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1

Inorganic chemical fertilizer application on US farms increased from very low levels to relatively high levels during the two to three decades after World War II.  

E-print Network

Inorganic chemical fertilizer application on US farms increased from very low levels to relatively high levels during the two to three decades after World War II. Increased fertilizer use greatly. It was apparent well before the rapid expansion in fertilizer use that inexpensive ways to evaluate the fertility

2

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Allow Reduced Application Rates of Chemical Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for microorganisms that improve soil fertility and enhance plant nutrition has continued to attract attention due\\u000a to the increasing cost of fertilizers and some of their negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this greenhouse\\u000a study with tomato were to determine (1) if reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer coupled with microbial inoculants will produce\\u000a plant growth, yield, and nutrient

A. O. Adesemoye; H. A. Torbert; J. W. Kloepper

2009-01-01

3

An industrial application using meager-lean coal briquette in chemical fertilizer plant  

SciTech Connect

Mechanized mining results in increased fine coals up to 60--80% of raw coal produced. Because anthracite lump coals are used as fuel coal by Chinese small and/or middle fertilizer factories in gasifiers supplying fuel gas and syngas, an increasing disparity between supply and demand of lump coal is intensifying. The necessary development and production of gasification briquettes from coal fines is welcomed by the small and middle fertilizer factories. This paper discusses making syngas using meager-lean coal briquettes, produced from coal fines and mixed coal using the newly developed binder; the coal was from the Fourth Coal Mine, Hebi Coal Mine Bureau.

Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Zhao Yinrong; Wang Xingou; Hu Kunmo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School; Wang Shiquan; Tao Xilo; Wang Guangnan; Chen Zhiyon [Hebi Coal Mine Bureau, Beijing (China). The Fourth Coal Mine; [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School

1998-12-31

4

Africa Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1  

E-print Network

Africa Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values are expressed of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop. ´Projection: Africa

Columbia University

5

Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1  

E-print Network

Africa Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied averaged over all crops within the 0.5 deg grid cell. Grid cell values global maps of harvested areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop

Columbia University

6

Land Application of Organic Fertilizers or Amendments  

E-print Network

Mechell, Daren Harmel and Bruce Lesikar* Land Application of Organic Fertilizers or Amendments Preventing Environmental Problems When too much organic fertilizer is applied to land, plants cannot use all of the applied nutrients. Then, when rainwater...

Harmel, Daren; Mechell, Justin; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2007-12-13

7

RESEARCH ARTICLE Benefits of organic residues and chemical fertilizer  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Benefits of organic residues and chemical fertilizer to productivity of rain may improve the efficiency of fertilizer use, on-farm residues, for example farmyard manure (FYM of fertilizer use at four sites. Rice yield without fertilizer but with addition of residues ranged from 1

van Kessel, Chris

8

APPLICATION of INORGANIC FERTILIZERS LOWER FRASER VALLEY  

E-print Network

Data 2 4.0 Estimated Fertilizer Application by Crop 2 5.0 Estimated Fertilzer Application by Zone 3 6 of the participating parties. #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 1 2.0 Census of Agriculture Data 1 3.0 Industry and Expenditures A.2 Land Use and Cropping B Fertilizer Industry Data B.1 Annual Retail Fertilizer Sales, Southern

9

Use Phosphorus Free Fertilizer Beginning January 1, 2012, Michigan law restricts phosphorus fertilizer applications on lawns.  

E-print Network

Use Phosphorus Free Fertilizer Beginning January 1, 2012, Michigan law restricts phosphorus.michigan.gov/mda-fertilizer The Phosphorus Law Michigan Fertilizer Law (1994 PA 451, Part 85, Fertilizers) restricts the use of phosphorus homeowners and commercial applicators must follow the phosphorus application restrictions. Where can I find

10

[Reducing nutrients loss by plastic film covering chemical fertilizers].  

PubMed

With the low utilization rate of fertilizers by crop and the growing amount of fertilizer usage,the agricultural non-point source pollution in China is becoming more and more serious. The field experiments planting corns were conducted, in which the applied chemical fertilizers were recovered with plastic film to realize the separation of fertilizers from rain water. In the experiments, the influences of different fertilizing treatments on the growing and production of sweet corn were observed. The fertilizer utilization rate and the nutrient contents in surface run-off water with and without the film covering were also determined. Results showed that, with only 70% of the normal amount of fertilizers,the sweet corn could already get high yield under the experimental soil conditions. Soil analysis after corn crops showed that the amounts of available N, P and K in the soil increased obviously with the film-covering, and the decreasing order was: 100% fertilizers with film-covering > 70% fertilizers with film-covering > 100% fertilizers, 70% fertilizers > no fertilizer. The average utilization coefficients of fertilizers by the crop were 42%-87%, 0%-3%, 5%-15% respectively for N, P and K. It was higher with film-covering than that without covering, especially for the high fertilization treatment. Analysis of water samples collected for eight run-off events showed that, without film-covering, N, P and K average concentrations in the runoff waters with fertilizations were 27.72, 2.70 and 7.07 mg x L(-1), respectively. And they were reduced respectively by 39.54%, 28.05%, 43.74% with the film-covering. This can give significant benefits to the decrease of agricultural non-point source pollution and water eutrophication. PMID:20358842

Chen, Huo-jun; Wei, Ze-bin; Wu, Qi-tang; Zeng, Shu-cai

2010-03-01

11

Ammonia Emissions from Anaerobically-digested Slurry and Chemical Fertilizer Applied to Flooded Forage Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia fluxes from application of anaerobically-digested slurry (ADS) and chemical fertilizer (CF) to flooded forage rice\\u000a (Oryza sativa L.) in Japan were measured using a dynamic flow-through chamber method in lysimeters. The CF was applied at a rate of 300 N\\u000a ha?1 (three times) as ammoniacal-N fertilizer, and the ADS was applied to the lysimeters at total rates equivalent to 75,

Hong Hou; Sheng Zhou; Masaaki Hosomi; Koki Toyota; Kiori Yosimura; Yuuko Mutou; Taku Nisimura; Masao Takayanagi; Takashi Motobayashi

2007-01-01

12

Super nitro plus influence on yield and yield components of two wheat cultivars under NPK fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the beneficial impact of biological and chemical fertilizers application on wheat (Triticum aestivum) some yield characters were investigated. Our objective in this study was the interactive effects of biofertilizer (BF) and chemical fertilizer (CF) applications on: quantity yield at Iran in 2006. In this respect, the experimental unit had designed by achieved treatments in factorial on the basis

Rouhollah Rouzbeh; Jahanfar Daneshian; Hossein Aliabadi Farahani

13

Annual nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for different lawngrass species for Florida. The fertilizer should be applied in multiple (2-6) applications yearly. With each fertilizer  

E-print Network

Annual nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for different lawngrass species for Florida. The fertilizer should be applied in multiple (2-6) applications yearly. With each fertilizer application, ½ to 1 lb. of N should be applied. To find out how much of the common fertilizer types this relates to, go

Hill, Jeffrey E.

14

Effect of Different Fertilizer Application on the Soil Fertility of Paddy Soils in Red Soil Region of Southern China  

PubMed Central

Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (P<0.05). The application of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (P<0.05). During the experimental period, the average AN and AP contents were highest in OM treatment (about 1.6 and 29.6 times of that in the CK, respectively) and second highest in NPK treatment (about 1.2 and 20.3 times of that in the CK). Unlike AN and AP, the highest value of AK content was observed in NPK treatments with 38.10 mg·kg?1. Thus, these indicated that organic manure should be recommended to improve soil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region. PMID:23028550

Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

2012-01-01

15

Five-year growth response of western red cedar, western hemlock, and amabilis fir to chemical and organic fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that growth responses of conifers to application of organic fertilizers are of longer duration than responses to chemical fertilizers was tested in two trials on northern Vancouver Island. Both trials were in 10-year-old plantations of conifers on a salal-dominated cutover known to have poor N supply. In Trial 1, western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don),

C. E. Prescott; S. M. Brown

1998-01-01

16

Yield and chemical composition of 'Piarom' date palm as affected by levels and methods of iron fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research was conducted in order to study the effects of iron fertilization on yield and chemical composition of date palm var. 'Piarom', on 54 trees in Haji-Abad research station of Hormozgan Province. Trees were 12 years old and research treatments were consisted of: 1-Control treatment 2- Soil surface application of Fe in two levels 3-Application of Fe as localized

J. Saleh

17

Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH4H2PO4 solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200° C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca7Mg2P6O24) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid—phosphorus.

Myojin, Sachi; Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi

2010-11-01

18

Aqueous and gaseous nitrogen losses induced by fertilizer application  

SciTech Connect

In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizer use to nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) water pollution and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) atmospheric pollution. Characterizing soil N effluxes is essential in developing a strategy to mitigate N leaching and emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, a previously described and tested mechanistic N cycle model (TOUGHREACT-N) was successfully tested against additional observations of soil pH and N{sub 2}O emissions after fertilization and irrigation, and before plant emergence. We used TOUGHREACT-N to explain the significantly different N gas emissions and nitrate leaching rates resulting from the different N fertilizer types, application methods, and soil properties. The N{sub 2}O emissions from NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N fertilizer were higher than from urea and NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N fertilizers in coarse-textured soils. This difference increased with decreases in fertilization application rate and increases in soil buffering capacity. In contrast to methods used to estimate global terrestrial gas emissions, we found strongly non-linear N{sub 2}O emissions as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil calcite content. Speciation of predicted gas N flux into N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} depended on pH, fertilizer form, and soil properties. Our results highlighted the need to derive emission and leaching factors that account for fertilizer type, application method, and soil properties.

Gu, C.; Maggi, F.; Riley, W.J.; Hornberger, G.M.; Xu, T.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Spycher, N.; Miller, N.L.; Venterea, R.T.; Steefel, C.

2009-01-15

19

Fertilizer summary data 1990  

SciTech Connect

Fertilizer Summary Data, published biennially by the National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC), combines fertilizer application and consumption statistics, crop acreage, and farm income/expense data by state and region for the period 1970 through 1990. This sixteenth edition contains statistics on commercial fertilizers sold for farm and nonfarm use, fertilizer distribution by class, and the leading fertilizer grades. Fertilizers are classified as single- or multiple-nutrient materials. Single-nutrient fertilizers, such as anhydrous ammonia (82-0-0), contain only one primary plant nutrient. Multiple-nutrient fertilizers contain two or more plant nutrients and include the ammonium phosphates and grades manufactured by dry or fluid mixing or chemical processing. In some cases, States report materials used in blending multiple-nutrient fertilizers as single-nutrient ingredients lather than the final manufactured product. Fertilizer consumption statistics for 1970 through 1980 are from US Department of Agriculture annual reports. Annual consumption data for 1985 through 1990 are based on the tabulation of individual state fertilizer tonnage reports submitted annually to TVA for inclusion in the National record of fertilizer consumption, Commercial Fertilizers. Crop statistics, fertilizer application rates, and farm income and expense data are supplied by the National Agricultural Statistics Service and the Economic Research Service, USDA.

Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

1991-05-01

20

SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CHEMICAL AND FERTILIZER MINERAL INDUSTRY, STATE-OF-THE-ART  

EPA Science Inventory

Air and water pollutants are generated during the conversion of naturally occurring minerals into suitable forms for use in chemical and fertilizer production. These minerals are barite, borates, fluorspar, lithium minerals, mineral pigments, phosphate rock, potash, salt, sodium ...

21

Hydrothermal Detoxization of Slate Containing Asbestos and the Possibility of Application for Fertilizer of its Products  

SciTech Connect

Hydrothermal decomposition of slate (building materials) containing asbestos has been attempted by using a NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} solution. Firstly, the alteration of chrysotile as a starting material was investigated under hydrothermal conditions of 200 deg. C, 12 hrs of reaction time and with a phosphate solution. It was confirmed that the original fibrous form of chrysotile had been perfectly collapsed by the SEM observation. The chrysotile (asbestos) disappeared to form Mg-Ca-Silicate (Ca{sub 7}Mg{sub 2}P{sub 6}O{sup 24}) estimated by XRD. The composition and chemical form of reaction products (Mg-Ca-Silicate) was predicted to application as a fertilizer. Fertilizer effect of these resulted product on cultivations of Japanese radish (leaves), soybeans and tomatoes, was examined by using a special medium of mixed soil with a low content of N, P, K and a thermal-treated zeolite one. The fertilizer effects of the product were compared to commercial fertilizers such as N, N-K-P and P types. In order to estimate the fertilizer effect, the size of crops, number of fruits and number of leaves were measured everyday. As a result, these hydrothermal products of slate containing asbestos were as good as commercial fertilizers on the market. Fruits groups especially had a good crop using the hydrothermal slate product. These results show that the main components of hydrothermal treatments slate are calcium silicate and magnesium phosphate. Its decomposition reaction products may have the possibility of application for fertilization of crops which require nucleic acid--phosphorus.

Myojin, Sachi; Yamasaki, Chizuko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi [Research Institute of Aqua Science and Technology 107 Ko, Sakawa-cho, Takaoka-gun, Kochi 789-1201 (Japan); Kuroki, Toshihiro; Manabe, Wataru [Research Institute of Technology, Konoshima Chemical Co., Ltd. 80 Koda, Takuma-cho, Mitoyo-city, Kagawa 769-1103 (Japan)

2010-11-24

22

Nutrient losses from manure and fertilizer applications as impacted by time to first runoff event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient losses to surface waters following fertilization contribute to eutrophication. This study was conducted to compare the impacts of fertilization with inorganic fertilizer, swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure or poultry (Gallus domesticus) litter on runoff water quality, and how the duration between application and the first runoff event affects resulting water quality. Fertilizers were applied at 35kg P ha?1, and

D. R. Smith; P. R. Owens; A. B. Leytem; E. A. Warnemuende

2007-01-01

23

Predicting Nitrogen in Streams: A Comparison of Two Estimates of Fertilizer Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decision makers frequently rely on water and air quality models to develop nutrient management strategies. Obviously, the results of these models (e.g., SWAT, SPARROW, CMAQ) are only as good as the nutrient source input data and recently the Nutrient Innovations Task Group has called for a better accounting of nonpoint nutrient sources. Currently, modelers frequently rely on county level fertilizer sales records combined with acreage of crops to estimate nitrogen sources from fertilizer for counties or watersheds. However, since fertilizer sales data are based on reported amounts they do not necessarily reflect actual use on the fields. In addition the reported sales data quality varies by state resulting in differing accuracy between states. In this study we examine an alternative method potentially providing a more uniform, spatially explicit, estimate of fertilizer use. Our nitrogen application data is estimated at a 30m pixel resolution which allows for scalable inputs for use in water and air quality models. To develop this dataset we combined raster data from the National Cropland data layer (CDL) data with the National Land Cover Data (NLCD). This process expanded the NLCD's 'cultivated crops' classes to included major grains, cover crops, and vegetable and fruits. The Agriculture Resource Management Survey chemical fertilizer application rate data were summarized by crop type and year for each state, encompassing the corn, soybean, spring wheat, and winter wheat crop types (ARMS, 2002-2005). The chemical fertilizer application rate data were then used to estimate annual application parameters for nitrogen, phosphate, potash, herbicide, pesticide, and total pesticide, all expressed on a mass-per-unit-crop-area basis for each state for each crop type. By linking crop types to nitrogen application rates, we can better estimate where applied fertilizer would likely be in excess of the amounts used by crops or where conservation practices may improve retention and uptake helping offset the impacts to water. To test the accuracy of our finer resolution nitrogen application data, we compare its ability to predict nitrogen concentrations in streams with the ability of the county sales data to do the same.

Mehaffey, M.; Neale, A.

2011-12-01

24

Dynamic impacts of a shock in crude oil price on agricultural chemical and fertilizer prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monthly vector autoregression (VAR) model of the following prices was estimated over the 1962:1-1990:6 period: crude oil price (CRUDE), industrial chemical price (INDCHEM), agricultural chemical price (AGCHEM), and fertilizer price (FERT). The VAR was shocked with a rise in CRUDE, and dynamic impulse response patterns in AGCHEM and FERT were observed. Results suggest that AGCHEM and FERT responses would

Ronald A. Babula; Agapi Somwaru

1992-01-01

25

Correction of severe manganese deficiency in wheat with chemical fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Manganese, N and P fertilizers were applied to wheat in field experiments on a soil so deficient in Mn that it caused the wheat to die before heading. Yields of wheat were increased linearly by soil banded Mn to 44.8 kg\\/ha, giving a yield of 3.03 tonnes\\/ha. Yields were increased to a lesser extent by foliar-applied Mn and least

P. B. Hoyt; G. G. S. Myovella

1979-01-01

26

Ground-water flow and effects of agricultural application of sewage sludge and other fertilizers on the chemical quality of sediments in the unsaturated zone and ground water near Platteville, Colorado, 1985-89  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From fall 1985 through 1989, 6,431 dry tons of anaerobic, digested, sewage sludge were applied as a fertilizer on about 1 square mile of sandy farm- land near Platteville, Colorado. Mean nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations in the surficial aquifer increased during the period of sewage- sludge application. However, the effects of municipal sewage sludge applied to the soil in section 16 are difficult to ascertain because anhydrous ammonia and cattle and chicken manure were applied to section 16 prior to sewage-sludge application and anhydrous ammonia was applied during the period of sewage-sludge application. Mostly ammonia plus organic nitrogen was detected in the unsaturated zone while nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen predominated in the surficial aquifer. The areas of largest concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen were in the northeastern and southwestern quarter sections os section 16. Changes in nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen concentrations with depth and time were detected in water samples from the multilevel ground-water sampling devices in the surficial aquifer. Nitrogen probably entered the saturated zone in the irrigated areas and low temporarily ponded areas and moved to the northeast with water in the surficial aquifer.

Gaggiani, N.G.

1995-01-01

27

Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.  

PubMed

In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality. PMID:25236242

Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

2015-02-15

28

Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize ( Zea mays L.), sunflower ( Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean ( Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

2009-08-01

29

Maintaining the Fertility of Rice Soils : A Chemical Study.  

E-print Network

to the ' Disposal of it. Phosphoric Nitrogen. I , potash. Commercial Acid. value. In 1900 pounds rough rice ...... 11.6 22.8 In 2250 pounds straw removed. .. 3.2 14.2 In 2250 pounds straw burned. ................... 14.2 ................. In burning 750 pounds... V is based on nitrogen at 16 cents a pound, phosphoric acid 6 cents, and potash 5 cents, which are the figures used for commercial fertilizers in 'Texas. When rice straw is removed, it carries off plant food valued at $4.61 per acre. Burning...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1906-01-01

30

A segmented regression model for event history data: an application to the fertility  

E-print Network

A segmented regression model for event history data: an application to the fertility patterns in- dividual data for Italian women from the Second National Survey on Fertility. The model provides insights into dramatic decrease of fertility experienced in Italy, in that it detects a 'common' tendency

Gerkmann, Ralf

31

Fertilizer Facts: June 1998, Number 20 Economic Value of Late-Season N Applications to  

E-print Network

Fertilizer Facts: June 1998, Number 20 Economic Value of Late-Season N Applications to Irrigated yield, followed with a topdressing at heading for enhancement of grain protein (Fertilizer Facts No. 11 be based on flag leaf N diagnosis (Fertilizer Facts No. 12). This approach is more N efficient and results

Lawrence, Rick L.

32

Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as: soil pH< available phosphorus < humus content < exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ < exchangeable K+. Inorganic fertilizers in high and temperate rates decrease 137Cs transfer to crops in 2.3-5.5 times. Organic fertilizers are less efficient, but its application can decrease 137Cs accumulation by farm crops during 2-3 years. Correlation analysis shows inversely proportional dependence between organic matter content and exchangeable form of 137Cs in soil (r2 = 0.81). A linear relation between 137Cs transfer factors (TF) to plants and exchangeable radionuclide content has been found (r2=0.68). Inversely proportional relation between the mobility level of potassium, its mobile form content and TF 137Cs was detected (r2 = 0.78).

Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

2012-04-01

33

Effect of Mineral and Organic Fertilizers on the Chemical Characteristics and Quality of Date Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study evaluated the effect of mineral and organic fertilizers with and without the supplementation of micronutrients on the chemical characteristics and quality of date fruits from two cultivars of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) viz. Khalas and Khassab. Thirty date-palm trees from each of the cultivars, 6-7 years of age, were randomly selected and divided into 10 groups with

LATIFA M. AL-KHARUSI; MAHDI OSMAN ELMARDI; AMANAT ALI; FAHAD AL-JULANDA AL-SAID

34

Fertilizer/Chemical Sales and Service Worker. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Ohio Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), derived from a modified Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process, is a current comprehensive and verified employer competency program list for fertilizer/chemical sales and service workers. Each unit (with or without subunits) contains competencies and competency builders that identify the occupational,…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

35

MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Microwave-accelerated chemical syntheses in various solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions have witnessed an explosive growth. The technique has found widespread application predominantly exploiting the inexpensive unmodified household microwave (MW) ovens although th...

36

Growth and yield responses of crops and macronutrient balance influenced by commercial organic manure used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers in an intensive vegetable cropping system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-term field experiment was conducted with an annual rotation of tomato-radish-pakchoi to assess the effects of a commercial organic manure (COM) used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers on crop yield and nutrient balance in an intensive vegetable cropping system. Four treatments as chemical fertilizers (T1), chemical fertilizers + lower rate of COM (T2), chemical fertilizers + medium rate of COM (T3), and chemical fertilizers + high rate of COM (T4) were designed in the present experiment. The supplied doses of N, P, and K were equal for all treatments. Results showed that there were no significant differences in shoot biomass and market yields of tomato, radish and pakchoi among treatments ( P > 0.05). It was found that positive P and K balance existed in the tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system of all treatments. Compared with no manure treatment (T1), application of medium rate of COM (T3) decreased N, P runoff losses, increased N, P, K contents in crop tissues except N, P in pakchoi shoot, and lessened P, K accumulation in soils, accordingly, improved the efficiency of macronutrient. It was concluded that appropriate COM used as a partial substitute for chemical fertilizers could not only meet the crops’ nutrient requirement, but also improved the efficiency of macronutrient and remained positive balance of P and K in the intensive tomato-radish-pakchoi cropping system, which can be regarded as an effective measure for a contribution towards sustainable agriculture and a control pathway for reducing the potential risk of castoff to water environment.

Lu, H. J.; Ye, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. L.; Lin, X. Y.; Ni, W. Z.

37

Applications to Chemical  

E-print Network

Biological applications Solids analysis Ultratrace detection (atomic, molecular) Chromatography detectors beautiful style of writing, familiar light touch and charming turns of phrase: The elec- tron-proton model perceptive comments on Max Planck, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr, Paul A. M. Dirac, Pauli, J. Robert Oppen

Erskine, James L.

38

The Rengen Grassland experiment: bryophytes biomass and element concentrations after 65 years of fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rengen Grassland Experiment in Germany, established in 1941, consists of the following fertilizer treatments applied under\\u000a a two cut management: control, Ca, CaN, CaNP, CaNP-KCl, and CaNP-K2SO4. The aim of this study was (1) to identify effects of fertilizer application on biomass and species composition of bryophytes\\u000a and (2) to investigate the impact of fertilizer application on macro- (N,

Michal Hejcman; Ji?ina Száková; Jürgen Schellberg; Petr Šrek; Pavel Tlustoš; Ji?í Balík

2010-01-01

39

Evaluating the effect of fertilizer application on soil microbial community structure in rice based cropping system using fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to observe the effects of chemical fertilizers and compost amendments on microbial community\\u000a structure in rice based cropping system under long term fertilizer application experiment. Changes in microbial community\\u000a structure assessed by the relative abundance of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles revealed that compost amendments led\\u000a to promoting the abundance of Gram-positive bacterial FAMEs.

Pankaj Trivedi; Pitchai Palaniappan; M. S. Reddy; Tongmin Sa

2009-01-01

40

Effects of field-applied composted cattle manure and chemical fertilizer on ammonia and particulate ammonium exchanges at an upland field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study aimed to investigate the NH 3 volatilization loss from field-applied compost and chemical fertilizer and evaluate the atmosphere-land exchange of NH 3 and particulate NH 4+ (pNH 4) at an upland field with volcanic ash soil (Andosol) in Hokkaido, northern Japan. Two-step basal fertilization was conducted on the bare soil surface. First, a moderately fermented compost of cattle manure was applied by surface incorporation (mixing depth, 0-15 cm) at a rate of 117 kg N ha -1 as total nitrogen (T-N) corresponding to 9.9 kg N ha -1 as ammoniacal nitrogen (NH 4-N). Twelve days later, a chemical fertilizer containing 10% (w/w) of NH 4-N as a mixture of ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphates was applied by row placement (cover depth, 3 cm) at a rate of 100 kg N ha -1 as NH 4-N. The study period was divided into the first-half, beginning after the compost application (CCM period), and the second-half, beginning after the chemical fertilizer application (CF period). The mean air concentrations of NH 3 and pNH 4 (1.5 m height) were 7.6 and 3.0 ?g N m -3, respectively, in the CCM period; the values were 3.7 and 3.9 ?g N m -3, respectively, in the CF period. The composition ratios of NH 3 to the sum of NH 3 and pNH 4 (1.5 m height) were 72% and 49% in the CCM and CF periods, respectively. The NH 3 volatilization loss from the compost was 0.8% of the applied T-N (or 9.3% of the applied NH 4-N) and that from the chemical fertilizer was near zero. Excluding the period immediately after the compost application, the upland field acted as a net sink for NH 3 and pNH 4.

Hayashi, Kentaro; Koga, Nobuhisa; Yanai, Yosuke

41

EB-62 Fertilizer Application with Small Grain Seed at Planting  

E-print Network

Applying fertilizer with the seed at planting is one successful soil management practice that has long been recognized as a means to improve crop yields. Grain drills with fertilizer attachments eventually enabled the farmer to apply a small amount of fertilizer with the seed and plant in one operation. A common practice in the Northern Great Plains dryland small grain production area is to apply 50 pounds per acre

Edward J. Deibert

42

Nitrogen fertilizer applications to corn after alfalfa: grain yield, kernel composition, and plant mineral nutrients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen (N) fertilizers are often applied to first year corn (Zea mays L.) after alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at rates greater than needed to attain maximum yields. However, little is known about other potential benefits of N fertilizer applications to corn after alfalfa. This two-year field expe...

43

Effect of NPK Fertilizer on Chemical Composition of Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15?:?15?:?15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250?kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100?kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47?mg/100?g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100?g/ha. PMID:22629204

Oloyede, F. M.; Obisesan, I. O.; Agbaje, G. O.; Obuotor, E. M.

2012-01-01

44

Germ cell toxicity: significance in genetic and fertility effects of radiation and chemicals  

SciTech Connect

The response of the male and female to radiation and chemicals is different. Any loss of oocytes in the female cannot be replaced, and if severe enough, will result in a shortening of the reproductive span. In the male, a temporary sterile period may be induced owing to destruction of the differentiating spermatogonia, but the stem cells are the most resistant spermatogonial type, are capable of repopulating the seminiferous epithelium, and fertility usually returns. The response of both the male and female changes with development of the embryonic to the adult gonad, and with differentiation and maturation in the adult. The primordial germ cells, early oocytes, and differentiating spermatogonia of the adult male are unusually sensitive to the cytotoxic action of noxious agents, but each agent elicits a specific response owing to the intricate biochemical and physiological changes associated with development and maturation of the gametes. The relationship of germ cell killing to fertility is direct, and long-term fertility effects can be predicted from histological analysis of the gonads. The relationship to genetic effects, on the other hand, is indirect, and acts primarily by limiting the cell stages available for testing, by affecting the distribution of mitotically active stem cells among the different stages of the mitotic cycle, and thereby, changing both the type and frequency of genetic effects observed. 100 references, 38 figures, 7 tables.

Oakberg, E.F.

1983-01-01

45

Environmental risks of trace elements associated with long-term phosphate fertilizers applications: a review.  

PubMed

Application of phosphate fertilizer can be a significant contributor of potentially hazardous trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium, and lead in croplands. These trace elements have the potential to accumulate in soils and be transferred through the food chain. We articulated the environmental risks of trace elements associated with long-term phosphate fertilizer applications by combining data from the literature and results from model simulations. Results illustrate that under normal cropping practice, the impact of phosphate fertilizers applications on trace element accumulation in receiving soils has been limited and localized. Their plant uptake varied greatly depending on the fertilizer application rates, soil and plant characteristics. This has led to a great deal of uncertainty in characterizing soil distribution coefficients, Kd, and plant uptake factors, PUF, two of the most used parameters in assessing the risks of accumulations. Therefore, the risks may be more appropriately assessed based on the probabilistic distributions of Kd and PUF. PMID:22591788

Jiao, Wentao; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C; Page, Albert L

2012-09-01

46

AN AMMONIA EMISSION INVENTORY FOR FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN THE UNITED STATES. (R826371C006)  

EPA Science Inventory

Fertilizer application represents a significant fraction of ammonia emissions from all sources in the United States. Previously published ammonia inventories have generally suffered from poor spatial and temporal resolution, erroneous activity levels, and highly uncertain emis...

47

THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS FERTILIZERS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. ONE OF A SERIES OF EIGHT MODULES, IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SUBJECT MATTER AREAS ARE (1) CHEMICAL NUTRITION OF PLANTS, (2) PLANT GROWTH, (3) TERMINOLOGY,…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

48

Bioremediation with oleophilic fertilizer  

SciTech Connect

To enhance hydrocarbon breakdown by indigenous microbial communities, a fertilizer formulation that would keep nutrients in contact with oil, was designed ten years ago by ELF AQUITAINE. The fertilizer known as INIPOL EAP 22 is an oil soluble additive but also an easily biodegradable carbon source (oleic acid). Numerous experiments, in both laboratory and field, have shown that the application of this fertilizer increases the number of hydrocarbon degrading organisms and the extent and rate of hydrocarbon biodegradation Laboratory experiments with radiolabelled hydrocarbons have shown that in addition to its physico chemical role, oleic acid acts as a biological starter, increasing the biomass and the rate of biodegradation. A large bioremediation project in ALASKA has shown that it its possible to enhance the biodegradation of oil through the application of such a fertilizer, on coarse sediments. Recently, on sandy sediments, the use of INIPOL EAP 22 shown a clear development in hydrocarbon specific bacteria, and an increase of the rate of biodegradation.

Basseres, A.; Ladousse, A. [ELF Aquitaine (France)

1993-12-31

49

Effects of nitrogen source and rate and method of fertilizer application on yield and fruit size in 'Bluecrop' highbush blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was done to determine the effects of N source and rate and two common methods of fertilizer application on yield and fruit size in a maturing field of highbush blueberry. Plants were fertilized by drip fertigation or with granular fertilizer using urea or ammonium sulfate applied at a rate o...

50

Use of Spectroradiometers to Guide In-season Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Irrigated Cotton in West Texas  

E-print Network

1 Use of Spectroradiometers to Guide In-season Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications in Irrigated Cotton Plains, center pivots are the preferred irrigation method. Nitrogen fertilizer management is convenient is efficient as well. The timing of N fertilizer injections then becomes a management question producers need

Behmer, Spencer T.

51

Aqeuous and Gaseous Nitrogen Losses Induced by Fertilizer Application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years concern has grown over the contribution of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to nitrate (NO3-) water pollution and atmospheric pollution of nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO), and ammonia (NH3). Characterizing the amount and species of N losses is therefore essential in developing a strat...

52

Field measurements of ammonia volatilization from surface applications of nitrogen fertilizers to a calcareous soil  

E-print Network

FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION FROM SURFACE APPLICATIONS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZERS TO A CALCAREOUS SOIL A Thesis by WILLIAM LEONARD HARGROVE, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in Partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1977 Major Subject~ Soil Science FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION FROM SURFACE APPIICATIONS OF NITROGEN FERTILIZERS TO A CALCAREOUS SOIL A Thesis by WILLIAM LEONARD HARGROVE, JR...

Hargrove, W. L

2012-06-07

53

Fertilizer trends  

SciTech Connect

This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

Donaldson, R.

1992-01-01

54

Fertilizer trends  

SciTech Connect

This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

Donaldson, R.

1992-12-31

55

Chemical Attributes of Soil Fertilized with Cassava Mill Wastewater and Cultivated with Sunflower  

PubMed Central

The use of waste arising from agroindustrial activities, such as cassava wastewater, has been steadily implemented in order to reduce environmental pollution and nutrient utilization. The aim of this study is that the changes in chemical properties of dystrophic red-yellow latosol (oxisol) were evaluated at different sampling times after reuse of cassava wastewater as an alternative to mineral fertilizer in the cultivation of sunflower, hybrid Helio 250. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of the Agricultural Research Company of Pernambuco (IPA), located in Vitória de Santo Antão. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 6 × 5 subplots; six doses of cassava wastewater (0; 8.5; 17.0; 34.0; 68.0; and 136?m3?ha?1); and five sampling times (21, 42, 63, 84, and 105 days after applying the cassava wastewater), with four replications. Concentrations of available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium, pH, and electrical conductivity of the soil saturation extract were evaluated. Results indicate that cassava wastewater is an efficient provider of nutrients to the soil and thus to the plants, making it an alternative to mineral fertilizers. PMID:25610900

Dantas, Mara Suyane Marques; Monteiro Rolim, Mário; Duarte, Anamaria de Sousa; de Silva, Ênio Farias de França; Maria Regis Pedrosa, Elvira; Dantas, Daniel da Costa

2014-01-01

56

Variation in riverine nitrate flux and fall nitrogen fertilizer application in East-central illinois.  

