad which is made up of polyolefin material instead of conventional polyurethane has been developed. The surface of the pad has been modified to match the hardness of the surface of the material that is being polished. In this research, we coated the pad with tetraethylorthosilicate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for varying durations of time for optimum pad output. The pad was then extensively characterized using the several standard metrology techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nanoindentation, etc. The CMP performance evaluation of all the candidate pads along with in situ measurement of dynamic coefficients of friction, material removal rate, and acoustic emission was done using CETR CP-4™ bench top CMP tester. There was a correlation and interdependence of the pad coating time and surface chemical, micromechanical, and tribological properties. However, their impact on the pad CMP performance was found to be indirect. Based upon these findings, suggestions were given for final pad architecture for commercialization. The demonstrated methodology can also be implemented for parametric optimization of novel polishing pads in the future.

Zantye, Parshuram B.; Mudhivarthi, S.; Kumar, Ashok; Obeng, Yaw

2005-09-01

254

Trace Element Composition of Selected Fertilizers Used in Chile: Phosphorus Fertilizers as a Source of Long-Term Soil Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic activities like agriculture have resulted in increased concentrations of some trace elements of toxicological and environmental concern in soils. Application of fertilizers has been one of the major inputs of these contaminants to agricultural soils in developing countries. Twenty-two fertilizers, including straight nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and NK fertilizers and micronutrient sources, were analyzed by inductively coupled

Mauricio Molina; Fabián Aburto; Raúl Calderón; Marcia Cazanga; Mauricio Escudey

2009-01-01

255

Variation of rhizosphere bacterial community in watermelon continuous mono-cropping soil by long-term application of a novel bioorganic fertilizer.  

PubMed

The application method for a novel bioorganic fertilizer (BIO) was developed to improve its biocontrol efficacy of Fusarium wilt (Ling et al. 2010). However, its efficacy on controlling Fusarium wilt and the variations of microbial community after long-term application for watermelon production had not been elucidated. To clarify, a 4-years pot experiment of mono-cropping watermelon was conducted. The results revealed that though the disease incidences were increased in all treatments with the increase of continuous cropping years, the treatment of BIO application both in nursery and pot soil always maintained the lowest disease incidence. The real-time PCR results showed that the population of Paenibacillus polymyxa was decreased with continuous cropping years, but in all seasons, the treatment with BIO application both in nursery and pot soil had a highest population of P. polymyxa than the other treatments. On the other hand, the abundance of the pathogen FON was increased with the increase of continuous cropping years and the lowest rate of increase was found by BIO application in both nursery and pot soil. DGGE patterns showed that the bacterial diversity was weakened after mono-cropping of watermelon for 4 years, but the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage resulted in the minimal change of bacterial diversity. More detailed differences on bacterial diversity between control and double application of BIO treatment after 4-years monoculture were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing, which showed the dominant phyla found in both samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the consecutive applications of BIO recruited more beneficial bacteria than control, such as Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Haliangium, Streptomyces. Overall, these results, to a certain extent, approved that the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage could effectively suppress watermelon Fusarium wilt by regulating the rhizosphere bacterial diversity. These results could give some clues that how to regulate the soil microbial community to an appropriate level which can keep the plant healthy and thus control the soil-borne diseases. PMID:24263158

Ling, Ning; Deng, Kaiying; Song, Yang; Wu, Yunchen; Zhao, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

256

Baseflow and peakflow chemical responses to experimental applications of ammonium sulphate to forested watersheds in north-central West Virginia, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stream water was analysed to determine how induced watershed acidification changed the chemistry of peakflow and baseflow and to compare the relative timing of these changes. Two watersheds in north-central West Virginia, WS3 and WS9, were subjected to three applications of ammonium sulphate fertilizer per year to induce acidification. A third watershed, WS4, was the control. Samples were collected for 8 years from WS9 and for 9 years from WS3. Prior to analyses, concentration data were flow adjusted, and the influence of natural background changes was removed by accounting for the chemical responses measured from WS4. This yielded residual values that were evaluated using robust locally weighted regression and Mann-Kendall tests. On WS3, analyte responses during baseflow and peakflow were similar, although peakflow responses occurred soon after the first treatment whereas baseflow responses lagged 1-2 years. This lag in baseflow responses corresponded well with the mean transit time of baseflow on WS3. Anion adsorption on WS3 apparently delayed increases in SO4 leaching, but resulted in enhanced early leaching losses of Cl and NO3. Leaching of Ca and Mg was strongly tied, both by timing and stoichiometrically, to NO3 and SO4 leaching. F-factors for WS3 baseflow and peakflow indicated that the catchment was insensitive to acid neutralizing capacity reductions both before and during treatment, although NO3 played a large role in reducing the treatment period F-factor. By contrast, the addition of fertilizer to WS9 created an acid sensitive system in both baseflow and peakflow. On WS9, baseflow and peakflow responses also were similar to each other, but there was no time lag after treatment for baseflow. Changes in concentrations generally were not as great on WS9 as on WS3, and several ions showed no significant changes, particularly for peakflow. The lesser response to treatment on WS9 is attributed to the past abusive farming and site preparation before larch planting that resulted in poor soil fertility, erosion, and consequently, physical and chemical similarities between upper and lower soil layers. Even with fertilizer-induced NO3 and SO4 leaching increases, base cations were in low supplies and, therefore, unavailable to leach via charge pairing. The absence of a time lag in treatment responses for WS9 baseflow indicates that it has substantially different flow paths than WS3. The different hydrologies on these nearby watersheds illustrates the importance of understanding watershed hydrology when establishing a monitoring programme to detect ecosystem change. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Edwards, Pamela J.; Wood, Frederica; Kochenderfer, James N.

2002-08-01

257

Real-time interactive data mining for chemical imaging information: application to automated histopathology  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrational spectroscopic imaging is now used in several fields to acquire molecular information from microscopically heterogeneous systems. Recent advances have led to promising applications in tissue analysis for cancer research, where chemical information can be used to identify cell types and disease. However, recorded spectra are affected by the morphology of the tissue sample, making identification of chemical structures difficult. Results Extracting features that can be used to classify tissue is a cumbersome manual process which limits this technology from wide applicability. In this paper, we describe a method for interactive data mining of spectral features using GPU-based manipulation of the spectral distribution. Conclusions This allows researchers to quickly identify chemical features corresponding to cell type. These features are then applied to tissue samples in order to visualize the chemical composition of the tissue without the use of chemical stains.

2013-01-01

258

Application of surface chemical analysis tools for characterization of nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is\\u000a described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy\\u000a (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), low-energy ion scattering\\u000a (LEIS), and scanning-probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic

Donald R. Baer; Daniel J. Gaspar; Ponnusamy Nachimuthu; Sirnegeda D. Techane; David G. Castner

2010-01-01

259

Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application.  

PubMed

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

Shen, Zongzhuan; Wang, Dongsheng; Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

260

Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application  

PubMed Central

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas.

Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

261

Toxicogenomics; transcript profiling and potential application to chemical allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel transcript profiling technologies allow simultaneous measurement of the changes in expression of many hundreds or many thousands of genes. The availability of these methods has brought about revolutionary changes in many areas of investigative biology, where analyses of patterns of gene expression, rather than of individual genes, are being employed. The application of these technologies to toxicology (toxicogenomics) offers

W. D. Pennie; I. Kimber

2002-01-01

262

Hollow-structured mesoporous materials: chemical synthesis, functionalization and applications.  

PubMed

Hollow-structured mesoporous materials (HMMs), as a kind of mesoporous material with unique morphology, have been of great interest in the past decade because of the subtle combination of the hollow architecture with the mesoporous nanostructure. Benefitting from the merits of low density, large void space, large specific surface area, and, especially, the good biocompatibility, HMMs present promising application prospects in various fields, such as adsorption and storage, confined catalysis when catalytically active species are incorporated in the core and/or shell, controlled drug release, targeted drug delivery, and simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancers when the surface and/or core of the HMMs are functionalized with functional ligands and/or nanoparticles, and so on. In this review, recent progress in the design, synthesis, functionalization, and applications of hollow mesoporous materials are discussed. Two main synthetic strategies, soft-templating and hard-templating routes, are broadly sorted and described in detail. Progress in the main application aspects of HMMs, such as adsorption and storage, catalysis, and biomedicine, are also discussed in detail in this article, in terms of the unique features of the combined large void space in the core and the mesoporous network in the shell. Functionalization of the core and pore/outer surfaces with functional organic groups and/or nanoparticles, and their performance, are summarized in this article. Finally, an outlook of their prospects and challenges in terms of their controlled synthesis and scaled application is presented. PMID:24687906

Li, Yongsheng; Shi, Jianlin

2014-05-28

263

The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fertility of soil is a capacity for ensuring plants by water, nutrients, air and capacity for making optimal conditions for growth and development of plants. The result of it is a yield. The main characteristic of fertility of soil is maintenance of humus. The humus is important part of organic matter. The supporting of soil fertility is impossible by traditional methods. The amount of receiving mineral fertilizers in agriculture will not increase in future, because mineral fertilizers are very expensive. The mineral fertilizers don't influence on maintenance of total amount of humus in soil and improve the circulation of nutrients. Every hectare of fields have to receive no less than 8-10 tons of organic fertilizers, therefore we will have self-supporting balance of humus and the fertility of soils will be increasing. Consequently we are looking for new types of organic materials and we include them in modern agro technologies. One of them is an organomineral fertilizer (lignitic materials). The humic chemicals in the form of lignitic materials of natrium, potassium and ammonium are permitted for using them in agriculture at the beginning of 1984. The Department of agriculture in Russian Federation considered the problem of using humic chemicals and made a decision to use them on the fields of our country, because the lignitic materials can restore the fertility of our fields. The lignitic materials increase the amount of spore-forming bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycete. Therefore the organic decomposition occurs more strongly, the processes of humification increase the speed and the amount of humus rises in the soil. The new forming humus has a high biological activity and it improves chemical and physical soil properties. The addition of lignitic materials in soil activates different groups of microorganisms, which influence on mobilization of nutrients and transformation from potential to effective fertility. The inclusion of humic fertilizers improves physical, physicochemical properties of soils, its air, water and thermal rate. Humic acids with mineral and organomineral particles of soil form the soil absorbent complex. The inclusion of humic fertilizers promotes the process when humic substances form a very valuable water-stable clumpy-granular structure, which improves water-carrying and water-holding capacity, its air permeability by agglutination of mineral particles with each other. The soils, where humic fertilizers are carried in soils regularly, are more stable for influence of chemical polluting substances (for example, radioactive nuclides, heavy metals, pesticides) than poor soils. The inclusion of humic fertilizers is very important in period of urbanization and cropping on the plough-lands not far from a big industrial area. The lignitic materials tie together the detrimental compounds formed the insoluble complex in soil solution. The detrimental compounds don't go into plants, subsoil waters and atmosphere. The lignitic watering of soils (in concentration from 0.1 to 0.01%) increases biological activity of soil in a man-caused zones and it promotes to stability of plants to detrimental emission of enterprises. Today the problem of processing of sugar-beet industry is very important. In the result of storing sugar-beet wastes the pollution of environment is occurred, examples of this pollution are gassing, salinization of soils and ground waters by filtrational sediments. One of these wastes is defecation sludge. The defecation sludge consists of CaCO3, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and microelements. The technology of receiving N-Ca fertilizer based on defecate was developed because of impossibility of using this waste in pure form. For available data, using of these fertilizers improves the soil fertility and degree of pollution by heavy metals don't exceed an acceptance limits.

Vyborova, Oxana

2010-05-01

264

Soil washing for metal removal: a review of physical/chemical technologies and field applications.  

PubMed

Soil washing is one of the few permanent treatment alternatives to remove metal contaminants from soils. This paper reviews the various technology types and pilot/full-scale field applications of soil washing applicable to soils highly contaminated with heavy metals. The physical separation technologies, the chemical extraction processes and the integrated processes that combine both physical and chemical methods are discussed separately. This paper reviews basic principles, applicability, advantages and limitations, methods of predicting and improving performance of each physical/chemical technology. The discussion is based on a review of 30 recent laboratory investigations and 37 field applications of soil washing systems which have been undertaken, mostly in the US, for the period 1990-2007. This paper also examines and compares the status of soil washing technology for remediation of soils contaminated with metals in the US, in Canada and in Europe. PMID:18036735

Dermont, G; Bergeron, M; Mercier, G; Richer-Laflèche, M

2008-03-21

265

Fertility and Women with Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Fertility and Women With Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ... offer information on how cancer treatment can affect fertility, ways to preserve fertility before treatment, and fertility ...

266

Chemical constituents and biological applications of the genus Symplocos.  

PubMed

The genus Symplocos has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities including traditional importance of some common species. The plants of this genus contain terpenoids, flavonoids, lignans, phenols, steroids, alkaloids, and iridoids. Terpenoids are the major constituents within the genus Symplocos and most of them exhibit antiproliferative effects. Some phenolic glycoside derivatives showed inhibitory activity against snake-venom phosphodiesterase I and human nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase I. The members of genus Symplocos are well known for their traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases like leprosy, gynecological disorders, ulcers, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, malaria, and tumefaction. The aim of the present paper is to review the comprehensive knowledge of the plants of this genus including the traditional uses, chemistry, and pharmacology. PMID:21128148

Badoni, Ruchi; Semwal, Deepak K; Kothiyal, Sudhir K; Rawat, Usha

2010-12-01

267

Application of Surface Chemical Analysis Tools for Characterization of Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS); low energy ion scattering (LEIS); and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), are briefly summarized. Examples describing the characterization of engineered nanoparticles are provided. Specific analysis considerations and issues associated with using surface analysis methods for the characterization of nanoparticles are discussed and summarized, along with the impact that shape instability, environmentally induced changes, deliberate and accidental coating, etc., have on nanoparticle properties.

Baer, DR; Gaspar, DJ; Nachimuthu, P; Techane, SD; Castner, DG

2010-01-01

268

Assisted oocyte activation following ICSI fertilization failure.  

PubMed

The capacity of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to permit almost any type of spermatozoa to fertilize oocytes has made it the most successful treatment for male factor infertility. Despite its high success rates, fertilization failure following ICSI still occurs in 1-3% of couples. Assisted oocyte activation (AOA) is being increasingly applied in human assisted reproduction to restore fertilization and pregnancy rates in couples with a history of ICSI fertilization failure. However, controversy still exists mainly because the artificial activating agents do not mimic precisely the initial physiological processes of mammalian oocyte activation, which has led to safety concerns. This review addresses the mechanism of human oocyte activation and the relatively rare phenomenon of fertilization failure after ICSI. Next, it describes the current diagnostic approaches and focuses on the application, efficiency and safety of AOA in human assisted reproduction. PMID:24656559

Vanden Meerschaut, Frauke; Nikiforaki, Dimitra; Heindryckx, Björn; De Sutter, Petra

2014-05-01

269

Crataegus pinnatifida: chemical constituents, pharmacology, and potential applications.  

PubMed

Crataegus pinnatifida (Hawthorn) is widely distributed in China and has a long history of use as a traditional medicine. The fruit of C. pinnatifida has been used for the treatment of cardiodynia, hernia, dyspepsia, postpartum blood stasis, and hemafecia and thus increasing interest in this plant has emerged in recent years. Between 1966 and 2013, numerous articles have been published on the chemical constituents, pharmacology or pharmacologic effects and toxicology of C. pinnatifida. To review the pharmacologic advances and to discuss the potential perspective for future investigation, we have summarized the main literature findings of these publications. So far, over 150 compounds including flavonoids, triterpenoids, steroids, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, lignans, hydroxycinnamic acids, organic acids and nitrogen-containing compounds have been isolated and identified from C. pinnatifida. It has been found that these constituents and extracts of C. pinnatifida have broad pharmacological effects with low toxicity on, for example, the cardiovascular, digestive, and endocrine systems, and pathogenic microorganisms, supporting the view that C. pinnatifida has favorable therapeutic effects. Thus, although C. pinnatifida has already been widely used as pharmacological therapy, due to its various active compounds, further research is warranted to develop new drugs. PMID:24487567

Wu, Jiaqi; Peng, Wei; Qin, Rongxin; Zhou, Hong

2014-01-01

270

Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique in chemical diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range completely noninvasively from outside a container (e.g., pipe, tank, reactor vessel, etc.,). These acoustic parameters, along with their frequency-dependence, can be used to identify various chemicals. This technique can be adapted for a range of chemical diagnostic applications, particularly, in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals may provide appropriate feedback information. Both experimental data and theoretical modeling are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are discussed.

Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Lizon, D.; Hasse, R.

1996-09-01

271

Assortative fertilization in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

The concept of gametic isolation has its origins in the 1937 edition of T. Dobzhansky’s Genetics and the Origin of Species. Involving either positive assortative fertilization (as opposed to self-incompatibility) or negative assortative fertilization, it occurs after mating but prior to fertilization. Gametic isolation is generally subsumed under either prezygotic or postmating isolation and thus has not been the subject of extensive investigation. Examples of assortative fertilization in Drosophila are reviewed and compared with those of other organisms. Potential mechanisms leading to assortative fertilization are discussed, as are their evolutionary implications.

Markow, Therese Ann

1997-01-01

272

Application of friction welding in petroleum and chemical engineering  

SciTech Connect

Welding, as a technological process, is widely practiced in modern engineering. Resistance or arc welding is most common, but these techniques are increasingly giving way to friction welding which has several advantages, namely higher labor productivity and better quality, possibility of joining diverse and poorly weldable metals and alloys, dispensing with high-grade welding materials and highly skilled welders, ecological cleanness of the process, etc. The major criterion of efficient application of friction welding is its use in large-scale manufacture of a specific equipment, whereupon the cost of the machine is recovered in a short period. That is why friction welding with creation and fabrication of specific machines was adopted by the petroleum machinery manufacture (manufacture of geological prospecting and drill pipes, pump rods of the welded design, and gate valves of high-pressure Christmas trees). By applying friction welding for the manufacture of geological prospecting and drill pipes in place of resistance butt welding, accidents during drilling due to failure of the welded joints were prevented totally. Application of friction welding for making pump rods of the welded design (with welded nipples and heads) made it possible to save costly high-strength and corrosion-resistance alloy steel to the extent of 90%. Use of friction welding in the manufacture of high-pressure gate valves with welded flanges simplifies the valve-making technology and improves the reliability of the welded joints, even at temperatures as low as -60{degrees}C. In particular, cast gate valve bodies with friction-welded side flanges were tested before their breakdown. The welded joints of the branch pipes, even though they were sharpened to reduce wall thickness, did not fail, which shows high reliability of the gate valve bodies of the welded design.

Dzhabarov, R.D.; Fataliev, N.S.; Tkachev, Yu.A.; Timofeev, V.I.; Abdullaev, V.G.

1995-05-01

273

Chemical Theory and Computation Special Feature: Ab initio quantum chemistry: Methodology and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Perspective provides an overview of state-of-the-art ab initio quantum chemical methodology and applications. The methods that are discussed include coupled cluster theory, localized second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, multireference perturbation approaches, and density functional theory. The accuracy of each approach for key chemical properties is summarized, and the computational performance is analyzed, emphasizing significant advances in algorithms and implementation over

Richard A. Friesner

2005-01-01

274

Using optical resonances for chemical and biological sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A micro droplet acts as an optical cavity that supports Morphology Dependent Resonances (MDRs) at wavelengths where the droplet circumference is an integer multiple of the emission wavelength. An experimental setup is built consisting of a home-built droplet generator modified from a piezo inkjet printhead, a function generator, a delay generator, a laser, a spectrometer and collection optics. Through this setup, it is possible to probe single droplets for chemical and biological detection. By utilizing a secondary laser/photodiode droplet detection system to the setup, the shot-to-shot differences in signal intensity are reduced resulting in improved signal stability and reproducibility. By utilizing the developed setup, single bacterial cell detection is accomplished by observing suppression of optical resonances inside microdroplets. The effect of cell morphology and viability on lasing peaks was investigated. In addition, a FRET-based immunoassay in microdroplets is demonstrated. Optical resonances in microdroplets increased the sensitivity of the detection through enhanced radiative energy transfer occurring at the droplet rim. An emulsion based technique is developed to localize the immunoassay reaction at the rim of a pendant droplet, increasing the coupling efficiency of the optical resonances. Finally, lasing from spherical microdroplets ejected into a liquid medium with lower refractive index is observed in a microchannel. A microfabricated device that combines the droplet production and excitation/detection has been designed and fabricated. Droplet images show intense lasing emission around the droplet rim. Spectra from the droplets exhibit morphology dependent resonances (MDRs) which are red shifted relative to the bulk fluorescence emission from the dyes. The dependence of resonant peak intensities on the pump beam power is nonlinear.

Tanyeri, Melikhan

275

Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Application (Phosphorus and Nitrogen ) for Fertilizer and Manure Applied to Crops (Cropsplit), 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This data set represents the estimated amount of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers applied to selected crops for the year 2002, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is based on 2002 fertilizer data (Ruddy and others, 2006) and tabulated by crop type per county (Alexander and others, 2007). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5, 7 and 9. MRB4, covering the Missouri River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 10-lower and 10-upper. MRB5, covering the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 8, 11 and 12. MRB6, covering the Rio Grande, Colorado and Great Basin River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 13, 14, 15 and 16. MRB7, covering the Pacific Northwest River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 17. MRB8, covering California River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Unit 18.

Wieczorek, Michael E; LaMotte, Andrew E.

2010-01-01

276

DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND APPLICATION OF THE TRIMETHOPRIM-BASED CHEMICAL TAG FOR LIVE CELL IMAGING  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade chemical tags have been developed to complement the use of fluorescent proteins in live cell imaging. Chemical tags retain the specificity of protein labeling achieved with fluorescent proteins through genetic encoding, but provide smaller, more robust tags and modular use of organic fluorophores with high photon-output and tailored functionalities. The trimethoprim-based chemical tag (TMP-tag) was initially developed based on the high affinity interaction between E.coli dihydrofolatereductase and the antibiotic trimethoprim and subsequently rendered covalent and fluorogenic via proximity-induced protein labeling reactions. To date, the TMP-tag is one of the few chemical tags that enable intracellular protein labeling and high-resolution live cell imaging. Here we describe the general design, chemical synthesis, and application of TMP-tag for live cell imaging. Alternative protocols for synthesizing and using the covalent and the fluorogenic TMP-tags are also included.

Jing, Chaoran; Cornish, Virginia W.

2013-01-01

277

Long-term fertilization of organic manure led to the succession of Bacillus community in an alluvial-aquic soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term fertilization inevitably influences soil physic-chemical and biological properties. Our previous studies with a long-term fertilization experiment on an alluvial-aquic have revealed that specific Bacillus spp. was observed in organic manure-fertilized soils. The current study investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on the succession of Bacillus community in soils and their functions. The experiment included three fertilizer treatments: organic manure (OM), mineral fertilizers (NPK) and the control (without fertilizers). The results showed that long-term application of chemical fertilizers didn't increase the quantity of soil microbial population as much as organic fertilizers did, but it played an important role in maintaining the diversity and community structure of indigenous Bacilli. Correspondingly, long-term application of organic manure significantly increased the quantity while significantly decreased the diversity of Bacilli community. The ratio of Bacilli/bacteria was more constant in OM treatment than NPK indicating the stability of the response to long-term organic fertilizers. PCR-DGGE and clone library revealed the succession of Bacillus community after long-term application of organic manure and the dominant Bacillus spp occurred in the treatmen OM was Bacillus asahii. Our results also proved that Bacillus asahii was not derived from exogenous organic manure, but one of indigenous bacteria in the soil. Bacillus asahii was induced by the substrate after the application of organic manure, and gradually evolved into dominant Bacillus after 4 to 5 years. With an enzyme assay test of pure species and a soil incubation experiment, we came to a preliminary judgment, that the dominant Bacillus asahii didn't significantly influence the decomposition rate of cellulose and protein in the soil, but it promoted the decomposition of lipids, and could also improve the transformation process from fresh organic matter to humus. Applied organic manure led to the succession of soil microbial community, as a response, the changed microbial community and their activities influenced the turnover of exogenous and native soil organic matter, as well as the residuals of decomposition and microbial metabolisms.

Chen, Ruirui; Lin, Xiangui; Feng, Youzhi; Hu, Junli; Wang, Ruirui

2014-05-01

278

Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients  

PubMed Central

Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age.

2013-01-01

279

CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING  

SciTech Connect

Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of x-rays in high Z elements.

HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.

2001-08-01

280

Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light,...

A. Chakrabarti A. Stoecker H. Schatten

1995-01-01

281

Growth, Root Formation, and Nutrient Value of Triticale Plants Fertilized with Biosolids  

PubMed Central

Biosolids are utilized as nutrient rich fertilizer. Little material is available on benefits to forage crops resulting from fertilization with biosolids. This paper aimed to compare the effects of fertilization with biosolids versus commercial nitrogen fertilizer on growth, root formation, and nutrient value of triticale plants in a greenhouse experiment. Per treatment, five pots were seeded with five triticale seeds each. Treatments included a nonfertilized control, fertilization with 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500?ml biosolids per pot, and fertilization with a commercial nitrogen fertilizer at the recommended application rate and at double that rate. Biomass production, root length, root diameter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration were analyzed at harvest. Fertilization with biosolids increased triticale production (P < 0.001); production was similar for the 100 to 400?mL treatments. Root length, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentration increased, and potassium concentration decreased linearly with application rate. At the recommended rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and commercial fertilizer. However, plants fertilized with commercial fertilizer had considerably longer roots (P < 0.001), higher nitrogen concentration (P < 0.05), and lower potassium concentration (P < 0.01) than those fertilized with biosolids. Our results indicate that at the recommended application rate, biomass production was similar between fertilization with biosolids and with commercial nitrogen fertilizer, indicating the value of biosolids fertilization as a potential alternative.

Rauw, Wendy Mercedes; Teglas, Michael Bela; Chandra, Sudeep; Forister, Matthew Lewis

2012-01-01

282

Soil chemical and microbiological properties in hay production systems: residual effects of contrasting N fertilization of swine lagoon effluent versus ammonium nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterized soil chemical and microbiological properties in hay production systems that received from 0 to 600 kg\\u000a plant-available N (PAN) ha?1 year?1 from either swine lagoon effluent (SLE) or ammonium nitrate (AN) from 1999 to 2001. The forage systems contained plots planted\\u000a with bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) or endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae Schreb.). In March 2004, the plots

Kannan Iyyemperumal; James Green Jr; Daniel W. Israel; Noah N. Ranells; Wei Shi

2008-01-01

283

Absolute age determination. Physical and chemical dating methods and their application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrum of physical and chemical dating methods now covers the entire range of Earth history. But there are so many methods that it is becoming increasingly difficult to select those that are appropriate for solving a specific problem. The objective of this book is to cover the whole spectrum of methods and to give examples of their applications. Contents:

M. A. Geyh; H. Schleicher

1990-01-01

284

APPLICABILITY OF U.S. EPA RISK ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES FOR CHEMICAL MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA published Guidelines for the health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures in September, 1986. To facilitate the application of Guidelines procedures the Agency has developed a data base on known toxicological interactions (synergism, etc.). This unique resource allos ...

285

CYTOKINE PROFILING FOR CHEMICAL SENSITIZERS: APPLICATION OF THE RIBONUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAY AND EFFECT OF DOSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Cytokine Profiling for Chemical Sensitizers: Application of the Ribonuclease Protection Assay and Effect of Dose. L.M. Plitnick1, S.E. Loveless3, G.S. Ladics3, M.P. Holsapple4, M.J. Selgrade2, D.M. Sailstad2 and R.J. Smialowicz2. 1UNC, Curriculum in Toxicology, Chapel Hill, NC a...

286

EVALUATION OF POLYESTER AND METALLIZED-POLYETHYLENE FILMS FOR CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The permeation resistance of thin polyester films and metallized, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films was evaluated to assess their feasibility for use in chemical protective clothing applications. For a 0.002 cm polyester film, permeation tests were conducted with acetone, car...

287

Application of a telescopic resonator to high-power chemical oxygen-iodine lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of an intraresonator telescope to high-power chemical oxygen-iodine lasers to decrease the output beam divergence is analyzed and demonstrated. A theoretical formula based on the ABCD matrix theory is developed to analyze the characteristics of the telescopic resonator. Calculations are carried out using Galilean type telescopes with magnification factors in the range of two to four, and our

Sanichiro Yoshida; Kouki Shimizu; Hari Tahil; Ikuzo Tanaka

1994-01-01

288

Numerical modeling of D-mappings with applications to chemical kinetics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical modeling of D-mappings was studied and applied to solving nonlinear stiff systems. These mappings were locally linearized for convergence analysis, and some applications were made to chemical kinetics. The technique avoids using multistep implicit codes that require inversion of Jacobian matrices, but depends on the Jacobians for its convergence analysis.

Dey, S. K.

1984-01-01

289

Chemical applications carried out by local pair natural orbital based coupled-cluster methods.  

PubMed

The scope of this review is to provide a brief overview of the chemical applications carried out by local pair natural orbital coupled-electron pair and coupled-cluster methods. Benchmark tests reveal that these methods reproduce, with excellent accuracy, their canonical counterparts. At the same time, the speed up achieved by exploiting the locality of the electron correlation permits us to tackle chemical systems that, due to their size, would normally only be addressable with density functional theory. This review covers a broad variety of the chemical applications e.g. simulation of transition metal catalyzed reactions, estimation of weak interactions, and calculation of lattice properties in molecular crystals. This demonstrates that modern implementations of wavefunction-based correlated methods are playing an increasingly important role in applied computational chemistry. PMID:24676339

Sparta, Manuel; Neese, Frank

2014-07-21

290

Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometer for nonintrusive detection and identification of chemical warfare compounds  

SciTech Connect

Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a nonintrusive liquid characterization technique developed specifically for detecting and identifying chemical warfare (CW) compounds inside sealed munitions. The SFAI technique can rapidly (less than 20 seconds) and accurately determine sound speed and sound attenuation of a liquid inside a container over a wide frequency range (1 kHz-15 MHz). From the frequency-dependent sound attenuation measurement, liquid density is determined. These three physical properties are used to uniquely identify the CW compounds. In addition, various chemical relaxation processes in liquids and particle size distribution in emulsions can also be determined from the frequency-dependent attenuation measurement. The SFAI instrument is battery-operated and highly portable (< 6 lb.). The instrument has many potential application in industry ranging from sensitive detection (ppm level) of contamination to process control. The theory of the technique will be described and examples of several chemical industry applications will be presented.

Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Han, W.; Lizon, D.; Kogan, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Electronic Materials and Devices Group

1997-12-01

291

Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use model chromosomes to simulate the processes of mitosis, meiosis and fertilization, and they answer questions designed to promote student understanding of these processes. The principle that genes are inherited through the processes of meiosis and fertilization is demonstrated by analyzing a simulation of meiosis and fertilization that uses model chromosomes with different alleles of a gene. Students also learn how a mistake in meiosis can result in Down Syndrome.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid; Poethig, Scott; Spindler, Lori

292

Fertilizer use and price statistics, 1960-1991. Statistical bulletin  

SciTech Connect

Fertilizer consumption grew rapidly throughout the 1960's and 1970's and peaked at 23.7 million nutrient tons in 1981. After falling to 18.1 million tons in 1983, use has remained relatively stable, ranging from 19.1 million to 21.8 million tons in 1984-91. Use declined from its peak level because of fewer planted acres and stabilizing rates of application. Retail fertilizer prices, while stable or declining during the 1960's, have varied widely since 1973. The bulletin includes quarterly or semiannual time series for retail fertilizer prices, annual retail and wholesale fertilizer price indexes, fertilizer consumption by plant nutrient and major selected products, consumption of mixed fertilizers and secondary and micronutrients, and statistics on fertilizer use per acre by nutrient in the major producing States for corn, cotton, soybeans, and wheat.

Vroomen, H.; Taylor, H.

1992-11-01

293

Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max).  

PubMed

Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 ± 7.4?nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication. PMID:25023201

Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

2014-01-01

294

Controlled-release fertilizer (CRF): a green fertilizer for controlling non-point contamination in agriculture.  

PubMed

Fertilizers contribute greatly to high yields but also result in environmental non-point contamination, including the emission of greenhouse gas (N2O) and eutrophication of water bodies. How to solve this problem has become a serious challenge, especially for China as its high ecological pressure. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF) has been developed to minimize the contamination while keeping high yield and has become a green fertilizer for agriculture. Several CRFs made with special coating technology were used for testing the fertilizer effects in yield and environment through pot experiment and field trial. The result indicated that the CRFs had higher N use efficiency, thus reducing N loss through leaching and volatilization while keeping higher yields. Comparing with imported standard CRFs, the test on CRFs showed similar fertilizer effect but with much lower cost. CRFs application is becoming a new approach for minimizing non-point contamination in agriculture. PMID:16295884

Mao, Xiao-yun; Sun, Ke-jun; Wang, De-han; Liao, Zong-wen

2005-01-01

295

Fertility after breast cancer treatment.  

PubMed

In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established fertility preservation strategy, providing a 25-35% chance of pregnancy. In addition, oocyte freezing can be considered as an alternative in patients who are single and in those who do not wish a sperm donor. Although ovarian tissue harvesting appears to be safe, experience regarding ovarian transplantation is still limited due to low utilization, so the true value of this procedure remains to be determined. Nevertheless, in clinical situations in which chemotherapy needs to be started in young patients facing premature ovarian failure, ovarian tissue preservation seems to be a promising option for restoring fertility, especially in conjunction with other options like immature oocyte retrieval, in vitro maturation of oocytes, oocyte vitrification, or embryo cryopreservation. It seems that in vitro maturation is a useful strategy because it improves oocyte or cryopreservation outcome in breast cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation. PMID:24315568

Kasum, Miro; Beketi?-Oreškovi?, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Oreškovi?, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

2014-02-01

296

APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS  

SciTech Connect

The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach

2001-05-01

297

Chemically amplified, thick film, i-line positive resist for electroplating and redistribution applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adapting chemically amplified (CA) resist technology to thick film applications is demonstrated in this paper over a wide range of thicknesses and types of substrates. Substantial performance differences were observed over copper (Cu) substrates compared to silicon (Si). These differences are attributed to different photo acid generator (PAG) distribution in the resist depth influenced by its structure and the nature of the substrate. Optimized resist formulations were developed to provide acceptable performance on Cu wafers. A family of new chemically amplified thick film resist products is being introduced to the market. This technology offers significant advantages in throughput and performance over conventional novolak / diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ) products at a competitive cost.

Toukhy, Medhat; Mullen, Salem; Paunescu, Margareta; Chen, Chunwei; Meyer, Stephen; Pawlowski, Georg; Murakami, Yoshio; Hamel, Clifford

2006-03-01

298

APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS  

SciTech Connect

The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May

2000-04-01

299

Morphology tailoring of nano/micro-structured conductive polymers, composites and their applications in chemical sensors.  