PubMed

In east-central Illinois, fertilizer sales during the past 20 yr suggest that approximately half of the fertilizer nitrogen (N) applied to corn ( L.) occurs in the fall; however, fall fertilizer N sales were greatly reduced in 2009 as wet soil conditions restricted fall fieldwork, including fertilizer N applications. In 2010, we observed unusually low flow-weighted nitrate concentrations (approximately 40% below the long-term average) in two east-central Illinois rivers (5.7 mg N L in the Embarras River and 5.6 mg N L in the Lake Fork of the Kaskaskia River). Using long-term river nitrate data sets (1993-2012 for the Embarras and 1997-2012 for the Kaskaskia), we examined nitrate concentrations and developed regression models to estimate the association between fall fertilizer N application on riverine nitrate yields in these tile-drained watersheds. During these periods of record, annual riverine nitrate yields ranged from 8 to 57 kg N ha yr (30 kg N ha yr average) for the Embarras River and 2.6 to 59 kg N ha yr (32 kg N ha yr average) for the Kaskaskia. Multivariate linear regression relationships with the current and previous year's annual water yields, previous year's corn yield, and nine-county fall fertilizer sales accounted for 96% of the annual variation in nitrate yield in both watersheds. Running the regression models with fall fertilizer sales set to the 2009 amount suggests that the average reduction in nitrate yield (for the period of record) would be 17 and 20% for the Embarras and Kaskaskia Rivers, respectively. These data suggest that shifting fertilizer N application to the spring can be detected in watersheds as large as 481 km. PMID:25603094

Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B; McIsaac, Gregory F

2014-07-01

57

Chemical analysis and molecular models for calcium-oxygen-carbon interactions in black carbon found in fertile Amazonian anthrosoils.  

PubMed

Carbon particles containing mineral matter promote soil fertility, helping it to overcome the rather unfavorable climate conditions of the humid tropics. Intriguing examples are the Amazonian Dark Earths, anthropogenic soils also known as "Terra Preta de Índio'' (TPI), in which chemical recalcitrance and stable carbon with millenary mean residence times have been observed. Recently, the presence of calcium and oxygen within TPI-carbon nanoparticles at the nano- and mesoscale ranges has been demonstrated. In this work, we combine density functional theory calculations, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of TPI-carbons to elucidate the chemical arrangements of calcium-oxygen-carbon groups at the molecular level in TPI. The molecular models are based on graphene oxide nanostructures in which calcium cations are strongly adsorbed at the oxide sites. The application of material science techniques to the field of soil science facilitates a new level of understanding, providing insights into the structure and functionality of recalcitrant carbon in soil and its implications for food production and climate change. PMID:24892495

Archanjo, Braulio S; Araujo, Joyce R; Silva, Alexander M; Capaz, Rodrigo B; Falcão, Newton P S; Jorio, Ado; Achete, Carlos A

2014-07-01

58

Bioinoculants: a sustainable approach to maximize the yield of Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata L.) under low input of chemical fertilizers.  

PubMed

This study aimed to find out the effect of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR; Azospirillum brasilense and Azotobacter vinelandii) either alone or in combination with different doses of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Brassica carinata (L.) cv. Peela Raya. PGPR were applied as seed inoculation at 10(6) cells/mL(-1) so that the number of bacterial cells per seed was 2.6 × 10(5) cells/seed. The chemical fertilizers, namely, urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP) were applied in different doses (full dose (urea 160 kg ha(-1) + DAP 180 kg ha(-1)), half dose (urea 80 kg ha(-1) + DAP 90 kg ha(-1)), and quarter dose (urea 40 kg ha(-1) + DAP 45 kg ha(-1)). The chemical fertilizers at full and half dose significantly increased the chlorophyll, carotenoids, and protein content of leaves and the seed yield (in kilogram per hectare) but had no effect on the oil content of seed. The erucic acid (C22:1) content present in the seed was increased. Azospirillum performed better than Azotobacter and its effect was at par with full dose of chemical fertilizers (CFF) for pigments and protein content of leaves when inoculated in the presence of half dose of chemical fertilizers (SPH). The seed yield and seed size were greater. Supplementing Azospirillum with SPH assisted Azospirillum to augment the growth and yield, reduced the erucic acid (C22:1) and glucosinolates contents, and increased the unsaturation in seed oil. It is inferred that A. brasilense could be applied as an efficient bioinoculant for enhancing the growth, seed yield, and oil quality of Ethiopian mustard at low fertilizer costs and sustainable ways. PMID:24097367

Nosheen, Asia; Bano, Asghari; Ullah, Faizan

2013-10-01

59

Manufacture of gasification briquettes from meager-lean coal for use in chemical fertilizer-plant gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

Chinese fertilizer plants, especially middle or small fertilizer plants, feed lump anthracite to atmospheric fixed bed gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. However, the available lump coal meets less than one half the demand for fertilizer production, and the price of good lump anthracite has risen. Most good anthracite is produced in Shanxi Province. Chemical fertilizer plants in other areas pay high transportation costs and leave Shanxi mines with waste fine coal and slime that cause environmental pollution. So, it is important to fully utilize fine anthracite coal or bituminous coal to produce the industrial gasification briquettes. That may mitigate the disparity between supply and demand of lump coal, reduce the fertilizer production cost, and decrease the degree of environmental pollution. The briquettes don`t require heat-drying in their production and have the characteristics of high strength and water resistance. This technology is very important for local fertilizer plants where only meager-lean coal is produced. This paper discusses the processing technique and parameters, the quality standards and testing methods of briquettes made from meager-lean coal.

Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Zhao Yinrong; Wang Xingou; Hu Kunmo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School; Wang Shiquan; Tao Xilo; Wang Guangnan; Meng Zhongze [Hebi Coal Mine Bureau, Beijing (China). The Fourth Coal Mine

1998-12-31

60

Chemical inhibitors of methanogenesis and putative applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This mini-review summarizes the category, characteristics, and the application fields of the chemical methanogenic inhibitors.\\u000a Usually, the chemical methanogenic inhibitors can be divided into “specific” and nonspecific inhibitors. The former group\\u000a includes the structural analogs of coenzyme M and HMG-CoA inhibitors. The nonspecific group includes many chemicals which\\u000a can inhibit the activity of both methanogens and non-methanogens. The chemical inhibitors

He Liu; Jin Wang; Aijie Wang; Jian Chen

2011-01-01

61

Field evaluation of inorganic and chelated iron fertilizers as foliar sprays and soil application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of inorganic and chelated ferric and ferrous fertilizers were tested for their ability to alleviate Fe chlorosis as foliar and soil application on peach and grape under field conditions. Limited re?greening was obtained with foliar application of ferric citrate\\/ammonium nitrate, ferrous sulfate and DTPA on peaches, and with foliar application of ferric citrate\\/ammonium nitrate and ferrous sulfate and

David Wm. Reed; Calvin G. Lyons Jr; George Ray McEachern

1988-01-01

62

Reducing fertilizer-derived N2O emission: Point injection vs. surface application of ammonium-N fertilizer at a loamy sand site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N2O emitted from soil originates either from denitrification of nitrate and/or nitrification of ammonium. N fertilization can have an important impact on N2O emission rates. Injection of nitrate-free ammonium-N fertilizer, in Germany also known as CULTAN (Controlled Uptake Long-Term Ammonium Nutrition), results in fertilizer depots with ammonium concentrations of up to 10 mg N g-1 soil-1. High concentrations of ammonium are known to inhibit nitrification. However, it has not yet been clarified how N2O fluxes are affected by CULTAN. In a field experiment, two application methods of nitrogen fertilizer were used at a loamy sand site: Ammonium sulphate was applied either by point injection or by surface application. 15N-ammonium sulphate was used to distinguish between N2O originating from either fertilizer-N or soil-N. Unfertilized plots and plots fertilized with unlabeled ammonium sulphate served as control. N2O emissions were measured using static chambers, nitrate and ammonium concentrations were determined in soil extracts. Stable isotope analysis of 15N in N2O, nitrate and ammonium was used to calculate the contribution of fertilizer N to N2O emissions and the fertilizer turnover in soil. 15N analysis clearly indicated that fertilizer derived N2O fluxes were higher from surface application plots. For the period of the growing season, about 24% of the flux measured in surface application treatment and less than 10% from injection treatment plots originated from the fertilizer. In addition, a lab experiment was conducted to gain insight into processes leading to N2O emission from fertilizer depots. One aim was to examine whether the ratio of N2O to nitrate formation differs depending on the ammonium concentration. Loamy sand soil was incubated in microcosms continuously flushed with air under conditions favouring nitrification. 15N-labeled nitrate was used to differentiate between nitrification and denitrification. Stable isotope analyses of 15N were performed on N2O in the gas phase and on ammonium and nitrate extracted from soil samples.

Deppe, Marianna; Well, Reinhard; Giesemann, Anette; Kücke, Martin; Flessa, Heinz

2013-04-01

63

Major Palm Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms and Fertilizer Applications 1. Deficient Nutrient  

E-print Network

;1. Magnesium (Mg) 2. Canary Island Date 3. Old Moderate/Severe: i) In feather palms, broad chlorotic (yellowMajor Palm Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms and Fertilizer Applications 1. Deficient Nutrient 2. Palms. Queen, coconut, foxtail, royal, pygmy date 3. New Mild: i) Sharply bent (hooked leaf) leaflet tips ii

Jawitz, James W.

64

Residual effects of compost and fertilizer applications on nutrients in runoff  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of compost or fertilizer at rates that exceed crop nutrient requirements can result in phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) accumulation in soil. This study was conducted to determine the influence of soil P and N contents on the concentrations and total amounts of P and N transported in...

65

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2012-07-01

66

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2013-07-01

67

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2010-07-01

68

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2014-07-01

69

40 CFR 418.70 - Applicability; description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the mixed and blend fertilizer production subcategory. 418.70...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS FERTILIZER MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mixed and Blend Fertilizer Production Subcategory §...

2011-07-01

70

Rice Response to Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Rate and Timing on Alkaline Soils in Arkansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

may increase after flooding when the soil pH decreases due to CO2 accumulation and Ca 2 ions are complexed Phosphorus deficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Arkansas occurs responsive sites with yield increases of 24 to 41%. Application of P fertilizer PRE, PF, and POF were superior to MS applications, alkaline soils, soil pH has shown to be a

Nathan A. Slaton; Charles E. Wilson; Richard J. Norman; Sixte Ntamatungiro; Donna L. Frizzell

2002-01-01

71

Agricultural Chemical and Fertilizer Storage Rules: Costs and Benefits for Insuring Cleaner Water for Indiana.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis of public goods is presented with a discussion of the rules for fertilizer and pesticide storage units in Indiana. A basic rule summary is presented with descriptions of the types of dikes that might be considered for containment. Estimated costs are projected along with the number of contained liquid fertilizer spills by size in…

Welch, Mary A., Ed.

1991-01-01

72

Influences of Chemical Fertilizers and a Nitrification Inhibitor on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Corn (Zea mays L.) Field in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The influences of chemical fertilizers and a nitrification inhibitor on greenhouse gas fluxes (N(2)O and CH(4)) in a corn field in Indonesia were investigated using a closed chamber. Plots received 45+45 kg-N ha(-1) of nitrogen fertilizer by split applications of urea, a single application of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF-LP30) or urea+dicyandiamide (DCD; a nitrification inhibitor), and no nitrogen application (control). Cumulative amounts of N(2)O emitted from the field were 1.87, 1.70, 1.06, and 0.42 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1) season(-1) for the urea, CRF-LP30, urea+DCD, and control plots, respectively. The application of urea+DCD reduced the emission of N(2)O by 55.8% compared with urea. On the other hand, the soil acted as a sink for CH(4) in the CRL-LP30, control, and urea+DCD plots with value of -0.09, -0.06 and -0.06 kg CH(4)-C ha(-1) season(-1), respectively. When the viability of AOB (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and NOB (nitrite-oxidizing bacteria) were monitored, AOB numbers were correlated with the N(2)O emission. These results suggest that 1) there is a potential for reducing emissions of N(2)O by applying DCD, and 2) corn fields treated with CRF or urea+DCD can act as a sink for CH(4) in a tropical humid climate. PMID:21558684

Jumadi, Oslan; Hala, Yusminah; Muis, Abd; Ali, Alimuddin; Palennari, Muhiddin; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Inubushi, Kazuyuki

2008-01-01

73

APPLICATIONS: ENERGY AND CHEMICALS INDUSTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trend to smaller and smaller structures, that is, miniaturization, is well known in the microelectronics industry, evidenced by the rapid increase in computing power through reduction of the area and volume needed per transistor on chips. In the energy and chemicals areas, this same trend towards miniaturization, i.e., control of function and\\/or structure at the nanoscale, also is occurring,

D. Co; S. T. Picraux

74

Influence of irrigation and organic/inorganic fertilization on chemical quality of almond (Prunus amygdalus cv. Guara).  

PubMed

The chemical quality of almonds variety Guara cultivated in nonirrigated farming (NI) and drip-irrigated farming (DI) conditions with different fertilizing treatments, two organic treatments (T1 and T2) and a mineral treatment (C), all of them with a N-P-K proportion of 1-2-1, is studied. Almonds obtained in irrigated farming showed higher content in sugars and organic acids and a better quality of oil. Among the fertilizing treatments employed, the organic ones have shown the best results related to chemical quality, regardless of the quantity of fertilizer employed (9.5 kg per T1 tree vs 4.5 kg per T2 tree). The organic treatments produced almonds with a higher content of sugar, organic acids and fiber and a similar fat content. These results are interesting from a commercial point of view since the consumers, even under the same conditions of chemical quality, prefer those products cultivated under organic conditions due to their benefits for health and because these practices are environment-friendly. PMID:18847209

Sánchez-Bel, P; Egea, I; Martínez-Madrid, M C; Flores, B; Romojaro, F

2008-11-12

75

Chemical Microsensor Development for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous aerospace applications, including low-false-alarm fire detection, environmental monitoring, fuel leak detection, and engine emission monitoring, would benefit greatly from robust and low weight, cost, and power consumption chemical microsensors. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to develop a variety of chemical microsensors with these attributes to address the aforementioned applications. Chemical microsensors using different material platforms and sensing mechanisms have been produced. Approaches using electrochemical cells, resistors, and Schottky diode platforms, combined with nano-based materials, high temperature solid electrolytes, and room temperature polymer electrolytes have been realized to enable different types of microsensors. By understanding the application needs and chemical gas species to be detected, sensing materials and unique microfabrication processes were selected and applied. The chemical microsensors were designed utilizing simple structures and the least number of microfabrication processes possible, while maintaining high yield and low cost. In this presentation, an overview of carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2), and hydrogen/hydrocarbons (H2/CxHy) microsensors and their fabrication, testing results, and applications will be described. Particular challenges associated with improving the H2/CxHy microsensor contact wire-bonding pad will be discussed. These microsensors represent our research approach and serve as major tools as we expand our sensor development toolbox. Our ultimate goal is to develop robust chemical microsensor systems for aerospace and commercial applications.

Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Chen, Liangyu; Biaggi-Labiosa, Azlin M.

2013-01-01

76

Scheduling fertilizer applications as a simple mitigation option for reducing N2O emission in intensively managed mown grassland systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general principle in all proposed N2O mitigation options is the fertilization according to plants' requirements. Meanwhile the amount of N fertilization allowed is regulated in many countries. Due to the high pressure from food security and the need for economic efficiency the given limits are generally used up. In mown grassland systems a simple mitigation option is to optimize the timing of the fertilizer applications. Application of fertilizer, both organic manure and mineral fertilizer, is generally scheduled after each cut in a narrow time window. In practice, the delay between cut and fertilizer application is determined by weather conditions, management conditions and most important by the planning and experience of the individual farmer. Many field experiments have shown that enhanced N2O emissions tend to occur after cuts but before the application of fertilizer, especially when soils are characterized by a high WFPS. These findings suggest that the time of fertilizer application has an important implications for the N2O emission rate and that scheduling fertilization according to soil conditions might be a simple, cheap and efficient measure to mitigate N2O emissions. In this paper we report on results from a sensitivity analysis aiming at quantifying the effects of the timing of the fertilizer applications on N2O emissions from intensively managed, mown grasslands. Simulations for different time schedules were carried out with the comprehensive ecosystem model "ECOSYS" . To our knowledge this aspect has not been systematically investigated from a scientific point of view, but might have been always there within the experiences of attentive environmentally concerned farmers.

Neftel, Albrecht; Calanca, Pierluigi; Felber, Raphael; Grant, Robert; Conen, Franz

2014-05-01

77

Net nitrogen mineralization from past year's manure and fertilizer applications.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Manure from the semiarid West’s dairy industries is a rich nutrient source, but its use for crops can be problematic because soil N availability from manure may vary substantially depending on the year of application. Experimental plots established in Idaho on a Portneuf silt loam (coarse silty, mi...

78

Effectiveness of Organic\\/BioFertilizer Supplemented with Chemical Fertilizers for Improving Soil Water Retention, Aggregate Stability, Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, an organic-fertilizer was prepared by composting fruit and vegetable wastes in a locally fabricated unit and enriching it with N applied at the rate of 147 g kg compost. This “organic-fertilizer” was also used as a carrier for PGPR strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens biotype G (N3) containing ACC-deaminase to formulate a bio-fertilizer. The organic- and\\/or bio-fertilizers were applied

Rizwan Ahmad; Muhammad Arshad; Azeem Khalid; Zahir A. Zahir

2008-01-01

79

Commercial Fertilizers 1994  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a compilation of annual data about fertilizer use in the USA, including statistics about various kinds of fertilizer, how much and where they are used, chemical composition, etc.

Berry, J.T.

1994-12-01

80

21 CFR 1310.13 - Exemption of chemical mixtures; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. 1310.13...JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES § 1310.13 Exemption of chemical mixtures; application. (a)...

2010-04-01

81

1986 Fertilizer Summary Data  

SciTech Connect

''Fertilizer Summary Data'' is published every two years as part of TVA's fertilizer research, development, and education program. It brings together historical fertilizer use and crop statistics, application rates, and farm income and expense data for market planning and evaluation. This edition summarizes US consumption (including Puerto Rico) of fertilizer and plant nutrients through the year ended June 30, 1986.

Berry, J.T.; Hargett, N.L.

1987-05-01

82

Refining the Criteria for Stalled Fertility Declines: An Application to Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 1990–2005  

PubMed Central

Stalled fertility declines have been identified in several regions across the developing world, but the current conceptualization of a stalled fertility decline is poorly theorized and does not lend itself to objective measurement. We propose a more rigorous and statistically testable definition of stalled fertility decline that can be applied to time-series data. We then illustrate the utility of our definition through its application to data from rural South Africa for the period 1990–2005 collected from a demographic surveillance site. Application of the approach suggests that fertility decline has indeed stalled in rural KwaZulu-Natal, at about three children per woman. The stall, some 20 percent above the replacement fertility level, does not appear to be associated with a rise in wanted fertility or attenuated access to contraceptive methods. This identification of a stalled fertility decline provides the first evidence of such a stall in southern Africa, the region with the lowest fertility levels in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:18540522

Moultrie, Tom A.; Hosegood, Victoria; McGrath, Nuala; Hill, Caterina; Herbst, Kobus; Newell, Marie-Louise

2015-01-01

83

[Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].  

PubMed

A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization. PMID:16422505

Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

2005-10-01

84

The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer application on herbage yield of natural pastures.  

PubMed

This study was carried out in a natural pasture in Van province of Turkey between the years of 2004 and 2005 to determine the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on herbage yield. The study was performed in randomized block with three replications. 0, 4, 8, 16 kg da(-1) nitrogen and 0, 6, 12 kg da(-1) phosphorus applications were examined. The effects of different nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer applications on plant height, green herbage and crude protein yield were significant for both years. Depending on the increasing nitrogen and phosphorus applications, significant increases were in green herbage, hay and crude protein yields. According to results, differences between 8 and 16 kg da(-1) doses of nitrogen and 6 and 12 kg da(-1) doses of phosphorus applications were insignificant. In the first year, in terms of nitrogen applications, the highest green herbage, hay and crude protein yield (1423.1, 263.3 and 29.2 kg da(-1)) were obtained from 8 kg N da(-1), in the second year, the highest values (1426.1, 602.7 and 67.8 kg da(-1)) were obtained from 16 kg N da(-1) application. As for the phosphorus applications, in the first year, the highest green herbage yield was 1142.2 kg da(-1) at the 6 kg P2O5/da application, hay and crude protein yields (218.2, 23.1 kg da(-1)) were recorded from 12 kg P2O5/da application. In the second year, the highest green herbage, hay and crude protein yields were (1335.8, 549.6 and 66.1 kg da(-1)) determined at the 12 kg P2O5/da application. PMID:21913498

Celebi, Seyda Zorer; Arvas, Osmetullah; Terzioglu, Omer

2011-01-01

85

Assessment of fertility in male rats after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess whether male rats whose testosterone levels were suppressed to castration levels (<0.5 ng/mL) for a 1-year period by the sustained delivery of orntide acetate, a GnRH antagonist, would return to fertility (ie, produce offspring) after serum testosterone returned to control levels. Male rats comprising a treatment group (orntide microspheres, dose = 27 mg/kg/y), a vehicle control group, and a control group of proven male breeders were used. For the treatment and vehicle control groups, serum orntide and testosterone levels were monitored at periodic intervals for 14 months from the initiation of treatment. After serum testosterone levels returned to vehicle control levels and orntide serum levels were no longer discernible for the treated group, each of the animals was housed with 2 drug-naive, female, proven breeders. All the breeder females produced offspring with the exception of 1 female housed with a male rat from the treatment group and the 2 females housed with a single male rat from the vehicle control group. The mean size and weight of the litters from each group were not statistically different. Further, fertility of the offspring from each group was assessed. The male and female offspring studied were all shown to be fertile. The results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression in male rats is reversible after cessation of treatment with the GnRH analog, orntide. PMID:15198511

D'Souza, Susan S; Selmin, Francesca; Murty, Santos B; Qiu, Wei; Thanoo, B C; DeLuca, Patrick P

2004-03-11

86

Assessment of fertility in male rats after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess whether male rats whose testosterone levels were suppressed to castration levels (<0.5 ng/mL) for a 1-year period by the sustained delivery of orntide acetate, a GnRH antagonist, would return to fertility (ie, produce offspring) after serum testosterone returned to control levels. Male rats comprising a treatment group (orntide microspheres, dose = 27 mg/kg/y), a vehicle control group, and a control group of proven male breeders were used. For the treatment and vehicle control groups, serum orntide and testosterone levels were monitored at periodic intervals for 14 months from the initiation of treatment. After serum testosterone levels returned to vehicle control levels and orntide serum levels were no longer discernible for the treated group, each of the animals was housed with 2 drug-naive, female, proven breeders. All the breeder females produced offspring with the exception of 1 female housed with a male rat from the treatment group and the 2 females housed with a single male rat from the vehicle control group. The mean size and weight of the litters from each group were not statistically different. Further, fertility of the offspring from each group was assessed. The male and female offspring studied were all shown to be fertile. The results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression in male rats is reversible after cessation of treatment with the GnRH analog, orntide. PMID:18465262

D'Souza, Susan S; Selmin, Francesca; Murty, Santos B; Qiu, Wei; Thanoo, B C; DeLuca, Patrick P

2004-01-01

87

Response of seed tocopherols in oilseed rape to nitrogen fertilizer sources and application rates* #  

PubMed Central

Tocopherols (Tocs) are vital scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and important seed oil quality indicators. Nitrogen (N) is one of the most important fertilizers in promoting biomass and grain yield in crop production. However, the effect of different sources and application rates of N on seed Toc contents in oilseed rape is poorly understood. In this study, pot trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of two sources of N fertilizer (urea and ammonium nitrate). Each source was applied to five oilseed rape genotypes (Zheshuang 72, Jiu-Er-1358, Zheshuang 758, Shiralee, and Pakola) at three different application rates (0.41 g/pot (N1), 0.81 g/pot (N2), and 1.20 g/pot (N3)). Results indicated that urea increased ?-, ?-, and total Toc (T-Toc) more than did ammonium nitrate. N3 was proven as the most efficient application rate, which yielded high contents of ?-Toc and T-Toc. Highly significant correlations were observed between Toc isomers, T-Toc, and ?-/?-Toc ratio. These results clearly demonstrate that N sources and application rates significantly affect seed Toc contents in oilseed rape. PMID:24510711

Hussain, Nazim; Li, Hui; Jiang, Yu-xiao; Jabeen, Zahra; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Ali, Essa; Jiang, Li-xi

2014-01-01

88

FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS  

E-print Network

TRI-STATE FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CORN, SOYBEANS, WHEAT & ALFALFA TRI-STATE FERTILIZER University Extension Bulletin E-2567 (New), July 1995 #12;Tri-state Fertilizer Recommendations for Corn D.B. Mengel, Purdue University FOREWORD When fertilizer first became readily available in the 1930s

Holland, Jeffrey

89

A literature review of nonbiological remediation technologies which may be applicable to fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites  

SciTech Connect

The National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center at TVA has initiated a Window of Opportunity (WOO) project for the Development of Waste Treatment and Site Remediation Technologies for Fertilizer Dealers.'' The overall objectives of this project are to identify, evaluate, modify, research, develop, demonstrate, introduce, and market waste treatment and site remediation technologies/strategies for fertilizer dealers.'' This bulletin supports the WOO project by providing a general literature overview of the more prominent nonbiological remediation technologies that may be applicable to fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites. The technologies discussed are: incineration, anaerobic pyrolysis, in situ vitrification, thermal desorption, air stripping (soil), air stripping (water), steam stripping, soil washing, solvent extraction, solidification/stabilization, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical water oxidation. The advantages, disadvantages, applicability to remediation of contaminated sites, and need for further research are discussed.

Enlow, P.D.

1990-10-01

90

A literature review of nonbiological remediation technologies which may be applicable to fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites  

SciTech Connect

The National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center at TVA has initiated a Window of Opportunity (WOO) project for the ``Development of Waste Treatment and Site Remediation Technologies for Fertilizer Dealers.`` The overall objectives of this project are ``to identify, evaluate, modify, research, develop, demonstrate, introduce, and market waste treatment and site remediation technologies/strategies for fertilizer dealers.`` This bulletin supports the WOO project by providing a general literature overview of the more prominent nonbiological remediation technologies that may be applicable to fertilizer/agrichemical dealer sites. The technologies discussed are: incineration, anaerobic pyrolysis, in situ vitrification, thermal desorption, air stripping (soil), air stripping (water), steam stripping, soil washing, solvent extraction, solidification/stabilization, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical water oxidation. The advantages, disadvantages, applicability to remediation of contaminated sites, and need for further research are discussed.

Enlow, P.D.

1990-10-01

91

Slug responses to grassland cutting and fertilizer application under plant functional group removal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current studies on trophic interactions in biodiversity experiments have largely relied on artificially sown gradients in plant diversity, but removal experiments with their more natural plant community composition are more realistic. Slugs are a major part of the invertebrate herbivore community, with some species being common pests in agriculture. We therefore investigated how strongly slugs are influenced by grassland management, plant biodiversity and composition. Here we analysed the effects of cutting frequency, fertilizer application and plant functional group composition on slug densities and their contribution to herbivory on Rumex acetosa in a removal experiment within a >100-year old grassland in Northern Germany. The experiment was laid out as a Latin rectangle with full factorial combinations of (i) plant functional group removal (3 levels) using herbicides, (ii) fertilizer application (2 levels) and (iii) cutting frequency (2 levels). The resulting 12 treatment combinations were replicated 6 times, resulting in 72 plots. We collected a total of 1020 individuals belonging to three species Arion distinctus (60.4% of individuals), Deroceras reticulatum (34.7%) and Arion lusitanicus (4.9%) using a cover board technique and additionally measured herbivore damage to R. acetosa. We found the highest slug abundance on plots with a low cutting frequency and high food resource availability (increased cover of forbs and taller vegetation). Fertilizer application had no significant effect on slug abundance, but caused higher herbivore damage to on R. acetosa, possibly as a result of increased tissue quality. The negative effect of higher cutting frequency on slug abundance was lowest in control plots with their naturally developed graminoid-forb communities (cutting reduced slug density by 6% in the control vs. 29% in herbicide plots). Our experiments therefore support the idea that more natural plant species compositions reduce the impact of disturbances (e.g. through cutting or grazing) on invertebrates.

Everwand, Georg; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja

2013-04-01

92

A method of energy balancing in crop production and its application in a long-term fertilizer trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data of a 32-year field experiment (1967–1998), conducted on a fertile sandy loess in the Hercynian dry region of central Germany, were used to (i) demonstrate the methodological basis of energy balancing in a long-term trial and (ii) identify time trends of various energetic parameters, as affected by the rate and form of nitrogen (N) application. Of the 16 fertilizer

K.-J. Hülsbergen; B. Feil; S. Biermann; G.-W. Rathke; W.-D. Kalk; W. Diepenbrock

2001-01-01

93

Nutrient uptake and yield of tomato under various methods of fertilizer application and levels of fertigation in arid lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

With rising concern about current irrigation and fertilizer NPK management, the present study was conducted to evaluate the\\u000a effect of sources and methods of fertilizer application on nutrient distribution, uptake, recovery and fruit yield of tomato\\u000a grown in a sandy soil. Equal amounts of NPK were applied in solid form or through fertigation at levels of 0%, 50%, 75% and

M. A. Badr; S. D. Abou Hussein; W. A. El-Tohamy; N. Gruda

2010-01-01

94

Distributions of rare earths and heavy metals in field-grown maize after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rare earths are widely applied in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition through the use of fertilizers, yet little is known of their accumulation in field-grown crops. We have studied the distribution of 16 rare earths (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanide elements) in field-grown maize and the concentration of heavy metals in the grains after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer.

Xingkai Xu; Wangzhao Zhu; Zijian Wang; Geert-Jan Witkamp

2002-01-01

95

Integrated approach for disease management and growth enhancement of Sesamum indicum L. utilizing Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2 and chemical fertilizer.  

PubMed

Azotobacter chroococcum TRA2, an isolate of wheat rhizosphere displayed plant growth promoting attributes including indole acetic acid, HCN, siderophore production, solubilization of inorganic phosphate and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. In addition, it showed strong antagonistic effect against Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum. It also caused degradation and digestion of cell wall components, resulting in hyphal perforations, empty cell (halo) formation, shrinking and lysis of fungal mycelia along with significant degeneration of conidia. Fertilizer adaptive variant strain of A. chroococcum TRA2 was studied with Tn5 induced streptomycin resistant transconjugants of wild type tetracycline-resistant TRA2 (designated TRA2(tetra+strep+)) after different durations. The strain was significantly competent in rhizosphere, as its population increased by 15.29 % in rhizosphere of Sesamum indicum. Seed bacterization with the strain TRA2 resulted in significant increase in vegetative growth parameters and yield of sesame over the non-bacterized seeds. However, application of TRA2 with half dose of fertilizers showed sesame yield almost similar to that obtained by full dose treatment. Moreover, the oil yield increased by 24.20 %, while protein yield increased by 35.92 % in treatment receiving half dose of fertilizer along with TRA2 bacterized seeds, as compared to untreated control. PMID:22828791

Maheshwari, D K; Dubey, R C; Aeron, Abhinav; Kumar, Bhavesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Tewari, Sakshi; Arora, Naveen Kumar

2012-10-01

96

Research and Application of Mobile Precision Irrigation and Fertilizing Compound Machine for Greenhouse and Horticulture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces a intelligent equipment, which can inject fertilizing and control fertilizing quantity when irrigating crop with irrigation drip belt. The pipes of the machine can link fleetly with greenhouse with quick fitting,so it is mobile to use to different greenhouse and fit to so many different kind of fertilizing, also fit to many flowers and vegetable fertilizing and

Ma Wei; Zhang Mei; Zhou Zhou; Chen Liping; Wang Xiu; Mao Yijin

2010-01-01

97

Arsenic in Ironite fertilizer: The absorption by hamsters and the chemical form  

SciTech Connect

We determined the gastrointestinal absorption of the arsenic in Ironite, a readily available fertilizer, for male hamsters (Golden Syrian), considered to be an excellent model for how the human processes inorganic arsenic. Urine and feces were collected after administering an aqueous suspension of Ironite by stomach tube. In addition, we studied the forms and oxidation states of arsenic in Ironite by synchrotron spectroscopic techniques. The absorption of the arsenic in Ironite (1-0-0) was 21.2% and the absorption relative to sodium arsenite was 31.0%. Our results using XANES spectra determinations indicate that Ironite contains scorodite (AsV) as well as previously reported arsenopyrite (As(-1)). Since the 1-0-0 Ironite is readily available for purchase, its risk assessment for children by professionals is recommended. This is especially important because it is used to fertilize large areas of grass in playgrounds and parks where children play. The absorption of the arsenic in it, the hand to mouth activity of children, and the potential of ground water contamination makes the use of 1-0-0 Ironite as a fertilizer a potential environmental hazard.

Aposhian, M.M.; Koch, I.; Avram, M.D.; Chowdhury, U.K.; Smith, P.G.; Reimer, K.J.; Aposhian, H.V.; (Ariz); (Royal)

2009-09-11

98

Return to fertility after extended chemical castration with a GnRH antagonist  

PubMed Central

Background Antagonistic analogues of GnRH for the treatment of prostate cancer may be used clinically in persons for whom return to fertility after such treatment is important or desirable. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the effects of a long term treatment with orntide, a GnRH antagonist, on testosterone levels and fertility in male rats. Methods Two groups of male rats received either 120-day orntide microspheres (8.8 mg orntide/kg/120 days) or vehicle alone (control group). Serum orntide and testosterone levels in both groups were monitored at certain intervals for 9 months from the initiation of treatment. After recovery of normal serum testosterone levels in the treated animals, each rat was housed with two proven breeder, but drug-naive, females. Results All mates of treated rats achieved pregnancy as rapidly as the mates of control rats although two of the control rats did not sire a litter with either female and one sired only one litter. The mean size of the litters of treated (12.3 offspring per litter) and control (10.6 offspring per litter) were similar. All offspring were grossly normal morphologically and behaviorally during the time to weaning. Conclusions These results suggest that lack of fertility due to testosterone suppression is reversible after cessation of treatment with this GnRH antagonist. PMID:11710965

Kostanski, Janusz W; Jiang, Ge; Dani, Bhas A; Murty, Santos B; Qiu, Wei; Schrier, Bruce; Thanoo, B C; DeLuca, Patrick P

2001-01-01

99

Electron Spectroscopy: Applications for Chemical Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ESCA, XPS) is reviewed from an historical perspective that is relevant to its use for analytical chemistry. The emphasis is on early development of the technique, primarily during the period, 1964 1977. During these years there were significant developments in instrumentation, accompanied by significant advances in understanding the fundamentals of the technique. First, a historical perspective is presented to establish the backdrop against which XPS was developed. The early work in the field dealt mainly with measuring and understanding chemical shifts for elements and particularly for organic compounds. This was an exciting time because XPS appeared to provide chemical information unavailable otherwise. A detailed summary of some of the early work on chemical shifts is presented. It was also established that XPS could be used for quantitative analysis of elements, compounds, and different oxidation states of the same element. As the development of XPS occurred, emphasis changed from measuring chemical shifts to developing XPS as a surface analytical tool, a role that it fills today. Early applications to the analysis of catalysts and polymers, use to study adsorption and surface reactions, application of XPS to electrochemistry and corrosion, and studies of atmospheric particulates are all reviewed.

Hercules, David M.

2004-12-01

100

Effects of combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers plus nitrification inhibitor DMPP on nitrogen runoff loss in vegetable soils.  

PubMed

The application of nitrogen fertilizers leads to various ecological problems such as large amounts of nitrogen runoff loss causing water body eutrophication. The proposal that nitrification inhibitors could be used as nitrogen runoff loss retardants has been suggested in many countries. In this study, simulated artificial rainfall was used to illustrate the effect of the nitrification inhibitor DMPP (3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate) on nitrogen loss from vegetable fields under combined organic and inorganic nitrogen fertilizer application. The results showed that during the three-time simulated artificial rainfall period, the ammonium nitrogen content in the surface runoff water collected from the DMPP application treatment increased by 1.05, 1.13, and 1.10 times compared to regular organic and inorganic combined fertilization treatment, respectively. In the organic and inorganic combined fertilization with DMPP addition treatment, the nitrate nitrogen content decreased by 38.8, 43.0, and 30.1 % in the three simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. Besides, the nitrite nitrogen content decreased by 95.4, 96.7, and 94.1 % in the three-time simulated artificial rainfall runoff water, respectively. A robust decline in the nitrate and nitrite nitrogen surface runoff loss could be observed in the treatments after the DMPP addition. The nitrite nitrogen in DMPP addition treatment exhibited a significant low level, which is near to the no fertilizer application treatment. Compared to only organic and inorganic combined fertilizer treatment, the total inorganic nitrogen runoff loss declined by 22.0 to 45.3 % in the organic and inorganic combined fertilizers with DMPP addition treatment. Therefore, DMPP could be used as an effective nitrification inhibitor to control the soil ammonium oxidation in agriculture and decline the nitrogen runoff loss, minimizing the nitrogen transformation risk to the water body and being beneficial for the ecological environment. PMID:25081006

Yu, Qiaogang; Ma, Junwei; Zou, Ping; Lin, Hui; Sun, Wanchun; Yin, Jianzhen; Fu, Jianrong

2015-01-01

101

[Responses of soil nematode communities to long-term application of inorganic fertilizers in upland red soil].  

PubMed

Soil biota plays a key role in ecosystem functioning of red soil. Based on the long-term inorganic fertilization field experiment (25-year) in an upland red soil, the impacts of different inorganic fertilization managements, including NPK (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), NPKCaS (NPK plus gypsum fertilizers), NP (nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers), NK (nitrogen and potassium fertilizers) and PK (phosphorus and potassium fertilizers), on the assemblage of soil nematodes during the growing period of peanut were investigated. Significant differences among the treatments were observed for total nematode abundance, trophic groups and ecological indices (P < 0.01). The total nematode abundance decreased in the order of PK > NPKCaS > NPK > NP > NK. The total number of nematodes was significantly higher in NPKCaS and PK than in NPK, NP and NK except in May. Plant parasitic nematodes were the dominant trophic group in all treatments excepted in NPKCaS, and their proportion ranged between 38% and 65%. The dominant trophic group in NPKCaS was bacterivores and represented 42.1%. Furthermore, the higher values of maturity index, Wasilewska index and structure index in NPKCaS indicated that the combined application of NPK and gypsum could remarkably relieve soil acidification, resulting in a more mature and stable soil food web structure. While, that of the NK had the opposite effect. In conclusion, our study suggested that the application of both gypsum and phosphate is an effective practice to improve soil quality. Moreover, the analysis of nematode assemblage is relevant to reflect the impact of different inorganic fertilizer on the red soil ecosystem. PMID:25509090

Zhang, Wei; Liu, Man-Qiang; He, Yuan-Qiu; Fan, Jian-Bo; Chen, Yan

2014-08-01

102

Chemical application of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method gives a stochastic solution to the Schroedinger equation. This approach is receiving increasing attention in chemical applications as a result of its high accuracy. However, reducing statistical uncertainty remains a priority because chemical effects are often obtained as small differences of large numbers. As an example, the single-triplet splitting of the energy of the methylene molecule CH sub 2 is given. The QMC algorithm was implemented on the CYBER 205, first as a direct transcription of the algorithm running on the VAX 11/780, and second by explicitly writing vector code for all loops longer than a crossover length C. The speed of the codes relative to one another as a function of C, and relative to the VAX, are discussed. The computational time dependence obtained versus the number of basis functions is discussed and this is compared with that obtained from traditional quantum chemistry codes and that obtained from traditional computer architectures.

Reynolds, P. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.

1984-01-01

103

The Influence of Different Organic Fertilizers on Yield and PhysicoChemical Properties of Organically Grown Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of adequate organic fertilization is necessary to promote organic crop production. Organic nutrient sources including compost, manure, compost extract, and authorized fertilizers could be combined and used in order to achieve a balanced nutrient supply and an improved organic tomato yield and quality. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of different organic fertilizer treatments

A. Riahi; C. Hdider; M. Sanaa; N. Tarchoun; M. Ben Kheder; I. Guezal

2009-01-01

104

Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers application on the phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).  

PubMed

A study was conducted to compare secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of Labisia pumila Benth (Kacip Fatimah) in response to two sources of fertilizer [i.e., organic (chicken dung; 10% N:10% P?O?:10% K?O) and inorganic fertilizer (NPK green; 15% N, 15% P?O?, 15% K?O)] under different N rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg N/ha. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. At the end of 15 weeks, it was observed that the application of organic fertilizer enhanced the production of total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, saponin and gluthathione content in L. pumila, compared to the use of inorganic fertilizer. The nitrate content was also reduced under organic fertilization. The application of nitrogen at 90 kg N/ha improved the production of secondary metabolites in Labisia pumila. Higher rates in excess of 90 kg N/ha reduced the level of secondary metabolites and antioxidant activity of this herb. The DPPH and FRAP activity was also highest at 90 kg N/ha. The results indicated that the use of chicken dung can enhance the production of secondary metabolites and improve antioxidant activity of this herb. PMID:24013410

Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Karimi, Ehsan; Ghasemzadeh, Ali

2013-01-01

105

Applications of microfluidics in chemical biology Douglas B Weibel1  

E-print Network

Applications of microfluidics in chemical biology Douglas B Weibel1 and George M Whitesides2 This review discusses the application of microfluidics in chemical biology. It aims to introduce the reader to microfluidics, describe characteristics of microfluidic systems that are useful in studying chemical biology

Prentiss, Mara

106

Guidance Document General Guidelines applicable to all chemicals  

E-print Network

Guidance Document General Guidelines applicable to all chemicals Minimize chemical exposure- Avoid skin contact as much as possible. Wear eye protection where chemicals are used. Provide adequate chemicals. Be knowledgeable. Do not underestimate risk- Obtains and read MSDS prior to initial handling

107

Possible application of solar-thermal energy in the chemical industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eight chemicals are identified that require substantial amounts of nonrecoverable energy for their production. The chemicals are: ethylene, vinyl chloride, styrene, propylene, butadiene, isoprene, hydrogen, and phosphorus. These chemicals are used to produce a wealth of products such as plastics, rubbers and fertilizers. In most cases, these energy intensive materials are at the top of a pyramid of subsequent, exothermic reactions and products that do not require additional thermal energy except for separation processes. Their production at present is centralized and done on a large scale, and most of the organics are produced in refineries where hydrocarbon energy is abundant. This association with refineries means at present that direct substitution of solar energy for hydrocarbon fired heaters may not be convenient, even though scientifically feasible. Other solar energy applications are production of caustic soda from thermodynamic cycles, ethylene from ethanol, and butadiene from ethanol.

Martin, L. R.

1982-06-01

108

Isotopically-labelled nitrogen uptake and partitioning in sweet cherry as influenced by timing of fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a fruit of increasing economic importance though it is less significant than other stone fruit species such as peach. Cherry has received little attention concerning nitrogen (N) uptake and dynamics in mature trees. The aim of this work was to determine N uptake and partitioning as influenced by the timing of fertilizer application in

Liliana San-Martino; Gabriel O. Sozzi; Silvina San-Martino; Raúl S. Lavado

2010-01-01

109

Effects of fertilizer rate, application timing and plant spacing on yield and nutrient content of bell pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var annuum L.), cv Pip, transplants were established at 31 and 46 cm in?rows on bare soil and drip irrigated on a twice weekly schedule. A base rate of fertilizer was applied either in one preplant application or in two (preplant and first flower set) or three (preplant, first flower set, after the midseason harvest) split

V. M. Russo

1991-01-01

110

Application of the Bray–Mitscherlich Equation Approach for Economically and Environmentally Sound Fertilization of Field Crops in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database was compiled from the results of Hungarian long?term N, P, and K fertilization field trials published between 1960 and 2000. Database correlations were described between the soil organic matter (SOM) content of PK (N control) plots and the responses of winter wheat and corn to N application; between the soil P test (ammonium lactate, AL) values of NK

T. Németh

2006-01-01

111

Effects of exposure to four endocrine disrupting-chemicals on fertilization and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), 17?-estradiol (E2), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT), to sperm motility, fertilization rate, hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub ( Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study. The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT, 1 ?g L-1 for NP and 100 ?g L-1 for DDE, respectively. The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10 ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 ?g L-1 for DDE and NP, respectively. Of the tested properties of S. curriculus, larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 ?g L-1. Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ng L-1 for E2, 10 ng L-1 for TBT and 1 ?g L-1 for NP, respectively. Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations, the hatching rate and larval survival rate of S. curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs. The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S. curriculus. Overall, E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE, while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters. Thus, the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S. curriculus. Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2, DDE, NP and TBT.

Niu, Cuijuan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Ying; Li, Li

2013-09-01

112

[Variation characteristics of maize yield and fertilizer utilization rate on an upland yellow soil under long term fertilization].  

PubMed

An analysis was made on the 16-year experimental data from the long term fertilization, experiment of maize on a yellow soil in Guizhou of Southwest China. Four treatments, i. e. , no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilization (165 kg N x hm(-2), 82.5 kg P2O5 x hm(-2), and 82.5 kg K2O x hm(-2), NPK), organic manure (30555 kg x hm(-2), M), and combined applicatioin of chemical fertilizers and organic manure (NPKM), were selected to analyze the variation trends of maize yield and fertilizer use efficiency on yellow soil under effects of different long term fertilization modes, aimed to provide references for evaluating and establishing long term fertilization mode and promote the sustainable development of crop production. Overall, the maize yield under long term fertilization had an increasing trend, with a large annual variation. Treatment NPKM had the best yield-increasing effect, with the maize yield increased by 4075.71 kg x hm(-2) and the increment being up to 139.2%. Long term fertilization increased the fertilizer utilization efficiency of maize. In treatment M, the nitrogen and phosphorus utilization rates were increased significantly by 35.4% and 18.8%, respectively. Treatment NPK had obvious effect in improving potassium utilization rate, with an increment of 20% and being far higher than that in treatments M (8.7%) and NPKM (9.2%). The results showed that long term fertilization, especially the combined application of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, was of great importance in increasing crop yield and fertilizer use efficiency. PMID:24483072

Luo, Long-Zao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wen-An; Xiao, Hou-Jun; Jiang, Tai-Ming

2013-10-01

113

Chemical applications of synchrotron radiation: Workshop report  

SciTech Connect

The most recent in a series of topical meetings for Advanced Photon Source user subgroups, the Workshop on Chemical Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (held at Argonne National Laboratory, October 3-4, 1988) dealt with surfaces and kinetics, spectroscopy, small-angle scattering, diffraction, and topography and imaging. The primary objectives were to provide an educational resource for the chemistry community on the scientific research being conducted at existing synchrotron sources and to indicate some of the unique opportunities that will be made available with the Advanced Photon Source. The workshop organizers were also interested in gauging the interest of chemists in the field of synchrotron radiation. Interest expressed at the meeting has led to initial steps toward formation of a Chemistry Users Group at the APS. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

Not Available

1989-04-01

114

Effects of chlorimuron-ethyl application with or without urea fertilization on soil ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea.  

PubMed

Chlorimuron-ethyl (CE) has been widely used in modern agriculture, but little is known regarding the influence of CE on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) populations in soils. In this study, microcosm incubation of aquic brown soil was conducted for 60 d. Associated changes in the population sizes of AOB and AOA in response to CE application with or without urea fertilization were examined via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA). The half-life of CE ranged from 11.80 d to 14.54 d in the tested soil. Compared to the untreated control, the application of CE alone had no strong effects on soil pH, and urea fertilization temporarily increased soil pH in the first 7 days. The abundance of the AOA amoA gene was greater than the abundance of the AOB amoA gene in all treatments, but both were significantly suppressed by CE application in a dose-dependent manner. Urea fertilization generally increased AOB and AOA amoA gene abundances, except that the AOA amoA gene level was slightly reduced at the early stage of the incubation period. AOB and AOA preferred different N levels for growth, with AOB only growing significantly at high NH4(+) levels and AOA growing substantially at low NH?(+) levels. The stimulation effects of urea fertilization on AOA and AOB amoA gene abundances were strongly suppressed by the CE application. This study indicated that the CE application substantially suppressed soil nitrification via inhibiting the AOB and AOA population regardless of urea fertilization, which resulted in significant changes in the soil NH?(+)-N and NO?(-)-N levels. Furthermore, AOB and AOA inhabiting separate ecological niches with different NH?(+) levels played various roles in N cycling. PMID:23792929

Tan, Huanbo; Xu, Mingkai; Li, Xinyu; Zhang, Huiwen; Zhang, Chenggang

2013-09-15

115

Relationship between malt qualities and ?-amylase activity and protein content as affected by timing of nitrogen fertilizer application*  

PubMed Central

The effects of different timing of N fertilizer application at the same rate on grain ?-amylase activity, protein concentration, weight and malt quality of barley were studied. Grain ?-amylase activity and protein concentration were significantly higher in treatments where all top-dressed N fertilizer was applied at booting stage only or equally applied at two-leaf stage and booting stage than in the treatment where all top-dressed N fertilizer was applied at two-leaf age stage only. On the other hand, grain weight and malt extract decreased with increased N application at booting stage. There were obvious differences between barley varieties and experimental years in the grain and malt quality response to the timing of N fertilizer application. It was found that grain protein concentration was significantly and positively correlated with ?-amylase activity, but significantly and negatively correlated with malt extract and Kolbach index. The effect of grain protein concentration on malt quality was predominant over the effect of grain ?-amylase activity. PMID:16365930

Chen, Jin-xin; Dai, Fei; Wei, Kang; Zhang, Guo-ping

2006-01-01

116

The application of biosorption for production of micronutrient fertilizers based on waste biomass.  

PubMed

In the present paper, new environmental-friendly fertilizer components were produced in biosorption process by the enrichment of the biomass with zinc, essential in plant cultivation. The obtained new preparations can be used as controlled release micronutrient fertilizers because microelements are bound to the functional groups present in the cell wall structures of the biomass. It is assumed that new fertilizing materials will be characterized by higher bioavailability, gradual release of micronutrients required by plants, and lower leaching to groundwater. The biological origin of the material used in plant fertilization results in the elimination of toxic effect towards plants and groundwater mainly caused by low biodegradability of fertilizers. Utilitarian properties of new formulations enable to reduce negative implications of fertilizers for environmental quality and influence ecological health. In this work, the utilitarian properties of materials such as peat, bark, seaweeds, seaweed post-extraction residues, and spent mushroom substrate enriched via biosorption with Zn(II) ions were examined in germination tests on Lepidium sativum. Obtained results were compared with conventional fertilizers-inorganic salt and chelate. It was shown that zinc fertilization led to biofortification of plant in these micronutrients. Moreover, the mass of plants fertilized with zinc was higher than in the control group. PMID:25108517

Tuhy, Lukasz; Samoraj, Mateusz; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

2014-10-01

117

21 CFR 1308.23 - Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application. 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Chemical Preparations § 1308.23 Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application....

2013-04-01

118

21 CFR 1308.23 - Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application. 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Chemical Preparations § 1308.23 Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application....

2014-04-01

119

21 CFR 1308.23 - Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application. 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Chemical Preparations § 1308.23 Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application....

2012-04-01

120

21 CFR 1308.23 - Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application. 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Chemical Preparations § 1308.23 Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application....

2011-04-01

121

21 CFR 1308.23 - Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application. 1308...SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Chemical Preparations § 1308.23 Exemption of certain chemical preparations; application....

2010-04-01

122

1984 Fertilizer summary data  

SciTech Connect

''Fertilizer Summary Data'' is published every two years as part of TVA's fertilizer research, development, and education program. It brings together historical fertilizer use and crop statistics, application rates, and farm income and expense data for use in production planning and market evaluation. This edition summarizes US consumption (including Puerto Rico) of fertilizer and plant nutrients through the year ended June 30, 1984. It also includes TVA distribution of fertilizer materials in the industry demonstration program for 1981 through 1984. The summaries are presented for regions of USA.

Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.

1985-06-01

123

Visiting Database Programmer/Application Developer School of Chemical Sciences  

E-print Network

Visiting Database Programmer/Application Developer School of Chemical Sciences University professional as Visiting Database Programmer/Application Developer. This position reports to the Information administrative database environment (specifically Oracle and SQL Server). This is a visiting position, but may

Zimmerman, Steven C.

124

Preplant SlowRelease Nitrogen Fertilizers Produce Similar Bell Pepper Yields as Split Applications of Soluble Fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

applications of urea (Brown et al., 1988). Highest fruit yield of bell pepper grown on plastic mulch was obtained Slow-release N materials are used to reduce N leaching losses from with broadcast-applied SCU or isobutylidene diurea sandy soils and extend N availability over a growing season. The objective of this research was to examine the effectiveness of preplant (IBDU), when

Elizabeth A. Guertal

2000-01-01

125

Fertilizer Application Timing Influences Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Over a Growing Season  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial production and consumption of greenhouse gases (GHG) is influenced by temperature and nutrients, especially during the first few weeks after agricultural fertilization. The effect of fertilization on GHG fluxes should be sensitive to environmental conditions during and shortly after appli...

126

Uniform and variable-rate application of potassium fertilizers in Louisiana sugarcane production systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

If sugar and cane yields are to be optimized and profitability improved, it is critical that a sugarcane crop receive the proper levels of plant nutrients. Under-fertilization can result in reduced cane yields, while over-fertilization can reduce sugar recovery. Potassium (K) has been associated wit...

127

[Analysis of soil humus and components after 26 years' fertilization by infrared spectroscopy method].  

PubMed

The infrared spectrum was used to discuss structure change of soil humus and components of chemical groups in soil humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) isolated from soils in different fertilization treatment after 26 year's fertilization. The result indicated that using the infrared spectroscopy method for the determination of humus, humus fractions (HA and FA) and their structure is feasible. Fertilization affected the structure and content of soil humus and aromatization degree. After 26 years' fertilization, the infrared spectrum shapes with different treatments are similar, but the characteristic peak intensity is obviously different, which reflects the effects of different fertilization treatments on the structure and amounts of soil humus or functional groups. Compared with no fertilization, little molecule saccharides decreased and aryl-groups increased under application of inorganic fertilizer or combined application of organic and chemical fertilizer. The effect was greater in Treatment NPK and M+NPK than in Treatment M1 N and M2 N. Organic and NPK fertilizer increased the development of soil and increased soil quality to a certain extent. Results showed that organic fertilization increased aromatization degree of soil humus and humus fractions distinctly. The authors could estimate soil humus evolvement of different fertilization with infrared spectroscopy. PMID:20672603

Zhang, Yu-Lan; Sun, Cai-Xia; Chen, Zhen-Hua; Li, Dong-Po; Liu, Xing-Bin; Chen, Li-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Jie; Du, Jian-Xiong

2010-05-01

128

Impact of fertilizer phosphorus application on phosphorus release kinetics in some calcareous soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphate reactions and retention in the soil are of paramount importance from the perspective of plant nutrition and fertilizer use efficiency. The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of phosphorus (P) desorption in different soils of Hamadan in fertilized and unfertilized soils. Soils were fertilized with 200 mg P kg-1. Fertilized and unfertilized soils were incubated at 25 ± 1°C for 6 months. After that, release of P was studied by successive extraction with 0.5 M NaHCO3 over a period of 1,752 h. The results showed that phosphorus desorption from the fertilized and unfertilized soils began with a fast initial reaction, followed by a slow secondary reaction. The amount of P released after 1,752 h in fertilized and unfertilized soils ranged from 457 to 762.4 and 309.6 to 586.7 mg kg-1, respectively. The kinetics of cumulative P release was evaluated using the five kinetic equations. Phosphorus desorption kinetics were best described by parabolic diffusion law, first order, and power function equations. Rate constants of these equations were higher in fertilized than unfertilized soils. Results from this study indicate that release rate of P plays a significant role in supplying available P and released P in runoff.

Hosseinpur, A. R.; Biabanaki, F. S.

2009-01-01

129

Productive soil must be fertile physical fertility  

E-print Network

, structure, drainage, tilth · chemical fertility ­ nutrient supply · soil testing #12;#12;Soil formation-'weathering' · physical ­freezing, thawing, wetting, drying, organisms · chemical ­dissolved minerals moved in water ­soil tightly packed ­small pores · poor drainage, roots suffocate ­`cloddy' if tilled wet ­compacts easily

Balser, Teri C.

130

Distributions of rare earths and heavy metals in field-grown maize after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer.  

PubMed

Rare earths are widely applied in Chinese agriculture to improve crop nutrition through the use of fertilizers, yet little is known of their accumulation in field-grown crops. We have studied the distribution of 16 rare earths (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanide elements) in field-grown maize and the concentration of heavy metals in the grains after application of rare earth-containing fertilizer. When maize entered the vigorous vegetation growth stage (e.g. early stem-elongation stage), rare earth-containing fertilizer was applied to the soil with irrigation water. At 10 days after application of the rare earths, significantly dose-dependent accumulative effects of individual rare earth concentrations in the roots and the plant tops of maize were observed, with the exception of Sc and Lu. At the level of 2 kg rare earths ha(-1), accumulative concentrations of most light rare earths (e.g. La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and Gd in the plant tops were much larger than those in the control. Concentrations of individual rare earths in a field-grown maize after application of rare earths decreased in the order of root>leaf>stem>grain. During the maize growth period, selective accumulation of individual rare earths (e.g. La, Ce) in the roots seemed to be in dynamic equilibrium, and the distribution of these elements in the plant tops was variable. At a dosage of less than 10 kg rare earths ha(-1), no apparent accumulative concentrations of individual rare earths appeared in the maize grains. Under the experimental conditions, application of rare earth-containing fertilizer did not induce an increase in the concentrations of heavy metals in the grains. We conclude that the present dosage of rare earths (<0.23 kg ha(-1) year(-1)) currently applied in China can hardly affect the safety of maize grains in arable soil, even over a long period. PMID:12109484

Xu, Xingkai; Zhu, Wangzhao; Wang, Zijian; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

2002-07-01

131

Microheater as an alternative to lasers for in-vitro fertilization applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade various lasers have been applied to drilling of the micrometer-sized holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes for in-vitro fertilization applications. In this paper we describe an alternative approach to laser instrumentation based on microfabricated device capable of precise drilling of uniform holes in the zona pellucida of oocytes. This device consists of a thin (1 micrometer) film microheater built on the tip of glass capillary with a diameter varying between a few to a few tens of micrometers. Duration of the pulse of heat produced by this microheater determines the spatial confinement of the heat wave in the surrounding liquid medium. We have demonstrated that gradual microdrilling of the zona pellucida can be accomplished using a series of pulses with duration of about 300 microseconds when the microheater was held in contact with the zona pellucida. Pulse energy applied to 20 micrometer tip was about 4 (mu) J. In vitro development and hatching of 127 micromanipulated embryos was compared to 103 non-drilled control embryos. The technique was found to be highly efficient in creating round, uniform, well defined holes with a smooth wall surface, matching the size of the heating source. The architecture of the surrounding zona pellucida was unaffected by the drilling, as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Micromanipulated embryos presented no signs of thermal damage under light microscopy. The rate of blastocyst formation and hatching was similar in the micromanipulated and control groups. Following further testing in animal models, this methodology may be used as a cost- effective alternative to laser-based instrumentation in clinical applications such as assisted hatching and embryo biopsy.

Palanker, Daniel V.; Turovets, Igor; Glazer, Rima; Reubinoff, Benjamin E.; Hilman, Dalia; Lewis, Aaron

1999-06-01

132

Comparative Effects of Nitrogen Fertigation and Granular Fertilizer Application on Growth and Availability of Soil Nitrogen during Establishment of Highbush Blueberry  

PubMed Central

A 2-year study was done to compare the effects of nitrogen (N) fertigation and granular fertilizer application on growth and availability of soil N during establishment of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. “Bluecrop”). Treatments included four methods of N application (weekly fertigation, split fertigation, and two non-fertigated controls) and four levels of N fertilizer (0, 50, 100, and 150?kg·ha?1?N). Fertigation treatments were irrigated by drip and injected with a liquid urea solution; weekly fertigation was applied once a week from leaf emergence to 60 d prior to the end of the season while split fertigation was applied as a triple-split from April to June. Non-fertigated controls were fertilized with granular ammonium sulfate, also applied as a triple-split, and irrigated by drip or microsprinklers. Weekly fertigation produced the smallest plants among the four fertilizer application methods at 50?kg·ha?1?N during the first year after planting but the largest plants at 150?kg·ha?1?N in both the first and second year. The other application methods required less N to maximize growth but were less responsive than weekly fertigation to additional N fertilizer applications. In fact, 44–50% of the plants died when granular fertilizer was applied at 150?kg·ha?1?N. By comparison, none of the plants died with weekly fertigation. Plant death with granular fertilizer was associated with high ammonium ion concentrations (up to 650?mg·L?1) and electrical conductivity (>3?dS·m?1) in the soil solution. Early results indicate that fertigation may be less efficient (i.e., less plant growth per unit of N applied) at lower N rates than granular fertilizer application but is also safer (i.e., less plant death) and promotes more growth when high amounts of N fertilizer is applied. PMID:22639596

Bryla, David R.; Machado, Rui M. A.

2011-01-01

133

Effects of silicon-based fertilizer applications on the development and reproduction of insect pests associated with greenhouse-grown crops.  

E-print Network

?? The purpose of this comprehensive study was to investigate the effects of silicon-based fertilizer applications in promoting host-plant resistance to certain piercing-sucking insects feeding… (more)

Hogendorp, Brian K.

2009-01-01

134

The Rengen Grassland Experiment: Plant species composition after 64 years of fertilizer application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term fertilizer experiment (the Rengen Grassland Experiment, RGE) was established in 1941 in the Eifel Mountains of Germany on low productive grassland naturally dominated by Calluna vulgaris and Nardus stricta. Six treatments combinations of Ca, N, P, and K fertilizer were applied annually: an unfertilized control, Ca, CaN, CaNP, CaNP–KCl, and CaNP–K2SO4. In mid-June 2005, plant cover was visually

Michal Hejcman; Michaela Klaudisová; Jürgen Schellberg; Dagmar Honsová

2007-01-01

135

Nutritional Applications of the Chemical Senses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship of taste and smell to ingestion, digestion, and metabolism. Indicates that the response of these physiological systems can be chemical specific and that chemical senses may play different roles in regulating diet during nutrient deficiency and during nutrient surplus situations. (JN)

Naim, Michael; Kare, Morley R.

1984-01-01

136

Effects of leguminous plant residues and NPK fertilizer application on the performance of yam (Dioscorea rotundata ‘c.v.’ ewuru) in south-western Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of cultivating and incorporating residues of previous tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) and soybean (Glycine max) with application of NPK fertilizer on yam performance were evaluated at the teaching and research farm, LAUTECH, Nigeria. There were nine treatments: incorporation of legume residues (5 t DM ha), application of recommended fertilizer rate for yam (90–50–75 kg NPK ha) in the zone or

Gani Oladejo Kolawole

2012-01-01

137

Quantifying uncertainties in N(2)O emission due to N fertilizer application in cultivated areas.  

PubMed

Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential approximately 298 times greater than that of CO(2). In 2006, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated N(2)O emission due to synthetic and organic nitrogen (N) fertilization at 1% of applied N. We investigated the uncertainty on this estimated value, by fitting 13 different models to a published dataset including 985 N(2)O measurements. These models were characterized by (i) the presence or absence of the explanatory variable "applied N", (ii) the function relating N(2)O emission to applied N (exponential or linear function), (iii) fixed or random background (i.e. in the absence of N application) N(2)O emission and (iv) fixed or random applied N effect. We calculated ranges of uncertainty on N(2)O emissions from a subset of these models, and compared them with the uncertainty ranges currently used in the IPCC-Tier 1 method. The exponential models outperformed the linear models, and models including one or two random effects outperformed those including fixed effects only. The use of an exponential function rather than a linear function has an important practical consequence: the emission factor is not constant and increases as a function of applied N. Emission factors estimated using the exponential function were lower than 1% when the amount of N applied was below 160 kg N ha(-1). Our uncertainty analysis shows that the uncertainty range currently used by the IPCC-Tier 1 method could be reduced. PMID:23226430

Philibert, Aurore; Loyce, Chantal; Makowski, David

2012-01-01

138

Quantifying Uncertainties in N2O Emission Due to N Fertilizer Application in Cultivated Areas  

PubMed Central

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential approximately 298 times greater than that of CO2. In 2006, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated N2O emission due to synthetic and organic nitrogen (N) fertilization at 1% of applied N. We investigated the uncertainty on this estimated value, by fitting 13 different models to a published dataset including 985 N2O measurements. These models were characterized by (i) the presence or absence of the explanatory variable “applied N”, (ii) the function relating N2O emission to applied N (exponential or linear function), (iii) fixed or random background (i.e. in the absence of N application) N2O emission and (iv) fixed or random applied N effect. We calculated ranges of uncertainty on N2O emissions from a subset of these models, and compared them with the uncertainty ranges currently used in the IPCC-Tier 1 method. The exponential models outperformed the linear models, and models including one or two random effects outperformed those including fixed effects only. The use of an exponential function rather than a linear function has an important practical consequence: the emission factor is not constant and increases as a function of applied N. Emission factors estimated using the exponential function were lower than 1% when the amount of N applied was below 160 kg N ha?1. Our uncertainty analysis shows that the uncertainty range currently used by the IPCC-Tier 1 method could be reduced. PMID:23226430

Philibert, Aurore; Loyce, Chantal; Makowski, David

2012-01-01

139

Improved Access to Supercomputers Boosts Chemical Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Supercomputing is described in terms of computing power and abilities. The increase in availability of supercomputers for use in chemical calculations and modeling are reported. Efforts of the National Science Foundation and Cray Research are highlighted. (CW)

Borman, Stu

1989-01-01

140

Computational Toxicology: Application in Environmental Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter provides an overview of computational models that describe various aspects of the source-to-health effect continuum. Fate and transport models describe the release, transportation, and transformation of chemicals from sources of emission throughout the general envir...