PubMed

Conductive polymer is one of the important multi-functional materials. It has many applications in light-emitting diodes, chemical sensors, biosensors, et al. This paper provides a relatively comprehensive review on the progress of conductive polymer and composite as sensitive film for sensors to chemical vapors including patents, papers and our preliminary research results. Especially, the feature of conjugated polymers, the processing technology, doping characteristics and some factors affecting gas responses are discussed. Otherwise, the developments of nanostructured conductive polymer and organic-inorganic hybrid film sensor with high sensitivity and rapid response to vapors are also described, and some suggestions are proposed. PMID:20615192

Ma, Xingfa; Gao, Mingjun; He, Xiaochun; Li, Guang

2010-11-01

300

New Developments in Fertilizer Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exhibits and descriptions are presented for granular fertilizers, fluid fertilizers, slow-release fertilizers, agronomic research, and some pilot-plant and plant demonstrations are described. (ERA citation 09:002539)

1983-01-01

301

Fertility of American Men.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first report issued by the Census Bureau focusing on the fertility patterns of American men. Earlier studies on fertility published by the Bureau since the late 1940s have only analyzed data for women from either decennial censuses or fertilit...

A. Bachu

1996-01-01

302

Organic Citrus: Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing realization of the ill effects of long sustained, exclusive use of chemical fertilizers, and consistent growing demand from the consumers for fruit quality, coupled with unsustainable productivity of citrus, have fostered experimentation with some alternative cultural practices. Organic culture is claimed to be the most benign alternative. Use of organic materials such as farmyard manure, cakes of plant origin,

A. K. Srivastava; Shyam Singh; R. A. Marathe

2002-01-01

303

Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC`s Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across` the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

Scheib, R.M. [ed.

1991-11-01

304

[Environmental factors disturbing fertility of men].  

PubMed

In the last 50 years a significant decrease in human fertility has been observed. The result of research indicate that 6% of men aged 15-44 years are infertile or their fertility is significantly compromised. It has also been stated that 15% of couples have fertility problems. Among infertile couples it is a man who is responsible for 50% cases of infertility. Test results show that hormonal disturbances and abnormalities in semen production belong to main causes of infertility, while anatomic anomalie can be responsible for infertility only in few cases. Various chemical substances which appear in the environment may disturb fertility of men. Polluted soil, water and air are the sources of constant exposure to xenobiotics. Substances disturbing hormonal balance (endocrine disruptors) such as pesticide, dioxins and organic solvents cause the highest danger. Improper work conditions such as too high temperature, radiation, exposure to harmful substances also have negative influence on reproductive abilities of men. In addition, it has been noticed that both, some drugs and past infections of reproductive system may have a negative impact on fertility. Studies carried out in recent years have proven that improper lifestyle such as inadequate diet, alcohol abuse, smoking and long-term stress exposure can be the reason for fertility distrurbances in men. The latest findings have stressed genetic factors which may influence reproductive abilities of men. PMID:16736976

Stefankiewicz, Joanna; Kurzawa, Rafa?; Drozdzik, Marek

2006-02-01

305

Evaluate Effectiveness of Bio and Mineral Fertilization on the Growth Parameters and Marketable Cut Flowers of Matthiola incana L  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Biofertilizer has been identified as an alternative to chemical fertilizer to increase soil fertility and crop production in sustainable farming. The objective of this greenhouse study was to evaluate the effects of chemical fertilizers (N and P) against two biofertilizers containing N-fixer bacteria (Azotobacter chroococcum) and P solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus megaterium) and ATP (adinosine tri-phosphate) on the growth

A. Rawia Eid; M. Nemat Awad; H. A. Hamouda

2009-01-01

306

Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at moderate levels (67 kg N ha-1). Increasing fertilizer application beyond the point of diminishing returns for grain (67 kg N ha-1) to double the regionally-recommended amount (202 kg N ha-1) resulted in only marginal increases (25%) in crop residue carbohydrate yield, while increasing lignin yields 41%. In the case of at least this ecosystem, high fertilization rates did not result in large carbohydrate yield increases in the crop residue, and instead produced a lower quality feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production.

Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

2010-12-01

307

Surface runoff pollution by cattle slurry and inorganic fertilizer spreading: chemical oxygen demand, ortho-phosphates, and electrical conductivity levels for different buffer strip lengths.  

PubMed

As a way of dealing with the removal of pollutants from farming practices generated wastewater in the EU, we investigate the effect of spreading cattle slurry and inorganic fertiliser on 8 x 5 m2 and 8 x 3 m2 areas, referred to surface runoff chemical oxygen demand (COD), ortho-phosphates (o-P) and electrical conductivity (EC) levels, and the efficiency of grass buffer strips of various lengths in removing pollutants from runoff. The experimental plot was a 15% sloped Lolium perenne pasture. Surface runoff was generated by means of a rainfall simulator working at 47 mm h-1 rainfall intensity. Runoff was sampled by using Gerlach-type troughs situated 2, 4, 6 and 8 m downslope from the amended areas. During the first rainfall simulation, COD, o-P and EC levels were consistently higher in the slurry zone, more evidently in the larger amended area. During the second and third rainfall simulations, concentration and mass levels show a downslope drift into the buffer zones, with no clear buffer strip length attenuation. Correlation between runoff and mass drift is clearly higher in the slurry zone. Percentage attenuation in COD and o-P levels, referred to initial slurry concentrations--including rainfall dilution--were higher than 98%, and higher than 90% for EC. PMID:11496670

Núñez-Delgado, A; López-Periago, E; Quiroga-Lago, F; Díaz-Fierros Viqueira, F

2001-01-01

308

Corn yield and shifts among corn quality constituents following application of different nitrogen fertilizer sources at several times during corn development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corn plants grown under higher nitrogen (N) fertility have a higher grain protein concentration. However, it is not known whether the increased protein concentration is due to decreases in the concentration of non?structural carbohydrate (energy content approximately equal to protein), lipid (energy content approximately 2.5 times that of protein), or other components (largely structural carbohydrate). An increase in protein concentration

Feng Zhang; Angus F. Mackenzie; Donald L. Smith

1993-01-01

309

The Impact of Simulated Acid Rain and Fertilizer Application on a Mature Sugar Maple (Acer Saccharum Marsh.) Forstt in Central Ontario Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two year's addition of simulated acid precipitation, with and without added fertilizer, on mycorrhizae, litter decomposition and soil and tree chemistry in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) dominated forest were investigated. The forest floor beneath mature sugar maple trees was irrigated at monthly intervals between May and September with local lake water acidified to pH 3,

Thomas C. Hutchinson; Shaun A. Watmough; Eric P. S. Sager; Jim D. Karagatzides

1999-01-01

310

[Advances on investigation of chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Capparis spinosa].  

PubMed

In this paper, the chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Capparis spinosa had been reviewed. The constituents of C. spinosa include the saccharides and glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and volatile oils, fatty acids and steroides and so on. C. spinosa had many extensive pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, odynolysis, antifungus, hepatoprotective effect, hypoglycemic activity, antioxidation, anti-hyperlipemia, anticoagulated blood, smooth muscle stimulation, anti-stress reaction, improve memory. It was used to treat arthrolithiasis, rheumarthritis and dermatosis in clinic in domestic, and it would have a broad application prospects. PMID:19149246

Yang, Tao; Liu, Yu-Qing; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

2008-11-01

311

Development of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, fire detection, and environmental monitoring. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to issues of selectivity and cross-sensitivity, individual sensors are limited in the amount of information that they can provide in environments that contain multiple chemical species. Thus, sensor arrays are being developed to address detection needs in such multi-species environments. This paper discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, hydrazine, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, W. H.; Ward, B.; Makel, D.

2002-01-01

312

Silicon nitride deposited by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposititon for micromachining applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the influence of the process parameters pressure and flow on the room-temperature deposition of electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ECR-PECVD) of silicon nitride has been performed. The suitability of these films for micromachining applications has been studied, in particular for the use with KOH:isopropyl:H2O etching solutions. The deposition rate and the effect of process

Roberto R. Panepucci; Jose A. Diniz; Eduardo Carli; Peter J. Tatschi; Jacobus W. Swart

1998-01-01

313

Total-Internal-Reflection Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sensing platforms based on the principle of total internal reflection (TIR) represent a fairly mature yet still expanding\\u000a and exciting field of research. Sensor development has mainly been driven by the need for rapid, stand-alone, automated devices\\u000a for application in the fields of clinical diagnosis and screening, food and water safety, environmental monitoring, and chemical\\u000a and biological warfare agent detection.

Kim E. Sapsford

314

SONAR-BASED VOLUMETRIC FLOW METER FOR CHEMICAL AND PETROCHEMICAL APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sonar-based flow measurement technology, capable of clamp-on flow measurement of single and multiphase flow applications within the chemical and petrochemical industries, is described. Developed and field proven in oil and gas production industry over the last five years, sonar-based flow measurement technology provides robust accurate volumetric flow rate measurement for a broad range of process fluids, slurries, pipes sizes

Daniel L. Gysling; Douglas H. Loose

315

Evaluating electric-resistance-welded tubing for refinery and chemical plant applications  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory technique was developed to assess the potential for preferential attack along the longitudinal seam of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) carbon steel tubing exposed to refinery and chemical plant process streams. Used in conjunction with an evaluation of mill fabrication practices, the test procedure can identify high-quality ERW products that can be used in many applications in place of seamless components at significant cost savings.

Polk, C.J.; Hotaling, A.C. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States))

1993-02-01

316

Evaluating electric-resistance-welded tubing for refinery and chemical plant applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory technique was developed to assess the potential for preferential attack along the longitudinal seam of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) carbon steel tubing exposed to refinery and chemical plant process streams. Used in conjunction with an evaluation of mill fabrication practices, the test procedure can identify high-quality ERW products that can be used in many applications in place of seamless components

C. J. Polk; A. C. Hotaling

1993-01-01

317

Nanomaterials and nanotechnologies in chemical and biochemical sensors: Capabilities and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The publications reporting on the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnologies in chemical and biochemical sensor designing were\\u000a reviewed for the recent decade. The capabilities and applications were discussed for nanoparticles based on gold, silver,\\u000a magnetic and semiconductor materials (quantum dots), lanthanides, and silica compounds, as well as for nanotubes and nanolayers\\u000a (Langmuir-Blodgett films, selfassembled monolayers) used in optical (absorbance, luminescence,

S. N. Shtykov; T. Yu. Rusanova

2008-01-01

318

Design and functionality of colloidal-crystal-templated materials--chemical applications of inverse opals.  

PubMed

Templating with colloidal crystals composed of monodisperse spheres is a convenient chemical method to obtain porous materials with well-ordered periodicity and interconnected pore systems. The three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) products or inverse opals are of interest for numerous applications, both for the optical properties related to structural color of these photonic crystal materials and because of their bicontinuous nanostructure, i.e., a continuous nanostructured skeleton with large interfacial area and a three-dimensionally interconnected pore system with low tortuosity. This review outlines various synthetic methods used to control the morphology of 3DOM materials with different compositions. It highlights aspects of the choice of colloidal particles, assembly of the colloidal crystal template, infiltration and processing, template removal, and other necessary modifications to enhance the functionality of the materials. It also considers syntheses within the confinement of 3DOM materials and summarizes characterization methods that are particularly useful in the analysis of 3DOM materials. The review then discusses chemical applications of 3DOM materials, namely sorption and controlled release, optical and electrochemical sensors, solar cells, lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, and environmental and chemical fuel catalysis. A focus is on structural features and materials properties that enable these applications. PMID:23079696

Stein, Andreas; Wilson, Benjamin E; Rudisill, Stephen G

2013-04-01

319

Applications of a versatile technique for trace analysis: atmospheric pressure negative chemical ionization.  

PubMed Central

The ability to use ambient air as a carrier and reagent gas in an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source allows instantaneous air analysis to be combined with hypersensitivity toward a wide variety of compounds. The TAGA (Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyser) is an instrument which is designed to use both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) for trace gas analysis; this paper describes several applications of negative APCI which demonstrates that the technique is not limited to environmental monitoring. Examples are described which suggest that the TAGA can be used for the detection of illicit drugs and explosives, and for the analysis of breath or skin emissions, as well as for air pollution measurements. The applications are not restricted by the use of ambient air as a reagent gas; addition to the air carrier of various gases allows specific reagent ions such as Cl- or Br- to be generated. Furthermore, in certain situations pure gas carriers can be used to provide even more flexibility in the ion chemistry, with a short term absorber-desorber system used to transfer the sample from the ambient air into the ion source region. The potential uses for APCI are expanding continuously as the understanding of the complex ion-molecule chemistry grows. This paper underlines the complementary relation between the development of new negative chemical ionization (NCI) techniques and practical applications using the TAGA system.

Thomson, B A; Davidson, W R; Lovett, A M

1980-01-01

320

Sample preparation for combined chemical analysis and in vitro bioassay application in water quality assessment.  

PubMed

The combination of in vitro bioassays and chemical screening can provide a powerful toolbox to determine biologically relevant compounds in water extracts. In this study, a sample preparation method is evaluated for the suitability for both chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays. A set of 39 chemicals were spiked to surface water, which were extracted using Oasis MCX cartridges. The extracts were chemically analyzed by liquid chromatography linear ion trap Orbitrap analysis and recoveries appeared to be on average 61% Compounds with logK(ow) values in the range between 0 and 4 are recovered well using this method. In a next step, the same extracts were tested for genotoxic activity using the Comet assay and Ames fluctuation test and for specific endocrine receptor activation using a panel of CALUX assays, for estrogenic (ER), androgenic (AR), glucocorticoid (GR), progestagenic (PR), and thyroidogenic (TR) agonistic activities. The results of the genotoxicity assays indicated that spiked genotoxic compounds were preserved during sample preparation. The measured responses of the GR CALUX and ER CALUX assays were similar to the predicted responses. The measured responses in the AR CALUX and PR CALUX assays were much lower than expected from the analytical concentration, probably due to antagonistic effects of some spiked compounds. Overall, the presented sample preparation method seems to be suitable for both chemical analysis and specific in vitro bioassay applications. PMID:24216068

Kolkman, Annemieke; Schriks, Merijn; Brand, Walter; Bäuerlein, Patrick S; van der Kooi, Margaretha M E; van Doorn, René H; Emke, Erik; Reus, Astrid A; van der Linden, Sander C; de Voogt, Pim; Heringa, Minne B

2013-11-01

321

A Sodium-Nitrate-Based, Water-Soluble, Granular Fertilizer for Sport Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested a granular, water-soluble, sodium-nitrate-based fertilizer (8% N, 24% P2O5, 15% K2O, and trace elements; per application rates of 8 and 16 kg\\/ha) for potential use in freshwater sport fish ponds and compared it with a liquid fertilization program commonly used in the United States. At 16 kg\\/ha application, the sodium-nitrate-based fertilizer was as effective as the liquid fertilizer

Yalcin Tepe; Claude E. Boyd

2001-01-01

322

Nitrogen fertilization of switchgrass increases biomass yield and improves net greenhouse gas balance in northern Michigan, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) fertilization can increase bioenergy crop production; however, fertilizer production and application can contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, potentially undermining the GHG benefits of bioenergy crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on GHG emissions and biomass production of switchgrass bioenergy crop, in northern Michigan. Nitrogen fertilization treatments included 0 kg ha?1 (control),

Paligwende Nikièma; David E. Rothstein; Doo-Hong Min; Christian J. Kapp

2011-01-01

323

A Web Service Infrastructure and its Application for Distributed Chemical Equilibrium Computation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

W3C standardized Web Services are becoming an increasingly popular middleware technology used to facilitate the open exchange of data and perform distributed computation. In this paper we propose a modern alternative to commonly used software applications such as STANJAN and NASA CEA for performing chemical equilibrium analysis in a platform-independent manner in combustion, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics research. Our approach is based on the next generation style of computational software development that relies on loosely-coupled network accessible software components called Web Services. While several projects in existence use Web Services to wrap existing commercial and open-source tools to mine thermodynamic data, no Web Service infrastructure has yet been developed to provide the thermal science community with a collection of publicly accessible remote functions for performing complex computations involving reacting flows. This work represents the first effort to provide such an infrastructure where we have developed a remotely accessible software service that allows developers of thermodynamics and combustion software to perform complex, multiphase chemical equilibrium computation with relative ease. Coupled with the data service that we have already built, we show how the use of this service can be integrated into any numerical application and invoked within commonly used commercial applications such as Microsoft Excel and MATLAB® for use in computational work. A rich internet application (RIA) is presented in this work to demonstrate some of the features of these newly created Web Services.

Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Paolini, Christopher P.; Patterson, Mark

324

Contact Irritant Responses of Aedes aegypti Using Sublethal Concentration and Focal Application of Pyrethroid Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. Methods Contact irritancy (escape) behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru) using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC) of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. Results Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR) resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at <100% SAC using ½FAR of all test compounds. In most trials, KD and 24 hour mortality rates were higher in mosquitoes that did not escape than in those that escaped. In Thailand, field validation studies indicated an early time of exit (by four hours) and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. Conclusions/Significance Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human–vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is currently unknown and will depend on rate of biting on human hosts prior to house exiting.

Manda, Hortance; Shah, Pankhil; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Morrison, Amy; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Grieco, John P.; Achee, Nicole L.

2013-01-01

325

Soil carbon and nitrogen variations in wheat-corn double cropping systems under long-term fertilization in China (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term field measurements of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) are crucial for understanding soil carbon and nitrogen cycles. In this study, we analyze SOC and TN dynamics at four long-term experiment sites under wheat-corn cropping rotation in East China. Here we choose a control (no fertilization) and two fertilization treatments: chemical fertilization (NPK) and chemical fertilization with

R. Cong; M. Xu; X. Wang; W. Zhang

2010-01-01

326

North American fertilizer capacity data  

SciTech Connect

This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

Not Available

1991-12-01

327

TCRC Fertility Page  

MedlinePLUS

... and then use the sperm in conjunction with artificial insemination , IVF or ICSI . Fertility and Chemotherapy: The chemotherapy ... the high probability of an indefinite period of infertility following chemotherapy, we strongly recommend that men facing ...