141

Microwave Technology--Applications in Chemical Synthesis  

EPA Science Inventory

Microwave heating, being specific and instantaneous, is unique and has found a place for expeditious chemical syntheses. Specifically, the solvent-free reactions are convenient to perform and have advantages over the conventional heating protocols as summarized in the previous se...

142

Simazine application inhibits nitrification and changes the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in a fertilized agricultural soil.  

PubMed

s-Triazine herbicides are widely used for weed control, and are persistent in soils. Nitrification is an essential process in the global nitrogen cycle in soil, and involves ammonia-oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA). In this study, we evaluated the effect of the s-triazine herbicide simazine on the nitrification and on the structure of ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities in a fertilized agricultural soil. The effect of simazine on AOB and AOA were studied by PCR-amplification of amoA genes of nitrifying Bacteria and Archaea in soil microcosms and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses. Simazine [50 ?g g(-1) dry weight soil (d.w.s)] completely inhibited the nitrification processes in the fertilized agricultural soil. The inhibition by simazine of ammonia oxidation observed was similar to the reduction of ammonia oxidation by the nitrification inhibitor acetylene. The application of simazine-affected AOB community DGGE patterns in the agricultural soil amended with ammonium, whereas no significant changes in the AOA community were observed. The DGGE analyses strongly suggest that simazine inhibited Nitrosobacteria and specifically Nitrosospira species. In conclusion, our results suggest that the s-triazine herbicide not only inhibits the target susceptible plants but also inhibits the ammonia oxidation and the AOB in fertilized soils. PMID:22066929

Hernández, Marcela; Jia, Zhongjun; Conrad, Ralf; Seeger, Michael

2011-12-01

143

Biomedical applications of chemically-modified silk fibroin  

PubMed Central

Silk proteins belong to a class of unique, high molecular weight, block copolymer-like proteins that have found widespread use in biomaterials and regenerative medicine. The useful features of these proteins, including self-assembly, robust mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability can be enhanced through a variety of chemical modifications. These modifications provide chemical handles for the attachment of growth factors, cell binding domains and other polymers to silk, expanding the range of cell and tissue engineering applications attainable. This review focuses on the chemical reactions that have been used to modify the amino acids in silk proteins, and describes their utility in biomedical applications. PMID:20161439

Murphy, Amanda R.

2009-01-01

144

Improvement of Preimplantation Development of In Vitro-Fertilized Bovine Zygotes by Glucose Supplementation to a Chemically Defined Medium  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented to the medium at the specific stage of embryo culture may be useful for the production of bovine blastocysts. PMID:24976585

SAKAGAMI, Nobutada; NISHINO, Osamu; ADACHI, Satoshi; UMEKI, Hidenobu; UCHIYAMA, Hiroko; ICHIKAWA, Kyoko; TAKESHITA, Kazuhisa; KANEKO, Etsushi; AKIYAMA, Kiyoshi; KOBAYASHI, Shuji; TAMADA, Hiromichi

2014-01-01

145

Improvement of preimplantation development of in vitro-fertilized bovine zygotes by glucose supplementation to a chemically defined medium.  

PubMed

The influences of glucose supplementation on early development of bovine embryos in BSA-free synthetic oviduct fluid were examined. Among the groups supplemented with 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 or 5.6 mM glucose either at 0, 72 or 144 hr after fertilization, blastocysts yield significantly increased in the group supplemented with 4.0 mM glucose 144 hr after fertilization compared to the controls without glucose supplementation. The results suggest that appropriate amounts of glucose supplemented to the medium at the specific stage of embryo culture may be useful for the production of bovine blastocysts. PMID:24976585

Sakagami, Nobutada; Nishino, Osamu; Adachi, Satoshi; Umeki, Hidenobu; Uchiyama, Hiroko; Ichikawa, Kyoko; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Kaneko, Etsushi; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuji; Tamada, Hiromichi

2014-10-01

146

FERTILIZATION BY SPERM MICROINJECTION AND ZONA DRILLING: APPLICATIONS IN THE BASIC AND CLINICAL SCIENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental manipulation of fertilization provides an exciting research approach for studying mechanisms involved in sperm/egg interaction and holds great promise as a means for overcoming some forms of human infertility. The report will focus on three methods for assisted ferti...

147

Neural subtype specification of fertilization and nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells and application in parkinsonian mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing protocols for the neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells require extended in vitro culture, yield variable differentiation results or are limited to the generation of selected neural subtypes. Here we provide a set of coculture conditions that allows rapid and efficient derivation of most central nervous system phenotypes. The fate of both fertilization- and nuclear transfer–derived ES

Tiziano Barberi; Peter Klivenyi; Noel Y Calingasan; Hyojin Lee; Hibiki Kawamata; Kathleen Loonam; Anselme L Perrier; Juan Bruses; Maria E Rubio; Norbert Topf; Viviane Tabar; Neil L Harrison; M Flint Beal; Malcolm A S Moore; Lorenz Studer

2003-01-01

148

EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS ON GROWTH YIELD AND PESTS OF VEGETABLE CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field experiments were conducted to measure the yield response of Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to an organic fertilizer derived from hydrolyzed feather, meat, bone, and blood meal, sulfate of potash and langeinite (Nature Safe 10-2-8). Th...

149

Reducing rice field algae and cyanobacteria abundance by altering phosphorus fertilizer applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In California’s water seeded rice systems algal/cyanobacterial biomass can be a problem during rice establishment. Algal/cyanobacterial growth may be stimulated by phosphorus (P) additions in freshwater habitats, so we set up experiments to evaluate the effects of fertilizer P management on algal/cy...

150

Chemical structure representations and applications in computational toxicity.  

PubMed

Efficient storage and retrieval of chemical structures is one of the most important prerequisite for solving any computational-based problem in life sciences. Several resources including research publications, text books, and articles are available on chemical structure representation. Chemical substances that have same molecular formula but several structural formulae, conformations, and skeleton framework/scaffold/functional groups of the molecule convey various characteristics of the molecule. Today with the aid of sophisticated mathematical models and informatics tools, it is possible to design a molecule of interest with specified characteristics based on their applications in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, biotechnology, nanomaterials, petrochemicals, and polymers. This chapter discusses both traditional and current state of art representation of chemical structures and their applications in chemical information management, bioactivity- and toxicity-based predictive studies. PMID:23007430

Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

2012-01-01

151

[Effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil physical and chemical properties and crop yield under winter wheat/spring corn rotation on dryland of east Gansu, Northwest China].  

PubMed

Based on the 7-year field experiment on the dryland of east Gansu of Northwest China in 2005-2011, this paper analyzed the variations of soil moisture content, bulk density, and nutrients content at harvest time of winter wheat and of the grain yield under no-tillage and conventional tillage and five fertilization modes, and approached the effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil water storage and conservation, soil fertility, and grain yield under winter wheat/ spring corn rotation. In 2011, the soil moisture content in 0-200 cm layer and the soil bulk density and soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers under different fertilization modes were higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the contents of soil organic matter and available nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, as compared with other fertilization modes. The soil available potassium content under different tillage and fertilization modes decreased with years. The grain yield under conventional tillage was higher than that under no-tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the grain yield was the highest under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and the lowest under no fertilization. In sum, no-tillage had the superiority than conventional tillage in improving the soil water storage and conservation and soil fertility, and the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers under conventional tillage could obtain the best grain yield. PMID:23898658

Zhang, Jian-jun; Wang, Yong; Fan, Ting-lu; Guo, Tian-wen; Zhao, Gang; Dang, Yi; Wang, Lei; Li, Shang-zhong

2013-04-01

152

[Regulation of fertilizer application on yield and root growth of spring wheat-faba bean intercropping system].  

PubMed

The effects of N and P fertilizer application on the multiple population yield and root growth of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum)--spring faba bean(Vicia sativa)intercropping system were studied by two field experiments with 0, 150 and 225 kgN.hm-2, three pot and pool experiments with 2 N applications (0, 100 mg N.kg-1 soil) and 3 P applications (0, 100 and 200 mg P.kg-1 soil). The results showed that this intercropping system had a significant advantage of yield and beneficial effects. Compared to Po supply, P fertilization increased the seed yield by 48.39% for intercropped spring wheat and 16.69% for intercropped faba bean in field experiment. Furthermore, the total seed yield of both crops was increased by 20.07% to 43.14% in pool culture, and the grain yield of intercropped faba bean was increased by 58.46% to 78.78%. In the intercropping system, the growth peak of root density of both crops was appeared alternately, the peak of wheat root growth being earlier than that of faba bean. The maximum root weight of intercropped wheat was in its early heading periods, whereas that of faba bean appeared at its maturity periods, which reduced the competition for water and nutrients between the crops, and resulted in yield increase. The weight, length and surface area of wheat roots in P supply were increased by 54.33%, 48.88% and 47.00%, and in N supply, they were increased by 15.25%, 11.61% and 11.46%, respectively. About 57.61% of wheat root weight and 69.20% of faba bean root weight were distributed at 0-30 cm soil depths in the treatments of receiving P fertilizer at various rates, which indicated that P supply increased root weight and length of both crops in the intercropping system. PMID:12418251

Zhang, Enhe; Li, Lingling; Huang, Gaobao; Huang, Peng; Chai, Qiang

2002-08-01

153

Free energy calculations: Applications to chemical and biochemical phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author will review the applications of free energy calculations employing molecular dynamics or Monte Carlo methods to a variety of chemical and biochemical phenomena. The focus is on the applications of such calculations to molecular solvation, molecular association, macromolecular stability, and enzyme catalysis. The molecules discussed range from monovalent ions and small molecules to proteins and nucleic acids.

Peter. Kollman

1993-01-01

154

The effects of manure and nitrogen fertilizer applications on soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a high-input cropping system.  

PubMed

With the goal of improving N fertilizer management to maximize soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and minimize N losses in high-intensity cropping system, a 6-years greenhouse vegetable experiment was conducted from 2004 to 2010 in Shouguang, northern China. Treatment tested the effects of organic manure and N fertilizer on SOC, total N (TN) pool and annual apparent N losses. The results demonstrated that SOC and TN concentrations in the 0-10cm soil layer decreased significantly without organic manure and mineral N applications, primarily because of the decomposition of stable C. Increasing C inputs through wheat straw and chicken manure incorporation couldn't increase SOC pools over the 4 year duration of the experiment. In contrast to the organic manure treatment, the SOC and TN pools were not increased with the combination of organic manure and N fertilizer. However, the soil labile carbon fractions increased significantly when both chicken manure and N fertilizer were applied together. Additionally, lower optimized N fertilizer inputs did not decrease SOC and TN accumulation compared with conventional N applications. Despite the annual apparent N losses for the optimized N treatment were significantly lower than that for the conventional N treatment, the unchanged SOC over the past 6 years might limit N storage in the soil and more surplus N were lost to the environment. Consequently, optimized N fertilizer inputs according to root-zone N management did not influence the accumulation of SOC and TN in soil; but beneficial in reducing apparent N losses. N fertilizer management in a greenhouse cropping system should not only identify how to reduce N fertilizer input but should also be more attentive to improving soil fertility with better management of organic manure. PMID:24830463

Ren, Tao; Wang, Jingguo; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo; Lu, Shuchang

2014-01-01

155

Growth, Nodulation and Mycorrhizal Colonization in Bean Plants Improved by Rhizobial Inoculation with Organic and Chemical Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor nutrition of organic crops during the early growth stage has frequently resulted in a low productivity. Nutrients from organic fertilizers are not available to crops unless they are mineralized and a low microbial population can further delay the decomposition processes. We hypothesized that increasing microbial population, such as rhizobia in the rhizosphere of the organic crops might offset

U. K. Aryal; S. K. Shah; H. L. Xu; M. Fujita

2007-01-01

156

Integrated Microreactor for Chemical and Biochemical Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A completely integrated microreactor was developed that allows for the processing of very small amounts of chemical solutions. The entire system comprises several pumps and valves arranged in different branches as well as a mixing unit and a reaction chamber. The streaming path of each branch contains two valves and one pump each. The pumps are driven by piezoelectric elements mounted on thin glass membranes. Each pump is about 3.5 mm x 3.5 mm x 0.7 mm. A pumping rate up to 25 microliters per hour can be achieved. The operational voltage ranges between 40 and 200 V. A volume stroke up to 1.5 millimeter is achievable from the membrane structures. The valves are designed as passive valves. Sealing is by thin metal films. The dimension of a valve unit is 0.8 x 0.8. 07 mm. The ends of the separate streaming branches are arranged to meet in one point. This point acts as the beginning of a mixer unit which contains several fork-shaped channels. The arrangement of these channels allows for the division of the whole liquid stream into partial streams and their reuniting. A homogeneous mixing of solutions and/or gases can be observed after having passed about 10 of the fork elements. A reaction chamber is arranged behind the mixing unit to support the chemical reaction of special fluids. This unit contains heating elements placed outside of the chamber. The complete system is arranged in a modular structure and is built up of silicon. It comprises three silicon wafers bonded together by applying the silicon direct bonding technology. The silicon structures are made only by wet chemical etching processes. The fluid connections to the outside are realized using standard injection needles glued into v-shaped structures on the silicon wafers. It is possible to integrate other components, like sensors or electronic circuits using silicon as the basic material.

Schwesinger, N.; Dressler, L.; Frank, Th.; Wurmus, H.

1995-01-01

157

Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL`s Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs.

Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

1993-05-01

158

Application of synchrotron radiation in chemical dynamics  

SciTech Connect

In October 1992, funding was approved to begin construction of a beamline and two end stations to support chemical dynamics experiments at LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS). This workshop was organized to develop specifications and plans and to select a working team to design and supervise the construction project. Target date for starting the experiments is January 1995. Conclusions of the workshop and representative experiments proposed in earlier workshops to form the basis for beamline plans and end-station designs are summarized in this report. 6 figs.

Heimann, P.; Koike, M.; Kung, A.H.; Ng, C.Y.; White, M.G.; Wodtke, A.

1993-05-01

159

Effect of fertilizer application on Urtica dioica and its element concentrations in a cut grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the effects of nutrient availability in cut grasslands on growth characteristics of Urtica dioica and its aboveground chemical composition (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn). The effects of N, P and K application on the growth of U. dioica were studied over five years in a Dactylis glomerata grassland cut twice per year under unfertilized control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments (300, 80 and 200 kg of N, P and K ha-1 per year). Nitrogen application in the form of NH4NO3 over five years decreased the soil pH, while P and K application increased P and K availability in the soil. Over five years, cover of U. dioica increased from 1% initially to 7, 9, 58, 83 and 99% in the control, P, N, NP and NPK treatments, respectively. Concentrations of N, P and Ca in the aboveground biomass of U. dioica were very high in comparison to other species and concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were comparable with other grassland species. N and P limitation of U. dioica growth was expected if concentrations of N and P in the aboveground biomass were lower than 25 g N kg-1 and 4 g P kg-1 in the phenological stage of flowering. We concluded that two cuts per year are not sufficient to suppress expansion of U. dioica under high N, P and K availability. This probably explains why U. dioica survive also in frequently cut intensive grasslands under adequately high nutrient supply.

Müllerová, Vladimíra; Hejcman, Michal; Hejcmanová, Pavla; Pavl?, Vilém

2014-08-01

160

Chemical Modification of Cotton for Industrial Applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cotton (cellulose) is a known favorite in the textile industry and is the most used natural fiber-cloth to date. As we move to use more biodegradable, renewable and sustainable resources, cellulose, a natural polymer, is attracting attention and finding application in oil recovery, cosmetics, surfac...

161

Application of profiled ejector in chemical lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the use of profiled ejectors based on constant rate of momentum change [I.W. Eames, Applied Thermal Engineering 22 (2002) 121] along the mixing chamber has been proposed for enhancing the recovery ratio across an ejector stage by minimizing shock losses for application in ejector based refrigeration system. Such ejectors can achieve pressure recovery ratio in excess of 150, thus

Gaurav Singhal; A. L. Dawar; P. M. V. Subbarao

2008-01-01

162

Estimating NH3 emissions from agricultural fertilizer application in China using the bi-directional CMAQ model coupled to an agro-ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. China is one of the largest NH3 emitting countries with the majority of NH3 emissions coming from the agricultural practices, such as fertilizer application and livestock. The current NH3 emission estimates in China are mainly based on pre-defined emission factors that lack the temporal or spatial details, which are needed to accurately predict NH3 emissions. In this study, we estimate, for the first time, the NH3 emission from the agricultural fertilizer application in China online using an agricultural fertilizer modeling system coupling a regional air quality model (the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality model, CMAQ) and an agro-ecosystem model (the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model, EPIC), which improves the spatial and temporal resolution of NH3 emission from this sector. Cropland area data of 14 crops from 2710 counties and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land use data are combined to determine the crop distribution. The fertilizer application rate and method for different crop are collected at provincial or agriculture-regional level. The EPIC outputs of daily fertilizer application and soil characteristics are inputed into the CMAQ model and the hourly NH3 emission are calculated online with CMAQ running. The estimated agricultural fertilizer NH3 emission in this study is about 3 Tg in 2011. The regions with the highest modeled emission rates are located in the North China Plain. Seasonally, the peak ammonia emissions occur from April to July.Compared with previous researches, this method considers more influencing factors, such as meteorological fields, soil and the fertilizer application, and provides improved NH3 emission with higher spatial and temporal resolution.

Fu, X.; Wang, S. X.; Ran, L. M.; Pleim, J. E.; Cooter, E.; Bash, J. O.; Benson, V.; Hao, J. M.

2015-01-01

163

Effect of application of phosphate and organic manure-based fertilizers on arsenic transformation in soil columns.  

PubMed

The mobility of arsenic in Cambisol under the influence of added barnyard manure and application of a phosphate solution to the soil was described on the basis of column experiments. A soil sample containing 126 mg/kg total As and 3.72 mg/kg specifically-sorbed As was extracted using demineralized water (DIW) or a 28 micromol/l phosphate solution in a column containing untreated soil and in a column with added barnyard fertilizer. The pH, Eh, alkalinity, main components, including DOC, and selected trace elements (Al, Mn, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Ba and As) were determined in the extracts. Hydrodynamic tests of the flow and transport of the substances in the columns were carried out. The addition of barnyard manure was manifested in elevated concentrations of the main inorganic components, DOC and Al and a decrease in the Eh value and Mn concentration. Application of a phosphate solution was manifested in a decrease in the NO(3) and SO(4) concentrations, probably as a result of the effect of increased biological fixation. The As concentration in extracts varied from 8.8 to 15.5 microg/l and was not dependent on the composition of the extracting solution or the addition of barnyard fertilizer. PMID:17370134

Sisr, Ludek; Mihaljevic, Martin; Ettler, Vojtech; Strnad, Ladislav; Sebek, Ondrej

2007-12-01

164

40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

165

40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

166

40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

167

40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

168

40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

169

40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

170

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

2013-07-01

171

40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

172

40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11...CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES General Provisions § 721...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. (a)...

2012-07-01

173

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

2014-07-01

174

40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11...CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES General Provisions § 721...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. (a)...

2010-07-01

175

40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 ...POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Wood Chemical Pulp Subcategory § 430.80 ...Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

176

40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

177

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

2012-07-01

178

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

2010-07-01

179

40 CFR 413.60 - Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory. 413...ELECTROPLATING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Chemical Etching and Milling Subcategory § 413.60 Applicability: Description of the chemical etching and milling subcategory....

2011-07-01

180

40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11...CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES General Provisions § 721...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. (a)...

2014-07-01

181

40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11...CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES General Provisions § 721...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. (a)...

2011-07-01

182

40 CFR 721.11 - Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. 721.11...CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES General Provisions § 721...Applicability determination when the specific chemical identity is confidential. (a)...

2013-07-01

183

40 CFR 430.60 - Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. 430.60 Section...PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Semi-Chemical Subcategory § 430.60 Applicability; description of the semi-chemical subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

184

High Temperature Materials for Chemical Propulsion Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation or passively cooled thrust chambers are used for a variety of chemical propulsion functions including apogee insertion, reaction control for launch vehicles, and primary propulsion for planetary spacecraft. The performance of these thrust chambers is limited by the operating temperature of available materials. Improved oxidation resistance and increased operating temperatures can be achieved with the use of thermal barrier coatings such as zirconium oxide (ZrO2) and hafnium oxide (HfO2). However, previous attempts to include these materials showed cracking and spalling of the oxide layer due to poor bonding. Current research at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has generated unique, high temperature material options for in-space thruster designs that are capable of up to 2500 C operating temperatures. The research is focused on fabrication technologies to form low cost Iridium,qF_.henium (Ir/Re) components with a ceramic hot wall created as an integral, functionally graded material (FGM). The goal of this effort is to further de?celop proven technologies for embedding a protective ceramic coating within the Ir/Re liner to form a robust functional gradient material. Current work includes the fabrication and testing of subscale samples to evaluate tensile, creep, thermal cyclic/oxidation, and thermophysical material properties. Larger test articles have also being fabricated and hot-fire tested to demonstrate the materials in prototype thrusters at 1O0 lbf thrust levels.

Elam, Sandra; Hickman, Robert; O'Dell, Scott

2007-01-01

185

Grain Production and Environmental Management in China's Fertilizer Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth in China's per hectare chemical fertilizer application, from less than 10 kg in 1960 to 331 kg in 1993, has contributed significantly to the growth in grain production, but has also caused many environment problems such as groundwater pollution. With one-fifth of the world's population but only 7% of the earth's arable land, China is facing the

Qingbin Wang; Catherine Halbrendt; Stanley R. Johnson

1996-01-01

186

The applications of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics to planetary atmospheres research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the applications of chemical thermodynamics and chemical kinetics to planetary atmospheres research during the past four decades is presented with an emphasis on chemical equilibrium models and thermochemical kinetics. Several current problems in planetary atmospheres research such as the origin of the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets, atmosphere-surface interactions on Venus and Mars, deep mixing in the atmospheres of the gas giant planets, and the origin of the atmospheres of outer planet satellites all require laboratory data on the kinetics of thermochemical reactions for their solution.

Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

1990-01-01

187

Effectiveness of three different Zn fertilizers and two methods of application for the control of 'little-leaf' in peach trees in south Texas  

E-print Network

EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE DIFFERENT ZN FERTILIZERS AND TWO METHODS OF APPLICATION FOR THE CONTROL OF 'LITTLE-LEAF' IN PEACH TREES IN SOUTH TEXAS A Thesis by Juan Pablo Arce Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Horticulture EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE DIFFERENT ZN FERTILIZERS AND TWO METHODS OF APPLICATION FOR THE CONTROL OF 'LITTLE-LEAF' IN PEACH TREES IN SOUTH...

Arce, Juan Pablo

2012-06-07

188

[Present situation of rice fertilization in qin-ba mountainous area of Southern Shaanxi, China].  

PubMed

In order to understand the present situation of rice fertilization and the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input in the Qin-Ba mountainous area of southern Shaanxi, the survey data from 2854 households in 11 counties of this area in the project "soil testing and formulated fertilization in 2006-2009" were analyzed and evaluated, and the countermeasures for the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were proposed. In the study area, the average rice yield was 7822 kg x hm(-2) per year, and the ratio of the households obtained the medium level yield was up to 50.9%. The input of the total fertilizers N, P2O5, K2O was 169, 68, and 54 kg x hm(-2), and the chemical fertilizer rate was 159, 62, and 45 kg x hm(-2), with the partial factor productivity (PFP) of the N, P2O5, and K2O being 51.52, 135.69, and 158.26 kg x kg(-1), respectively. According to the nutrient fertilization level, the proportion of the households fertilized with rational level of chemical N, P2O5, and K2O occupied 48.0%, 42.4%, and 7.2%, that of the households fertilized with excessive level was 22.6%, 11.2%, and 0.6%, and the proportion of the households fertilized with insufficient level occupied 29.4%, 46.5%, and 92.2%, respectively. The rice yield in the Qin-Ba mountainous area could be increased by 77 thousand tons if the households fertilizing with insufficient level of chemical NPK fertilizers increased the fertilization rate to a rational level. The existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were mainly the coexistence of excessive and insufficient application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers and the insufficient input of potassium fertilizer and organic manure. In the rice fertilization in this area, the focus would be the balanced application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, the increase of the fertilization rates of potassium fertilizer and organic manure, and the increase of top dressing, especially potassium. PMID:24564138

Wang, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Fen; Tong, Yan-An; Zhao, Zuo-Ping

2013-11-01

189

Applications of direct chemical oxidation to demilitarization  

SciTech Connect

Research is reported concerning an aqueous process for oxidative destruction of solid- and liquid organic wastes, including ongoing work relevant to demilitarization This process uses acidified ammonium- or sodium peroxydisulfate and operates at ambient pressure and at temperatures of 80- 100 C The oxidant may be regenerated by electrolysis of the sulfate by- product at Pt anodes at roughly 80% coulombic efficiency, even in the presence of inorganic contaminants (e g , nitrate, phosphate or chloride) found in the original waste and entrained in the recycle stream Integral rate constants have been determined for the oxidation of diverse organic compounds at low concentrations (50 ppm, C), with rate constants (based on equivalents) of 0 004-O 02 miri Higher concentrations generally react at a 2-4X higher rate. The process has been carried through full- scale laboratory tests and initial pilot plant tests on chlorinated solvents, using a hydrolysis pretreatment Integral rate data indicate throughput rates of about 200 kg- C/m3-day The process may benefit the demilitarization efforts in various specialized applications destruction of solvents; destruction of trace propellants and explosives in shell casings remaining after bulk removal, destruction of red and pink waters, in situ remediation of soils at open pit burning/detonation sites; and as a regenerative filter for offgas carrying toxic or explosive substances.

Cooper, J.F., LLNL

1998-06-01

190

Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer

R. S. Balmer; J. R. Brandon; S. L. Clewes; H. K. Dhillon; J. M. Dodson; I. Friel; P. N. Inglis; T. D. Madgwick; M. L. Markham; T. P. Mollart; N. Perkins; G. A. Scarsbrook; D. J. Twitchen; A. J. Whitehead; J. J. Wilman; S. M. Woollard

2009-01-01

191

Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

2014-01-01

192

Investigation of jet curtains for chemical laser application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for passively containing reacting gas within the cavity of a chemical laser using a combination of cavity wall displacement and jet curtains. Suggesting several advantages over the matched pressure approach, the concept was evaluated in an application to a DF laser using the hydraulic analogy. Analyses were made to determine the flow characteristics of the confined

S. Boraas

1978-01-01

193

Fertilizer Facts: May 1996, Number 8 Nitrogen Fertilizer Materials  

E-print Network

of application equipment. In Figures 2-5, "% of check yield" is used as a measure of plant response to fertilizer levels is toxic to some plants · Soil incorporation reduces risk of N loss · Surface application above 50 it on sound agronomic criteria and soil analysis, optimal growth rates occur, fertilizer dollars are used most

Lawrence, Rick L.

194

Nanomaterials in plant protection and fertilization: current state, foreseen applications, and research priorities.  

PubMed

Scientific publications and patents on nanomaterials (NM) used in plant protection or fertilizer products have exponentially increased since the millennium shift. While the United States and Germany have published the highest number of patents, Asian countries released most scientific articles. About 40% of all contributions deal with carbon-based NM, followed by titanium dioxide, silver, silica, and alumina. Nanomaterials come in many diverse forms (surprisingly often ?100 nm), from solid doped particles to (often nonpersistent) polymer and oil-water based structures. Nanomaterials serve equally as additives (mostly for controlled release) and active constituents. Product efficiencies possibly increased by NM should be balanced against enhanced environmental NM input fluxes. The dynamic development in research and its considerable public perception are in contrast with the currently still very small number of NM-containing products on the market. Nanorisk assessment and legislation are largely in their infancies. PMID:22963545

Gogos, Alexander; Knauer, Katja; Bucheli, Thomas D

2012-10-01

195

Stochastic mapping for chemical plume source localization with application to autonomous hydrothermal vent discovery  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a stochastic mapping framework for autonomous robotic chemical plume source localization in environments with multiple sources. Potential applications for robotic chemical plume source localization ...

Jakuba, Michael Vavrousek, 1976-

2006-01-01

196

Impact of Organic Amendments with and Without Mineral Fertilizers on Soil Microbial Respiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of Sewage Sludge (SS), Municipal Waste Compost (MWC) and Vermicompost (VC) with and without chemical fertilizer (Urea, 50 kg ha-1 + Potassium sulfate, 100 kg ha-1 + Triple super phosphate, 127.5 kg ha-1) on Soil Microbial Respiration (SMR) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in a soil cropped to soybean. Experiment was arranged in a complete block design with three replications. Organic amendments were added to soil at rate of 0 (control treatment), 20 and 40 Mg ha-1. Furthermore each level of organic fertilizers with ½ normal of chemical fertilizer was also enriched. Soil samples were taken after one year of fertilization. Results illustrated that application of organic amendments increased TOC and SMR and soybean yield compared to control and chemical fertilizer treatments. Sewage sludge amended soils showed higher SMR, TOC and soybean yield than that of other organic amendment treatments. An increasing trend was observed in all studied parameters, as rates of application increased. All parameters were greater in treatments receiving a combination of chemical fertilizers and organic amendments (enriched treatments) compared to soils receiving organic amendments alone. Results obtained by discriminate analysis indicated that rates of application were more effective to create discriminating among treatments. This study showed that TOC was significantly correlated with SMR. Significant correlation was also observed between SMR and soybean yield.

Gilani, S. S.; Bahmanyar, M. A.

197

The influence of harvest management and fertilizer application on seasonal yield, crude protein concentration and N offtake of grasses in northeast Saskatchewan  

Microsoft Academic Search

McCartney, D. H., Bittman, S. and Nuttall, W. F. 2004. The influence of harvest management and fertilizer application on seasonal yield, crude protein concentration and N offtake of grasses in northeast Saskatchewan. Can. J. Plant Sci. 84: 205-212. The goal of pasture management is to match quantity and quality of herbage to the requirement of the grazing animal. The objective

D. H. McCartney; S. Bittman; W. F. Nuttall

2004-01-01

198

[Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth. PMID:24417126

Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

2013-09-01

199

The application of Billings for fertility regulation method during the period of breastfeeding.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to collect information about breast-feeding practices in one of China's district and to encourage mothers to adopt the Billings ovulation method for fertility regulation. Cervical mucus was monitored in 61 breast-feeding mothers during 244 months. Urinary estrogen and/or pregnanediol were measured and recorded in 15 breast-feeding mothers. Within 6 months postpartum, 97.14% of the cervical mucus was consistent with normal menstrual cycles. The level of urinary estrogen averaged 0.08 mcmol/24 hours in fully breast-feeding mothers compared to 0.14 mcmol/24 hours in partially breast-feeding mothers. The peak level average was 0.21 mcmol/24 hours in bottle-feeding mothers. The pregnanediol level confirmed ovulation in bottle-feeding mothers. The average levels of cut-off and the period of ovulation in 6 bottle-feeding mothers were 7 mcmol/24 hours and 9 mcmol/24 hours, respectively. Measurements of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol levels all matched with cervical mucus appearances. PMID:12349463

Jin, B; Jiang, G; Pan, Z; Yan, J; Peng, S; Lu, R

1999-01-01

200

Microfabricated Chemical Sensors for Safety and Emission Control Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical sensor technology is being developed for leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire safety applications. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS)-based) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Using these technologies, sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.

1998-01-01

201

Developments and Applications of Membranes in Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Membranes are increasingly being used in the chemical and bioprocess industries replacing more conventional separation techniques and as a means of producing high purity intermediates for further processing. Application of membranes in the water industry and waste treatment is also becoming increasingly important as water shortage and environmental problems need to be addressed. An outline of the materials used for the production of membranes and their applications are described. Some of the research into the development of more selective membranes for vapour separations and pervaporation is discussed. An example of the latest work on the development of ceramic hollow fibre membranes is also given.

England, Richard

202

Application of mixed-integer programming in chemical engineering  

E-print Network

) collocation over finite element . . . . . . . . 69 5.5 Units in serial configuration (solid line: cold stream; dashed line: hot stream) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 5.6 Units in parallel configuration (solid line: cold stream... Application of Mixed-Integer Programming in Chemical Engineering Thomas Pogiatzis Homerton College University of Cambridge This dissertation is submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy November 2012 ^En tz?e˜inon t˜h tsili˜ac p?s> stä bol...

Pogiatzis, Thomas

2013-06-11

203

Effects of fertilizer and pesticide use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When used properly, fertilizer and pesticide application can help protect crops and encourage their growth. However, fertilizers and pesticides can run off into bodies of water and contaminate water sources.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-25

204

40 CFR 414.80 - Applicability; description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability;...

2013-07-01

205

40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.60 Applicability;...

2013-07-01

206

40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.60 Applicability;...

2014-07-01

207

40 CFR 414.80 - Applicability; description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability;...

2012-07-01

208

40 CFR 414.80 - Applicability; description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability;...

2010-07-01

209

40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.60 Applicability;...

2012-07-01

210

40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.60 Applicability;...

2011-07-01

211

40 CFR 414.80 - Applicability; description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability;...

2014-07-01

212

40 CFR 414.80 - Applicability; description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the specialty organic chemicals subcategory. 414.80 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Specialty Organic Chemicals § 414.80 Applicability;...

2011-07-01

213

40 CFR 414.60 - Applicability; description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the commodity organic chemicals subcategory. 414.60 Section 414...EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Commodity Organic Chemicals § 414.60 Applicability;...

2010-07-01

214

Application of kernel functions for accurate similarity search in large chemical databases  

E-print Network

Background: Similaritysearch in chemical structure databases is an important problem with many applications in chemical genomics, drug design, and efficient chemical probe screening among others. It is widely believed that ...

Wang, Xiaohong; Huan, Jun; Smalter, Aaron Matthew; Lushington, Gerald H.

2010-04-29

215

Applications of the Cambridge Structural Database in chemical education.  

PubMed

The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) is a vast and ever growing compendium of accurate three-dimensional structures that has massive chemical diversity across organic and metal-organic compounds. For these reasons, the CSD is finding significant uses in chemical education, and these applications are reviewed. As part of the teaching initiative of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (CCDC), a teaching subset of more than 500 CSD structures has been created that illustrate key chemical concepts, and a number of teaching modules have been devised that make use of this subset in a teaching environment. All of this material is freely available from the CCDC website, and the subset can be freely viewed and interrogated using WebCSD, an internet application for searching and displaying CSD information content. In some cases, however, the complete CSD System is required for specific educational applications, and some examples of these more extensive teaching modules are also discussed. The educational value of visualizing real three-dimensional structures, and of handling real experimental results, is stressed throughout. PMID:20877495

Battle, Gary M; Ferrence, Gregory M; Allen, Frank H

2010-10-01

216

Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

2010-06-01

217

Fertilizer-derived uranium and sulfur in rangeland soil and runoff: A case study in central Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fertilizer applications to rangeland and pastures in central Florida have potential impact on the nutrient-sensitive ecosystems of Lake Okeechobee and the Northern Everglades. To investigate the effects of fertilizer applications, three soil profiles from variably managed and improved rangeland, and four samples of surface runoff from both fertilized and unfertilized pasture were collected. In addition to determining nutrient concentrations, isotopic analyses of uranium (U) and sulfur (S) were performed to provide isotopic evidence for U derived from historically applied phosphate (P)-bearing fertilizer ( 234 U 238U activity ratio =1.0 ?? 0.05), and Sderived from recently applied ammonium sulfate fertilizer(??34 S=3.5permil).The distribution and mobility of fertilizer-derived U in these samples is considered to be analogous to that of fertilizer-derived phosphate.Variations of U concentrations and 234 U/238 U activity ratios in soils indicate contribution of fertilizer-derived U in the upper portions of the fertilized soil (15-}34 percent of total U). The U isotope data for runoff from the fertilized field also are consistent with some contribution from fertilizer-derived U. Parallel investigations of S showed no consistent chemical or isotopic evidence for significant fertilizer-derived sulfate in rangeland soil or runoff. Relatively abundant and isotopically variable S present in the local environment hinders detection of fertilizer-derived sulfate. The results indicate a continuing slow-release of fertilizer-derived U and, by inference, P, to the P-sensitive ecosystem, and a relatively rapid release of sulfate of possible natural origin. ?? Springer 2006.

Zielinski, R.A.; Orem, W.H.; Simmons, K.R.; Bohlen, P.J.

2006-01-01

218

Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the dissertation focuses on chemical sensing and biosensing applications. For chemical sensing, we describe the characteristics of room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as a chemical recognition material and integrate it into the quartz crystal resonator arrays to realize chemically selective microsensor arrays. The quartz crystal resonator array integrated with RTIL doped ionomer is then used to detect the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and to qualitatively and quantitatively discriminate the composition of VOC mixtures. For multianalyte discrimination, we explored the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) technique. For biosensing application, nanoporous gold (np-Au) fabricated by selectively dealloying Ag/Au alloy, is integrated onto the sensor array as an active Raman substrate to provide a special structure for enhancement of Raman signal. Using thiol based biomolecular functionalization in combination with the quartz crystal resonator array based gravimetric sensing and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based molecular identification, both quantitative and qualitative (dual-mode) sensing has been achieved. The use of nanoporous gold electrode enables label-free biomolecular fingerprinting via SERS. 24-mer oligonucleotide binding reaction was investigated to prove the usefulness of np-Au for a possible dual mode sensing application using the proposed sensing system and SERS.

Min, Hwall

219

ECONOMIC CONSIDERATION OF PRODUCING FERTILIZER FROM COAL-FIRED FLUE GAS: APPLICATION OF BULGARIAN EXPERIENCE TO CASE STUDY OF PORTUGAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Bulgarian project at Maritsa East power station demonstrated the proper transformation of air pollutants (SOx and NOx) into nitrogen fertilizer. Although this technology has not been put into practice in Bulgaria, it seems feasible on an industrial scale and so it may help to ease Portugal's reliance on imports of nitrogen fertilizer and thereby contain the outfl ow of

Ryunosuke KIKUCHI; Yontcho G. PELOVSKI; Sandra M. SANTOS

2005-01-01

220

Applications of synchrotron radiation to Chemical Engineering Science: Workshop report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains extended abstracts that summarize presentations made at the Workshop on Applications of Synchrotron Radiation to Chemical Engineering Science held at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Argonne, IL, on April 22--23, 1991. The talks emphasized the application of techniques involving absorption fluorescence, diffraction, and reflection of synchrotron x-rays, with a focus on problems in applied chemistry and chemical engineering, as well as on the use of x-rays in topographic, tomographic, and lithographic procedures. The attendees at the workshop included experts in the field of synchrotron science, scientists and engineers from ANL, other national laboratories, industry, and universities; and graduate and undergraduate students who were enrolled in ANL educational programs at the time of the workshop. Talks in the Plenary and Overview Session described the status of and special capabilities to be offered by the Advanced Photon Source (APS), as well as strategies and opportunities for utilization of synchrotron radiation to solve science and engineering problems. Invited talks given in subsequent sessions covered the use of intense infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray photon beams (as provided by synchrotrons) in traditional and nontraditional areas of chemical engineering research related to electrochemical and corrosion science, catalyst development and characterization, lithography and imaging techniques, and microanalysis.

Not Available

1991-07-01

221

Miniaturised wireless smart tag for optical chemical analysis applications.  

PubMed

A novel miniaturised photometer has been developed as an ultra-portable and mobile analytical chemical instrument. The low-cost photometer presents a paradigm shift in mobile chemical sensor instrumentation because it is built around a contactless smart card format. The photometer tag is based on the radio-frequency identification (RFID) smart card system, which provides short-range wireless data and power transfer between the photometer and a proximal reader, and which allows the reader to also energise the photometer by near field electromagnetic induction. RFID is set to become a key enabling technology of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), hence devices such as the photometer described here will enable numerous mobile, wearable and vanguard chemical sensing applications in the emerging connected world. In the work presented here, we demonstrate the characterisation of a low-power RFID wireless sensor tag with an LED/photodiode-based photometric input. The performance of the wireless photometer has been tested through two different model analytical applications. The first is photometry in solution, where colour intensity as a function of dye concentration was measured. The second is an ion-selective optode system in which potassium ion concentrations were determined by using previously well characterised bulk optode membranes. The analytical performance of the wireless photometer smart tag is clearly demonstrated by these optical absorption-based analytical experiments, with excellent data agreement to a reference laboratory instrument. PMID:24274311

Steinberg, Matthew D; Kassal, Petar; Tkal?ec, Biserka; Murkovi? Steinberg, Ivana

2014-01-01

222

Response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to an application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer grown on Olasiti soils from Minjingu-Manyara, Tanzania.  

PubMed

A screen-house pot experiment was conducted to assess the response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to the application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer (31% P2O5) on Olasiti soil, Manyara Region-Tanzania. This study was prompted by very low or limited use of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer by smallholder farmers in the country while yields turnout of most crops, green gram inclusive, is not promising. The soil was clay with medium pH (pH 5.5-7.0) and neutral reaction (pH 6.6-7.3). The results showed that the number of pods and seeds increased from 3-6 and 7-9, respectively, at 40 to 160 mg per 4 kg soil of fertilizer applied. Similarly, the tissue N and P increased with treatment levels. The number of pods per plant and seeds per pod showed similar increase, signifying the role of these nutrients in protein synthesis in leguminous plants like green gram. Soil properties could be the spearhead to low responses obtained at low (< 80 mg per 4 kg soil) and high (> 320 mg per 4 kg soil) rates of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer applied. It was concluded that to optimize green gram production in Olasiti soil, Minjingu Mazao fertilizer containing 31% P2O5 should be applied at a rate of 160-320 kg ha(-1) while considering other necessary agronomic practices. However, field studies to confirm the findings of this study and verify the usefulness of this fertilizer brand to green gram in Olasiti soil under field conditions could practically be the viable option before its recommendation to the smallholder farmers. PMID:24511709

Kisetu, Eliakira; Teveli, Christina Ngomzee Medutieki

2013-11-15

223

Biochar application to temperate soils - effects on soil fertility and crop yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar (BC) application to soil as a potential soil amendment is currently intensively explored. Depending on feedstock and highest treatment temperature (HTT), BC application to soil may contribute to the soil nutrient status by directly adding nutrients to the soil as well as by increasing pH, cation exchange and water holding capacity. These parameters are known to play an important role in the soil nutrient status and nutrient availability. A positive effect on plant growth after BC application to tropical soils has been observed repeatedly; however, the effect of BC application to soils in temperate climate regions is much less explored. We investigated the effect of BC to temperate soils and crop yield using a randomized pot experiment in a greenhouse with three agricultural soils (Planosol, Cambisol, Chernozem) and four BC types (from straw, mixed woodchips and vineyard pruning, all pyrolyzed at 525°C). In order to analyze the effect of pyrolysis temperature, we additionally applied vineyard pruning BC pyrolyzed at 400°C. Selected treatments were planted with mustard (Sinapis alba L.), followed by barley (Hordeum vulgare). Soil sampling was carried out after barley harvest. Investigated soil parameters included pH, electrical conductivity (EC), C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC), CAL-extractable P and K, EDTA extractable Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn as well as nitrogen supplying potential (NSP). Biomass production of the two crops was determined as well as its elemental composition. Biochar application (3% wood-based BC) caused a considerable pH increase for the acidic Planosol. The effect of BC application on CEC was dependent on the original status of the soil, notably soil pH and texture. 3 % BC application (wood) decreased CEC by 3.5 % and 10 % for the Chernozem and Cambisol, respectively, but increased CEC by 35 % for the acidic, sandy Planosol, which may be due to the strong liming effect found for the Planosol. BC application significantly raised CAL-extractable K for all soils. CAL-extractable P only increased in the Planosol and Cambisol at 3% application rate. Mustard yield decreased by 67% for vineyard pruning BC if nitrogen deficiency was not compensated for, straw-derived BC only caused a 2 % decrease of mustard yield. Barley yield was still significantly lower in most BC-treated pots compared to the controls, however, plant yields were less reduced for the second crop. Only straw-derived BC treatments showed a significantly higher barley yield (1955 ± 40 g m-2) compared to the control (1837 ± 70 g m-2). The results of the elemental composition of the barley grains showed that Al uptake in the Planosol significantly decreased after application of wood and straw BC, which may be due to the pH increase after BC application. In addition, Ca uptake in barley grains was significantly higher in the 3% wood BC treatment compared to the control. This may be caused by a higher Ca content of the wood BC as revealed by XRF. Mn uptake, on the other hand, was significantly reduced after BC application.

Kloss, S.; Zehetner, F.; Feichtmair, S.; Wimmer, B.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.; Kitzler, B.; Watzinger, A.; Soja, G.

2012-04-01

224

ASSESSMENT OF PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Perchlorate has been positively detected only in those materials known to be derived from Chilean caliche, which constitute less than 0.2% of U.S. fertilizer application. The data obtained in the preponderance of investigations suggest that fertilizers do not contribute to envir...

225

GROUNDWATER POLLUTION BY PHOSPHORUS FERTILIZERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphorus (P) is a primary nutrient necessary for plant growth. When soil P level is below what is needed for plant needs, P is supplied to the soil by the addition of P fertilizer or organic residuals (i.e., manure). Because of P fertilizer use in the past few decades or application of manure, a g...

226

A Simple and Effective Cleavable Linker for Chemical Proteomics Applications*  

PubMed Central

The study of metabolically labeled or probe-modified proteins is an important area in chemical proteomics. Isolation and purification of the protein targets is a necessary step before MS identification. The biotin-streptavidin system is widely used in this process, but the harsh denaturing conditions also release natively biotinylated proteins and non-selectively bound proteins. A cleavable linker strategy is a promising approach for solving this problem. Though several cleavable linkers have been developed and tested, an efficient, easily synthesized, and inexpensive cleavable linker is a desirable addition to the proteomics toolbox. Here, we describe the chemical proteomics application of a vicinal diol cleavable linker. Through easy-to-handle chemistry we incorporate this linker into an activity-based probe and a biotin alkyne tag amenable for bioorthogonal ligation. With these reagents, background protein identifications are significantly reduced relative to standard on-bead digestion. PMID:23028061

Yang, Yinliang; Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard; Verhelst, Steven H. L.

2013-01-01

227

Applicability and Limitations of Optimal Biomass Allocation Models: A Test of Two Species from Fertile and Infertile Habitats  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The practical applicability of optimal biomass allocation models is not clear. Plants may have constraints in the plasticity of their root : leaf ratio that prevent them from regulating their root : leaf ratio in the optimal manner predicted by the models. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability and limitations of optimal biomass allocation models and to test the assumption that regulation of the root : leaf ratio enables maximization of the relative growth rate (RGR). • Methods Polygonum cuspidatum from an infertile habitat and Chenopodium album from a fertile habitat were grown under a range of nitrogen availabilities. The biomass allocation, leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC), RGR, net assimilation rate (NAR), and leaf area ratio (LAR) of each species were compared with optimal values determined using an optimal biomass allocation model. • Key Results The root : leaf ratio of C. album was smaller than the optimal ratio in the low-nitrogen treatment, while it was almost optimal in the high-nitrogen treatment. In contrast, the root : leaf ratio of P. cuspidatum was close to the optimum under both high- and low-nitrogen conditions. Owing to the optimal regulation of the root : leaf ratio, C. album in the high-nitrogen treatment and P. cuspidatum in both treatments had LNC and RGR (with its two components, NAR and LAR) close to their optima. However, in the low-nitrogen treatment, the suboptimal root : leaf ratio of C. album led to a smaller LNC than the optimum, which in turn resulted in a smaller NAR than the optimum and RGR than the theoretical maximum RGR. • Conclusions The applicability of optimal biomass allocation models is fairly high, although constraints in the plasticity of biomass allocation could prevent optimal regulation of the root : leaf ratio in some species. The assumption that regulation of the root : leaf ratio enables maximization of RGR was supported. PMID:15790584

OSONE, YOKO; TATENO, MASAKI

2005-01-01

228

PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF LOSS RISK ASSESSMENT FOR UNINCORPORATED MANURE AND FERTILIZER APPLICATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wisconsin’s cropland phosphorus loss risk assessment for nutrient management planning (P Index) has been revised to account for the probability and potential volume of runoff events following manure applications. This P Index uses a simplified modeling approach to estimate annual unit area phosphoru...

229

Effect of Timing of Sulfur Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of Rapeseed  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is usually a positive yield response when sulfur (S) is applied to rapeseed (Brassica rapa L.) plants grown on S-deficient soils. Recommendations include application of some of or the entire amount of S at planting, but the plant requirement as well as availability of S to rapeseed during its various phenological stages is not well documented. In a field

Altaf Ahmad; Ishrat Khan; N. A. M Anjum; Iram Diva; M. Z. Abdin; Muhammad Iqbal

2005-01-01

230

Fertilizer Application Timing Influences Greenhouse Gas Fluxes Over a Growing Season  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial production and consumption of greenhouse gases (GHG) at the soil surface is influenced by temperature and nutrients, so effects of nutrient application on GHG fluxes should be greater as conditions warm during the growing season. We designed a replicated (n=5) field experiment to test for...

231

Impact of fertilizer application and urban wastes on the quality of groundwater in the Cambrai Chalk aquifer, Northern France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1975, Europe sets up its policy to limit the degradation and the pollution of the aquatic environments through 30 directives and regulations. In the north of France, the nitrate concentrations measured in the groundwater exceed the water drinking limit fixed at 50 mg/L by the European framework directive in the field of water (2000/60/EC). This high concentration is due to intensive agriculture, industrialization and demographic growth. Several programs were launched in order to resolve this situation: “Ferti-better” or the use of fertilizer in moderation and installation and amelioration of wastewater collect and treatment systems. In order to estimate the influence of the anthropic activities on the quality of groundwater in the “Artois-Picardy” basin, a preliminary validation on parcel and district scale were necessary. The impact of these programs in the “Cambrai district” was evaluated using an integrated approach, which is based on the use of four numerical models: AgriFlux, VS2DT, Modflow and MT3D. The results illustrate an improvement due to the “Ferti-Better” program initiated in 1990 and punctual degradation under urbanized areas. Predictions (2015) show a spatial evolution of nitrates concentration varying with the thickness of unsaturated layer. The integrated model constitutes an efficient tool for predicting the evolution of the groundwater quality. This approach is important to control the application of the new European laws in the water field.

Serhal, Hani; Bernard, Daniel; Khattabi, Jamal El; Sabine, Bastin-Lacherez; Shahrour, Isam

2009-06-01

232

Physiological Response of Wheat to Foliar Application of Zinc and Inoculation with some Bacterial Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pot experiment, sterilized sandy soil (irrigated with Long-Ashton nutrient solution containing a half of the recommended dose of ZnSO4 · 7H2O) was used to study the effects of zinc (Zn) foliar-application, and soil biofertilization on some physiological traits of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Sakha 155) plant grown for 70 days in greenhouse under controlled conditions. The treatments comprised different levels

Mohsen K. H. Ebrahim; Magda M. Aly

2005-01-01

233

Effect of urea fertilizer application on soluble protein and free amino acid content of cotton petioles in relation to silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii) populations.  

PubMed

The impact of urea nitrogen fertilization on silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, population dynamics was examined in field-grown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Five urea nitrogen treatments were tested, consisting of soil applications of 0, 112, 168, and 224 kg nitrogen per hectare, and acombined soil-foliar application of 112:17 kg nitrogen per hectare. A positive response was observed between N application rates and the measured levels of nitrate N in petioles from mature cotton leaves. Similarly, a positive response was observed between N application rates and the numbers of adult and immature whiteflies appearing during population peaks. To determine whether these positive responses were related, we measured the levels of dietary N compounds (proteins and free amino acids) that would be available for insect nutrition in cotton petioles at the different N application rates. Sampling dates and N application treatments affected levels of soluble proteins in cotton petioles, and interactions between sampling dates and treatments were significant. Across all sampling dates, the relationship between N application rates and levels of soluble proteins was linear. Sampling dates also affected levels of total and individual free amino acids. Fertilizer treatments only affected levels of total amino acids, aspartate, asparagine, and arginine plus threonine. Levels of aspartate or asparagine and the N application rates were linearly correlated. No significant correlations were observed between levels of dietary N compounds in cotton petioles and numbers of whiteflies, either adults or immatures, on the cotton plants. PMID:12757331

Bi, J L; Toscano, N C; Madore, M A

2003-03-01

234

Suppression of ammonia volatilization from a paddy soil fertilized with anaerobically digested cattle slurry by wood vinegar application and floodwater management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia (NH3) volatilization from animal manure application is detrimental to the environment, crop nutrition and human health and investigations into mitigation strategies are a great challenge among agro-environmental issues. The objective of the present study was to reduce NH3 volatilization in a paddy soil fertilized with anaerobically digested cattle slurry (ADCS). In laboratory experiments, several mitigation methods for NH3 volatilization

Khin Thawda Win; Koki Toyota; Takashi Motobayashi; Masaaki Hosomi

2009-01-01

235

Near-field fiber optic chemical sensors and biological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-field optics has been applied in the nanofabrication of subwavelength optical fiber chemical and biological sensors and their operation in chemical and biological analysis. A thousandfold miniaturization of immobilized optical fiber sensors has been achieved by a near- field photo-nanofabrication technique, which is based on nanofabricated optical fiber tips and near-field photopolymerization. This technique has been further developed by multistep near- field nanofabrication and multidye probe fabrication. Multistep nanofabrication can further miniaturize optical fiber sensors, while multidye fabrication results in multifunctional optic and excitonic probes with extremely small size. These probes emit multiwavelength photons or produce excitons of different energy levels, and may have multiple chemical or biological sensitivities. The nondestructive submicrometer sensor has demonstrated its ability to carry out static and dynamic determinations of pH in intact rat conceptuses of varying gestational ages. The ability of the sensors to measure pH changes, in real time, in the intact rat conceptus, demonstrates their potential applications for dynamic analysis in multicellular organisms and single cells. The near-field interaction of photons with matter is discussed.

Tan, Weihong; Shi, Zhong-You; Thorsrud, Bjorn A.; Harris, C.; Kopelman, Raoul

1994-03-01

236

LWIR hyperspectral imaging application and detection of chemical precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection and identification of Toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) represent a major challenge to protect and sustain first responder and public security. In this context, passive Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) is a promising technology for the standoff detection and identification of chemical vapors emanating from a distant location. To investigate this method, the Department of National Defense and Public Safety Canada have mandated Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC) - Valcartier to develop and test Very Long Wave Infrared (VLWIR) HSI sensors for standoff detection. The initial effort was focused to address the standoff detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), surrogates and precursors. Sensors such as the Improved Compact ATmospheric Sounding Interferometer (iCATSI) and the Multi-option Differential Detection and Imaging Fourier Spectrometer (MoDDIFS) were developed for this application. This paper presents the sensor developments and preliminary results of standoff detection and identification of TICs and precursors. The iCATSI and MoDDIFS sensors are based on the optical differential Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) radiometric technology and are able to detect, spectrally resolve and identify small leak at ranges in excess of 1 km. Results from a series of trials in asymmetric threat type scenarios are reported. These results serve to establish the potential of passive standoff HSI detection of TICs, precursors and surrogates.

Lavoie, Hugo; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François; Puckrin, Eldon; Dubé, Denis

2012-10-01

237

State waste discharge permit application, 200-E chemical drain field  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect ground would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173-216 (or 173-218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). The Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177 requires a series of permitting activities for liquid effluent discharges. This document presents the State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) application for the 200-E Chemical Drain Field. Waste water from the 272-E Building enters the process sewer line directly through a floor drain, while waste water from the 2703-E Building is collected in two floor drains, (north and south) that act as sumps and are discharged periodically. The 272-E and 2703-E Buildings constitute the only discharges to the process sewer line and the 200-E Chemical Drain Field.

Not Available

1994-06-01

238

[Effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with conventional nitrogen fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses].  

PubMed

An open field experiment was conducted to study the effects of applying controlled-release fertilizer blended with rapidly available chemical N fertilizer on Chinese cabbage yield and quality as well as nitrogen losses, including ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N accumulation and leaching in Beijing suburb. The results showed that a combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer (total N rate 150 kg x hm(-2)) did not induce the reduction of Chinese cabbage yield, and decreased the leaf nitrate and organic acid contents significantly, compared with conventional urea N application (300 kg x hm(-2)), and had no significant difference in the cabbage yield and leaf nitrate content, compared with applying 150 kg x hm(-2) of urea N. The combined application of 2:1 controlled-release fertilizer and urea fertilizer improved the N use efficiency of Chinese cabbage, and reduced the ammonia volatilization and NO3- -N leaching. At harvest, the NO3- -N concentrations in 20-40, 60-80 and 80-100 cm soil layers were significantly lower in the combined application treatment than in urea N treatment. PMID:21443002

Yang, Jun-gang; Xu, Kai; Tong, Er-jian; Cao, Bing; Ni, Xiao-hui; Xu, Jun-xiang

2010-12-01

239

STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center  

E-print Network

STRONG FERTILITY CENTER Strong Fertility Center Women's Lifestyle Center The Women's Lifestyle with the improved lifestyle. Also, we work together with the Strong Fertility Center to coordinate your fertility fertility treatments. · A complete nutritional consultation with our registered dietician, Tracy Cherry, RD

Goldman, Steven A.

240

Effect Of Transplant Method And Fertilizer Application On Growth Of Acer rubrum C. and Fraxinus pennsylvanicum L.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acer rubrum L. 'October Glory' (red maple) and Fraxinus pennsylvanicum L. 'Marshall Seedless' (green ash) were planted in an asphalt parking lot using standard horticultural practices with a factorial combination of treatments that included two planting stocks (bare-root and balled and burlapped) and two fertilizer levels (a control and 1.36 kg of 18-10-10 fertilizer along with 1.36 kg dolomitic limestone

Robert E. Schutzki

241

Phosphorus content in long-term fertilized soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorous (P) is often considered a limiting nutrient in crop production. However, particularly in intensive livestock and pig farming areas large surplus of P inputs associated with manure application to agricultural soils may result in an excessive P accumulation and a consequent gradual saturation of the soil P-sorption capacity. This event must be discouraged in order to contain possible eutrophication. In this study we investigated the impact of a long-term fertilization experiment on the accumulation in soil of different form of P. The experiment has been underway since 1964 on the University of Padova Experimental farm. The treatments derived from the factorial combination of 3 types of soil (clay, sandy and peaty) with 3 types of mineral, organic or mixed fertilization, organized in two randomized blocks. A total of 36 lysimeters (surface of 4 m2 and 80 cm deep) were cultivated. Fertilization rates were as follows: 0, no fertilization; F1 manure (20 t ha-1 y-1); M1, mineral fertilization (100 kg ha-1 y-1 N); F1M1, manure (20 t ha-1 y-1) + mineral fertilization (100 kg ha-1 y-1 N); F2 manure (40 t ha-1 y-1); M2, mineral fertilization (200 kg ha-1 y-1 N - 100 P2O5 - 280 K2O). Soil samples were taken using a 2-cm diameter auger from 0 to 100 cm depth, every 10 cm. P was analysed in term of total, organic and available (Olsen) phosphorus. Only treatments 0, M2 and F2 were subjected to soil sampling and chemical analyses. Results showed as the variables were affected by all the factors considered (treatment, soil and depth). Both farmyard manure and mineral fertilization increased the P content in function of soil types. In particular, as concerning the interaction between fertilization and depth, manure as well as mineral fertilization influenced the available P along soil profiles. The long-term fertilizer applications increased the P content at a level which resulted potentially hazardous for the environment.

Pizzeghello, D.; Morari, F.; Berti, A.; Nardi, S.; Giardini, L.

2009-04-01

242

Food benefit and climate warming potential of nitrogen fertilizer uses in China  

E-print Network

Chemical nitrogen (N) fertilizer has long been used to help meet the increasing food demands in China, the top N fertilizer consumer in the world. Growing concerns have been raised on the impacts of N fertilizer uses on ...

Tian, Hanqin

243

[Sustainable production of bulk chemicals by application of "white biotechnology"].  

PubMed

Practically all organic chemicals and plastics are nowadays produced from crude oil and natural gas. However, it is possible to produce a wide range of bulk chemicals from renewable resources by application of biotechnology. This paper focuses on White Biotechnology, which makes use of bacteria (or yeasts) or enzymes for the conversion of the fermentable sugar to the target product. It is shown that White Biotechnology offers substantial savings of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for nearly all of the products studied. Under favorable boundary conditions up to two thirds (67%) of the current non-renewable energy use for the production of the selected chemicals can be saved by 2050 if substantial technological progress is made and if the use of lignocellulosic feedstocks is successfully developed. The analysis for Europe (E.U. 25 countries) shows that land requirements related to White Biotechnology chemicals are not likely to become a critical issue in the next few decades, especially considering the large unused and underutilized resources in Eastern Europe. Substantial macroeconomic savings can be achieved under favourable boundary conditions. In principle, natural bacteria and enzymes can be used for White Biotechnology but, according to many experts in the fields, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) will be necessary in order to achieve the high yields, concentrations and productivities that are required to reach economic viability. Safe containment and inactivation of GMOs after release is very important because not all possible implications caused by the interaction of recombinant genes with other populations can be foreseen. If adequate precautionary measures are taken, the risks related to the use of genetically modified organisms in White Biotechnology are manageable. We conclude that the core requirements to be fulfilled in order to make clear steps towards a bio-based chemical industry are substantial technological progress in the bioprocess step and in downstream processing, high prices for fossil fuels and low prices for fermentable sugar. We strongly recommend to develop an integrated White Biotechnology strategy taking into account these four core requirements and other important accompanying activities. PMID:19306570

Patel, M K; Dornburg, V; Hermann, B G; Shen, Li; van Overbeek, Leo

2008-12-01

244

A case study of a precision fertilizer application task generation for wheat based on classified hyperspectral data from UAV combined with farm history data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different remote sensing methods for detecting variations in agricultural fields have been studied in last two decades. There are already existing systems for planning and applying e.g. nitrogen fertilizers to the cereal crop fields. However, there are disadvantages such as high costs, adaptability, reliability, resolution aspects and final products dissemination. With an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based airborne methods, data collection can be performed cost-efficiently with desired spatial and temporal resolutions, below clouds and under diverse weather conditions. A new Fabry-Perot interferometer based hyperspectral imaging technology implemented in an UAV has been introduced. In this research, we studied the possibilities of exploiting classified raster maps from hyperspectral data to produce a work task for a precision fertilizer application. The UAV flight campaign was performed in a wheat test field in Finland in the summer of 2012. Based on the campaign, we have classified raster maps estimating the biomass and nitrogen contents at approximately stage 34 in the Zadoks scale. We combined the classified maps with farm history data such as previous yield maps. Then we generalized the combined results and transformed it to a vectorized zonal task map suitable for farm machinery. We present the selected weights for each dataset in the processing chain and the resultant variable rate application (VRA) task. The additional fertilization according to the generated task was shown to be beneficial for the amount of yield. However, our study is indicating that there are still many uncertainties within the process chain.

Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Kleemola, Jouko; Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Honkavaara, Eija; Saari, Heikki; Mäkynen, Jussi; Rajala, Ari

2013-10-01

245

Influence of Nitrogen - Phosphorus Fertilization and Time of Harvest on the Growth, Yield and Oil Content of Mentha spicata L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of application of nitrogen- phosphorus fertilizer and harvesting time on growth, yield, oil content and physio- chemical properties of M. spicata L. oil. Eight treatment consists of different N-P fer- tilizer dose and four harvesting period were used for the study. Maximum plant height was found at N2P2 treatment. N2P3 fertilizer treatment

A. A. Jahangir; K. Nada; F. Begum; M. Hossain; M. A. M. Sarker; M. Moniruzzaman

2008-01-01

246

[Effects of controlled release nitrogen fertilizer application on dry matter accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize].  

PubMed

Effects of four controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers, including two kinds of polyester coated urea (Ncau, CRU) and phosphate (NhnP) and humic acid (NhnF) coated urea on assimilates accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize were investigated in a mode of one-time fertilization at the regional N recommended rate. The results showed that the N release curves of the two controlled release fertilizers CRU and Ncau matched well with the summer maize N uptake. Compared with the regional N recommendation rate, CRU could increase maize yield by 4.2% and Ncau could maintain the same yield level. CRU significantly increased the dry matter accumulation rate after anthesis of summer maize, but Ncau markedly increased the dry matter accumulated ratio before anthesis. Meanwhile, CRU could reduce the apparent N losses by 19 kg N x hm(-2) in the case of large precipitation. However, NhnF and NhnP caused the yield losses by 0.1%-8.9%, and enhanced the apparent N losses. Therefore, both CRU and Ncau with one-time fertilization could be a simplified alternative to the "total control, staging regulation" fertilization technique at the regional N recommended rate for summer maize production. PMID:25223033

Si, Dong-Xia; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Chen, Xin-Ping; Lü, Fu-Tang

2014-06-01

247

Fertilizer use in Asian agriculture: implications for sustaining food security and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the role of chemical fertilizers in sustaining the growth in foodgrain production in the major rice growing countries in Asia. The trends in fertilizer consumption are reviewed, the yield response and change in policies in the fertilizer sector and their impact on fertilizer prices are assessed and factors affecting fertilizer demand are analyzed. The implications of sustaining

M. Hossain; V. P. Singh

2000-01-01

248

The effect of phosphate bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) on the growth of marigold.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to study the individual and combined effect of bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) and chemical phosphate fertilizer on the floral quality of marigold (Tagetes erecta L.). A factorial experiment was carried out which consisted of two factors: i) inoculation of seed, root and seed + root with bio-fertilizer (Barvar-2) and control; application of chemical phosphorus at 100 mg I(-1), 200 mg l(-1), 300 mg l(-1) and 400 mg l(-1) levels. In this study, flowering time, display life, fresh and dry weight of flower, available soil phosphorus, shoot phosphorus and carotenoid content were evaluated. Results showed that the combined effect of bio- and chemical fertilizer was insignificant (p < 1 and 5%) for most of the characteristics studied except for shoot phosphorus and carotenoid content in petals. The lowest time to flowering (64.67 days) was obtained in seeds and transplant roots inoculation to bio-fertilizer x 400 mg I(-1) P. Maximum display life (25.35), fresh weight (16.20 g), carotenoid content (3.903 mg g(-1) d. wt.) and concentration of P in shoots (0.352%) were observed in transplant roots inoculation to bio-fertilizer x 400 mg I(-1) P. PMID:24665775

Zaredost, Fatemeh; Hashemabadi, Davood; Ziyabari, Maryam Barari; Torkashvand, Ali Mohammadi; Kaviani, Behzad; Solimandarabi, Maryam Jadid; Zarchini, Mohammad

2014-03-01

249

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection Amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop. Global Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Publication Date: 1/24/2011 Copyright 2011. The Trustees of Columbia University

Columbia University

250

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection Amount of phosphorus fertilizer applied areas for 175 crops with national information on fertilizer use for each crop. Global Phosphorus Fertilizer Application Publication Date: 1/24/2011 Copyright 2011. The Trustees of Columbia University

Columbia University

251

Applications of Chemical Shift Imaging to Marine Sciences  

PubMed Central

The successful applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in medicine are mostly due to the non-invasive and non-destructive nature of MRI techniques. Longitudinal studies of humans and animals are easily accomplished, taking advantage of the fact that MRI does not use harmful radiation that would be needed for plain film radiographic, computerized tomography (CT) or positron emission (PET) scans. Routine anatomic and functional studies using the strong signal from the most abundant magnetic nucleus, the proton, can also provide metabolic information when combined with in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). MRS can be performed using either protons or hetero-nuclei (meaning any magnetic nuclei other than protons or 1H) including carbon (13C) or phosphorus (31P). In vivo MR spectra can be obtained from single region of interest (ROI or voxel) or multiple ROIs simultaneously using the technique typically called chemical shift imaging (CSI). Here we report applications of CSI to marine samples and describe a technique to study in vivo glycine metabolism in oysters using 13C MRS 12 h after immersion in a sea water chamber dosed with [2-13C]-glycine. This is the first report of 13C CSI in a marine organism. PMID:20948912

Lee, Haakil; Tikunov, Andrey; Stoskopf, Michael K.; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.