328

Loss of Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer, the best chance for fertility is sperm banking. Semen containing sperm is frozen in liquid nitrogen ... used for artificial insemination. As an alternative to banking sperm, extracting sperm directly from the testicles might ...

329

Fertility differentials in Nepal.  

PubMed

With the realization of the importance of fertility studies, a national fertility survey was carried out in Nepal in 1976 by the Nepal Family Planning and Maternal and Child Health Project (MCP) in collaboration with the World Fertility Survey. The present study is based on data from this survey and examines fertility differentials by socioeconomic groups in Nepal. The present analysis concerns the information on children everborn to women by various regions and groups by marital durations. As many Nepalese ethnic groups practice child marriage, a careful distinction was made in the questionnaire between the date of marriage contracted and the start of cohabitation. Furthermore, if the age at cohabitation was less than the reported age at menarche, then the latter was instead taken as the initiation of potential fertility. Thus an attempt was made to define marriage in terms of the onset of exposure to risk of childbearing. The variables that are included in the study are region of residence, literacy of the respondent and her husband, educational attainment of the respondent and her husband, religion and ethnic group. Numbers of children everborn to these groups of women were standardized for marital duration of all women in order to establish whether the observed differences in children ever born are due to the variable itself or to differences in marital duration. Marital duration is found to have the greatest effect on fertility. In the shorter marital durations, the fertility of women marrying at younger ages seems to be depressed by the effect of adolescent sterility and subfecundity. There is a negative and statistically significant correlation between the age at marriage and mean number of children everborn. Women in the mountains have lower fertility than women in the hills and terai. The unstandardized mean number of children everborn seems to suggest that uneducated women have higher fertility than educated women, but when marital duration is taken into account there is virtually no difference in the number of children born. The number of children is lower among women whose husbands are educated and even with standardization for marital duration some difference remains, suggesting some direct effect. The education of women only indirectly affects fertility through age at marriage. However, the extremely low proportion of educated in the country means that this factor will have only a slight effect on fertility. PMID:6885853

Gubhaju, B

1983-07-01

330

Inequality and fertility.  

PubMed

This article focuses on the relationship between inequality and fertility, with empirical analysis only of direct influences. Whereas much of the literature seems to be based on 0-order correlations, the present study uses multiple regression analysis to test the strength of the evidence for a relationship between inequality and fertility when competing hypotheses are also considered. In addition, this study attempts to clarify some of the issues surrounding the measurement of inequality and to show how these may affect empirical results. It appears from the results presented here that research into the relative status of women as an influence on fertility holds considerable promise. In particular, it is interesting that a measure of the relative status of women (ratio of female school enrollment to male school enrollment) that is highly correlated with absolute educational status of people in the nation in general, and even more highly correlated with absolute educational status of women, emerges as one of 3 important predictors of fertility. The other measure of the relative educational status of women (female school enrollment ratio minus male school enrollment ratio), which has lower correlations with absolute educational status both of women and people in general, does not appear important, although it should be an equally valid indicator of women's status. It also has lower correlations with total fertility rates. 1 focus of further research should be an attempt to disentangle the effects of the relative status of women from absolute status of women and absolute status of people in the nation as a whole. Less promising is the prospect of future work on the relationship between income inequaltiy and fertility. The results are unencouraging with respect to both sampling problems and the actual magnitude of the effect of inequality on fertility. Overall, it appears that the importance of income inequality as an influence on fertility may have been overstated in the past. PMID:12267376

Menard, S

1985-01-01

331

The Discovery Approach to NMR: Development of Chemical-Shift Additivity Tables and Application to Product Identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discovery-based approach to the preparation and application of chemical-shift additivity tables is presented to give students insight into the development of NMR spectral prediction software. The chemical shift of each proton in meta-dinitrobenzene is first assigned on the basis of the expected coupling constants (ortho, meta, and para) around a benzene ring. These chemical shifts are used to determine the chemical shift additivity for a nitro group ortho, meta, or para to hydrogen on a benzene nucleus. The chemical shift additivities obtained are then used to predict the NMR spectrum of the product of nitration of methylbenzoate.

Bosch, Eric

2000-07-01

332

Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

1994-01-01

333

Measuring adsorption, diffusion and flow in chemical engineering: applications of magnetic resonance to porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are increasingly used to improve our understanding of the multi-component, multi-phase processes encountered in chemical engineering. This review brings together many of the MR techniques used, and often developed specifically, to study chemical engineering systems and, in particular, processes occurring within porous media. Pulse sequences for relaxometry, pulsed field gradient measurements of diffusion, imaging and velocimetry measurements are described. Recent applications of these MR pulse sequences to microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structures are then reviewed. Considering the microporous and mesoporous systems, we focus attention on studies of rock cores, manufactured materials such as cement and gypsum plaster, and catalysts. When considering macroporous structures, the transport through packed beds of particles typical of fixed-bed catalytic reactors is reviewed; a brief overview of the increasing research interest in gas-solid fluidized beds is also presented. We highlight the field of sparse k-space sampling as an area that is in its infancy and suggest that, combined with Bayesian methods, it will offer new opportunities in both extending the application of high-field MR techniques to chemical engineering and increasing the range of measurements that can be carried out using low-field hardware.

Gladden, Lynn F.; Mitchell, Jonathan

2011-03-01

334

TVA`s coproduction of electricity and fertilizer project  

SciTech Connect

TVA is proposing to develop and commercially demonstrate the coproduction of electricity and fertilizer using integrated gasification/combined cycle (IGCC) technology. The Coproduction Demonstration Project (CDP) will show that coproduction of chemicals with electricity can economically and environmentally enhance the production of electric power from coal. The proposed CDP will be a nominal 250-M plant. During normal operation, the CDP will produce about 150 MW of base-load capacity and 1000 tons per day (TPD) of urea. Sulfur is recovered either as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur. During peak power demand, the fertilizer capacity can be bypassed, and the full 250 MW can be produced. Subsequent IGCC/fertilizer coproduction (IGCC/F) plants may convert only 20 to 25 percent of the plant`s capacity as fertilizer or other chemicals, depending on optimum IGCC/F operating conditions. The coproduction of electricity and fertilizer allows the continuous operation of the capital intensive gasification-related process units at 100-percent capacity, while varying the amount of electricity produced from 60 percent to 100 percent of rated capacity. Coproduction also will further reduce the annual revenue requirements for power generation by the coproduction of the higher valued fertilizer coproduct. Since nitrogen fertilizers are produced from natural gas, the real escalation of natural gas prices in the 1990s is expected to result in significant price increases in natural gas-based chemicals, especially fertilizers. The overall risk of producing revenues is reduced because two countercyclic coproducts are produced. Electricity has peak demands in the summer and winter while fertilizer`s peak demand is in the spring.

Bradshaw, D.T.; Wright, T.L. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Faucett, H.L.; Weatherington, R.W. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States)

1991-12-31

335

Chemical stimulation of adherent cells by localized application of acetylcholine from a microfluidic system.  

PubMed

Chemical stimulation of cells is inherently cell type selective in contrast to electro-stimulation. The availability of a system for localized application of minute amounts of chemical stimulants could be useful for dose related response studies to test new compounds. It could also bring forward the development of a novel type of neuroprostheses. In an experimental setup microdroplets of an acetylcholine solution were ejected from a fluidic microsystem and applied to the bottom of a nanoporous membrane. The solution traveled through the pores to the top of the membrane on which TE671 cells were cultivated. Calcium imaging was used to visualize cellular response with temporal and spatial resolution. Experimental demonstration of chemical stimulation for both threshold gated stimulation as well as accumulated dose-response was achieved by either employing acetylcholine as chemical stimulant or applying calcein uptake, respectively. Numerical modeling and simulation of transport mechanisms involved were employed to gain a theoretical understanding of the influence of pore size, concentration of stimulant and droplet volume on the spatial-temporal distribution of stimulant and on the cellular response. Diffusion, pressure driven flow and evaporation effects were taken into account. Fast stimulation kinetic is achieved with pores of 0.82??m diameter, whereas sustained substance delivery is obtained with nanoporous membranes. In all cases threshold concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 0.015 ?M acetylcholine independent of pore size were determined. PMID:21151808

Zibek, Susanne; Hagmeyer, Britta; Stett, Alfred; Stelzle, Martin

2010-01-01

336

Synthesis and characterizations of ferrite nanomaterials for phenyl hydrazine chemical sensor applications.  

PubMed

This paper presents the synthesis, characterization and phenyl hydrazine chemical sensing applications of Cd0.5Mg0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized by facile and simple co-precipitation method and characterized in detail in terms of their morphological, structural, compositional and electrical properties. The detailed characterization studies revealed that the prepared nanoparticles are grown in high density, possessing Cd0.5Mg0.5Fe2O4 composition and exhibiting spinel cubic structure. Moreover, the prepared Cd0.5Mg0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles were used as efficient electron mediators for the fabrication of high-sensitive, robust, reliable and reproducible phenyl hydrazine chemical sensor by simple I-V technique. The fabricated chemical sensor exhibits a highsensitivity of 7.01 microA mM(-1) cm(-2) with an experimental detection limit of 3.125 mM in a short response time of -10.0 s. This work demonstrates that Cd0.5Mg0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles can efficiently be utilized for the fabrication of highly sensitive and reliable chemical sensors. PMID:24734630

Al-Heniti, S H; Umar, Ahmad; Zaki, H M; Dar, G N; Al-Ghamdi, A A; Kim, S H

2014-05-01

337

Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage.  

PubMed

Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme. PMID:21853522

Tamis, Jacqueline E; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Karman, Chris C; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

2012-04-01

338

Weather, Fertilizer, Previous Year Yield, and Fertilizer Levels Affect Ensuing Year Fertilizer Response of Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response to fertilizer is a function of several factors including weather, soil condition, previous year yield level, and the actual amount of fertilizer applied. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate if cumulative precipitation (PPT), growing degree days (GDD), soil moisture (SM) and fertilizer can explain variability in long-term grain yield and fertilizer response index (RI); to assess

Kefyalew Girma; Starr L. Holtz; Daryl B. Arnall; Lisa M. Fultz; Travis L. Hanks; Kyle D. Lawles; Clinton J. Mack; Kevin W. Owen; Stewart D. Reed; Jesus Santillano; Olga Walsh; Michael J. White; W. R. Raun

2007-01-01

339

Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the central receiver Rankine system, with thermal storage, to determine the relative merit of plants employing a thermochemical system. As an assessment criterion, the busbar energy costs were compared. Separate but comparable solar energy cost computer codes were used for distributed receiver and central receiver systems. Calculations were performed for capacity factors ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. The results indicate that SO2/SO3 technology has the potential to be more cost effective in transporting the collected energy than in storing the energy for the storage capacity range studied (2-15 hours)

Hanseth, E. J.; Won, Y. S.; Seibowitz, L. P.

1980-01-01

340

Application of a reversible chemical reaction system to solar thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three distributed dish solar thermal power systems using various applications of SO2/SO3 chemical energy storage and transport technology were comparatively assessed. Each system features various roles for the chemical system: (1) energy storage only, (2) energy transport, or (3) energy transport and storage. These three systems were also compared with the dish-Stirling, using electrical transport and battery storage, and the central receiver Rankine system, with thermal storage, to determine the relative merit of plants employing a thermochemical system. As an assessment criterion, the busbar energy costs were compared. Separate but comparable solar energy cost computer codes were used for distributed receiver and central receiver systems. Calculations were performed for capacity factors ranging from 0.4 to 0.8. The results indicate that SO2/SO3 technology has the potential to be more cost effective in transporting the collected energy than in storing the energy for the storage capacity range studied (2-15 hours)

Hanseth, E. J.; Won, Y. S.; Seibowitz, L. P.

1980-08-01

341

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2013, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Harris Kagan; K.K. Gan; Richard Kass

2009-03-31

342

Application of a telescopic resonator to high-power chemical oxygen-iodine lasers  

SciTech Connect

The application of an intraresonator telescope to high-power chemical oxygen-iodine lasers to decrease the output beam divergence is analyzed and demonstrated. A theoretical formula based on the ABCD matrix theory is developed to analyze the characteristics of the telescopic resonator. Calculations are carried out using Galilean type telescopes with magnification factors in the range of two to four, and the high-power chemical oxygen-iodine laser as an analysis model. By locating the telescope at a proper position on the optical axis, the overall telescopic resonator can be conveniently tailored to the hardware of this model laser in a way that the beam divergence and the resonator stability can be improved simultaneously. Experiments are carried out for one of the conditions used in the calculations. Measured divergence angles are in excellent agreement with the theoretical values.

Yoshida, Sanichiro; Shimizu, Kouki; Tahil, Hari; Tanaka, Ikuzo (Inst. of Research and Innovation, Chiba (Japan). Laser Lab.)

1994-01-01

343

Metal Nanoparticles Protected with Monolayers: Applications for Chemical Vapor Sensing and Gas Chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticles and nanoparticle-based materials are of considerable interest for their unique properties and their potential for use in a variety of applications. Metal nanoparticles, in which each particle’s surface is coated with a protective organic monolayer, are of particular interest because the surface monolayer stabilizes them relative to aggregation and they can be taken up into solutions.(1-4) As a result they can be processed into thin films for device applications. We will refer to these materials as monolayer-protected nanoparticles, or MPNs. Typically the metal is gold, the organic layer is a self-assembled thiol layer, and this composition will be assumed throughout the remainder of this chapter. A diversity of materials and properties is readily accessible by straightforward synthetic procedures, either by the structures of the monolayer-forming thiols used in the synthesis or by post-synthetic modifications of the monolayers. A particularly promising application for these materials is as selective layers on chemical vapor sensors. In this role, the thin film of MPNs on the device surface serves to collect and concentrate gas molecules at the sensor’s surface. Their sorptive properties also lend them to use as new nanostructured gas chromatographic stationary phases. This chapter will focus on the sorptive properties of MPNs as they relate to chemical sensors and gas chromatography.

Grate, Jay W.; Nelson, David A.; Skaggs, Rhonda L.; Synovec, Robert E.; Gross, Gwen M.

2004-03-31

344

Guidance for Preparing and Managing the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). Cooperative Agreement (CA) Application. Fiscal Year 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Overview of Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) application changes for FY 2006; Program narratives; Work plans for all CSEPP funded personnel; Preparation guidance for CSEPP budget submission; Post award administration; CS...

2005-01-01

345

The Discovery Approach to NMR: Development of Chemical-Shift Additivity Tables and Application to Product Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discovery-based approach to the preparation and application of chemical-shift additivity tables is presented to give students insight into the development of NMR spectral prediction software. The chemical shift of each proton in meta-dinitrobenzene is first assigned on the basis of the expected coupling constants (ortho, meta, and para) around a benzene ring. These chemical shifts are used to determine

Eric Bosch

2000-01-01

346

Winter Wheat Fertilization: Post Ammonium Nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The potential for overwinter losses of nitrogen by denitrification and leaching have led to the recommendation that nitrogen fertilization of winter wheat be done using ammonium nitrate broadcast in the spring. However, spring broadcast application of urea can result in significant loss of nitrogen by volatilization and immobilization by surface residues. Since prilled ammonium nitrate is not available for

R. Byron Irvine; Guy Lafond; Randy Kutcher

347

Advances in radical probe mass spectrometry for protein footprinting in chemical biology applications.  

PubMed

Radical Probe Mass Spectrometry (RP-MS), first introduced in 1999, utilizes hydroxyl radicals generated directly within aqueous solutions using synchrotron radiolysis, electrical discharge, and photochemical laser sources to probe protein structures and their interactions. It achieves this on millisecond and submillisecond timescales that can be used to capture protein dynamics and folding events. Hydroxyl radicals are ideal probes of solvent accessibility as their size approximates a water molecule. Their high reactivity results in oxidation at a multitude of amino acid side chains providing greater structural information than a chemical cross-linker that reacts with only one or few residues. The oxidation of amino acid side chains occurs at rates in accord with the solvent accessibility of the residue so that the extent of oxidation can be quantified to reveal a three-dimensional map or footprint of the protein's surface. Mass spectrometry is central to this analysis of chemical oxidative labelling. This tutorial review, some 15 years on from the first reports, highlights the development and significant growth of the application of RP-MS including its validation and utility with ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), the use of RP-MS data to help model protein complexes, studies of the onset of oxidative damage, and more recent advances that enable high throughput applications through simultaneous protein oxidation and on-plate deposition. The accessibility of the RP-MS technology, by means of a modified electrospray ionization source, enables the approach to be implemented in many laboratories to address a wide range of applications in chemical biology. PMID:24590115

Maleknia, Simin D; Downard, Kevin M

2014-05-21

348

Development of chemical species mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) technique: An application to Artic ozone loss estimate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheme to create synoptic maps of stratospheric minor species from asynoptic satellite measurements by utilizing a photochemical box model and trajectory analysis was developed and named Chemical Species Mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) . Pierce et al. [1994] and Morris et al. [1995; 2000] developed B+c(BTrajectory Mapping (TM)B+c(B, which creates synoptic maps from asynoptic satellite data by advecting fields backwards or forwards in time on an analyzed field. Trajectory mapping has been successfully used to make synoptic maps of long-lived minor species. We incorporated a chemical box model with TM to estimate chemical change in the concentration of chemical species. The CSMT succeeds to all advantages of TM and has potential of applications to various sciences including analysis of chemical ozone loss mechanisms, by combining with suitable satellite data. We applied CSMT to the Arctic winter of 1997, combined with Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) data [Kagawa and Hayashida, submitted to JGR]. Long and short lived species in the stratosphere were successfully mapped by the CSMT with initialization of ILAS-observed ozone and nitric acid. Comparison of CSMT-derived ozone with ozonesonde measurements proved the reliability of the scheme. The CSMT-derived nitric acid, and ClO also showed sufficiently good correlation to MLS version 5.20 data. The maximum rate of ozone loss was estimated as 34 +/- 10 ppbv/day in late February, and the integrated ozone loss from 13 January to 31 March was 41 %, averaged over the polar vortex. The ozone loss rates and integrated ozone loss derived in this study are fairly consistent with the results of other studies, which again proves the reliability of the scheme. References Kagawa, A., and S. Hayashida, Analysis of ozone loss in the Arctic stratosphere during the late winter and spring of 1997, using the Chemical Species Mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) technique, submitted to J. Geophys. Res Morris, G.A.et al., Trajectory mapping and application to data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 16491-16505, 1995. Morris, G.A. et. al., Trajectory Mapping : A tool for validation of trace gas observations, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 17825-17894, 2000. Pierce, R.B. et al., Evolution of southern hemisphere spring air mass observed by HALOE, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 213-216, 1994.

Hayashida, S.; Kagawa, A.; Ikeda, N.

2003-04-01

349

Chemical engineer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do chemical engineers actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about chemical engineering as a career. Here the job of a chemical engineer is defined and described. Chemical engineers often work with industrial manufacturing processes that involve a mix of chemistry and engineering. In the rest of the resource, students can examine a specialized job title associated with chemical engineering: process engineer. Students can view a five-minute video clip of the process engineer as he works in a fertilizer plant making ammonia and urea. Students follow the engineer around the plant as he checks pressure in chemical lines. Students get a glimpse of the inside of a furnace during the chemical-making process. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

350

Dermal Absorption of Chemicals: Effect of Application of Chemicals as a Solid, Aqueous Paste, Suspension, or in Volatile Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to investigate the dermal absorption of chemicals applied to female F344 rats in different physical forms. These forms included chemical as a solid, aqueous paste, suspension or dissolved in the volatile vehicle ethanol. The c...

M. F. Hughes S. P. Shrivastava M. R. Sumler B. C. Edwards J. H. Goodwin

1992-01-01

351

Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils  

SciTech Connect

Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

2003-03-06

352

Application of mixed spin iMQCs for temperature and chemical-selective imaging.  

PubMed

The development of accurate and non-invasive temperature imaging techniques has a wide variety of applications in fields such as medicine, chemistry and materials science. Accurate detection of temperature both in phantoms and in vivo can be obtained using iMQCs (intermolecular multiple quantum coherences), as demonstrated in a recent paper. This paper describes the underlying theory of iMQC temperature detection, as well as extensions of that work allowing not only for imaging of absolute temperature but also for imaging of analyte concentrations through chemically-selective spin density imaging. PMID:20303808

Jenista, Elizabeth R; Galiana, Gigi; Branca, Rosa T; Yarmolenko, Pavel S; Stokes, Ashley M; Dewhirst, Mark W; Warren, Warren S

2010-06-01

353

[Study on the methods and applications of near-infrared spectroscopy chemical pattern recognition].  

PubMed

Near infrared spectroscopy pattern recognition technique is an important part of modern near infrared spectroscopy technique. In the present paper, main methods of near infrared spectroscopy chemical pattern recognition and some recent developments are introduced. Basic principles of the methods in cluster analysis, discriminant analysis and latent projection are discussed, including some new methods such as support vector machines (SVM), bubble agglomeration algorithm (BA) and focal eigen functions (FEF) etc. Finally, the applications of near infrared spectroscopy pattern recognition technique in agriculture, pharmaceutical industry, food analysis, petroleum industry and other fields are reviewed. PMID:17944399

Li, Yan-Zhou; Min, Shun-Geng; Liu, Xia

2007-07-01

354

Application of Mixed Spin iMQCs for Temperature and Chemical-Selective Imaging  

PubMed Central

The development of accurate and non-invasive temperature imaging techniques has a wide variety of applications in fields such as medicine, chemistry and materials science. Accurate detection of temperature both in phantoms and in vivo can be obtained using iMQCs (intermolecular multiple quantum coherences), as demonstrated in a recent paper [1]. This paper describes the underlying theory of iMQC temperature detection, as well as extensions of that work allowing not only for imaging of absolute temperature but also for imaging of analyte concentrations through chemically selective spin density imaging.

Jenista, Elizabeth R.; Galiana, Gigi; Branca, Rosa T.; Yarmolenko, Pavel S.; Stokes, Ashley M.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Warren, Warren S.

2010-01-01

355

Energy and Cost Estimation for Application of Chemical Heat Pump Dryer to Industrial Ceramics Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we estimate the potential of a new chemical heat pump dryer (CHPD) application to an industrial ceramics drying process from the viewpoints of energy and cost saving. A CaSO4\\/H2O\\/CaSO4·1\\/2H2O hydration\\/dehydration CHPD system and a CaO\\/H2O\\/Ca(OH)2 hydration\\/dehydration CHPD system were examined. The CHPD systems store heat and simultaneously release the increased amount of heat at different temperature levels

Hironao Ogura; Nahomi Hamaguchi; Hiroyuki Kage; Arun S. Mujumdar

2004-01-01

356

Influence of animal manure application on the chemical structures of soil organic matter as investigated by advanced solid-state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual application of cattle manure to a farmer's field in eastern Nebraska for 5 yr caused improved soil N and P supply and increased corn (Zea mays L.) yield in less productive portions of the field compared to another field treatment receiving the same amount of N as inorganic fertilizer. As a first step toward identifying the soil processes that led

Jingdong Mao; Dan C. Olk; Xiaowen Fang; Zhongqi He; Klaus Schmidt-Rohr

2008-01-01

357

Partially acidulated reactive phosphate rock (PAPR) fertilizer and its reactions in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fertilizer reaction products formed during the dissolution of PAPR fertilizer applied to two soils of contrasting P retention were studied using electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectrum (EDS) analysis combined with common mineralogical analysis procedures. Monocalcium phosphate (MCP) and phosphate rock (PR) residue were the main components of the PAPR fertilizer at the time of application. Dissolution of

D. C. Golden; R. B. Stewart; R. W. Tillman; R. E. White

1991-01-01

358

Investigation of factors affecting caking tendency of calcium ammonium nitrate fertilizer and coating experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caking of fertilizers is an important problem both to manufacturers and users. Manufacturers must recycle the caked fertilizer to the process resulting in an extra cost and users may have difficulties during the application of the fertilizer to the soil. In the first part of this study major factors which influence caking of a commercial grade calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN)

Ali Lafci; Kemal Gürüz; Hayrettin Yücel

1988-01-01

359

The OSHA and EPA programs on preventing chemical accidents and potential applications in the photovoltaic industry  

SciTech Connect

OSHA issued in 1992, the Process Safety Management (PSM) of Highly Hazardous Substances. This rule requires owners/operators of facilities that handle hazardous chemicals in quantities greater than the listed thresholds to establish all the elements of a PSM. EPA has issued in June 1996, the rules for a Risk Management Program which also refers to specific substances and threshold quantities. These rules are applicable to all the facilities that use or store any of 139 regulated substances at quantities ranging from 100 lb to 10,000 lb. The RMP rule covers off-site hazards, while the OSHA Process Safety Management (PSM) rule covers worker safety issues within the plant boundary. Some of the listed substances may be found in photovoltaic manufacturing facilities. This brief report presents the basic elements of these two rules and discusses their potential applicability in the photovoltaic industry.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1996-08-01

360

Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on cultures being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle. For analysis of microfilaments, microtubules, centrosomes, and calcium-requiring events, our standard laboratory protocols had to be modified substantially for experimentation on the Space Shuttle. All manipulations were carried out in a closed culture chamber containing 35 ml artificial sea water as a culture fluid. Unfertilized eggs stored for 24 hours in these chambers were fertilized with sperm diluted in sea water and fixed with concentrated fixatives for final fixation in formaldehyde, taxol, EGTA, and MgCl2(exp -6)H2O for 1 cell to 16 cell stages to preserve cytoskeletal structures for simultaneous analysis with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 1.5 percent glutaraldehyde and 0.4 percent formaldehyde for blastula and plueus stages. The fixed samples wre maintained in chambers without degradation for up to two weeks after which the specimens were processed and analyzed with routine methods. Since complex manipulations are not possible in the closed chambers, the fertilization coat was removed from fixation using 0.5 percent freshly prepared sodium thioglycolate solution at pH 10.0 which provided reliable immunofluorescence staining for microtubules. Sperm/egg fusion, mitosis, cytokinesis, and calcium deposition during spicule formatin in early embryogenesis were found to be without artificial alterations when compared to cells fixed fresh and processed with conventional methods.

Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Stoecker, Andrew; Schatten, Heide

1995-01-01

361

Inferring relationships between clinical mastitis, productivity and fertility: a recursive model application including genetics, farm associated herd management, and cow-specific antibiotic treatments.  

PubMed

A dataset of test-day records, fertility traits, and one health trait including 1275 Brown Swiss cows kept in 46 small-scale organic farms was used to infer relationships among these traits based on recursive Gaussian-threshold models. Test-day records included milk yield (MY), protein percentage (PROT-%), fat percentage (FAT-%), somatic cell score (SCS), the ratio of FAT-% to PROT-% (FPR), lactose percentage (LAC-%), and milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Female fertility traits were defined as the interval from calving to first insemination (CTFS) and success of a first insemination (SFI), and the health trait was clinical mastitis (CM). First, a tri-trait model was used which postulated the recursive effect of a test-day observation in the early period of lactation on liability to CM (LCM), and further the recursive effect of LCM on the following test-day observation. For CM and female fertility traits, a bi-trait recursive Gaussian-threshold model was employed to estimate the effects from CM to CTFS and from CM on SFI. The recursive effects from CTFS and SFI onto CM were not relevant, because CM was recorded prior to the measurements for CTFS and SFI. Results show that the posterior heritability for LCM was 0.05, and for all other traits, heritability estimates were in reasonable ranges, each with a small posterior SD. Lowest heritability estimates were obtained for female reproduction traits, i.e. h(2)=0.02 for SFI, and h(2)?0 for CTFS. Posterior estimates of genetic correlations between LCM and production traits (MY and MUN), and between LCM and somatic cell score (SCS), were large and positive (0.56-0.68). Results confirm the genetic antagonism between MY and LCM, and the suitability of SCS as an indicator trait for CM. Structural equation coefficients describe the impact of one trait on a second trait on the phenotypic pathway. Higher values for FAT-% and FPR were associated with a higher LCM. The rate of change in FAT-% and in FPR in the ongoing lactation with respect to the previous LCM was close to zero. Estimated recursive effects between SCS and CM were positive, implying strong phenotypic impacts between both traits. Structural equation coefficients explained a detrimental impact of CM on female fertility traits CTFS and SFI. The cow-specific CM treatment had no significant impact on performance traits in the ongoing lactation. For most treatments, beta-lactam-antibiotics were used, but test-day SCS and production traits after the beta-lactam-treatment were comparable to those after other antibiotic as well as homeopathic treatments. PMID:23859301

Rehbein, Pia; Brügemann, Kerstin; Yin, Tong; V Borstel, U König; Wu, Xiao-Lin; König, Sven

2013-10-01

362

Evaluation of the CENTURY Model Using Long-Term Fertilization Trials under Corn-Wheat Cropping Systems in the Typical Croplands of China.  

PubMed

Soil organic matter models are widely used to study soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Here, we used the CENTURY model to simulate SOC in wheat-corn cropping systems at three long-term fertilization trials. Our study indicates that CENTURY can simulate fertilization effects on SOC dynamics under different climate and soil conditions. The normalized root mean square error is less than 15% for all the treatments. Soil carbon presents various changes under different fertilization management. Treatment with straw return would enhance SOC to a relatively stable level whereas chemical fertilization affects SOC differently across the three sites. After running CENTURY over the period of 1990-2050, the SOC levels are predicted to increase from 31.8 to 52.1 Mg ha-1 across the three sites. We estimate that the carbon sequestration potential between 1990 and 2050 would be 9.4-35.7 Mg ha-1 under the current high manure application at the three sites. Analysis of SOC in each carbon pool indicates that long-term fertilization enhances the slow pool proportion but decreases the passive pool proportion. Model results suggest that change in the slow carbon pool is the major driver of the overall trends in SOC stocks under long-term fertilization. PMID:24751981

Cong, Rihuan; Wang, Xiujun; Xu, Minggang; Ogle, Stephen M; Parton, William J

2014-01-01

363

Application of quantum-chemical approximations to environmental problems: Prediction of physical and chemical properties of TNT and related species.  

PubMed

This paper presents accurate predictions of ecologically important properties of nitroaromatic compounds and their derivatives, including vapor pressure, Henry's law constants, water solubility, octanol/water partition coefficients, heats of formation and ionization potentials. The proposed technique of calculations was based on quantum-chemical methods. The relationship between the chemical structure and mentioned physico-chemical parameters of such widespread military produced contaminants as trinitrotoluene and its derivatives was considered. We revealed that the DFT level of theory combined with the COSMO-RS technique is able to predict the studied parameters with an accuracy that results in error bars of less then one logarithmic unit. PMID:17512030

Qasim, Mohammad; Kholod, Yana; Gorb, Leonid; Magers, David; Honea, Patricia; Leszczynski, Jerzy

2007-10-01

364

Fertility of American Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Census Bureau prepares numerous papers each year, and they are an important source of information for public policy analysts, geographers, economists, and civic leaders. These reports are based on the biannual Current Population Surveys (CPS) conducted across the country. The reports here date back to 1994, and they look at fertility rates among American women in the noninstitutionalized population. Each report contains a detailed analysis of these biannual trends, along with historical tables and notes of the methodologies used in each report. Also, visitors will note that there are also supplemental fertility tables that break the data down into smaller segments such as "Fertility Indicators for Women in Their Thirties" and "Women 15 to 44 Years Old Who Had a Child in the Last Year and Their Percentage in the Labor Force".

365

Composition of liquid fertilizer  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention refers to a liquid fertilizer of organic and mineral origin where sabila and humic acid are used as sources of organic matter, to which may be added micronutrients iron, zinc, copper, manganese, boron, calcium and magnesium in the form of a soluble compound; furthermore, a chelating agent and a surfactant to make the nutrients more assimilable for the crops may be added. The invention consists of a liquid organic-mineral fertilizer whose organic base is sabila extract and/or humic acid; and the mineral elements conform to diverse added salts so that the fertilizer contains the essential micronutrients for all soil type (iron, zinc, copper, manganese, boron, calcium and magnesium). Furthermore, the invention contains a chelating agent and a surfactant to improve the assimilation of the nutrients for the cultivations.

2011-11-01

366

DC magnetron sputtered polyaniline-HCl thin films for chemical sensing applications.  

PubMed

Thin films of conducting polymers exhibit unique chemical and physical properties that render them integral parts in microelectronics, energy storage devices, and chemical sensors. Overall, polyaniline (PAni) doped in acidic media has shown metal-like electronic conductivity, though exact physical and chemical properties are dependent on the polymer structure and dopant type. Difficulties arising from poor processability render production of doped PAni thin films particularly challenging. In this contribution, DC magnetron sputtering, a physical vapor deposition technique, is applied to the preparation of conductive thin films of PAni doped with hydrochloric acid (PAni-HCl) in an effort to circumvent issues associated with conventional thin film preparation methods. Samples manufactured by the sputtering method are analyzed along with samples prepared by conventional drop-casting. Physical characterization (atomic force microscopy, AFM) confirm the presence of PAni-HCl and show that films exhibit a reduced roughness and potentially pinhole-free coverage of the substrate. Spectroscopic evidence (UV-vis, FT-IR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) suggests that structural changes and loss of conductivity, not uncommon during PAni processing, does occur during the preparation process. Finally, the applicability of sputtered films to gas-phase sensing of NH(3) was investigated with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy and compared to previous contributions. In summary, sputtered PAni-HCl films exhibit quantifiable, reversible behavior upon exposure to NH(3) with a calculated LOD (by method) approaching 0.4 ppm NH(3) in dry air. PMID:22702642

Menegazzo, Nicola; Boyne, Devon; Bui, Holt; Beebe, Thomas P; Booksh, Karl S

2012-07-01

367

Application of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI for endogenous contrast at 7 Tesla.  

PubMed

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indirectly images exchangeable solute protons resonating at frequencies different than bulk water. These solute protons are selectively saturated using low bandwidth RF irradiation and saturation is transferred to bulk water protons via chemical exchange, resulting in an attenuation of the measured water proton signal. CEST MRI is an advanced MRI technique with wide application potential due to the ability to examine complex molecular contributions. CEST MRI at high field (7 Tesla [7 T]) will improve the overall results due to increase in signal, T1 relaxation time, and chemical shift dispersion. Increased field strength translates to enhanced quantification of the metabolite of interest, allowing more fundamental studies on underlying pathophysiology. CEST contrast is affected by several tissue properties, such as the concentrations of exchange partners and their rate of proton exchange, whose effects have been examined and explored in this review. We have highlighted the background of CEST MRI, typical implementation strategy, and complications at 7 T. PMID:23402307

Dula, Adrienne N; Smith, Seth A; Gore, John C

2013-10-01

368

Applications of high-temperature solar heat to the production of selected fuels and chemicals  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to judge whether solar heat in the 500 K to 2500 K temperature range might be economical for some important fuel- and chemical-production processes. Previous work in related areas is reviewed and the chemicals aluminum oxide (and bauxite), calcium sulfate (and gypsum), and calcium oxide (lime) chosen for detailed study. In addition to reviewing the energy needs of the more common bulk chemicals, several innovative processes requiring heat in the 1500 to 2500 K range were investigated. Hydrogen production by several thermochemical means, carbon monoxide production by thermochemical and direct thermal dissociation, and nitrogen fixation by direct thermal reaction of nitrogen and oxygen in air were considered. The engineering feasibility of the processes is discussed. The problem of matching the conventional and innovative processes to a high-temperature solar supply is studied. Some solar-thermal power plants of current designs are examined and several advanced concepts of highly concentrating systems are considered for very high-temperature applications. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

Beall, S.E. Jr.; Bamberger, C.E.; Goeller, H.A.