2010-01-01

252

Intelligent Chemical Sensor Systems for In-space Safety Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future in-space and lunar operations will require significantly improved monitoring and Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) throughout the mission. In particular, the monitoring of chemical species is an important component of an overall monitoring system for space vehicles and operations. For example, in leak monitoring of propulsion systems during launch, inspace, and on lunar surfaces, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen and other fuels is important to avoid explosive conditions that could harm personnel and damage the vehicle. Dependable vehicle operation also depends on the timely and accurate measurement of these leaks. Thus, the development of a sensor array to determine the concentration of fuels such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine as well as oxygen is necessary. Work has been on-going to develop an integrated smart leak detection system based on miniaturized sensors to detect hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine, and oxygen. The approach is to implement Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors incorporated with signal conditioning electronics, power, data storage, and telemetry enabling intelligent systems. The final sensor system will be self-contained with a surface area comparable to a postage stamp. This paper discusses the development of this "Lick and Stick" leak detection system and it s application to In-Space Transportation and other Exploration applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Neudeck, P. G.; Makel, D. B.; Ward, B.; Liu, C. C.

2006-01-01

253

Effect of long-term fertilizers and manure application on microbial biomass and microbial activity of a tropical agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated some aspects of soil quality and community-level physiological profiles (CLPP) of bacteria in soil under a\\u000a long-term (37 years) trial with either exclusive inorganic fertilizers or fertilizers combined with farmyard manure cultivated\\u000a with jute–rice–wheat system. The treatments consisted of 100% recommended dose (RD) of NPK, 150% RD of NPK, 100% RD of N,\\u000a 100% RD of NPK?+?FYM (10 t ha?1?year?1),

Amrita Chakraborty; Kalyan Chakrabarti; Ashis Chakraborty; Sagarmoy Ghosh

2011-01-01

254

Impact of fertilization on chestnut growth, N and P concentrations in runoff water on degraded slope land in South China.  

PubMed

Growing fruit trees on the slopes of rolling hills in South China was causing serious environmental problems because of heavy application of chemical fertilizers and soil erosion. Suitable sources of fertilizers and proper rates of applications were of key importance to both crop yields and environmental protection. In this article, the impact of four fertilizers, i.e., inorganic compound fertilizer, organic compound fertilizer, pig manure compost, and peanut cake (peanut oil pressing residue), on chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume) growth on a slope in South China, and on the total N and total P concentrations in runoff waters have been investigated during two years of study, with an orthogonal experimental design. Results show that the organic compound fertilizer and peanut cake promote the heights of young chestnut trees compared to the control. In addition, peanut cake increases single-fruit weights and organic compound fertilizer raises single-seed weights. All the fertilizers increased the concentrations of total N and total P in runoff waters, except for organic compound fertilizer, in the first year experiment. The observed mean concentrations of total N varied from 1.6 mg/L to 3.2 mg/L and P from 0.12 mg/L to 0.22 mg/L, which were increased with the amount of fertilizer applications, with no pattern of direct proportion. On the basis of these experiment results, organic compound fertilizer at 2 kg/tree and peanut cake at 1 kg/tree are recommended to maximize chestnut growth and minimize water pollution. PMID:17966870

Zeng, Shu-Cai; Chen, Bei-Guang; Jiang, Cheng-Ai; Wu, Qi-Tang

2007-01-01

255

Fertility awareness in the 1990s--the Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning, its scientific basis, practical application and effectiveness.  

PubMed

Early methods of natural family planning (calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, and symptothermal) are briefly mentioned and dismissed as unsatisfactory for fertility regulation at our present state of knowledge of female reproductive physiology. Cervical mucus patterns, which reflect ovarian hormone levels, are shown to be accurate markers of the fertile and infertile phases of a woman's menstrual cycle. Interpretation of these patterns forms the basis of the Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning. Extensive laboratory and clinical studies have shown this method to be on a sound scientific footing, that it is applicable to all phases of a woman's reproductive life, and that women readily understand and are able to teach other women the meaning of these patterns as experienced by changing sensations at the vulva and changing characteristics of any visible mucus. The simple rules which have been formulated for postponing and achieving pregnancy are given. Field trials of this non-invasive method for fertility regulation in both developing and developed countries show that the rules are readily understood by participants. In the most recent trials, it has been shown that the method-related pregnancy rate is less than 1 per 100 woman years, which compares more than favorably with other contraceptive techniques. PMID:1950726

Hume, K

1991-01-01

256

Changes in the biological activity of chestnut soils upon the long-term application of fertilizers in a rotation with oil-bearing crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental studies showed that irrigated chestnut soils on the piedmont of the Zailiiskiy Alatau Range are characterized by the moderate activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. The use of these soils in the crop rotation system increases the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes (invertase, urease, and ATP synthase) by 30% in comparison with the monoculture; at the same time, it does not have a significant impact on the changes in the biological activity of the redox enzymes (catalase and dehydrogenase). The hydrolytic activity of the soils is activated to a greater extent in the crop rotation and in the monoculture against the background application of organic fertilizers. In this case, the recommended rates of mineral fertilizers do not inhibit the activity of the hydrolytic and redox enzymes. An increase in the hydrolytic activity of the enzymes directly affects the yield of oilseed flax. Therefore, indices of the hydrolytic activity of soils can be used as a test for the diagnostics of the efficiency of fertilizers both in crop rotation and monoculture systems.

Eleshev, R. E.; Bakenova, Z. B.

2012-11-01

257

Spatial variability of soil total and DTPA-extractable cadmium caused by long-term application of phosphate fertilizers, crop rotation, and soil characteristics.  

PubMed

Increasing cadmium (Cd) accumulation in agricultural soils is undesirable due to its hazardous influences on human health. Thus, having more information on spatial variability of Cd and factors effective to increase its content on the cultivated soils is very important. Phosphate fertilizers are main contamination source of cadmium (Cd) in cultivated soils. Also, crop rotation is a critical management practice which can alter soil Cd content. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of long-term consumption of the phosphate fertilizers, crop rotations, and soil characteristics on spatial variability of two soil Cd species (i.e., total and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable) in agricultural soils. The study was conducted in wheat farms of Khuzestan Province, Iran. Long-term (27-year period (1980 to 2006)) data including the rate and the type of phosphate fertilizers application, the respective area, and the rotation type of different regions were used. Afterwards, soil Cd content (total or DTPA extractable) and its spatial variability in study area (400,000 ha) were determined by sampling from soils of 255 fields. The results showed that the consumption rate of di-ammonium phosphate fertilizer have been varied enormously in the period study. The application rate of phosphorus fertilizers was very high in some subregions with have extensive agricultural activities (more than 95 kg/ha). The average and maximum contents of total Cd in the study region were obtained as 1.47 and 2.19 mg/kg and DTPA-extractable Cd as 0.084 and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The spatial variability of Cd indicated that total and DTPA-extractable Cd contents were over 0.8 and 0.1 mg/kg in 95 and 25 % of samples, respectively. The spherical model enjoys the best fitting and lowest error rate to appraise the Cd content. Comparing the phosphate fertilizer consumption rate with spatial variability of the soil cadmium (both total and DTPA extractable) revealed the high correlation between the consumption rate of P fertilizers and soil Cd content. Rotation type was likely the main effective factor on variations of the soil DTPA-extractable Cd contents in some parts (eastern part of study region) and could explain some Cd variation. Total Cd concentrations had significant correlation with the total neutralizing value (p < 0.01), available P (p < 0.01), cation exchange capacity (p < 0.05), and organic carbon (p < 0.05) variables. The DTPA-extractable Cd had significant correlation with OC (p < 0.01), pH, and clay content (p < 0.05). Therefore, consumption rate of the phosphate fertilizers and crop rotation are important factors on solubility and hence spatial variability of Cd content in agricultural soils. PMID:22948289

Jafarnejadi, A R; Sayyad, Gh; Homaee, M; Davamei, A H

2013-05-01

258

Synthesis and chemical modification of carbon nanostructures for materials applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the structure, chemical reactivities, electromagnetic response, and materials properties of various carbon nanostructures, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphite, and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). Efficient production and modification of these unique structures, each with their own distinct properties, will make them more accessible for applications in electronics, materials, and biology. A method is reported for controlling the permittivity from 1--1000 MHz of SWCNT-polymer composites (0.5 wt%) for radio frequency applications including passive RF antenna structures and EMI shielding. The magnitude of the real permittivity varied between 20 and 3.3, decreasing as higher fractions of functionalized-SWCNTs were added. The microwave absorbing properties and subsequent heating of carbon nanotubes were used to rapidly cure ceramic composites. With less than 1 wt% carbon nanotube additives and 30--40 W of directed microwave power (2.45 GHz), bulk composite samples reached temperatures above 500°C within 1 min. Graphite oxide (GO) polymer nanocomposites were developed at 1, 5, and 10 wt% for the purpose of evaluating the flammability reduction and materials properties of the resulting systems. Microscale oxygen consumption calorimetry revealed that addition of GO reduced the total heat release in all systems, and GO-polycarbonate composites demonstrated very fast self-extinguishing times in vertical open flame tests. A simple solution-based oxidative process using potassium permanganate in sulfuric acid was developed for producing nearly 100% yield of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) by lengthwise cutting and unraveling of MWCNT sidewalls. Subsequent chemical reduction of the GNRs resulted in restoration of electrical conductivity. The GNR synthetic conditions were investigated in further depth, and an improved method which utilized a two-acid reaction medium was found to produce GNRs with fewer defects and/or holes on the basal plane and higher aspect ratio. Two different covalent functionalization methods for GNRs based on diazonium chemistry were developed. The resulting functionalized GNRs (f-GNRs) are readily soluble in organic solvents which increase their solution processability. The f-GNRs were also found to be in a reduced state, with minimal sp2 carbon disruption, while also keeping the ribbon shape.

Higginbotham, Amanda Lynn

259

17BnG-1999-01 Field Emitter Arrays for Chemical and Biological Warfare Applications  

E-print Network

17BnG-1999-01 Field Emitter Arrays for Chemical and Biological Warfare Applications Problematic of many of the current schemes for biological and chemical defense (BWD and CWD) is that both defense systems are specific to certain chemicals or pathogens. Schemes that provide a more general defense

Mohanty, Saraju P.

260

Biocatalysis: applications and potentials for the chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical industry is exploring the use of renewable feed stocks to improve sustainability, prompting the exploration of bioprocesses for the production of chemicals. Attractive features of biological systems include versatility, substrate selectivity, regioselectivity, chemoselectivity, enantioselectivity and catalysis at ambient temperatures and pressures. However, a challenge facing bioprocesses is cost competitiveness with chemical processes because capital assets associated with the

Stuart M Thomas; Robert DiCosimo; Vasantha Nagarajan

2002-01-01

261

Nutrient Management Module No. 10 Fertilizers and  

E-print Network

is to explain terminology, physical and chemical properties, and soil reactions associated with commonNutrient Management Module No. 10 Commercial Fertilizers and Soil Amendments by Ann McCauley, Soil Scientist; Clain Jones, Extension Soil Fertility Specialist; and Jeff Jacobsen, College of Agriculture Dean

Lawrence, Rick L.

262

Emission factors for organic fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from Japanese agricultural soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Introduction Agricultural fields are significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), which is one of the important greenhouse gases with a contribution of 7.9% to the anthropogenic global warming (IPCC, 2007). Direct fertilizer-induced N2O emission from agricultural soil is estimated using the emission factor (EF). National greenhouse gas inventory of Japan defines direct EF for N2O associated with the application of chemical and organic fertilizers as the same value (0.62%) in Japanese agricultural fields. However, it is necessary to estimate EF for organic fertilizers separately, because there are some differences in factors controlling N2O emissions (e.g. nutrient content) between chemical and organic fertilizers. The purpose of this study is to estimate N2O emissions and EF for applied organic fertilizers in Japanese agricultural fields. 2. Materials and Methods We conducted the experiments at 10 prefectural agricultural experimental stations in Japan (Yamagata, Fukushima, Niigata, Ibaraki, Aichi, Shiga, Tokushima, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, and Kagoshima) to consider the variations of cultivation and environmental conditions among regions. Field measurements had been conducted for 2-2.5 years during August 2010-April 2013. Each site set experimental plots with the applications of composted manure (cattle, swine, and poultry), chemical fertilizer, and non-nitrogen fertilizer as a control. The annual amount of applied nitrogen ranged from 16 g-N m-2 y-1 to 60 g-N m-2 y-1 depending on cropping system and cultivated crops (e.g. cabbage, potato) at each site. N2O fluxes were measured using a closed-chamber method. N2O concentrations of gas samples were measured with gas chromatography. The EF value of each fertilizer was calculated as the N2O emission from fertilizer plots minus the background N2O emission (emission from a control plot), and was expressed as a percentage of the applied nitrogen. The soil NH4+ and NO3-, soil temperature, precipitation, and WFPS (water filled pore space) were also measured. 3. Results and Discussion The large N2O emissions from soils were mainly observed after the rain following fertilizer application from spring through fall. However, N2O emissions were limited at some sites where crops were cultivated during winter because of low soil temperature. The mean annual N2O emissions and EFs for sites varied depending on the type of applied fertilizers. The mean annual N2O emission (× standard deviation) for non-nitrogen fertilizer was the smallest (110 × 140 mg-N m-2), followed in order by those for cattle manure (280 × 327 mg-N m-2), swine manure (454 × 463 mg-N m-2), chemical fertilizer (464 × 587 mg-N m-2), and poultry manure (480 × 523 mg-N m-2). Hence, mean EF for cattle manure was 0.31 × 0.28%, followed in order by those for swine manure (0.56 × 0.77%), poultry manure (0.88 × 1.04%), and chemical fertilizer (0.89 × 1.22%), while significant differences in EFs were not found among fertilizers. The N2O emissions and EFs differed among sites. The N2O emissions from Andosol soil were found to be smaller than those from other soil types. There were no significant correlation between annual N2O emission and annual mean air temperature or precipitation. The differences in soil physical and chemical properties would result in variations in N2O emissions and EFs among regions.

Sano, T.; Nishina, K.; Sudo, S.

2013-12-01

263

Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.  

PubMed

With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well. PMID:20549448

Shaviv, Avi

2005-09-01

264

Environmental friendly nitrogen fertilization.  

PubMed

With the huge intensification of agriculture and the increasing awareness to human health and natural resources sustainability, there was a shift towards the development of environmental friendly N application approaches that support sustainable use of land and sustain food production. The effectiveness of such approaches depends on their ability to synchronize plant nitrogen demand with its supply and the ability to apply favored compositions and dosages of N-species. They are also influenced by farming scale and its sophistication, and include the following key concepts: (i) Improved application modes such as split or localized ("depot") application; (ii) use of bio-amendments like nitrification and urease inhibitors and combinations of (i) and (ii); (iii) use of controlled and slow release fertilizers; (iv) Fertigation-fertilization via irrigation systems including fully automated and controlled systems; and (v) precision fertilization in large scale farming systems. The paper describes the approaches and their action mechanisms and examines their agronomic and environmental significance. The relevance of the approaches for different farming scales, levels of agronomic intensification and agro-technical sophistication is examined as well. PMID:16512215

Shaviv, Avi

2005-12-01

265

Direct chemical oxidation: applications to demilitarization and decontamination  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of using aqueous solutions of sodium peroxydisulfate in the destruction of mustard gas surrogates has been demonstrated. This technique, known as Direct Chemical Oxidation (DCO), resulted in oxidative destruction of these surrogates, and a refinement was added to prevent the formation of slow-to-oxidize intermediates. Specifically, it was shown that `one-armed mustard` gas could be hydrolyzed to thiodiethanol and free chloride ion, and this species could then be partially oxidized to either the sulfoxide or sulfone depending on oxidant stoichiometry. Hydrolysis was accomplished on a mild basic solution at ambient temperature over a number of hours; oxidation was carried out at 90{degrees}C using peroxydisulfate solutions, Partial oxidation of thiodiethanol in the presence of chloride under basic conditions resulted in a a substantially pure mixture of the corresponding sulfone and sulfoxide, with no formation of chlorine gas. Analogous experiments in acid solutions produced a more complex mix of products and some oxidant was consumed in the evolution of chlorine. Complete destruction of the surrogates (to ppm level of detection) was achieved in either acid or base solution with less than a 7-fold excess of oxidant.

Cooper, J.F.; Balazs, B.; Lewis, P.

1998-04-01

266

Applications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles in the ocean  

E-print Network

Applications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles;#12;University of Washington Abstract Applications of neon, nitrogen, argon and oxygen to physical, chemical and biological cycles in the ocean by Roberta Claire Hamme Chair of Supervisory Committee: Professor Steven R

Hamme, Roberta C.

267

Chemical-Help Application for Classification and Identification of Stormwater Constituents  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A computer application called Chemical Help was developed to facilitate review of reports for the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The application provides a tool to quickly find a proper classification for any constituent in the NDAMS review sheets. Chemical Help contents include the name of each water-quality property, constituent, or parameter, the section number within the NDAMS review sheet, the organizational levels within a classification hierarchy, the database number, and where appropriate, the chemical formula, the Chemical Abstract Service number, and a list of synonyms (for the organic chemicals). Therefore, Chemical Help provides information necessary to research available reference data for the water-quality properties and constituents of potential interest in stormwater studies. Chemical Help is implemented in the Microsoft help-system interface. (Computer files for the use and documentation of Chemical Help are included on an accompanying diskette.)

Granato, Gregory E.; Driskell, Timothy R.; Nunes, Catherine

2000-01-01

268

Tree Fertilization Soil Analysis  

E-print Network

Tree Fertilization #12;Soil Analysis vs. Foliar Analysis #12;Macronutrients N P K Mg S Ca Micronutrients Fe Mn Zn Mo Cu Cl B #12;Complete fertilizer N P K #12;Fertilizer Analysis Percentages of N P K #12;ANSI A-300 Fertilizer Standard Standards are used to develop contract specifications. Fertilize

269

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Robinson Projection Amount of phosphorus in manure produced. Source: Potter, P., and N. Ramankutty, et al. (2010). Global Fertilizer Application and Manure Production. Data distributed by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer

Columbia University

270

Characterization of ammonia borane for chemical propulsion applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia borane (NH3BH3; AB), which has a hydrogen content of 19.6% by weight, has been studied recently as a potential means of hydrogen storage for use in fuel cell applications. Its gaseous decomposition products have a very low molecular weight, which makes AB attractive in a propulsion application, since specific impulse is inversely related to the molecular weight of the products. AB also contains boron, which is a fuel of interest for solid propellants because of its high energy density per unit volume. Although boron particles are difficult to ignite due to their passivation layer, the boron molecularly bound in AB may react more readily. The concept of fuel depots in low-earth orbit has been proposed for use in deep space exploration. These would require propellants that are easily storable for long periods of time. AB is a solid at standard temperature and pressure and would not suffer from mass loss due to boil-off like cryogenic hydrogen. The goal of this work is to evaluate AB as a viable fuel in chemical propulsion. Many studies have examined AB decomposition at slow heating rates, but in a propellant, AB will experience rapid heating. Since heating rate has been shown to affect the thermolysis pathways in energetic materials, AB thermolysis was studied at high heating rates using molecular dynamics simulations with a ReaxFF reactive force field and experimental studies with a confined rapid thermolysis set-up using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and FTIR absorption spectroscopy diagnostics. Experimental results showed the formation of NH3, H2NBH2, H2, and at later times, c-(N3B3H6) in the gas phase, while polymer formation was observed in the condensed phase. Molecular dynamics simulations provided an atomistic description of the reactions which likely form these compounds. Another subject which required investigation was the reaction of AB in oxidizing environments, as there were no previous studies in the literature. Oxygen bond descriptions were added to the ReaxFF force field and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to identify important species and reactions in the AB oxidation. Since the thermodynamic properties of many of these species were unknown, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed in the Jaguear 7.8 program using the B3LYP functional and 6-311G**++ basis set to calculate enthalpy and entropy of formation, as well as specific heat as a function of temperature. These results were used to create a gas-phase chemical kinetic mechanism for AB combustion. New elementary reactions (57) were combined with those found in the literature for ammonia and boron oxidation, to form a mechanism of 201 reversible reactions. Results from a simple homogenous, constant pressure and energy calculation are presented in this work. The results show that H2NBH2 can be dehydrogenated via radical attack when temperatures are too low to overcome the hydrogen elimination barrier and pressures are low enough to allow sufficient radicals to form. Molecular dynamics calculations require very high pressures to facilitate reactions over a short simulation time, and show the formation of heavy B/N/H/O molecules, such as HNBOH and H2NB(OH)2. On the other hand, the chemical kinetics calculations at 1 atm show that if the HNBO molecule is further oxidized, the products will likely fission with B-N bond cleavage. The final objective towards the research goal was to study how AB can be effectively integrated into a propulsion application. AB was added to a paraffin wax binder to form a heterogeneous solid fuel matrix. Opposed-flow burner experiments were performed where a flow of gaseous oxygen was impinged on the solid fuel surface and regression rates were measured. Regression rates were shown to increase with small additions of AB, but the condensed phase product build-up at higher AB concentrations limited the solid fuel regression. Solid fuel grains with various amounts of AB were manufactured and tested in a lab scale hybrid rocket engine, where performance parameters such as thrust, chamber pre

Weismiller, Michael

271

Chemical named entities recognition: a review on approaches and applications  

PubMed Central

The rapid increase in the flow rate of published digital information in all disciplines has resulted in a pressing need for techniques that can simplify the use of this information. The chemistry literature is very rich with information about chemical entities. Extracting molecules and their related properties and activities from the scientific literature to “text mine” these extracted data and determine contextual relationships helps research scientists, particularly those in drug development. One of the most important challenges in chemical text mining is the recognition of chemical entities mentioned in the texts. In this review, the authors briefly introduce the fundamental concepts of chemical literature mining, the textual contents of chemical documents, and the methods of naming chemicals in documents. We sketch out dictionary-based, rule-based and machine learning, as well as hybrid chemical named entity recognition approaches with their applied solutions. We end with an outlook on the pros and cons of these approaches and the types of chemical entities extracted. PMID:24834132

2014-01-01

272

Chemically Regulated Expression Systems and their Applications in Transgenic Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 20 years, several systems have been developed to control transgene expression in plants using chemicals. The components used to construct these systems are derived from regulatory sequences mostly from non-plant organisms such as bacteria, fungi, insects and mammals. These constructs allowed transgene expression to be controlled temporally, spatially and quantitatively with the help of exogenous chemicals, without

Renhou Wang; Xiaofu Zhou; Xingzhi Wang

2003-01-01

273

Application of the Raven UAV for chemical and biological detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the plume tracking algorithms developed for a series of outdoor chemical-stimulant testing conducted at Dugway Proving Ground in 2008 and 2009 employing a Raven UAV equipped with a real-time chemical sensor. The flights were conducted as part of the a program under the sponsorship of the Army JPM NBC Contamination Avoidance and in conjunction with the Army

Ryan Altenbaugh; Jeff Barton; Christopher Chiu; Ken Fidler; Dan Hiatt; Chad Hawthorne; Steven Marshall; Joe Mohos; Vince McHugh; Bill Nicoloff

2010-01-01

274

Biocatalysis: applications and potentials for the chemical industry.  

PubMed

The chemical industry is exploring the use of renewable feed stocks to improve sustainability, prompting the exploration of bioprocesses for the production of chemicals. Attractive features of biological systems include versatility, substrate selectivity, regioselectivity, chemoselectivity, enantioselectivity and catalysis at ambient temperatures and pressures. However, a challenge facing bioprocesses is cost competitiveness with chemical processes because capital assets associated with the existing commercial processes are high. The chemical industry will probably use biotechnology with existing feed stocks and processes to extract higher values from feed stocks, process by-products and waste streams. In this decade, bioprocesses that offer either a process or a product advantage over traditional chemical routes will become more widely used. PMID:12007491

Thomas, Stuart M; DiCosimo, Robert; Nagarajan, Vasantha

2002-06-01

275

Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples. [Patent application  

DOEpatents

Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fission are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for /sup 239/Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

1982-07-07

276

Fertility preservation for age-related fertility decline.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation of eggs or ovarian tissue to preserve fertility for patients with cancer has been studied since 1994 with R G Gosden's paper describing restoration of fertility in oophorectomised sheep, and for decades previously by others in smaller mammals. Clinically this approach has shown great success. Many healthy children have been born from eggs cryopreserved with the Kuwayama egg vitrification technique for non-medical (social) indications, but until now very few patients with cancer have achieved pregnancy with cryopreserved eggs. Often, oncologists do not wish to delay cancer treatment while the patient goes through multiple ovarian stimulation cycles to retrieve eggs, and the patient can only start using the oocytes after full recovery from cancer. Ovarian stimulation and egg retrieval is not a barrier for patients without cancer who wish to delay childbearing, which makes oocyte cryopreservation increasingly popular to overcome an age-related decline in fertility. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is an option if egg cryopreservation is ruled out. More than 35 babies have been born so far with cryopreserved ovarian tissue in patients with cancer who have had a complete return of hormonal function, and fertility to baseline. Both egg and ovarian tissue cryopreservation might be ready for application to the preservation of fertility not only in patients with cancer but also in countering the increasing incidence of age-related decline in female fertility. PMID:25283572

Stoop, Dominic; Cobo, Ana; Silber, Sherman

2014-10-01

277

Portable chemical protective clothing test method: application at a chemical plant  

SciTech Connect

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), in cooperation with Monsanto Chemical Company, conducted an on-site evaluation of chemical protective clothing at Monsanto's Nitro, West Virginia plant. The Monsanto plant manufactures additives for the rubber industry including antioxidants, pre-vulcanization inhibitors, accelerators, etc. This survey evaluated six raw materials that have a potential for skin absorption: aniline, cyclohexylamine, diisorpropylamine, tertiary butylamine, morpholine and carbon disulfide. Five generic glove materials were tested against these chemicals; nitrile, neoprene, polyvinylchloride, natural latex and natural rubber. The NIOSH chemical permeation portable test system was used to generate breakthrough time data. The results were compared to permeation data reported in the literature that were obtained by using the ASTM F739-85 test method. The test data demonstrated that aniline has too low a vapor pressure for reliable analysis on the portable direct reading detectors used. The chemical permeation test system, however provided comparable, reliable permeation data for the other tested chemicals. Monsanto has used this data to better select chemical protective clothing for its intended use.

Berardinelli, S.P.; Rusczek, R.A.; Mickelsen, R.L.

1987-10-01

278

Chemically functionalized gold nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization, and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis focuses on the development and application of gold nanoparticle based detection systems and biomimetic structures. Each class of modified nanoparticle has properties that are defined by its chemical moieties that interface with solution and the gold nanoparticle core. In Chapter 2, a comparison of the biomolecular composition and binding properties of various preparations of antibody oligonucleotide gold nanoparticle conjugates is presented. These constructs differed significantly in terms of their structure and binding properties. Chapter 3 reports the use of electroless gold deposition as a light scattering signal enhancer in a multiplexed, microarray-based scanometric immunoassay using the gold nanoparticle probes evaluated in Chapter 2. The use of gold development results in greater signal enhancement than the typical silver development, and multiple rounds of metal development were found to increase the resulting signal compared to one development. Chapter 4 describes an amplified scanometric detection method for human telomerase activity. Gold nanoparticles functionalized with specific oligonucleotide sequences can efficiently capture telomerase enzymes and subsequently be elongated. Both the elongated and unmodified oligonucleotide sequences are simultaneously measured. At low telomerase concentrations, elongated strands cannot be detected, but the unmodified sequences, which come from the same probe particles, can be detected because their concentration is higher, providing a novel form of amplification. Chapter 5 reports the development of a novel colorimetric nitrite and nitrate ion assay based upon gold nanoparticle probes functionalized with Griess reaction reagents. This assay takes advantage of the distance-dependent plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles and the ability of nitrite ion to facilitate the cross coupling of novel nanoparticle probes. The assay works on the concept of a kinetic end point and can be triggered at the EPA limit for this ion in drinking water. Finally, Chapter 6 describes the synthesis of high density lipoprotein biomimetic nanoparticles capable of binding cholesterol. These structures use a gold nanoparticle core to template the assembly of a mixed phospholipid layer and the adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I. These synthesized structures have the general size and surface composition of natural HDL and bind free cholesterol with a Kd of 4 nM.

Daniel, Weston Lewis

279

FIELD APPLICATIONS OF CHEMICAL TIME-SERIES SAMPLING  

EPA Science Inventory

Two municipal supply wells in Lakewood, Washington, were found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene, transdichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene. Sequential samples were taken for chemical analyses, in conjunction with drawdown measurement during aquifer (pump) tests desi...

280

Photoinitiated chemical vapor depostion [sic] : mechanism and applications  

E-print Network

Photoinitiated chemical vapor deposition (piCVD) is developed as a simple, solventless, and rapid method for the deposition of swellable hydrogels and functional hydrogel copolymers. Mechanistic experiments show that piCVD ...

Baxamusa, Salmaan Husain

2009-01-01

281

Chemical burn caused by topical application of garlic under occlusion.  

PubMed

Allium sativum (garlic) can cause an irritant contact dermatitis, secondary to naturopathic practices. We report an unusually severe case of chemical burn following garlic applied under occlusion. PMID:24456964

Xu, Shuai; Heller, Marissa; Wu, Peggy A; Nambudiri, Vinod E

2014-01-01

282

Application of pharmacokinetic principles to exposure to chemical mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Kinetic interactions among chemicals present in a mixture can influence the relationship between administered and delivered or effective dose; these interactions are distinct from dynamic interactions such as, for example, competition between two chemicals for receptor binding sites. The relationship between administered and effective dose depends on a number of biochemical, physiological, and physical factors such as age, sex, level of physical activity, route of administration, dose pattern, and bioavailability. In addition, interactions among chemicals may limit or increase the effective dose relative to the administered dose for any of the chemicals of a mixture. If the mechanism of the interaction is known, the direction and general magnitude of its effects may be predictable. A variety of potential interactions is briefly reviewed, and selected illustrations of these interactions are given. Two types of interactions likely to be pervasive in mixtures of chemically related bioactive materials are considered in greater detail. These interactions are induction of metabolizing enzymes such as the mixed-function oxidases, and competition of structurally similar chemicals for active sites on metabolizing enzymes. Simulations are presented to illustrate the consequences of these interactions, and examples of their occurrence are given. 17 references.

O'Flaherty, E.J. (Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (USA))

1989-10-01

283

Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds  

SciTech Connect

This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

1991-02-01

284

Application of the Raven UAV for chemical and biological detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the plume tracking algorithms developed for a series of outdoor chemical-stimulant testing conducted at Dugway Proving Ground in 2008 and 2009 employing a Raven UAV equipped with a real-time chemical sensor. The flights were conducted as part of the a program under the sponsorship of the Army JPM NBC Contamination Avoidance and in conjunction with the Army PM-Unmanned Aircraft Systems, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and Edgewood Chemical Biological Center. This test demonstrated the Raven's ability to autonomously detect and track a chemical plume during a variety of atmospheric conditions. During the testing, the Raven conducted over a dozen flights, tracking outdoor releases of simulated chemical weapons over significant distances. The Raven was cued to the releases with standoff detection systems through Cursor on Target messages. Upon reaching the plume, the Raven used on-board sensors and on-board meteorological data to track the plume autonomously and determine the extent of the plume. Results were provided in real-time to the UAV operator.

Altenbaugh, Ryan; Barton, Jeff; Chiu, Christopher; Fidler, Ken; Hiatt, Dan; Hawthorne, Chad; Marshall, Steven; Mohos, Joe; McHugh, Vince; Nicoloff, Bill

2010-04-01

285

40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities § 63.747 Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations....

2011-07-01

286

40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities § 63.747 Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations....

2010-07-01

287

Laser Applications to Chemical, Security, and Environmental Analysis: introduction to the feature issue  

SciTech Connect

This Applied Optics feature issue on Laser Applications to Chemical, Security,and Environmental Analysis (LACSEA) highlights papers presented at theLACSEA 2006 Tenth Topical Meeting sponsored by the Optical Society ofAmerica.

Dreizler, Andreas; Fried, Alan; Gord, James R

2007-07-01

288

40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities § 63.747 Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations....

2014-07-01

289

40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities § 63.747 Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations....

2012-07-01

290

40 CFR 63.747 - Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Aerospace Manufacturing and Rework Facilities § 63.747 Standards: Chemical milling maskant application operations....

2013-07-01

291

Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications  

E-print Network

Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01

292

75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz AGENCY...products containing active ingredients not included in any previously...Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA is hereby...products containing active ingredients not included in any...

2010-02-09

293

Application of an Industrial Heat Pump to a Specialty Chemical Plant  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP TO A SPECIALTY CHEMICAL PLANT Paul C. Tripathi, President, Peter Chao, Sr. Process Engineer, TENSA Services, Inc., Houston, Texas ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of a heat pump study conducted...

Tripathi, P. C.; Chao, P.

294

Catholicism and the Economics of Fertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic approach to fertility is an application of the economic theory of consumer behaviour. It is assumed that utility-maximizing decisions regarding children are affected by explicit and implicit prices and income. One of the criticisms of this approach is that social norms tend to be given short shrift. In this paper, we examine the effect of Catholicism on fertility

William Sander

1992-01-01

295

DIVISION S-4--SOIL FERTILITY & PLANT NUTRITION  

E-print Network

DIVISION S-4--SOIL FERTILITY & PLANT NUTRITION Relationships Between Soil Nitrogen Availability Indices, Yield, and Nitrogen Accumulation of Wheat Fran Walley,* Thomas Yates, Jan-Willem van Groenigen a biologically based, long-term incu-The success of variable rate N fertilizer application rests on our bation

van Kessel, Chris

296

NEIGHBORHOOD COMPLEXITIES AND SYMMETRY OF CHEMICAL GRAPHS AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantitative measures of molecular complexity are calculated through the application of information-theoretic formalism on chemical graphs. The vertex set of a chemical graph is partitioned into disjoint subsets on the basis of the equivalence of various orders of closed neighbor...

297

Development of chemical sensor arrays for harsh environments and aerospace applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerospace industry requires the development of a range of chemical sensor technologies for such applications as fuel leak detection, fire detection, and emission monitoring. A range of chemical sensors are being developed based on: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology, 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials, and 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. However, due to

G. W. Hunter; P. G. Neudeck; C. C. Liu; B. Ward; Q. H. Wu; P. Dutta; M. Frank; J. Trimbol; M. Fulkerson; B. Patton; D. Makel; V. Thomas

2002-01-01

298

Surface acoustic wave device for chemical and biological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor for chemical and biological detector as measuring the frequency shift based on adsorption quantities of chemical analyte on SAW propagation path. Important features that define the performance of these sensors are selectivity, sensitivity, stability, response time and dynamic range. In this paper, two inter-digital transducers (IDT) for working frequency of 50MHz, 100 MHz were designed and fabricated using conventional lift-off technique. The shift in SAW velocity due to surface loading leads to a shift in phase, which in turn generates a shift in frequency of the oscillator is confirmed. By different concentration of chemical vapor, the sensitivity of SAW devices will be presented.

Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Young-Jun; Jung, Dongsoo; Kim, Joo-Hyung

2014-04-01

299

Utilization of biosensors and chemical sensors for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There will be a need for a wide array of chemical sensors for biomedical experimentation and for the monitoring of water and air recycling processes on Space Station Freedom. The infrequent logistics flights of the Space Shuttle will necessitate onboard analysis. The advantages of biosensors and chemical sensors over conventional analysis onboard spacecraft are manifold. They require less crew time, space, and power. Sample treatment is not needed. Real time or near-real time monitoring is possible, in some cases on a continuous basis. Sensor signals in digitized form can be transmitted to the ground. Types and requirements for chemical sensors to be used in biomedical experimentation and monitoring of water recycling during long-term space missions are discussed.

Bonting, S. L.

1992-01-01

300

Fluoride removal in the presence of organophosphates: application to chemical warfare agent destruction  

E-print Network

FLUORIDE REMOVAL IN TFIE PRESENCE OF ORGANOPHOSPHATES: APPLICATION TO CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT DESTRUCTION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER ERIC WENAAS Submiued to the Oflice ol Graduate Studies ol' Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTFR OF SCIFNCE August 1996 Major Subject: Civil Engineering FLUORIDE REMOVAL IN THE PRESENCE OF ORGANOPHOSPHATES: APPLICATION TO CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT DESTRUCTION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER ERIC WENAAS Submitted...

Wenaas, Christopher Eric

1996-01-01

301

Dealer model site demonstrations. Program for fertilizer and agrichemical dealers  

SciTech Connect

Model site demonstrations are joint efforts between TVA and cooperating organizations to improve the industry`s environmental stewardship. Program objectives are to develop, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and management practices to help retail fertilizer/agricultural chemical dealers minimize adverse environmental impacts. The model site demonstrations serve as `real life` laboratories for researchers, technologists, educators and participants. The retail dealership is treated as a complete unit. The program recognizes the need to: Develop information and experience to guide others; Test numerous methods of containment, materials of construction, management practices, and monitoring techniques; Strengthen and highlight industry`s commitment to envirorunental stewardship; Identify future research needs; and Provide a catalyst for cooperation across a broad spectrum of groups and organizations to identify problems and develop solutions appropriate for fertilizer and agrichemical dealers. Emphasis is on transferring current technology and developing and introducing needed new technologies. Field testing and applied research are encouraged at demonstration sites. One of the key concepts is to bridge the gap between research findings and their practical application and evaluation in field settings. Primary audiences include fertilizer dealers and professional workers in agriculture, the fertilizer industry, the environmental arena, and related institutions across the nation. Experiences at participating dealer sites are shared through organized tours, open houses, news articles and publications. Sixteen sites have been selected for demonstrations, and at least four more are planned. TVA provides assistance in engineering, design and educational forums. Dealers pay for installation of needed containment and related features.

Mann, H.C.

1992-08-01

302

Impact of the Application Technique on Nitrogen Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Budgets in Case of Energy Maize Fertilized with Biogas Residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite an increasing cultivation of energy maize fertilized with ammonia-rich biogas residues (BR), little is known about the impact of the application technique on gaseous nitrogen (N) losses as well as N budgets, indicative of N use efficiency. To contribute to closing this knowledge gap we conducted a field experiment supplemented by a laboratory incubation study. The field experiment was carried out in Dedelow, located in the Northeastern German Lowlands and characterized by well-drained loamy sand (haplic luvisol). Two treatments with different application technique for BR fertilization - i) trail hoses and ii) injection - were compared to an unfertilized control (0% N). Seventy percent of the applied N-BR was assumed to be plant-available. In 2013, biweekly nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements were conducted during the time period between BR application and maize harvest (18.04.-11.09.2013; 147 days) using non-flow-through non-steady-state chamber measurements. To quantify soil Nmin status, soil samples were taken from 0-30 cm soil depth in the spring (before fertilization) and autumn (after maize harvest). Immediately after BR application, ammonia (NH3) volatilization was measured intensively using the open dynamic chamber Dräger-Tube method. Export of N due to harvest was determined via plant N content (Nharvest). Based on the measured N gas fluxes, N soil and plant parameters, soil N budgets were calculated using a simple difference approach. Values of N output (Nharvest, NN2O_cum and NNH3_cum) are subtracted from N input values (Nfertilizer and Nmin_autumnminus Nmin_spring). In order to correctly interpret N budgets, other N fluxes must be integrated into the budget calculation. Apart from soil-based mobilization and immobilization turnover processes and nitrate leaching, this applies specifically to N2 losses due to denitrification. Therefore, we measured the N2 emissions from laboratory-incubated undisturbed soil cores (250 cm3) by means of the helium incubation approach. With cumulative field emissions of 2.9±0.8 kg N2O-N ha-1 and 3.9±0.4 kg N2O-N ha-1 after trail hose application and injection, respectively, our results showed no clear application effect. NH3-N losses were higher for trail hose application (7.2 kg NH3-N ha-1) compared to injection (5.2 kg NH3-N ha-1). The calculated N budgets showed negative values (accumulative deficit) up to -6 kg N ha-1 and -32 kg N ha-1 for trail hose application and injection, respectively. But differences between treatments were not significant. Overall N budgets were more influenced by plant N uptake (91-96%) than by gaseous N losses (4-9%). However, results from the laboratory incubation indicate that N2 may also be a potentially important pathway of N loss, contributing to 34% of total gaseous N loss, corresponding to 5 kg N2-N ha-1 yr-1.

Andres, Monique; Fränzke, Manuel; Schuster, Carola; Kreuter, Thomas; Augustin, Jürgen

2014-05-01

303

Biochemical evaluation of sulfur and nitrogen assimilation potential of mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern. & Coss.) under application of slow-release sulfur fertilizer.  

PubMed

Pot experiments were conducted to study the efficacy of a slow sulfur-releasing fertilizer, sulfur glass fritz (SGF 1), on growth, photosynthesis, and sulfur, and nitrogen assimilation potentials of brown mustard (Brassicajuncea L. Czern. & Coss. cv. Pusa Jaikisan). Growth as indicated by biomass accumulation slowed down in response to the application of sulfur glass fritz. A similar trend was observed in the case of photosynthesis rate. The activity of two marker enzymes, ATP-sulfurylase and nitrate reductase, showed very low levels of activity, indicating poor assimilation of sulfur and nitrogen by the plant under sulfur glass fritz. It is therefore concluded that the release of sulfur by sulfur glass fritz is too slow and that the initial nonavailability of sulfur to the plants could lead to suboptimization of both sulfur- and nitrogen-assimilating enzymes. These factors may contribute to low rates of photosynthesis and poor growth. PMID:11783884

Ahmad, A; Abraham, G; Abdin, M Z

2001-01-01

304

Carbon Footprint Calculations: An Application of Chemical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics commonly taught in a general chemistry course can be used to calculate the quantity of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by various human activities. Each calculation begins with the balanced chemical equation for the reaction that produces the CO[subscript 2] gas. Stoichiometry, thermochemistry, the ideal gas law, and dimensional…

Treptow, Richard S.

2010-01-01

305

Modified NASA-Lewis chemical equilibrium code for MHD applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A substantially modified version of the NASA-Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Code was recently developed. The modifications were designed to extend the power and convenience of the Code as a tool for performing combustor analysis for MHD systems studies. The effect of the programming details is described from a user point of view.

Sacks, R. A.; Geyer, H. K.; Grammel, S. J.; Doss, E. D.

1979-01-01

306

The application of virtual reality to (chemical engineering) education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual reality, VR, offers many benefits to technical education, including the delivery of information through multiple active channels, the addressing of different learning styles, and experiential-based learning. This poster presents work performed by the authors to apply VR to engineering education, in three broad project areas: virtual chemical plants, virtual laboratory accidents, and a virtual UIC campus. The first area

J. T. Bell; H. C. Fogler

2004-01-01

307

Confined and Agitated Swirling Flows with Applications in Chemical Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbulent, swirling flows are encountered frequently in chemical engineering practice. In this article, experiments and simulations on two classes of swirling flows, viz. agitated flows (stirred tanks), and confined swirling flows are discussed. Results of large-eddy simulations of stirred tank flow are compared with experimental data, mainly phase-resolved LDA data of the flow in the vicinity of the impeller. Next

JOS DERKSEN

2002-01-01

308

The Application of Virtual Reality to ( Chemical Engineering ) Education  

E-print Network

Visualization Laboratory Department of Computer Science University of Illinois Chicago JBell@uic.edu H. Scott safety or a possible fatality. No food or drink allowed in the laboratory: Failure to heed this rule can broad project areas: Virtual chemical plants, virtual laboratory accidents, and a virtual UIC campus

Bell, John T.

309

Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.  

PubMed

To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments. PMID:21848295

Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

2011-09-28

310

Real-time interactive data mining for chemical imaging information: application to automated histopathology  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrational spectroscopic imaging is now used in several fields to acquire molecular information from microscopically heterogeneous systems. Recent advances have led to promising applications in tissue analysis for cancer research, where chemical information can be used to identify cell types and disease. However, recorded spectra are affected by the morphology of the tissue sample, making identification of chemical structures difficult. Results Extracting features that can be used to classify tissue is a cumbersome manual process which limits this technology from wide applicability. In this paper, we describe a method for interactive data mining of spectral features using GPU-based manipulation of the spectral distribution. Conclusions This allows researchers to quickly identify chemical features corresponding to cell type. These features are then applied to tissue samples in order to visualize the chemical composition of the tissue without the use of chemical stains. PMID:23651487

2013-01-01

311

Improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan mine wastes following application of amendments and growth of Cistus ladanifer L.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cistus ladanifer is considered a good option for phytostabilization of mine wastes, composed of several materials, but its growth is very slow due to substrata conditions (acidic pH, low fertility and water availability, high total concentrations of hazardous elements). To enhance the growth of C. ladanifer with application of organic/inorganic amendments can be a strategy to speed up remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different rates of amendments and C. ladanifer growth on the improvement of chemical and biological characteristics of gossan wastes. Composite samples of mining wastes (gossan+host rocks) were collected at the São Domingos mine. Amendments used were mixtures (30, 75, 150 Mg/ha) of rockwool, agriculture wastes and wastes from liquor distillation obtained from fruits of Arbutus unedo. Four treatments (n=6 replicates) were carried out (control and three amended treatments) under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. After one month of incubation at 70% of water holding capacity, C. ladanifer was sown in half of the pots from each treatment (n=3), and the other three pots remained in the same conditions without plant. Chemical and biological characteristics of the wastes (with/without plants) were analysed after incubation and fifteen months. Gossan wastes had great total concentrations of several elements (g/kg; Al: 24.8, As: 3.03, Cu: 0.23, Pb; 9.21) whereas in an extracting solution (diluted solution of organic acids) these were small (0.5 units), fertility (Corganic, Pextractable, Ntotal) and dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes, principally with the rate of 150 Mg/ha, even after one month of incubation and after the plants be sown. In both sampling periods (beginning/end of the experiment), Kextractable concentrations increased only with the high application rates (control and 30 Mg/ha treatment: 1.02-1.88 mg/kg; other amended treatments: 2.13-3.55 mg/kg). At the end of the experiment, the presence of the plant increased Corganic and Pextractable concentrations, compared to treatments without plants, reaching the highest values in the treatments combining amendments and plants. After one month of incubation, the dehydrogenase activities in wastes were more than twice in the amended treatments (1.71-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate and sampling period). Nevertheless, wastes from treatments with plants had higher dehydrogenase activities (9.66-33.55 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, depending on amendments application rate) than in treatments using only amendments (4.98-22.30 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1), but both were higher than control. The plants in control presented lower fresh biomass than in amended treatments. Plants growth in control was not sufficient to enhance dehydrogenase activity of mine wastes (1.51 and 1.72 ?g TPF g sample 16h-1, with/without plants, respectively). The extractable nutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Zn) increased with amendment application, an advantage for remediation purposes. Although extractable Al, As, Na also increased in the same treatments, they remained small. In contrast, extractable Cu and Pb were, generally, lower in amended treatments than in control. The presence of the plant did not increase the concentration of elemental in the extractant solution.

Santos, Erika; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Macías, Felipe; de Varennes, Amarilis

2013-04-01

312

A summary overview Controlled-release fertilizer and  

E-print Network

1 A summary overview Controlled-release fertilizer and Oregon's agricultural industry: Challenges January 2011 Introduction Soil fertility is a critical determinant of agricultural productivity in Oregon on the regular application of some type of fertilizer to the soil. Research by the OSU College of Agricultural

313

Confined and Agitated Swirling Flows with Applications in Chemical Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbulent, swirling flows are encountered frequently in chemical engineering practice. In this article, experiments and simulations\\u000a on two classes of swirling flows, viz. agitated flows (stirred tanks), and confined swirling flows are discussed. Results\\u000a of large-eddy simulations of stirred tank flow are compared with experimental data, mainly phase-resolved LDA data of the\\u000a flow in the vicinity of the impeller. Next

Jos Derksen

2002-01-01

314

Amorphous photonic membranes for broadband chemical sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there has been extensive development on integrated sensors in the near-IR region due to the maturation of Si, SOI, and III-V materials, these technologies are not easily translated into the visible and near-UV regions which are critical for the detection of many chemicals of environmental and security interest. This work focuses on the use of wide bandgap, amorphous materials, specifically, amorphous zinc oxide (a-ZnO), amorphous hafnium oxide (a-HfO2) and amorphous beryllium zinc oxide (a-BeZnO), in the development of broadband chemical sensors operating at critical absorption lines spanning the near-UV (200 nm) to the near-IR (1.55 ?m). The architecture employed for this research is a nanoscale membrane (typically 40 - 100 nm thick) that supports a guided low optical overlap mode (LOOM) - an optical mode in which approximately 1% of the electric field is confined to the lossy core region. The resulting extended mode has a greatly enhanced analyte overlap, yielding a device sensitivity (~70%) that is over an order of magnitude higher than current high-performance, dielectric evanescent wave sensors (~2%) as modeled by analytical and finite element methods. Due to the extended nature of the LOOM, sensing across the entire spectral range can be achieved with a single waveguide design - critical for multi-point chemical sensing architectures.

Abbey, Sonja P.; Whaley, Ralph D., Jr.

2012-01-01

315

Digital Microfluidic Chips for Chemical and Biological Applications  

E-print Network

· Demonstrated transport of whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, and sweat. · Colorimetric glucose assay · Toolkit · Applications of digital microfluidics ­ Sample preparation ­ DNA sequencing ­ Enzymatic assays

Fair, Richard

316

Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during

Jonathan Leonard; Matthew Stephen Tezak; John E. Brockmann; Brandon Servantes; Andres L. Sanchez; Mark David Tucker; Ashley N. Allen; Mollye C. Wilson; Daniel A. Lucero; Rita G. Betty

2010-01-01

317

APPLICABILITY OF PASSIVE MONITORING DEVICES TO MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN AMBIENT AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

Commercial passive monitoring devices for volatile organic chemicals were evaluated to determine their potential application to ambient air concentrations (0.1 to 50 ppbv). A high-performance passive device was developed for short-term, low-level monitoring applications. The stai...

318

Nitrogenous fertilizers: Global distribution of consumption and associated emissions of nitrous oxide and ammonia  

SciTech Connect

The global distribution of nitrogen input via application of chemical nitrogenous fertilizers to agricultural ecosystems is presented. The suite of 1{degrees} (latitude/longitude) resolution data bases includes primary data on fertilizer consumption, as well as supporting data sets defining the distribution and intensity of agriculture associated with fertilizer use. The data were developed from a variety of sources and reflect conditions for the mid-1980s. East Asia, where fertilizer use is increasing at {approximately}10%/year, accounted for {approximately}37% of the total, while North America and western Europe, where fertilizer use is leveling off, accounted for 40% of the world`s total in the mid-1980s. While almost every country consumes urea, {approximately}75% of the large East Asian fertilizer use is supplied by this one fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate, used primarily in the former centrally planned economies of Europe, in West Asia, and in Africa, accounted for about one quarter of global consumption. These data were used to estimate distributions of the annual emission of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) associated with the use of fertilizers. Applying published ranges of emission coefficients for fertilizer types in the data base yields a median emission of 0.1 Tg N{sub 2}O-N, with lower and upper values of 0.03 and 2.0 Tg N{sub 2}O-N in 1984. This equals <1% to {approximately}3% of the total nitrogen applied via commercial fertilizers and represents ,=<1% to 15% of the annual emission of N{sub 2}O from terrestrial sources. Assuming that the {approximately}4% annual increase in consumption of nitrogenous fertilizers during the 1980s corresponds to a {approximately}4% rise in the release of N{sub 2}O-N, yearly increases in emissions from fertilizer use are <0.01 to 0.08 Tg N{sub 2}O-N equal to <1% to 3% of the current growth of atmospheric nitrous oxide. 98 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Matthews, E.

1994-12-01

319

Application of surface chemical analysis tools for characterization of nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is\\u000a described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy\\u000a (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), low-energy ion scattering\\u000a (LEIS), and scanning-probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic

Donald R. Baer; Daniel J. Gaspar; Ponnusamy Nachimuthu; Sirnegeda D. Techane; David G. Castner

2010-01-01

320

Effect of Fertilizer Nitrogen Rate and Time of Application on Growth and Performance of Six Herbaceous Perennials and Soil Solution Nitrogen Concentration in a Simulated Landscape.  

E-print Network

??Herbaceous perennials are planted worldwide in public gardens, and commercial and home landscapes. Little research based information exists on response of herbaceous perennials to fertilizer… (more)

Proctor, Cynthia Lambert

2006-01-01

321

The increase of the fertility of soils using the liquid organic fertilizers and fertilizers based on sugar-beet wastes.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fertility of soil is a capacity for ensuring plants by water, nutrients, air and capacity for making optimal conditions for growth and development of plants. The result of it is a yield. The main characteristic of fertility of soil is maintenance of humus. The humus is important part of organic matter. The supporting of soil fertility is impossible by traditional methods. The amount of receiving mineral fertilizers in agriculture will not increase in future, because mineral fertilizers are very expensive. The mineral fertilizers don't influence on maintenance of total amount of humus in soil and improve the circulation of nutrients. Every hectare of fields have to receive no less than 8-10 tons of organic fertilizers, therefore we will have self-supporting balance of humus and the fertility of soils will be increasing. Consequently we are looking for new types of organic materials and we include them in modern agro technologies. One of them is an organomineral fertilizer (lignitic materials). The humic chemicals in the form of lignitic materials of natrium, potassium and ammonium are permitted for using them in agriculture at the beginning of 1984. The Department of agriculture in Russian Federation considered the problem of using humic chemicals and made a decision to use them on the fields of our country, because the lignitic materials can restore the fertility of our fields. The lignitic materials increase the amount of spore-forming bacteria, mold fungi and actinomycete. Therefore the organic decomposition occurs more strongly, the processes of humification increase the speed and the amount of humus rises in the soil. The new forming humus has a high biological activity and it improves chemical and physical soil properties. The addition of lignitic materials in soil activates different groups of microorganisms, which influence on mobilization of nutrients and transformation from potential to effective fertility. The inclusion of humic fertilizers improves physical, physicochemical properties of soils, its air, water and thermal rate. Humic acids with mineral and organomineral particles of soil form the soil absorbent complex. The inclusion of humic fertilizers promotes the process when humic substances form a very valuable water-stable clumpy-granular structure, which improves water-carrying and water-holding capacity, its air permeability by agglutination of mineral particles with each other. The soils, where humic fertilizers are carried in soils regularly, are more stable for influence of chemical polluting substances (for example, radioactive nuclides, heavy metals, pesticides) than poor soils. The inclusion of humic fertilizers is very important in period of urbanization and cropping on the plough-lands not far from a big industrial area. The lignitic materials tie together the detrimental compounds formed the insoluble complex in soil solution. The detrimental compounds don't go into plants, subsoil waters and atmosphere. The lignitic watering of soils (in concentration from 0.1 to 0.01%) increases biological activity of soil in a man-caused zones and it promotes to stability of plants to detrimental emission of enterprises. Today the problem of processing of sugar-beet industry is very important. In the result of storing sugar-beet wastes the pollution of environment is occurred, examples of this pollution are gassing, salinization of soils and ground waters by filtrational sediments. One of these wastes is defecation sludge. The defecation sludge consists of CaCO3, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and microelements. The technology of receiving N-Ca fertilizer based on defecate was developed because of impossibility of using this waste in pure form. For available data, using of these fertilizers improves the soil fertility and degree of pollution by heavy metals don't exceed an acceptance limits.

Vyborova, Oxana

2010-05-01

322

Variation of rhizosphere bacterial community in watermelon continuous mono-cropping soil by long-term application of a novel bioorganic fertilizer.  

PubMed

The application method for a novel bioorganic fertilizer (BIO) was developed to improve its biocontrol efficacy of Fusarium wilt (Ling et al. 2010). However, its efficacy on controlling Fusarium wilt and the variations of microbial community after long-term application for watermelon production had not been elucidated. To clarify, a 4-years pot experiment of mono-cropping watermelon was conducted. The results revealed that though the disease incidences were increased in all treatments with the increase of continuous cropping years, the treatment of BIO application both in nursery and pot soil always maintained the lowest disease incidence. The real-time PCR results showed that the population of Paenibacillus polymyxa was decreased with continuous cropping years, but in all seasons, the treatment with BIO application both in nursery and pot soil had a highest population of P. polymyxa than the other treatments. On the other hand, the abundance of the pathogen FON was increased with the increase of continuous cropping years and the lowest rate of increase was found by BIO application in both nursery and pot soil. DGGE patterns showed that the bacterial diversity was weakened after mono-cropping of watermelon for 4 years, but the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage resulted in the minimal change of bacterial diversity. More detailed differences on bacterial diversity between control and double application of BIO treatment after 4-years monoculture were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing, which showed the dominant phyla found in both samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and the consecutive applications of BIO recruited more beneficial bacteria than control, such as Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Haliangium, Streptomyces. Overall, these results, to a certain extent, approved that the consecutive applications of BIO at nursery and transplanting stage could effectively suppress watermelon Fusarium wilt by regulating the rhizosphere bacterial diversity. These results could give some clues that how to regulate the soil microbial community to an appropriate level which can keep the plant healthy and thus control the soil-borne diseases. PMID:24263158

Ling, Ning; Deng, Kaiying; Song, Yang; Wu, Yunchen; Zhao, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

323

Primary rat hepatocytes in chemical testing and QSAR predictive applicability.  

PubMed

Primary rat hepatocytes were used to test acute toxicities of 16 neutral aliphatic alcohols, ketones and esters. Their effects on cell viability and metabolic function (ureogenesis, i.e. biotransformation of ornithine to urea) were measured and expressed as EC50 values. Log EC50 values from both tests correlated with the log partition coefficients for the chemicals between n-octanol and water and log P(ow)-based QSAR models were derived. Log EC50 (viability) tightly correlates with log EC50 (ureogenesis): log EC50 (viability)=0.91 log EC50 (ureogenesis)+0.06. Each of these toxic indices can be substituted by the other one. The toxic indices for both cell viability and metabolic disorder can be estimated using log EC50 for movement inhibition in the oligochaete Tubifex tubifex and the respective QSAR equation. It eliminates a usage of rats. Their correlations were proved and justified. PMID:19735719

Tichý, Milon; Pokorná, Adéla; Hanzlíková, Iveta; Nerudová, Jana; Tumová, Jana; Uzlová, Rút

2010-02-01

324

Application of surface chemical analysis tools for characterization of nanoparticles.  

PubMed

The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), low-energy ion scattering (LEIS), and scanning-probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), are briefly summarized. Examples describing the characterization of engineered nanoparticles are provided. Specific analysis considerations and issues associated with using surface-analysis methods for the characterization of nanoparticles are discussed and summarized, with the impact that shape instability, environmentally induced changes, deliberate and accidental coating, etc., have on nanoparticle properties. PMID:20052578

Baer, D R; Gaspar, D J; Nachimuthu, P; Techane, S D; Castner, D G

2010-02-01

325

Application of Surface Chemical Analysis Tools for Characterization of Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect

The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS); low energy ion scattering (LEIS); and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), are briefly summarized. Examples describing the characterization of engineered nanoparticles are provided. Specific analysis considerations and issues associated with using surface analysis methods for the characterization of nanoparticles are discussed and summarized, along with the impact that shape instability, environmentally induced changes, deliberate and accidental coating, etc., have on nanoparticle properties.

Baer, Donald R.; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Techane, Sirnegeda D.; Castner, David G.

2010-02-01

326

Application of Surface Chemical Analysis Tools for Characterization of Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

The important role that surface chemical analysis methods can and should play in the characterization of nanoparticles is described. The types of information that can be obtained from analysis of nanoparticles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS); low energy ion scattering (LEIS); and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), including scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), are briefly summarized. Examples describing the characterization of engineered nanoparticles are provided. Specific analysis considerations and issues associated with using surface analysis methods for the characterization of nanoparticles are discussed and summarized, along with the impact that shape instability, environmentally induced changes, deliberate and accidental coating, etc., have on nanoparticle properties. PMID:20052578

Baer, DR; Gaspar, DJ; Nachimuthu, P; Techane, SD; Castner, DG

2010-01-01

327

Graded porous glasses for antireflective applications formed by chemical treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous glass surface can be achieved by the neutral-solution etch process, which has been reported to be effective in suppressing light reflection from glasses. Samples of a commercial borosilicate glass were submitted to a static aqueous corrosion at 87 °C for several hours for introducing porosity on glass surface. Morphology, composition and optical properties of the surface, which were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) and spectrometer, can be controlled by changing both the neutral-solution concentration and etching time. The results show that the transmittance of glass substrate can be improved after chemical treatment, and the laser-induced damage threshold of graded porous glass is much higher than that of antireflective coatings. The SEM and EDS results revealed a significant corrosion process in the solution, and determined the relationship between the graded porosity and refractive index of glasses.

Du, Ying; He, Hongbo; Jin, Yunxia; Kong, Fanyu; Guan, Heyuan; Fan, Zhengxiu

2012-06-01

328

Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique in chemical diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range completely noninvasively from outside a container (e.g., pipe, tank, reactor vessel, etc.,). These acoustic parameters, along with their frequency-dependence, can be used to identify various chemicals. This technique can be adapted for a range of chemical diagnostic applications, particularly, in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals may provide appropriate feedback information. Both experimental data and theoretical modeling are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are discussed.

Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Lizon, D.; Hasse, R.

1996-09-01

329

In vitro fertilization (IVF)  

MedlinePLUS

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the joining of a woman's egg and a man's sperm in a laboratory dish. In ... Elsevier Mosby; 2012: chap 41. Goldberg JM. In vitro fertilization update. Cleve Clin J Med . May 2007; 74( ...

330

Loss of Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Loss of Fertility Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel ... who wish to father children after treatment for prostate cancer, the best chance for fertility is sperm banking. ...

331

Deep 16S rRNA Pyrosequencing Reveals a Bacterial Community Associated with Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease Suppression Induced by Bio-Organic Fertilizer Application  

PubMed Central

Our previous work demonstrated that application of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) to a banana mono-culture orchard with serious Fusarium wilt disease effectively decreased the number of soil Fusarium sp. and controlled the soil-borne disease. Because bacteria are an abundant and diverse group of soil organisms that responds to soil health, deep 16 S rRNA pyrosequencing was employed to characterize the composition of the bacterial community to investigate how it responded to BIO or the application of other common composts and to explore the potential correlation between bacterial community, BIO application and Fusarium wilt disease suppression. After basal quality control, 137,646 sequences and 9,388 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the 15 soil samples. Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria were the most frequent phyla and comprised up to 75.3% of the total sequences. Compared to the other soil samples, BIO-treated soil revealed higher abundances of Gemmatimonadetes and Acidobacteria, while Bacteroidetes were found in lower abundance. Meanwhile, on genus level, higher abundances compared to other treatments were observed for Gemmatimonas and Gp4. Correlation and redundancy analysis showed that the abundance of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas and the soil total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen content were higher after BIO application, and they were all positively correlated with disease suppression. Cumulatively, the reduced Fusarium wilt disease incidence that was seen after BIO was applied for 1-year might be attributed to the general suppression based on a shift within the bacteria soil community, including specific enrichment of Gemmatimonas and Sphingomonas. PMID:24871319

Ruan, Yunze; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

2014-01-01

332

Toilet compost and human urine used in agriculture: fertilizer value assessment and effect on cultivated soil properties.  