1981-07-01

369

Double Fertilization and Post-fertilization Events: Measuring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf includes background information and ideas for lessons involving the processes that occur between fertilization and seed production in Fast Plants. Fertilization is explained and illustrated and an activity for students to observe reproductive development is described.

Program, The W.

370

Hand-held hyperspectral imager for chemical/biological and environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small, hand held, battery operated imaging infrared spectrometer, Sherlock, has been developed by Pacific Advanced Technology and was field tested in early 2003. The Sherlock spectral imaging camera has been designed for remote gas leak detection, however, the architecture of the camera is versatile enough that it can be applied to numerous other applications such as homeland security, chemical/biological agent detection, medical and pharmaceutical applications as well as standard research and development. This paper describes the Sherlock camera, theory of operations, shows current applications and touches on potential future applications for the camera. The Sherlock has an embedded Power PC and performs real-time-image processing function in an embedded FPGA. The camera has a built in LCD display as well as output to a standard monitor, or NTSC display. It has several I/O ports, ethernet, firewire, RS232 and thus can be easily controlled from a remote location. In addition, software upgrades can be performed over the ethernet eliminating the need to send the camera back to the factory for a retrofit. Using the USB port a mouse and key board can be connected and the camera can be used in a laboratory environment as a stand alone imaging spectrometer.

Hinnrichs, Michele; Piatek, Bob

371

Handheld hyperspectral imager system for chemical/biological and environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small, hand held, battery operated imaging infrared spectrometer, Sherlock, has been developed by Pacific Advanced Technology and was field tested in early 2003. The Sherlock spectral imaging camera has been designed for remote gas leak detection, however, the architecture of the camera is versatile enough that it can be applied to numerous other applications such as homeland security, chemical/biological agent detection, medical and pharmaceutical applications as well as standard research and development. This paper describes the Sherlock camera, theory of operations, shows current applications and touches on potential future applications for the camera. The Sherlock has an embedded Power PC and performs real-time-image processing function in an embedded FPGA. The camera has a built in LCD display as well as output to a standard monitor, or NTSC display. It has several I/O ports, ethernet, firewire, RS232 and thus can be easily controlled from a remote location. In addition, software upgrades can be performed over the ethernet eliminating the need to send the camera back to the factory for a retrofit. Using the USB port a mouse and key board can be connected and the camera can be used in a laboratory environment as a stand alone imaging spectrometer.

Hinnrichs, Michele; Piatek, Bob

2004-08-01

372

Chemical applications of anthocyanins and related compounds. A source of bioinspiration.  

PubMed

Independently of the natural or synthetic origin, flavylium derivatives follow the same network of chemical reactions. Actually, the flavylium cation is stable only at low pH values. Increasing the pH gives rise to the formation of several species: quinoidal bases, hemiketal, cis- and trans-chalcones, and their deprotonated forms. A deep knowledge of the thermodynamics and kinetics of these species is an essential tool to practical applications of these compounds, in particular, in the domain of food chemistry. In this work the network of chemical reactions involving flavylium derivatives is presented, and the respective thermodynamics and kinetics are discussed in detail, including the mathematical expressions and a step-by-step procedure to calculate all of the rate and equilibrium constants of the system. Examples of systems possessing a high or low cis-trans isomerization barrier are shown. Recent practical applications of anthocyanins and related compounds illustrate the potentialities of the flavylium-based family of compounds. PMID:24397265

Pina, Fernando

2014-07-23

373

Chemical-radiation degradation of natural oligoamino-polysaccharides for agricultural application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the research was to elaborate the method of degradation of natural aminopolysaccharides to obtain a product applicable as biospecimen in protection and stimulation of the plants growth. Depolymerization of chitosan can be carried out by radiation or chemical degradation combined with irradiation method. The efficiency of these methods was verified by viscometric analysis. The chemical-radiation method was much more appropriate from economical point of view. By application of this method it was possible to obtain product with lower crystalline phase content than initial one, what was proved by X-ray diffraction studies. Finally preliminary agricultural tests on spring rape seeds were performed. The results show that the biggest growth was observed for chitosan (molecular weight 47,000 Da) in concentration of 0.1 g/kg of seeds. The higher concentration did not affect plant's growth. The average growth over-ground plant parts was about 16-22%, diameter of roots was about 11-13%, and mass of roots was about 51-65% higher in comparison to the control.

Chmielewski, A. G.; Migdal, W.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J.; Jakubaszek, U.; Tarnowski, T.

2007-11-01

374

Historical trends of hypoxia in Changjiang River estuary: Applications of chemical biomarkers and microfossils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past two decades China has become the largest global consumer of fertilizers, which has enhanced river nutrient fluxes and caused eutrophication and hypoxia in the Yangtze (Changjiang) large river delta-front estuary (LDE). In this study, we utilized plant pigments, lignin-phenols, stable isotopes (? 13C and ? 15N) and foraminiferal microfossils in 210Pb dated cores to examine the history of hypoxia in the Changjiang LDE. Two sediment cores were collected onboard R/V Dong Fang Hong 2 using a stainless-steel box-corer; one at a water depth of 24.7 m on Jun. 15, 2006 and the other at 52 m on Nov. 20, 2007, both in the hypoxic region off the Changjiang LDE. There has been a significant increase in the abundance of plant pigments after 1979 that are indicators of enhanced diatom and cyanobacterial abundance, which agrees with post-1980 record of increasing nutrient loads in the Changjiang River. The increased inputs of terrestrially derived materials to the LDE are largely woody plant sources and most likely due to deforestation that began in the early 1950s. However, post-1960 lignin data did not reflect enhanced loading of woody materials despite continued deforestation possibly due to increased trapping from greater dam construction, a reduction of deforestation in the drainage basin since the last 1990s, and soil conservation practices. The lack of linkages between bulk indices (stable isotopes, % OC, molar C/N ratios) and microfossil/chemical biomarkers may reflect relative differences in the amount of carbon tracked by these different proxies. Although NO 3- is likely responsible for most of the changes in phytoplankton production (post 1970s), historical changes in N loading from the watershed and hypoxia on the LDE shelf may not be as well linked in East China Sea (ECS) sediments due to possible denitrification/ammonification processes; finally, increases in low-oxygen tolerant foraminiferal microfossils indicate there has been an increase in the number of hypoxic bottom water events on the Changjiang LDE over the past 60 years.

Li, Xinxin; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Yang, Zuosheng; Osterman, Lisa E.; Allison, Mead A.; DiMarco, Steven F.; Yang, Guipeng

2011-06-01

375

Historical trends of hypoxia in Changjiang River estuary: Applications of chemical biomarkers and microfossils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over the past two decades China has become the largest global consumer of fertilizers, which has enhanced river nutrient fluxes and caused eutrophication and hypoxia in the Yangtze (Changjiang) large river delta-front estuary (LDE). In this study, we utilized plant pigments, lignin-phenols, stable isotopes (?13C and ?15N) and foraminiferal microfossils in 210Pb dated cores to examine the history of hypoxia in the Changjiang LDE. Two sediment cores were collected onboard R/V Dong Fang Hong 2 using a stainless-steel box-corer; one at a water depth of 24.7 m on Jun. 15, 2006 and the other at 52 m on Nov. 20, 2007, both in the hypoxic region off the Changjiang LDE. There has been a significant increase in the abundance of plant pigments after 1979 that are indicators of enhanced diatom and cyanobacterial abundance, which agrees with post-1980 record of increasing nutrient loads in the Changjiang River. The increased inputs of terrestrially derived materials to the LDE are largely woody plant sources and most likely due to deforestation that began in the early 1950s. However, post-1960 lignin data did not reflect enhanced loading of woody materials despite continued deforestation possibly due to increased trapping from greater dam construction, a reduction of deforestation in the drainage basin since the last 1990s, and soil conservation practices. The lack of linkages between bulk indices (stable isotopes, % OC, molar C/N ratios) and microfossil/chemical biomarkers may reflect relative differences in the amount of carbon tracked by these different proxies. Although NO3? is likely responsible for most of the changes in phytoplankton production (post 1970s), historical changes in N loading from the watershed and hypoxia on the LDE shelf may not be as well linked in East China Sea (ECS) sediments due to possible denitrification/ammonification processes; finally, increases in low-oxygen tolerant foraminiferal microfossils indicate there has been an increase in the number of hypoxic bottom water events on the Changjiang LDE over the past 60 years.

Li, X.; Bianchi, T. S.; Yang, Z.; Osterman, L. E.; Allison, M. A.; DiMarco, S. F.; Yang, G.

2011-01-01

376

Genetics of male fertility.  

PubMed

Early in embryogenesis, cells that are destined to become germ cells take on a different destiny from other cells in the embryo. The germ cells are not programmed to perform "vital" functions but to perpetuate the species through the transfer of genetic materials to the next generation. To fulfill their destiny, male germ cells undergo meiosis and extensive morphogenesis that transforms the round-shaped cells into freely motile sperm propelled by a beating flagellum to seek out their missing half. Apparently, extra genes and additional regulatory mechanisms are required to achieve all these unique features, and an estimated 11 % of genes are involved in fertility in Drosophila (Hackstein et al., Trends Genet 16(12):565-572, 2000). If comparative numbers of male fertility genes are needed in mammals, extra risks of male fertility problems are associated with disruptive mutations in those genes. Among human male infertility cases, approximately 22 % were classified as "idiopathic," a term used to describe diseases of unknown causes, with idiopathic oligozoospermia being the most common semen abnormality (11.2 %) (Comhaire et al., Int J Androl (Suppl 7):1-53, 1987). "Idiopathic" is a widely used adjective that is used to reflect our lack of understanding of the genetics of male fertility. Fortunately, after more than two decades of phenotypic studies using knockout mice and identifying genes disrupted in spontaneous mutant mice, we have unveiled new and unexpected aspects of crucial gene functions for fertility. Other efforts to categorize genes involved in male fertility in mammals have suggested a total of 1,188 genes (Hermo et al., Microsc Res Tech 73(4):241-494, 2010). Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to bypass many fertilization obstacles to achieve fertilization with only a few extracted sperm, the widespread use of ICSI without proper knowledge for genetic testing and counseling could still potentially propagate pleiotropic gene mutations associated with male infertility and other genetic diseases (Alukal and Lamb, Urol Clin North Am 35(2):277-288, 2008). In this chapter, we give a brief account of major events during the development of male germ cells and focus on the functions of several crucial genes that have been studied in mutant mouse models and are potential causes of human male infertility. PMID:24782004

Lin, Yi-Nan; Matzuk, Martin M

2014-01-01

377

Declining fertility in Nepal.  

PubMed

This article relies on data from the 1991 Nepal Fertility, Family Planning, and Health Survey (NFFPHS) and the 1996 Nepal Living Standards Survey (NLSS) to assess trends in fertility in Nepal. The NFFPHS shows heaping at ages 5, 8, 10, and 12 years and a larger proportion of infants. The NLSS shows a different pattern of misreporting of youth and a stronger but similar pattern of age heaping as the NFFPHS for adults. Children ever born by maternal age indicates a degree of completeness and the deletion by older women of deceased children and married children living outside the household. Findings suggest less complete reporting in the NLSS. Age-specific fertility rates are calculated based on birth histories (BH) and the own-children (OC) method based on life tables. Findings indicate that BH and OC estimates of the cumulative fertility rate (CFR) derived from the NLSS and the NFFPHS were comparable for estimating trends in the total fertility rate (TFR). The trends from the two data sets overlapped fairly well during 1983-89. Fertility trends by single years of age showed considerably annual fluctuations due to age misreporting. The CFR and TFR for aggregated time periods showed little or no decline for the earlier 5-year period, a steeper decline in the second period, and variations in trends by data set for the third period from 1983 to 1989. One curve showed no decline and the other showed fertility decline. Fitting a straight line to the trend for 1977-91 shows that CFR declined by 1.61 children from 5.29 children in 1977 to 3.68 children in 1991. TFR declined by 1.90 children from 6.68 children in 1977 to 4.78 children in 1991. The author cautions that the point of fertility decline was not determined exactly, but data suggest that decline occurred around 1980, and the rate was fast thereafter. TFR declined by 2.70 children in urban areas and 1.83 children in rural areas. PMID:12292422

Das Dangol, B; Retherford, R D; Thapa, S

1997-03-01

378

Sex and Fertility After SCI  

MedlinePLUS

Experts \\ Sex and Fertility After SCI Topics Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of SCI Rehabilitation Preventing ... from Hospital to Home Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat Sex and Fertility After SCI Coping with a New ...

379

A 5-day method for determination of soluble silicon concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer materials using a sodium carbonate-ammonium nitrate extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis: single-laboratory validation.  

PubMed

A 5-day method for determining the soluble silicon (Si) concentrations in nonliquid fertilizer products was developed using a sodium carbonate (Na2CO3)-ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) extractant followed by visible spectroscopy with heteropoly blue analysis at 660 nm. The 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method can be applied to quantify the plant-available Si in solid fertilizer products at levels ranging from 0.2 to 8.4% Si with an LOD of 0.06%, and LOQ of 0.20%. This Si extraction method for fertilizers correlates well with plant uptake of Si (r2 = 0.96 for a range of solid fertilizers) and is applicable to solid Si fertilizer products including blended products and beneficial substances. Fertilizer materials can be processed as received using commercially available laboratory chemicals and materials at ambient laboratory temperatures. The single-laboratory validation of the 5-Day Na2CO3-NH4NO3 Soluble Si Extraction Method has been approved by The Association of American Plant Food Control Officials for testing nonliquid Si fertilizer products. PMID:23767347

Sebastian, Dennis; Rodrigues, Hugh; Kinsey, Charles; Korndörfer, Gaspar; Pereira, Hamilton; Buck, Guilherme; Datnoff, Lawrence; Miranda, Stephen; Provance-Bowley, Mary

2013-01-01

380

Fertility and Infertility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

381

Hispanic Adolescent Fertility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses fertility of Hispanic adolescents in the United States. Summarizes what is known about sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. Indicates Hispanic adolescent birthrates fall between those of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks, but there is considerable within-group…

Darabi, Katherine F.; And Others

1986-01-01

382

Fertility in Turner syndrome.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in fertility and use of assisted reproductive technologies for women with Turner syndrome (TS). Current parenting options include adoption, surrogacy, and spontaneous and assisted reproduction. For women with TS, specific risks of pregnancy include higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, foetal anomaly, maternal morbidity and mortality. Heterologous fertility assistance using oocytes from related or unrelated donors is an established technique for women with TS. Homologous fertility preservation includes cryopreservation of the patient's own gametes prior to the progressive ovarian atresia known to occur: preserving either mature oocytes or ovarian tissue containing primordial follicles. Mature oocyte cryopreservation requires ovarian stimulation and can be performed only in postpubertal individuals, when few women with TS have viable oocytes. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation, however, can be performed in younger girls prior to ovarian atresia - over 30 pregnancies have resulted using this technique, however, none in women with TS. We recommend consideration of homologous fertility preservation techniques in children only within specialized centres, with informed consent using protocols approved by a research or clinical ethics board. It is essential that further research is performed to improve maternal and foetal outcomes for women with TS. PMID:23844676

Hewitt, Jacqueline K; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Amor, David J; Gillam, Lynn H; Warne, Garry L; Grover, Sonia; Zacharin, Margaret R

2013-11-01

383

Chemical Functionalization, Self-Assembly, and Applications of Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

This special issue addresses the research studies on chemical functionalization, self-assembly, and applications of nanomaterials and nanocomposites. It contains twentyfour articles including two reviews and twenty-two research articles. It is used to create new functional nanomaterials and nanocomposites with a variety of sizes and morphologies such as Zn/Al layered double hydroxide, tin oxide nanowires, FeOOH-modified anion resin, Au nanoclusters silica composite nanospheres, Ti-doped ZnO sol-composite films, TiO2/ZnO composite, graphene oxide nanocomposites, LiFePO4/C nanocomposites, and chitosan nanoparticles. These nanomaterials and nanocomposites have widespread applications in tissue engineering, antitumor, sensors, photoluminescence, electrochemical, and catalytic properties. In addition, this themed issue includes some research articles about self-assembly systems covering organogels and Langmuir films. Furthermore, B. Blasiak et al. performed a literature survey on the recent advances in production, functionalization, toxicity reduction, and application of nanoparticles in cancer diagnosis, treatment, and treatment monitoring. P. Colson et al. performed a literature survey on the recent advances in nanosphere lithography due to its compatibility with wafer-scale processes as well as its potential to manufacture a wide variety of homogeneous one-, two-, or three-dimensional nanostructures.

Jiao, Tifeng [Yanshan University] [Yanshan University; Yan, Xingbin [Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences] [Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Balan, Lavinia [Institute of Materials Science of Mulhouse, Mulhouse cedex, France] [Institute of Materials Science of Mulhouse, Mulhouse cedex, France; Stepanov, Andrey [4Kazan Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan 420029, Russia] [4Kazan Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kazan 420029, Russia; Chen, Xinqing [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, ClearWater Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong] [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, ClearWater Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

384

Chemistry of throughfall, stemfall and litterfall in fertilized and irrigated Pinus radiata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical inputs by rainfall, throughfall and stemflow were studied in a pine plantation located in Pierces Creek Forest, Canberra, Australia. Three treatments were included in the study: a control (C) and two fertilizer treatments. The first fertilizer treatment (F) involved two applications of mixed fertilizers at high rates, the second (IL) involved application of a complete liquid fertilizer with irrigation, so as to remove nutrient and water restrictions to growth. The application rates of nutrients were higher for IL than F. Net inputs of elements in throughfall and stemflow, obtained by subtracting the amounts in the rainfall, were compared for different treatments.For cations (the sum of Ca, Mg, Na and K), the treatment effect on leaching by throughfall and stemflow was IL > F > C; but the F to C differences were greater for throughfall than stemflow. The effects were almost entirely due to increases in concentration, rather than the amount of rainfall becoming throughfall or stemflow.The concentration of nitrogen (as NH4 or NO3) in throughfall or stemflow could be lower or higher than in rainfall, indicating net removal or leaching, respectively. Net removal occurred for most rainfall events for the control treatment, for a substantial number of events for treatment F, but for few events for treatment IL. The ammonium ion was preferentially removed from throughfall, and nitrate from stemflow.Transfers of potassium and total nitrogen by litterfall, throughfall and stemflow were also studied. The proportions of potassium and nitrogen being transferred by these processes showed little difference between treatments; the overall values for potassium being 60% by throughfall, 4% by stemflow and 36% by litterfall. In contrast the transfer of nitrogen was dominated by litterfall (81%), with 18% by throughfall and 1% by stemflow.

Crockford, R. H.; Khanna, P. K.

1997-09-01

385

Mouse models in male fertility research  

PubMed Central

Limited knowledge of the genetic causes of male infertility has resulted in few treatment and targeted therapeutic options. Although the ideal approach to identify infertility causing mutations is to conduct studies in the human population, this approach has progressed slowly due to the limitations described herein. Given the complexity of male fertility, the entire process cannot be modeled in vitro. As such, animal models, in particular mouse models, provide a valuable alternative for gene identification and experimentation. Since the introduction of molecular biology and recent advances in animal model production, there has been a substantial acceleration in the identification and characterization of genes associated with many diseases, including infertility. Three major types of mouse models are commonly used in biomedical research, including knockout/knockin/gene-trapped, transgenic and chemical-induced point mutant mice. Using these mouse models, over 400 genes essential for male fertility have been revealed. It has, however, been estimated that thousands of genes are involved in the regulation of the complex process of male fertility, as many such genes remain to be characterized. The current review is by no means a comprehensive list of these mouse models, rather it contains examples of how mouse models have advanced our knowledge of post-natal germ cell development and male fertility regulation.

Jamsai, Duangporn; O'Bryan, Moira K

2011-01-01

386

Possible Application of Solar-Thermal Energy in the Chemical Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight chemicals are identified that require substantial amounts of non-recoverable energy for their production. The chemicals are: ethylene, vinyl chloride, styrene, propylene, butadiene, isoprene, hydrogen, and phosphorus. These chemicals are used to pro...

L. R. Martin

1982-01-01

387

Development of techniques to quantify chemical and mechanical modifications of polymer surfaces: Application to chemical mechanical polishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is devoted to development of techniques to quantify chemical and mechanical influences during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) near the surface of a polymer film, poly (biphenyl dianhydride-p-phenylenediamine) (BPDA-PDA). To quantify chemical modifications during CMP, an iterative algorithm has been proposed to extract depth profiles based on Fick's second law of diffusion in a multi-element system from data supplied by angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that the technique can be used to quantify the depth of chemical modification of BPDA-PDA surfaces treated with alkaline solutions. Polymer chains near the surface realign themselves during CMP and polarized infrared spectroscopy is chosen in this thesis to quantify chain orientations induced by CMP to evaluate the mechanical influence. A theoretical framework based on a 4x4 matrix method for spectral simulation together with an oscillator model for BPDA-PDA has been used to obtain quantitative chain orientation information on a post-CMP BPDA-PDA sample by fitting simulated polarized infrared spectra to experimentally generated spectra. Verification of the oscillator model was established from the complex refractive indices of BPDA-PDA films, which were determined using a new method (R/T ratio method) developed in this thesis to extract complex refractive indices of films with biaxial symmetry from polarized transmission and reflection spectra.

Diao, Jie

388

Long-term fate of nitrate fertilizer in agricultural soils  

PubMed Central

Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of surface waters and groundwater has emerged as a major problem in many agricultural areas of the world, resulting in contamination of drinking water resources in aquifers as well as eutrophication of freshwaters and coastal marine ecosystems. Although empirical correlations between application rates of N fertilizers to agricultural soils and nitrate contamination of adjacent hydrological systems have been demonstrated, the transit times of fertilizer N in the pedosphere–hydrosphere system are poorly understood. We investigated the fate of isotopically labeled nitrogen fertilizers in a three–decade-long in situ tracer experiment that quantified not only fertilizer N uptake by plants and retention in soils, but also determined to which extent and over which time periods fertilizer N stored in soil organic matter is rereleased for either uptake in crops or export into the hydrosphere. We found that 61–65% of the applied fertilizers N were taken up by plants, whereas 12–15% of the labeled fertilizer N were still residing in the soil organic matter more than a quarter century after tracer application. Between 8–12% of the applied fertilizer had leaked toward the hydrosphere during the 30-y observation period. We predict that additional exports of 15N-labeled nitrate from the tracer application in 1982 toward the hydrosphere will continue for at least another five decades. Therefore, attempts to reduce agricultural nitrate contamination of aquatic systems must consider the long-term legacy of past applications of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural systems and the nitrogen retention capacity of agricultural soils.

Sebilo, Mathieu; Mayer, Bernhard; Nicolardot, Bernard; Pinay, Gilles; Mariotti, Andre

2013-01-01

389

Long-term fate of nitrate fertilizer in agricultural soils.  

PubMed

Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of surface waters and groundwater has emerged as a major problem in many agricultural areas of the world, resulting in contamination of drinking water resources in aquifers as well as eutrophication of freshwaters and coastal marine ecosystems. Although empirical correlations between application rates of N fertilizers to agricultural soils and nitrate contamination of adjacent hydrological systems have been demonstrated, the transit times of fertilizer N in the pedosphere-hydrosphere system are poorly understood. We investigated the fate of isotopically labeled nitrogen fertilizers in a three-decade-long in situ tracer experiment that quantified not only fertilizer N uptake by plants and retention in soils, but also determined to which extent and over which time periods fertilizer N stored in soil organic matter is rereleased for either uptake in crops or export into the hydrosphere. We found that 61-65% of the applied fertilizers N were taken up by plants, whereas 12-15% of the labeled fertilizer N were still residing in the soil organic matter more than a quarter century after tracer application. Between 8-12% of the applied fertilizer had leaked toward the hydrosphere during the 30-y observation period. We predict that additional exports of (15)N-labeled nitrate from the tracer application in 1982 toward the hydrosphere will continue for at least another five decades. Therefore, attempts to reduce agricultural nitrate contamination of aquatic systems must consider the long-term legacy of past applications of synthetic fertilizers in agricultural systems and the nitrogen retention capacity of agricultural soils. PMID:24145428

Sebilo, Mathieu; Mayer, Bernhard; Nicolardot, Bernard; Pinay, Gilles; Mariotti, André

2013-11-01

390

Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Imaging: Description of Technique and Potential Clinical Applications  

PubMed Central

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement technique that enables indirect detection of metabolites with exchangeable protons. Endogenous metabolites with exchangeable protons including many endogenous proteins with amide protons, glycosaminoglycans (GAG), glycogen, myo-inositol (MI), glutamate (Glu), creatine (Cr) and several others have been identified as potential in vivo endogenous CEST agents. These endogenous CEST agents can be exploited as non-invasive and non-ionizing biomarkers of disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring. This review focuses on the recent technical developments in endogenous in vivo CEST MRI from various metabolites as well as their potential clinical applications. The basic underlying principles of CEST, its potential limitations and new techniques to mitigate them are discussed.

Kogan, Feliks; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

2013-01-01

391

Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Imaging: Description of Technique and Potential Clinical Applications.  

PubMed

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement technique that enables indirect detection of metabolites with exchangeable protons. Endogenous metabolites with exchangeable protons including many endogenous proteins with amide protons, glycosaminoglycans (GAG), glycogen, myo-inositol (MI), glutamate (Glu), creatine (Cr) and several others have been identified as potential in vivo endogenous CEST agents. These endogenous CEST agents can be exploited as non-invasive and non-ionizing biomarkers of disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring. This review focuses on the recent technical developments in endogenous in vivo CEST MRI from various metabolites as well as their potential clinical applications. The basic underlying principles of CEST, its potential limitations and new techniques to mitigate them are discussed. PMID:23730540

Kogan, Feliks; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

2013-06-01

392

Propolis: a review of properties, applications, chemical composition, contact allergy, and other adverse effects.  

PubMed

Propolis (bee glue) is the resinous substance that bees collect from living plants for the construction and adaptation of their nests. It has antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties and may have a wide range of other beneficial biological activities. Propolis is available as a dietary supplement, in products for the protection of health and prevention of diseases, in biopharmaceuticals, and as a constituent of (bio)cosmetics. In this article, the following aspects of propolis are reviewed: the nature and chemical composition, its biological properties and applications, contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (sensitizing potential, products causing contact allergy, clinical picture, frequency of sensitization, coreactivity and cross-reactivity, the allergens in propolis), and other adverse effects. PMID:24201459

de Groot, Anton C

2013-01-01

393

Fertility of Technosols constructed with urban wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing plants in urban areas requires large amounts of arable earth that is a non-renewable resource. Increase of urban population leads to the production of large qunatities of wastes and by-products that are only partly recycled as a resource and quite systematically exported out of urban areas. To preserve more natural soil resources (forest and agricultural soils), a strategy of waste recycling as fertile substrates is proposed. Eleven wastes are selected for their environmental harmlessness and their contrasted physico-chemical properties for their potential use in pedological engineering. The aim is (i) to demonstrate the feasibility of the construction of fertile substrates exclusively with wastes and by-products and (ii) to model their physico-chemical properties following various types, number and proportions of constitutive wastes. Twenty-five binary and ternary combinations are tested at different ratios for total carbon, Olsen available phosphorus, cation exchange capacity, water pH, water retention capacity and bulk density. Dose-response curves describe the variation of physico-chemical properties of mixtures depending on the type and ratio of selected wastes. Quite all of the mixtures have properties very near to those of natural soils. Some of them present more extreme urban soil features, especially for pH and POlsen. The fertility of the new substrates is modelled by multilinear regressions for the main soil properties. This allows to predict the fertility of constructed Technosols and participates to the development of soil eco-conception in urban and industrial areas (Rokia et al., Modelling agronomic properties of Technosols constructed with urban wastes, Waste Management (2013), 10.1016/j.wasman.2013.12.016). Keywords: constructed Technosol, pedological engineering, agronomic properties

Rokia, Sarah; Sere, Geoffroy; Deeb, Maha; Fournier, Frantz; Nehls, Thomas; Damas, Olivier; Vidal-Beaudet, Laure; Schwartz, Christophe

2014-05-01

394

Binomial tau-leap spatial stochastic simulation algorithm for applications in chemical kinetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cell biology, cell signaling pathway problems are often tackled with deterministic temporal models, well mixed stochastic simulators, and/or hybrid methods. But, in fact, three dimensional stochastic spatial modeling of reactions happening inside the cell is needed in order to fully understand these cell signaling pathways. This is because noise effects, low molecular concentrations, and spatial heterogeneity can all affect the cellular dynamics. However, there are ways in which important effects can be accounted without going to the extent of using highly resolved spatial simulators (such as single-particle software), hence reducing the overall computation time significantly. We present a new coarse grained modified version of the next subvolume method that allows the user to consider both diffusion and reaction events in relatively long simulation time spans as compared with the original method and other commonly used fully stochastic computational methods. Benchmarking of the simulation algorithm was performed through comparison with the next subvolume method and well mixed models (MATLAB), as well as stochastic particle reaction and transport simulations (CHEMCELL, Sandia National Laboratories). Additionally, we construct a model based on a set of chemical reactions in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. For this particular application and a bistable chemical system example, we analyze and outline the advantages of our presented binomial ?-leap spatial stochastic simulation algorithm, in terms of efficiency and accuracy, in scenarios of both molecular homogeneity and heterogeneity.

Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T.; Burrage, Kevin

2007-09-01

395

Binomial tau-leap spatial stochastic simulation algorithm for applications in chemical kinetics.  

PubMed

In cell biology, cell signaling pathway problems are often tackled with deterministic temporal models, well mixed stochastic simulators, and/or hybrid methods. But, in fact, three dimensional stochastic spatial modeling of reactions happening inside the cell is needed in order to fully understand these cell signaling pathways. This is because noise effects, low molecular concentrations, and spatial heterogeneity can all affect the cellular dynamics. However, there are ways in which important effects can be accounted without going to the extent of using highly resolved spatial simulators (such as single-particle software), hence reducing the overall computation time significantly. We present a new coarse grained modified version of the next subvolume method that allows the user to consider both diffusion and reaction events in relatively long simulation time spans as compared with the original method and other commonly used fully stochastic computational methods. Benchmarking of the simulation algorithm was performed through comparison with the next subvolume method and well mixed models (MATLAB), as well as stochastic particle reaction and transport simulations (CHEMCELL, Sandia National Laboratories). Additionally, we construct a model based on a set of chemical reactions in the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. For this particular application and a bistable chemical system example, we analyze and outline the advantages of our presented binomial tau-leap spatial stochastic simulation algorithm, in terms of efficiency and accuracy, in scenarios of both molecular homogeneity and heterogeneity. PMID:17867731

Marquez-Lago, Tatiana T; Burrage, Kevin

2007-09-14

396

Tracking chemical changes in a live cell: Biomedical applications of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy is a newly emerging bioanalytical and imaging tool. This unique technique provides mid-infrared (IR) spectra, hence chemical information, with high signal-to-noise at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 to 10 microns. Thus it enables researchers to locate, identify, and track specific chemical events within an individual living mammalian cell. Mid-IR photons are too low in energy (0.05 - 0.5 eV) to either break bonds or to cause ionization. In this review, we show that the synchrotron IR beam has no detectable effects on the short- and long-term viability, reproductive integrity, cell-cycle progression, and mitochondrial metabolism in living human cells, and produces only minimal sample heating (< 0.5 degrees C). We will then present several examples demonstrating the application potentials of SR-FTIR spectromicroscopy in biomedical research. These will include monitoring living cells progressing through the cell cycle, including death, and cells reacting to dilute concentrations of toxins.

Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.

2002-07-25

397

Nanomaterials enhanced surface plasmon resonance for biological and chemical sensing applications.  

PubMed

The main challenge for all electrical, mechanical and optical sensors is to detect low molecular weight (less than 400 Da) chemical and biological analytes under extremely dilute conditions. Surface plasmon resonance sensors are the most commonly used optical sensors due to their unique ability for real-time monitoring the molecular binding events. However, their sensitivities are insufficient to detect trace amounts of small molecular weight molecules such as cancer biomarkers, hormones, antibiotics, insecticides, and explosive materials which are respectively important for early-stage disease diagnosis, food quality control, environmental monitoring, and homeland security protection. With the rapid development of nanotechnology in the past few years, nanomaterials-enhanced surface plasmon resonance sensors have been developed and used as effective tools to sense hard-to-detect molecules within the concentration range between pmol and amol. In this review article, we reviewed and discussed the latest trend and challenges in engineering and applications of nanomaterials-enhanced surface plasmon resonance sensors (e.g., metallic nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, carbon-based nanomaterials, latex nanoparticles and liposome nanoparticles) for detecting "hard-to-identify" biological and chemical analytes. Such information will be viable in terms of providing a useful platform for designing future ultrasensitive plasmonic nanosensors. PMID:24549396

Zeng, Shuwen; Baillargeat, Dominique; Ho, Ho-Pui; Yong, Ken-Tye

2014-05-21

398

Development of bismuth tellurium selenide nanoparticles for thermoelectric applications via a chemical synthetic process  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} We synthesized a Bi{sub 2}Te{sub y}Se{sub 3-y} nano-compound via a chemical synthetic process. {yields} The compound was sintered to achieve an average grain size of about 300 nm. {yields} The resulting sintered body showed very low thermal conductivity. It is likely caused by the vigorous phonon scattering of the nano-sized grains. -- Abstract: Bismuth tellurium selenide (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub y}Se{sub 3-y}) nanoparticles for thermoelectric applications are successfully prepared via a water-based chemical reaction under atmospheric conditions. The nanostructured compound is prepared using a complexing agent (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and a reducing agent (ascorbic acid) to stabilize the bismuth precursor (Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) in water and to favor the reaction with reduced sources of tellurium and selenium. The resulting powder is smaller than ca. 100 nm and has a crystalline structure corresponding to the rhombohedral Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.7}Se{sub 0.3}. The nanocrystalline powder is sintered via a spark plasma sintering process to obtain a sintered body composed of nano-sized grains. Important transport properties of the sintered body are measured to calculate its most important characteristic, the thermoelectric performance. The results demonstrate a relationship between the nanostructure of the sintered body and its thermal conductivity.

Kim, Cham [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of) [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hwan; Han, Yoon Soo [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of)] [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jong Shik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31 Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, SangHa [Daegu Machinery Institute of Components and Materials (DMI), 12 Horim-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-240 (Korea, Republic of)] [Daegu Machinery Institute of Components and Materials (DMI), 12 Horim-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-240 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soonheum [Department of Nanomaterial Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seokjang-dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Nanomaterial Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seokjang-dong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hoyoung, E-mail: hoykim@dgist.ac.kr [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of)] [Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), 711-623 Hosan-dong, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 704-230 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15

399

40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6-Dinitrotoluene (d) Halogenated Organic Chemicals 1,4-Phenylenediamine...Chloride Benzyl Chloride Carbon Tetrachloride *Chlorinated...4-Dichlorophenol (e) Other Organic Chemicals Adiponitrile Carbon Disulfide Fatty...

2010-07-01

400

40 CFR 414.70 - Applicability; description of the bulk organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...6-Dinitrotoluene (d) Halogenated Organic Chemicals 1,4-Phenylenediamine...Chloride Benzyl Chloride Carbon Tetrachloride *Chlorinated...4-Dichlorophenol (e) Other Organic Chemicals Adiponitrile Carbon Disulfide Fatty...

2009-07-01

401

Strategies and Applications for Incorporating Physical and Chemical Signal Gradients in Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

From embryonic development to wound repair, concentration gradients of bioactive signaling molecules guide tissue formation and regeneration. Moreover, gradients in cellular and extracellular architecture as well as in mechanical properties are readily apparent in native tissues. Perhaps tissue engineers can take a cue from nature in attempting to regenerate tissues by incorporating gradients into engineering design strategies. Indeed, gradient-based approaches are an emerging trend in tissue engineering, standing in contrast to traditional approaches of homogeneous delivery of cells and/or growth factors using isotropic scaffolds. Gradients in tissue engineering lie at the intersection of three major paradigms in the field—biomimetic, interfacial, and functional tissue engineering—by combining physical (via biomaterial design) and chemical (with growth/differentiation factors and cell adhesion molecules) signal delivery to achieve a continuous transition in both structure and function. This review consolidates several key methodologies to generate gradients, some of which have never been employed in a tissue engineering application, and discusses strategies for incorporating these methods into tissue engineering and implant design. A key finding of this review was that two-dimensional physicochemical gradient substrates, which serve as excellent high-throughput screening tools for optimizing desired biomaterial properties, can be enhanced in the future by transitioning from two dimensions to three dimensions, which would enable studies of cell–protein–biomaterial interactions in a more native tissue–like environment. In addition, biomimetic tissue regeneration via combined delivery of graded physical and chemical signals appears to be a promising strategy for the regeneration of heterogeneous tissues and tissue interfaces. In the future, in vivo applications will shed more light on the performance of gradient-based mechanical integrity and signal delivery strategies compared to traditional tissue engineering approaches.

Singh, Milind; Berkland, Cory

2008-01-01

402

A study on the applicability of L-aspartate alpha-decarboxylase in the biobased production of nitrogen containing chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

-Alanine could serve as an intermediate in the biobased production of nitrogen containing chemicals from L-aspartic acid. Following the biorefinery concept, L-aspartic acid could become widely available from biomass waste streams via the nitrogen storage polypeptide cyanophycin. Since -decarboxylation of L-aspartic acid is difficult to perform chemically, the applicability of Escherichia coli L-aspartate -decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.11) (ADC) for the production

P. M. Könst; M. C. R. Franssen; E. L. Scott; J. P. M. Sanders

2009-01-01

403

Chemical and radiation crosslinked polymer electrolyte membranes prepared from radiation-grafted ETFE films for DMFC applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a highly chemically stable polymer electrolyte membrane for application in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), doubly crosslinked membranes were prepared by chemical crosslinking using bifunctional monomers, such as divinylbenzene (DVB) and bis(p,p-vinyl phenyl) ethane (BVPE), and by radiation crosslinking. The membranes were prepared by grafting of m,p-methylstyrene (MeSt) and p-tert-butylstyrene (tBuSt) into poly(ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) films and subsequent

Jinhua Chen; Masaharu Asano; Tetsuya Yamaki; Masaru Yoshida

2006-01-01

404

Male fertility regulation: recent advances*  

PubMed Central

Acceptable antifertility drugs for men are proving difficult to produce. Such drugs must aim to achieve complete azoospermia over a long period. This requirement may be relaxed only if it can be shown that the residual sperm produced by men whose spermatogenesis has been suppressed by antifertility drugs to oligospermia are incapable of fertilizing ova. Hormonal methods involving suppression of the secretion of gonadotrophin hormones by the pituitary gland invariably require androgen supplementation, and the use of steroids either alone or in combination requires careful monitoring for their side-effects. A chemical (non-hormonal) approach involving the incapacitation of sperm in the epididymis has been shown to be feasible in animal studies using ?-chlorohydrin and 6-chloro-6-deoxy sugars, although such compounds cannot be developed for human use because of their toxicity. Immunological approaches have the inherent problem of delivery of the antibody to the target. While the search for new and safer chemical and hormonal approaches goes on, the recent evidence that vasectomy offers a safe surgical option leaves responsible men with some choice to add to the condom.

Waites, G. M. H.

1986-01-01

405

Circadian rhythms and fertility.  

PubMed

Circadian rhythms impact on a wide range of physiological systems and this impact extends to fertility, such that disruptions to timing systems can impact upon reproductive capacity. This is highlighted most obviously in mutant mouse models whereby deletion or mutation of single genes results not only in disrupted circadian rhythmicity, but also compromised male and female reproductive function. In this review, we discuss the presence of circadian clocks in female and male reproductive tissues and the role these clocks play in the generation of oestrus cycles, ovulation, sperm generation, implantation and the maintenance of pregnancy. Given the increased incidence of shiftwork and international travel which disrupt circadian rhythmicity, and the increasing prevalence of reproductive technologies whereby early embryo development occurs without external time cues, it is important for us to consider the role of circadian rhythms in fertility. PMID:21872642

Kennaway, David J; Boden, Michael J; Varcoe, Tamara J

2012-02-01

406

Activated carbons obtained from sewage sludge by chemical activation: gas-phase environmental applications.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity for toluene and SO2 of low cost activated carbons prepared from sewage sludge by chemical activation at different impregnation ratios. Samples were characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, thermogravimetry, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption. Because of the low carbon content of the raw material, the development of porosity in the activated carbons was mainly of a mesoporous nature, with surface areas lower than 300 m(2)/g. The study of gas-phase applications for activated carbons from sewage sludge was carried out using both an organic and an inorganic compound in order to screen for possible applications. Toluene adsorption capacity at saturation was around 280 mg/g, which is a good level of performance given the high ash content of the activated carbons. However, dynamic experiments at low toluene concentration presented diffusion problems resulting from low porosity development. SO2 adsorption capacity is associated with average micropore size, which can be controlled by the impregnation ratio used to prepare the activated carbons. PMID:24747937

Boualem, T; Debab, A; Martínez de Yuso, A; Izquierdo, M T

2014-07-01

407

Short-term effects of fertility management under organic farming in Mediterranean region on soil properties and tomato production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In organic farming, plant production depends almost exclusively on nutrient deriving from the decomposition of exogenous organic matter in soil which is able to provide significant quantities of several important nutrients for the plant growth. However, in the soil the timing and amount of mineralization often does not coincide with crop nutritional need, making in-season fertilization necessary. The Regulation (EC) No 889/2008 on organic farming standards recognizes these needs and allows the use of a limited range fertilizers and soil conditioners (inputs) in order to meet nutritional needs of the plants and to achieve short term economically viable yield. Short-term open field experiment was conducted at the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (MAIB) located in Apulia region (Southern Italy) in order study the effects of different fertilization scenarios based on equilibrated nutritional requirement on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill, cv. San Marzano) production efficiency and soil chemical properties. In soil dressing phase, three months before planting, biochar (BCH), organic fertilizers (OF), combined treatment (BCH+OF), cattle manure and vineyard wood compost (MVC), dairy wastes industry and vineyard wood compost (DVC) and unamended soil as control (CON) were established. In the pre-crop phase, organic and/or mineral fertilizers were incorporated into the previous treatments except CON and BCH in order to achieve balanced N, P and K application rates for tomato plants. Different fertilization scenarios significantly increased the yields over CON and BCH treatments, maintaining fruits quality. In short period of time, most of the soil parameters remained invariable, only available phosphorus significantly increased in the treatments which received organic fertilizers maybe due to the slight reduction in soil pH. However, such results are not surprising, if we consider the quantity of amendments and fertilizers applied in the experiment, as well as a short term study. Future research needs to address the scope for increasing nutrient use efficiency and monitoring of soil nutrient pools in long term studies. Keywords: organic farming, fertility management, tomato crop, Biochar

Cavoski, Ivana; Chami, Ziad Al; Jarrar, Mohammad; Dumontet, Stefano; Mondelli, Donato

2014-05-01

408

Phosphorus Losses from Grasslands Fertilized with Broiler Litter: EPIC Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

surface applications are vulnerable to interaction with surface runoff water. Nutrient concentrations in runoff Broiler litter, a mixture of poultry excreta and bedding material, decrease with time after application because manure is commonly used to fertilize grasslands in the southeastern USA. Previous work has shown that under certain situations, application constituents are moved into the soil by rainfall and incor-

S. T. Pierson; M. L. Cabrera; G. K. Evanylo; P. D. Schroeder; D. E. Radcliffe; H. A. Kuykendall; V. W. Benson; J. R. Williams; C. S. Hoveland; M. A. McCann

409

Behavior and Fate of Animal Waste Nitrogen and Soluble Ions in the Agricultural Environment with Particular Reference to Rice. Part of a Coordinated Programme on Agricultural Nitrogen Residues with Particular Reference to Their Conservation as Fertilizers and Behavior as Potential Pollutants. Final Report for the Period 1 October 1973--31 October 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fate of residual nitrogen and its fertilizer efficiency following application to rice plants in pots under controlled laboratory conditions have been studied. Nitrogen was applied as exp 15 N labelled fecal waste from goat and hog, and as chemical fer...

H. Kobayashi

1976-01-01

410

Ammonium nitrate-impregnated woodchips: a slow-release nitrogen fertilizer for plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of fertilizers are widely used throughout the world for successful crop production. Chemical fertilizers have\\u000a some adverse effects on the environment if used indiscriminately and are a major source of soil and water pollution. To minimize\\u000a environmental pollution, use of slow-release fertilizer (SRF) in agricultural practices is an important and effective method.\\u000a Different materials have been used so

Sheikh Ali Ahmed; Jong In Kim; Kyung Mi Park; Su Kyoung Chun

411

APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISKIN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS  

SciTech Connect

The drilling and operation of gas/petroleum exploratory wells and the operations of natural gas and petroleum production wells generate a number of waste materials that are usually stored and/or processed at the drilling/operations site. Contaminated soils result from drilling operations, production operations, and pipeline breaks or leaks where crude oil and petroleum products are released into the surrounding soil or sediments. In many cases, intrinsic biochemical remediation of these contaminated soils is either not effective or is too slow to be an acceptable approach. This project targeted petroleum-impacted soil and other wastes, such as soil contaminated by: accidental release of petroleum and natural gas-associated organic wastes from pipelines or during transport of crude oil or natural gas; production wastes (such as produced waters, and/or fuels or product gas). Our research evaluated the process designated Chemically-Accelerated Biotreatment (CAB) that can be applied to remediate contaminated matrices, either on-site or in situ. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) had previously developed a form of CAB for the remediation of hydrocarbons and metals at Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites and this research project expanded its application into Exploration and Production (E&P) sites. The CAB treatment was developed in this project using risk-based endpoints, a.k.a. environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE) as the treatment goal. This goal was evaluated, compared, and correlated to traditional analytical methods (Gas Chromatography (GC), High Precision Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (CGMS)). This project proved that CAB can be applied to remediate E&P contaminated soils to EAE, i.e. those concentrations of chemical contaminants in soil below which there is no adverse affect to human health or the environment. Conventional approaches to risk assessment to determine ''how clean is clean'' for soils undergoing remediation have been based on total contaminant concentrations in soil, as determined by laboratory extraction methods that use vigorous physical and chemical procedures. Numerous data collected from bioavailability studies in this study and others carried out by GTI and other organizations conducted on contaminated soils and sediments continue to show that not all contaminants are available to environmental receptors including man or ecologically forms. In short, there exist fractions of contaminants in soil that cannot be released from the soil matrix by normal means. These sequestered contaminant fractions should not be considered a risk to human health or the environment. This project focused on CAB technology to treat soil contaminants to these acceptable levels. Therefore, the primary objective of this project was to determine what these contaminant levels are and to reach or exceed cleanup standards using CAB. These determinations were demonstrated and verified using toxicity and chemical mobility tests. Based on GTI's experience with a form of CAB for the remediation of soils at Manufactured Gas Plant sites, use of the technology demonstrated in this project could save the oil and gas industry an estimated $200 million to $500 million over the next ten years. The merging of CAB with the use of EAE for calibration and evaluation of treatment effectiveness addressed the following research objectives: (1) Determination of the kinetics of contaminant desorption and bioavailability; (2) Further development of CAB technology for the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; (3) Finalization of the methods, procedures and processes needed to apply CAB technology using EAE; and (4) Verification of the applicability of EAE for the remediation of contaminated soils.

J.R. Paterek; W.W.Bogan; V. Trbovic; W. Sullivan

2003-01-07

412

Factors predicting male fertilization success in an external fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In postcopulatory sexual selection both sperm competition and cryptic female choice are considered to be important selective\\u000a agents, but their relative importance for male fertilization success has received little attention. We tested whether sperm\\u000a quality, male spawning coloration, male heterozygosity, and genetic overlap with the female explained a male’s fertilization\\u000a success in controlled in vitro fertilization competition trials between equal

Ståle Liljedal; Geir Rudolfsen; Ivar Folstad

2008-01-01

413

Long-term straw management and N fertilizer rate effects on quantity and quality of organic C and N and some chemical properties in two contrasting soils in Western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop residue and fertilizer management practices alter some soil properties, but the magnitude of change depends on soil type\\u000a and climatic conditions. Field experiments with mainly barley (and canola, wheat, triticale, or pea in a few years) under\\u000a conventional tillage were conducted from 1983 to 2009 at Breton (Gray Luvisol (Typic Haplocryalf) loam) and Ellerslie (Black\\u000a Chernozem (Albic Argicryoll) clay

Sukhdev S. Malhi; Marvin Nyborg; Elston D. Solberg; Brian McConkey; Miles Dyck; Dick Puurveen

414

A Ubiquitous Optical Microsystem Platform with Application to Optical Metrology and Chemical Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation is concerned with the development of a novel, versatile optical sensor platform for optical metrology and chemical sensing. We demonstrate the feasibility of embedding optical components between bonded silicon wafers with receptor cavities and optical windows to create a self-contained sensor microsystem that can be used for in-situ measurement of hostile environments. Arrays of these sensors internal to a silicon wafer can enable optical sensing for in-situ, real-time mapping and process development for the semiconductor industry in the form of an instrumented substrate. Single-die versions of these optical sensor platforms can also enable point-of-care diagnostics, high throughput disease screening, bio-warfare agent detection, and environmental monitoring. Our first discussion will focus on a single-wavelength interferometry-based prototype sensor. Several applications are demonstrated using this single wavelength prototype: refractive index monitoring, SiO2 plasma etching, chemical mechanical polishing, photoresist cure and dissolution, copper etch end-point detection, and also nanopore wetting phenomena. Subsequent sections of this dissertation will describe efforts to improve the optical sensor platform to achieve multi-wavelength sensing function. We explore the use of an off-the-shelf commercial RGB sensor for colorimetric monitoring of copper and aluminum thin-film etchings. We then expand upon our prior work and concepts to realize a fully integrated, chip-sized microspectrometer with a photon engine based on a diffraction grating. The design, fabrication, and demonstration of a working prototype with dimensions < 1 mm thick using standard planar microfabrication techniques is described. Proof-of-concept demonstrations indicate the working principle of dispersion, although with a low spectral resolution of 120 nm. With working knowledge of the issues of the first prototype, we present an improved 5-channel microspectrometer with a spectral range 400-900 nm and demonstrate its ability for spectral identification with 3 different phosphor powder samples. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future areas of research.

Gerling, John David

415

Groundwater quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in a large karstic spring basin: Chemical and microbiological indicators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geochemical and microbiological techniques were used to assess water-quality impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater in the karstic Wakulla Springs basin in northern Florida. Nitrate-N concentrations have increased from about 0.2 to as high as 1.1??mg/L (milligrams per liter) during the past 30??years in Wakulla Springs, a regional discharge point for groundwater (mean flow about 11.3??m3/s) from the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). A major source of nitrate to the UFA is the approximately 64??million L/d (liters per day) of treated municipal wastewater applied at a 774??ha (hectare) sprayfield farming operation. About 260 chemical and microbiological indicators were analyzed in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir, wells upgradient from the sprayfield, and from 21 downgradient wells and springs to assess the movement of contaminants into the UFA. Concentrations of nitrate-N, boron, chloride, were elevated in water samples from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and in monitoring wells at the sprayfield boundary. Mixing of sprayfield effluent water was indicated by a systematic decrease in concentrations of these constituents with distance downgradient from the sprayfield, with about a 10-fold dilution at Wakulla Springs, about 15??km (kilometers) downgradient from the sprayfield. Groundwater with elevated chloride and boron concentrations in wells downgradient from the sprayfield and in Wakulla Springs had similar nitrate isotopic signatures, whereas the nitrate isotopic composition of water from other sites was consistent with inorganic fertilizers or denitrification. The sprayfield operation was highly effective in removing most studied organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds and microbial indicators. Carbamazepine (an anti-convulsant drug) was the only pharmaceutical compound detected in groundwater from two sprayfield monitoring wells (1-2??ppt). One other detection of carbamazepine was found in a distant well water sample where enteroviruses also were detected, indicating a likely influence from a nearby septic tank.

Katz, B. G.; Griffin, D. W.; Davis, J. H.

2009-01-01

416

Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (?? 18O and ??2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have ??18O and ??2H concentrations that represented recharge of me