PubMed

Toilet compost (TC) and human urine are among natural fertilizers, which raise interest due to their double advantages to combine sanitation and nutrient recovery. However, combination of urine and TC is not so spread probably because the best ratio (urine/TC) is still an issue and urine effect on soil chemical properties remains poorly documented. This study aims to determine the best ratio of urine and TC in okra cultivation, by targeting higher fertilization effect combined with lower impact on soil chemical properties. Based on Nitrogen requirement of okra, seven treatments were compared: (T0) no fertilizer, (T1) chemical fertilizer (NPK: 14-23-14), (T2) 100% urine, (T3) 100% TC, (T4) ratio of 75% urine?+?25% TC, (T5) 50% urine?+?50% TC and (T6) 25% urine?+?75% TC. Results indicated that T4 (75% urine?+?25% TC) gave the highest plant height and yield. In contrast, T2 (100% urine) gave the lowest results among all treatments, indicating toxicity effects on plant growth and associated final yield. Such toxicity is confirmed by soil chemical properties at T2 with soil acidification and significant increase in soil salinity. In contrast, application of urine together with TC mitigates soil acidification and salinity, highlighting the efficiency of urine and TC combination on soil chemical properties. However, further investigation is necessary to refine better urine/TC ratio for okra production. PMID:25371046

Sangare, D; Sou/Dakoure, M; Hijikata, N; Lahmar, R; Yacouba, H; Coulibaly, L; Funamizu, N

2014-12-01

333

Chemical Theory and Computation Special Feature: Ab initio quantum chemistry: Methodology and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Perspective provides an overview of state-of-the-art ab initio quantum chemical methodology and applications. The methods that are discussed include coupled cluster theory, localized second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory, multireference perturbation approaches, and density functional theory. The accuracy of each approach for key chemical properties is summarized, and the computational performance is analyzed, emphasizing significant advances in algorithms and implementation over

Richard A. Friesner

2005-01-01

334

Equine in vitro fertilization  

E-print Network

ZONA PELLUCIDA 96 HOURS AFTER FERTILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 12 A 32-CELL EMBRYO 96 HOURS AFTER IN-VITRO FERTILIZATION 13 MORULA 96 HOURS AFTER IN-VITRO FERTILIZATION 70 14 A BLASTOCYST LIKE STRUCTURE 72 HOURS AFTER FERTILIZATION 71... of the oocyte to develop to the blastocyst stage after IVM/IVF). It has been observed that at least the corona radiata in direct contact with the zona pellucida is needed for the oocyte to be capable of acquiring developmental competence during maturation...

Vasquez C., Juan Carlos

2012-06-07

335

Fertilizer management in watersheds of two Ramsar wetlands and effects on quality of inflowing water.  

PubMed

Two field experiments were carried out in the watersheds of two Ramsar wetland areas, Lakes Koronia and Volvi (area A) and Lakes Mikri and Megali Prespa (area B), to study the effect of application of N fertilizer on wheat yields, the quality of runoff water, and the quality of stream water. The treatments were a combination of two methods of fertilizer application (total amount in fall, and 2/3 in fall + 1/3 in spring) at three rates (0, 100, and 200 kg N/ha) with four replications. Concentrations of NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, P, and Cl- and pH were determined in all water samples. Runoff water quality was not influenced by fertilizer application in either area. Chemical parameters for water did not differ along the selected watercourses in area B, while in area A they were higher in the samples taken near Lake Koronia than in the samples taken upstream, indicating that the watercourses are polluted downstream by nonagricultural sources. The differences in wheat yields between the 100 and 200 kg N/ha application rates were not high. These results call for better fertilizer management in order to achieve better yields and to diminish the possibility to have negative effects to the environment. PMID:12180176

Tsiouris, S E; Mamolos, A P; Kalburtji, K L

2002-05-01

336

DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND APPLICATION OF THE TRIMETHOPRIM-BASED CHEMICAL TAG FOR LIVE CELL IMAGING  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade chemical tags have been developed to complement the use of fluorescent proteins in live cell imaging. Chemical tags retain the specificity of protein labeling achieved with fluorescent proteins through genetic encoding, but provide smaller, more robust tags and modular use of organic fluorophores with high photon-output and tailored functionalities. The trimethoprim-based chemical tag (TMP-tag) was initially developed based on the high affinity interaction between E.coli dihydrofolatereductase and the antibiotic trimethoprim and subsequently rendered covalent and fluorogenic via proximity-induced protein labeling reactions. To date, the TMP-tag is one of the few chemical tags that enable intracellular protein labeling and high-resolution live cell imaging. Here we describe the general design, chemical synthesis, and application of TMP-tag for live cell imaging. Alternative protocols for synthesizing and using the covalent and the fluorogenic TMP-tags are also included. PMID:23839994

Jing, Chaoran; Cornish, Virginia W.

2013-01-01

337

Intravasal application of BCG (Bacille Calmette Guerin) is not an effective method for control of fertility in the male: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) was applied intravasally in male rats with the hope of developing a method for control of fertility in the male. Our results, however, suggest that this approach is not feasible for control of male fertility. PMID:8462319

Singh, S K; Rovan, E; Frick, J

1993-03-01

338

Geoengineering, Ocean Fertilization,  

E-print Network

Geoengineering, Ocean Fertilization, and the Problem of Permissible Pollution Benjamin Hale1.'' In this paper, we explore this problem by taking up ocean fertilization and advan- cing an argument that rests fertilization, and other related geoengineering technologies, propose not strictly to clean up carbon emissions

Neff, Jason

339

Formulation of engineered particulate systems for chemical mechanical polishing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is widely used in the microelectronics industry to achieve planarization and patterning of metal and dielectric layers for microelectronic device manufacturing. Rapid advances in the microelectronics industry demand a decrease in the sizes of the devices, resulting in the requirement of a very thin layer of material removal with atomically flat and clean surface finish by CMP. Furthermore, new materials, such as copper and polymeric dielectrics, are introduced to build faster microprocessors, which are more vulnerable to defect formation and also demand more complicated chemistries. These trends necessitate improved control of the CMP that can be achieved by studying the slurry chemical and particulate properties to gain better fundamental understanding on the process. In this study, the impacts of slurry particle size distribution and stability on pad-particle-surface interactions during polishing are investigated. One of the main problems in CMP is the scratch or pit formation as a result of the presence of larger size particles in the slurries. Therefore, in this investigation, impacts of hard and soft (transient) agglomerates on polishing performance are quantified in terms of the material removal rate and the quality of the surface finish. It is shown that the presence of both types of agglomerates must be avoided in CMP slurries and robust stabilization schemes are needed to prevent the transient agglomerate formation. To stabilize the CMP slurries at extreme pH and ionic strength environments, under applied shear and normal forces, repulsive force barriers provided by the self-assembled surfactant structures at the solid/liquid interface are utilized. A major finding of this work is that slurry stabilization has to be achieved by controlling not only the particle-particle interactions, but also the pad-particle-substrate interactions. Perfect lubrication of surfaces by surfactants prevented polishing. Thus, effective slurry formulations are developed by studying the frictional forces, which are representative of the particle-substrate interactions, while achieving stability by introducing adequate interparticle repulsion. Finally, optimal slurry particulate properties are examined by analyzing the material removal mechanisms for silica-silica polishing. Based on the reported findings, a slurry design criterion is developed to achieve optimal polishing performance.

Basim, Gul Bahar

340

Long-term fertilization of organic manure led to the succession of Bacillus community in an alluvial-aquic soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term fertilization inevitably influences soil physic-chemical and biological properties. Our previous studies with a long-term fertilization experiment on an alluvial-aquic have revealed that specific Bacillus spp. was observed in organic manure-fertilized soils. The current study investigated the effects of long-term fertilization on the succession of Bacillus community in soils and their functions. The experiment included three fertilizer treatments: organic manure (OM), mineral fertilizers (NPK) and the control (without fertilizers). The results showed that long-term application of chemical fertilizers didn't increase the quantity of soil microbial population as much as organic fertilizers did, but it played an important role in maintaining the diversity and community structure of indigenous Bacilli. Correspondingly, long-term application of organic manure significantly increased the quantity while significantly decreased the diversity of Bacilli community. The ratio of Bacilli/bacteria was more constant in OM treatment than NPK indicating the stability of the response to long-term organic fertilizers. PCR-DGGE and clone library revealed the succession of Bacillus community after long-term application of organic manure and the dominant Bacillus spp occurred in the treatmen OM was Bacillus asahii. Our results also proved that Bacillus asahii was not derived from exogenous organic manure, but one of indigenous bacteria in the soil. Bacillus asahii was induced by the substrate after the application of organic manure, and gradually evolved into dominant Bacillus after 4 to 5 years. With an enzyme assay test of pure species and a soil incubation experiment, we came to a preliminary judgment, that the dominant Bacillus asahii didn't significantly influence the decomposition rate of cellulose and protein in the soil, but it promoted the decomposition of lipids, and could also improve the transformation process from fresh organic matter to humus. Applied organic manure led to the succession of soil microbial community, as a response, the changed microbial community and their activities influenced the turnover of exogenous and native soil organic matter, as well as the residuals of decomposition and microbial metabolisms.

Chen, Ruirui; Lin, Xiangui; Feng, Youzhi; Hu, Junli; Wang, Ruirui

2014-05-01

341

Application of Key Events Analysis to Chemical Carcinogens and Noncarcinogens  

PubMed Central

The existence of thresholds for toxicants is a matter of debate in chemical risk assessment and regulation. Current risk assessment methods are based on the assumption that, in the absence of sufficient data, carcinogenesis does not have a threshold, while noncarcinogenic endpoints are assumed to be thresholded. Advances in our fundamental understanding of the events that underlie toxicity are providing opportunities to address these assumptions about thresholds. A key events dose-response analytic framework was used to evaluate three aspects of toxicity. The first section illustrates how a fundamental understanding of the mode of action for the hepatic toxicity and the hepatocarcinogenicity of chloroform in rodents can replace the assumption of low-dose linearity. The second section describes how advances in our understanding of the molecular aspects of carcinogenesis allow us to consider the critical steps in genotoxic carcinogenesis in a key events framework. The third section deals with the case of endocrine disrupters, where the most significant question regarding thresholds is the possible additivity to an endogenous background of hormonal activity. Each of the examples suggests that current assumptions about thresholds can be refined. Understanding inter-individual variability in the events involved in toxicological effects may enable a true population threshold(s) to be identified. PMID:19690995

BOOBIS, ALAN R.; DASTON, GEORGE P.; PRESTON, R. JULIAN; OLIN, STEPHEN S.

2009-01-01

342

Application of magnetic microfluidic chip to chemical and electrochemical reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of the microfluidic chip is proposed, which is composed of a network of magnetic channels instead of solid channels. The magnetic channels are formed by the heterogeneous magnetic field distribution (called magnetic walls or magnetic barriers) around a ferromagnetic track imbedded on a chip surface. The channel is surrounded not by solid walls, but by a liquid-liquid interface with a diamagnetic or a paramagnetic solution (called an environmental solution) supported by the magnetic wall. After injecting a solution (called a test solution) with magnetism different from the environmental solution into the channel, the test solution smoothly proceeds into the channel in a frictionless mode. In the static state, the test solution takes a tube-like shape owing to the conventional interfacial tension and the magnetic pressure. The liquid-liquid interface also behaves like a self-repairable, elastic membrane, so that the test solutions, even if mixed with bubbles and solid particles, can smoothly flow without choking. Mass and heat easily transfer through the magnetic wall, so that this system can be applied to effective reactors for various chemical and electrochemical reactions. Figs 10, Refs 27.

Aogaki, R.; Ito, E.; Ogata, M.

2006-12-01

343

Controlling fertility.  

PubMed

This 1991 volume provides background information and updated information on specific contraceptive methods, case studies of family planning programs, and a brief review of evaluation methods. Information is given on the physiology of reproduction for men and women, hormonal methods (oral contraceptives, injectables, and implants), abstinence methods (the Ogino-Knauss method, the temperature method, the Billings method, and the symptothermal method), the IUD, barrier methods for men and women, postcoital methods, sterilization for men and women, postpartum methods, and future prospects for contraception. Information on specific products, effectiveness, contraindications, and a user portrait are given for each method. Future prospects include new doses and modes of administration of hormonal methods currently available, new IUDs, new methods for detecting ovulation, improvement in physical and chemical vaginal contraception, and sterilization by hysteroscope. After the year 2000 advances in research may lead to reversible male and female surgical contraception, a monthly pill, LHRH peptide analogs, intragonadic cybermins, immunological contraception, and genetic engineering. A special emphasis is given to adolescent contraceptive needs. The Tunisian, Rwandan, Togo, Burkina Faso, and Bangladesh family planning programs illustrate the differences in program approaches and concerns. The review of program evaluations focuses on diagnostic evaluation, ongoing evaluations, and project specific evaluations. The conclusion is that there are many means available for evaluation of family planning programs. The key consideration in selecting a program evaluation technique is the selection of goals to be evaluated. PMID:12289923

Donnay, F; Jourdain, A

1991-01-01

344

Agronomy Facts 51 Starter Fertilizer  

E-print Network

Agronomy Facts 51 Starter Fertilizer Starter Fertilizer BeneFitS Starter fertilizers are most fertility. Using a starter is especially important in conservation tillage systems. Crops planted in late spring or early fall generally do not require a starter fertilizer unless soil fertility levels are low

Kaye, Jason P.

345

Long-Term Fertilization Modifies the Structures of Soil Fulvic Acids and Their Binding Capability with Al  

PubMed Central

The binding characteristics of organic ligands and minerals in fulvic acids (FAs) with Al are essential for understanding soil C sequestration, remain poorly understood. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) analysis was applied for the first time to explore the binding of Al with organic ligands and minerals in soil FAs. For these analyses, two contrasting treatments were selected from a long-term (i.e., 22-year) fertilization experiment: chemical (NPK) fertilization and swine manure (SM) fertilization. The results showed that the long-term application of organic and inorganic fertilizers to soils had little effect on the compositions of the fluorescent substances and organic ligands in the soil FAs. However, long-term SM fertilization increased the weathered Al and Si concentrations in the soil FAs compared with long-term chemical fertilization. Furthermore, organic ligands in the soil FAs were mainly bound with Al in the NPK treatment, whereas both organic ligands and minerals (Al-O-Si, Si-O) were bound with Al under the M fertilization conditions. Both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction spectra demonstrated that amorphous and short-range-ordered nanominerals were abundant in the soil FAs from the SM plot in contrast to the soil FAs from the NPK plot. This result illustrates the role nanominerals play in the preservation of soil FAs by during long-term organic fertilization. In summary, the combination of FTIR and 2D correlation spectroscopy is a promising approach for the characterization of the binding capability between soil FAs and Al, and a better understanding FA-Al binding capability will greatly contribute to global C cycling. PMID:25137372

Wu, Jun; Wu, Minjie; Li, Chunping; Yu, Guanghui

2014-01-01

346

Toxicity of pesticide and fertilizer mixtures simulating corn production to eggs of snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).  

PubMed

Many reptiles oviposit in soils associated with agricultural landscapes. We evaluated the toxicity of a pesticide and fertilizer regime similar to those used in corn production in Ontario on the survivorship of exposed snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) eggs. The herbicides atrazine, dimethenamid, and glyphosate, the pyrethroid insecticide tefluthrin, and the fertilizer ammonia, were applied to clean soil, both as partial mixtures within chemical classes, as well as complete mixtures. Eggs were incubated in the soil in a garden plot in which these mixtures were applied at a typical field application rate, and higher rates. Otherwise, the eggs were unmanipulated and were subject to ambient temperature and weather conditions. Eggs were also exposed at male producing temperatures in the laboratory in covered bins in the same soil, where there was less opportunity for loss through volatilization or leaching. Egg mortality was 100% at 10× the typical field application rate of the complete mixture, both with and without tefluthrin. At typical field application rates, hatching success ranged between 91.7 and 95.8%. Eggs exposed only to herbicides were not negatively affected at any application rates. Although fertilizer treatments at typical field application rates did not affect eggs, mortality was remarkably higher at three times this rate, and 100% at higher rates. The frequency of deformities of hatchlings was elevated at the highest application rate of the insecticide tefluthrin. The majority of the toxicity of the mixture was not due to the herbicides or insecticide, but was due to the ammonia fertilizer. At typical field application rates, the chemical regime associated with corn production does not appear to have any detrimental impacts upon turtle egg development; however toxicity dramatically increases if this threshold is passed. PMID:21831407

de Solla, Shane Raymond; Martin, Pamela Anne; Mikoda, Paul

2011-09-15

347

Copper chelators: chemical properties and bio-medical applications.  

PubMed

Copper is present in different concentrations and chemical forms throughout the earth crust, surface and deep water and even, in trace amounts, in the atmosphere itself. Copper is one of the first metals used by humans, the first artifacts dating back 10,000 years ago. Currently, the world production of refined copper exceeds 16,000 tons/year. Copper is a micro-element essential to life, principally for its red-ox properties that make it a necessary cofactor for many enzymes, like cytochrome-c oxidase and superoxide dismutase. In some animal species (e.g. octopus, snails, spiders, oysters) copper-hemocyanins also act as carriers of oxygen instead of hemoglobin. However, these red-ox properties also make the pair Cu(+)/Cu(2+) a formidable catalyst for the formation of reactive oxygen species, when copper is present in excess in the body or in tissues. The treatment of choice in cases of copper overloading or intoxication is the chelation therapy. Different molecules are already in clinical use as chelators or under study or clinical trial. It is worth noting that chelation therapy has also been suggested to treat some neurodegenerative diseases or cardiovascular disorders. In this review, after a brief description of the homeostasis and some cases of dyshomeostasis of copper, the main (used or potential) chelators are described; their properties in solution, even in relation to the presence of metal or ligand competitors, under physiological conditions, are discussed. The legislation of the most important Western countries, regarding both the use of chelating agents and the limits of copper in foods, drugs and cosmetics, is also outlined. PMID:24934357

Tegoni, M; Valensin, D; Toso, L; Remelli, M

2014-01-01

348

Data processing of vibrational chemical imaging for pharmaceutical applications.  

PubMed

Vibrational spectroscopy (MIR, NIR and Raman) based hyperspectral imaging is one of the most powerful tools to analyze pharmaceutical preparation. Indeed, it combines the advantages of vibrational spectroscopy to imaging techniques and allows therefore the visualization of distribution of compounds or crystallization processes. However, these techniques provide a huge amount of data that must be processed to extract the relevant information. This review presents fundamental concepts of hyperspectral imaging, the basic theory of the most used chemometric tools used to pre-process, process and post-process the generated data. The last part of the present paper focuses on pharmaceutical applications of hyperspectral imaging and highlights the data processing approaches to enable the reader making the best choice among the different tools available. PMID:24809748

Sacré, P-Y; De Bleye, C; Chavez, P-F; Netchacovitch, L; Hubert, Ph; Ziemons, E

2014-12-01

349

Chemically modified IR-transparent fibers and their application as chemical sensors  

SciTech Connect

With the advent of chalcogenide- (As-Se-Te), Silverhalide- (AgBrCl) and TeXAs-fibers, the optical window available for analytical chemistry was significantly extended into the MID- and FAR-IR range (2 to 20 {mu}m) recently. These fibers have been chemically modified in our laboratory at 10 cm-distances of their surfaces (A) by covering them with 10-100 {mu}m thick layers of a suitable polymer such as LDPE ({open_quotes}Thickfilm-Sensor{close_quotes}) and (B) by immobilizing specifically reacting enzyme-layers such as GOx ({open_quotes}Thinfilm-Sensor{close_quotes}). In the first case, where the penetration depth of the IR-beam is smaller than the thickness of the polymer layer, a sensor for the simultaneous in situ-determination of chlorinated hydrocarbon traces in water down to 500 ppb could be developed and tested. In the second case, a system for the determination of glucose in complex aqueous solutions was developed, based on the catalytic oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide by the immobilized enzyme glucose oxidase (GOx) in the physiological range. The GOx-density at the fibers could be significantly enlarged by using S-Layers instead of silanes for immobilization. Secondly, a flow injection-approach was developed recently, which allowed for an even further increase of the enzyme density by separating the reaction- and detection-part of our sensor, using controlled pore glass as carrier for the GOx and tapered chalcogenide fibers for detection. With this system, which works perfectly linear in the physiological range also for urea (with urease) a practical (multi)enzyme-based IR-sensor system is presented for the first time.

Kellner, R.A. [Technical Univ. Vienna, Wien (Austria)

1993-12-31

350

Fertilization, weed control, and pine litter influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following site preparation, three cultural treatments and three open-pollinated loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) families were studied on a .gently sloping Beauregard silt loam in central Louisiana. The treatments were: (1) fertilization (either broadcast application of 177 kg N and 151 kg P\\/ha or none); (2) herbicide application (either broadcast application of herbicides during the first through third growing seasons,

JAMES D. HAYWOOD; ALLAN E. TIARKS; MARY A. SWORD

351

[Dynamics of upland field P pool under a long-term application of fertilizer P in yellow soil area and their effects on P concentration in runoff].  

PubMed

Studies on the dynamics of upland field P pool under a long-term application of fertilizer P in yellow soil area and their effects on P concentration in runoff showed that the contents of A1-P, Fe-P and Ca-P in soil cultivated layer increased greatly, and Olsen-P and algae-available P also accumulated obviously. The correlation coefficients of algae-available P content in the high-P soils (Olsen-P > 25 mg.kg-1) with the quantities of A1-P, Fe-P and Ca-P were 0.859**, 0.903** and 0.650*, respectively, of which, Fe-P was the most important. By a 30-min rainfall simulation experiment with a constant rainfall rate of 63.2 mm.h-1, the concentrations of dissolved reactive P and bio-available P in runoff from low-P upland fields (Olsen-P 4.62-15.9 mg.kg-1) were 2.81-4.17 micrograms.L-1 and 0.723-0.876 mg.L-1, respectively, whereas their concentrations in runoff from high-P upland fields (Olsen-P 29.4-59.2 mg.kg-1) were 0.026-0.714 mg.L-1 and 0.996-1.281 mg.L-1, respectively. Therefore, runoff from high-P upland fields could accelerate water eutrophication. PMID:12827870

Liu, Fang; Huang, Changyong; He, Tengbin; Qian, Xiaogang; Liu, Yuansheng; Luo, Haibo

2003-02-01

352

Role, metabolism, chemical modifications and applications of hyaluronan.  

PubMed

Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) is a linear naturally occurring polysaccharide formed from repeating disaccharide units of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate. Despite its relatively simple structure, HA is an extraordinarily versatile glycosaminoglycan currently receiving attention across a wide front of research areas. It has a very high molar mass, usually in the order of millions of Daltons, and possesses interesting visco-elastic properties based on its polymeric and polyelectrolyte characteristics. HA is omnipresent in the human body and in other vertebrates, occurring in almost all biological fluids and tissues, although the highest amounts of HA are found in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues. HA is involved in several key processes, including cell signaling, wound repair and regeneration, morphogenesis, matrix organization and pathobiology. Clinically, it is used as a diagnostic marker for many disease states including cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, liver pathologies, and as an early marker for impending rejection following organ transplantation. It is also used for supplementation of impaired synovial fluid in arthritic patients, following cataract surgery, as a filler in cosmetic and soft tissue surgery, as a device in several surgical procedures, particularly as an anti-adhesive following abdominal procedures, and also in tissue engineering. This review will provide an overview of the structure and physiological role of HA, as well as of its biomedical and industrial applications. Recent advances in biotechnological approaches for the preparation of HA-based materials, and as a component of tissue scaffolding for artificial organs will also be presented. PMID:19442142

Volpi, Nicola; Schiller, Juergen; Stern, Robert; Soltés, Ladislav

2009-01-01

353

Chemical Applications of a Programmable Image Acquisition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image analysis is widely used in chemistry, both for rapid qualitative evaluations using techniques such as thin layer chromatography (TLC) and for quantitative purposes such as well-plate measurements of analyte concentrations or fragment-size determinations in gel electrophoresis. This paper describes a programmable system for image acquisition and processing that is currently used in the laboratories of our organic and physical chemistry courses. It has also been used in student research projects in analytical chemistry and biochemistry. The potential range of applications is illustrated by brief presentations of four examples: (1) using well-plate optical transmission data to construct a standard concentration absorbance curve; (2) the quantitative analysis of acetaminophen in Tylenol and acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin using TLC with fluorescence detection; (3) the analysis of electrophoresis gels to determine DNA fragment sizes and amounts; and, (4) using color change to follow reaction kinetics. The supplemental material in JCE Online contains information on two additional examples: deconvolution of overlapping bands in protein gel electrophoresis, and the recovery of data from published images or graphs. The JCE Online material also presents additional information on each example, on the system hardware and software, and on the data analysis methodology.

Ogren, Paul J.; Henry, Ian; Fletcher, Steven E. S.; Kelly, Ian

2003-06-01

354

Phyto-chemical and pharmacological applications of Berberis aristata.  

PubMed

In the recent years, the interest and research in medicinal plants have increased in a great deal. Ayurvedic medicines and formulations developed from ancient Indian herbal systems are renowned for their various important applications. Berberis aristata - an Indian medicinal plant, which belongs to the family Berberidaceae is an ayurvedic herb used since ancient times. It is also known as Indian berberi, Daruharidra, Daruhaldi, Darvi and Chitra. The plant is useful as anti-pyretic, anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-lipidemic agent. B. aristata extracts and its formulations are also useful in the treatment of diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, gynaecological disorders, HIV-AIDS, osteoporosis, diabetes, eye and ear infections, wound healing, jaundice, skin diseases and malarial fever. This review aims to highlight the ethnobotany, pharmacognosy and pharmacological uses of B. aristata which will give insights in developing potentially new bioactives from the plant scaffolds. This review will also highlight the patenting trends, the new compositions developed using the actives from B. aristata and the different assignees involved in filing patents. PMID:22808523

Potdar, Dipti; Hirwani, R R; Dhulap, Sivakami

2012-07-01

355

USE OF THE FUNGICIDE CARBENDAZIM AS A MODEL COMPOUND TO DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF ACUTE CHEMICAL EXPOSURE DURING OOCYTE MATURATION AND FERTILIZATION ON PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN THE HAMSTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Here we use a hamster animal model to identify early pregnancy loss due to an acute chemical exposure to the female during the perifertilization interval. The fungicide carbendazim (methyl 1H-benzimidazole-2-carbamate), a microtubule poison with antimitotic activity, was selected...

356

Eleven-year growth response of young conifers to biosolids or nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on northern Vancouver Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that fertilization with municipal biosolids causes a larger long-term tree growth response than fertilization with conventional chemical fertilizers, we measured the height and diameter of planted western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and amabilis fir (Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes) 11 years after fertilization with biosolids or nitrogen and

Cindy E. Prescott; Leandra L. Blevins

2005-01-01

357

CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS OF INELASTIC X-RAY SCATTERING  

SciTech Connect

Inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), complementary to other more established inelastic scattering probes, such as light scattering, electron scattering, and neutron scattering, is becoming an important experimental technique in the study of elementary excitations in condensed matters. Over the past decade, IXS with total energy resolution of few meV has been achieved, and is being used routinely in the study of phonon dispersions in solids and liquids as well as dynamics in disordered and biological systems. In the study of electronic excitations, IXS with total energy resolution on the order of 100 meV to 1 eV is gaining wider applications also. For example, IXS has been used to study collective excitations of valence electrons, single electron excitations of valence electrons, as well as core electron excitations. In comparison with the alternative scattering techniques mentioned above, IXS has several advantages. First, IXS probes the full momentum transfer range of the dielectric response of the sample, whereas light scattering is limited to very small momentum transfers, and electron scattering suffers the effects of multiple scattering at large momentum transfers. Second, since IXS measures the bulk properties of the sample it is not surface sensitive, therefore it does not require special preparation of the sample. The greater flexibility in sample conditions and environments makes IXS an ideal probe in the study of liquids and samples under extreme temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Third, the tunability of synchrotron radiation sources enables IXS to exploit element specificity and resonant enhancement of scattering cross sections. Fourth, IXS is unique in the study of dynamics of liquids and amorphous solids because it can probe the particular region of energy-momentum transfer phase space, which is inaccessible to inelastic neutron scattering. On the other hand, the main disadvantages of IXS are the small cross sections and the strong absorption of x-rays in high Z elements.

HAYASHI,H.; UDAGAWA,Y.; GILLET,J.M.; CALIEBE,W.A.; KAO,C.C.

2001-08-01

358

Occurrence of priority organic pollutants in the fertilizers, China.  

PubMed

The use of large quantities of chemical fertilizers is usually associated with environmental problems. A lot of work has been done on the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in chemical fertilizers, but little work has focused on the occurrence of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). In this study the occurrence of 43 SVOCs listed as priority pollutants in 22 widely used-fertilizers of China was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Twenty-six SVOCs were detected with different detection frequencies and concentrations. The most abundant compounds were phthalic acid esters (PAEs; ranging from 1.17 to 2795 microg kg(-1) dry weight, d.w.) and nitroaromatics (up to 9765 microg kg(-1) d.w.), followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; <140 microg kg(-1) d.w.) and halogenated hydrocarbons (<900 microg kg(-1) d.w.). Chlorobenzenes and haloethers occurred generally at low concentrations. There are large variations in concentrations of various compounds in different fertilizers, and the total concentrations of each class of contaminants varied widely, too. The highest levels of sum concentration for 16 PAHs, for 6 PAEs and for nitroaromatics were found in organic fertilizer containing pesticide and soil amendments. Concentrations of SVOCs in coated fertilizers (the controlled release fertilizer with coating) were considerably higher than those in the corresponding fertilizers without coating. The occurrence frequencies of SVOCs in the straight fertilizers (containing only one of the major plant nutrients) were lower than in the other fertilizers. PMID:17826902

Mo, Ce-Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Li, Yun-Hui; Zeng, Qiao-Yun

2008-04-15

359

Manufacture, Properties and Applications of Gold NanoclustersManufacture, Properties and Applications of Gold Nanoclusters Biomolecular & Chemical Physics group (Nanoscience division)  

E-print Network

Manufacture, Properties and Applications of Gold NanoclustersManufacture, Properties and Applications of Gold Nanoclusters Biomolecular & Chemical Physics group (Nanoscience division) Further such as bioimaging and biolabeling where, because gold is relatively non-toxic, gold nanoclusters (measuring about 2

Strathclyde, University of

360

Chemical applications carried out by local pair natural orbital based coupled-cluster methods.  

PubMed

The scope of this review is to provide a brief overview of the chemical applications carried out by local pair natural orbital coupled-electron pair and coupled-cluster methods. Benchmark tests reveal that these methods reproduce, with excellent accuracy, their canonical counterparts. At the same time, the speed up achieved by exploiting the locality of the electron correlation permits us to tackle chemical systems that, due to their size, would normally only be addressable with density functional theory. This review covers a broad variety of the chemical applications e.g. simulation of transition metal catalyzed reactions, estimation of weak interactions, and calculation of lattice properties in molecular crystals. This demonstrates that modern implementations of wavefunction-based correlated methods are playing an increasingly important role in applied computational chemistry. PMID:24676339

Sparta, Manuel; Neese, Frank

2014-07-21

361

Gaseous nitrogen emissions and forage nitrogen uptake on soils fertilized with raw and treated swine manure.  

PubMed

Treatments to reduce solids content in liquid manure have been developed, but little information is available on gaseous N emissions and plant N uptake after application of treated liquid swine manure (LSM). We measured crop yield, N uptake, and NH3 and N2O losses after the application of mineral fertilizer (NH4 NO3), raw LSM, and LSM that was decanted, filtered, anaerobically digested, or chemically flocculated. The experiment was conducted from 2001 to 2003 on a loam and a sandy loam cropped to timothy (Phleum pratense L.) with annual applications equivalent to 80 kg N ha(-1) in spring and 60 kg N ha(-1) after the first harvest. Raw LSM resulted in NH3 emissions three to six times larger (P < 0.05) than mineral fertilizer. The LSM treatments reduced NH3 emissions by an average of 25% compared with raw LSM (P < 0.05). The N2O emissions tended to be higher with raw LSM than with mineral fertilizer. The LSM treatments had little effect on N2O emissions, except for anaerobic digestion, which reduced emissions by >50% compared with raw LSM (P < 0.05). Forage yield with raw LSM was >90% of that with mineral fertilizer. The LSM treatments tended to increase forage yield and N uptake relative to raw LSM. We conclude that treated or untreated LSM offers an alternative to mineral fertilizers for forage grass production but care must be taken to minimize NH3 volatilization. Removing solids from LSM by mechanical, chemical, and biological means reduced NH3 losses from LSM applied to perennial grass. PMID:17965389

Chantigny, Martin H; Angers, Denis A; Rochette, Philippe; Bélanger, Gilles; Massé, Daniel; Côté, Denis

2007-01-01

362

COIL--Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser: advances in development and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advantageous features of Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) for laser technologies have increased considerably activities of international COIL communities during past ten years. They have been focused on the advanced concepts of hardware designs of the COIL subsystems, and testing and scaling-up of existing laser facilities. Prospective special applications of COIL technology, both civil and military, have received a significant attention

Jarmila Kodymova

2005-01-01

363

Plant metabolites of the Siberian flora. Chemical transformations and the scope of practical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of studies of some terpenoids, alkaloids and phenolic derivatives isolated from Siberian plants are summarised. The structures of the compounds studied are presented and the chemical transformations of the available terpenoids and alkaloids are considered. Examples of practical application of natural compounds and their derivatives are given.

Shults, Elvira E.; Raldugin, Victor A.; Volcho, Konstantin P.; Salakhutdinov, Nariman F.; Tolstikov, Genrikh A.

2007-07-01

364

Chemical vapor deposition diamond window as vacuum and tritium confinement barrier for fusion application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pressure resistant polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond disk for a microwave window is used for a vacuum and a tritium confinement boundary in fusion applications. A pressure test of a CVD diamond window disk (2.25 mm in thickness and 100 mm in diameter) was carried out. It was demonstrated that the diamond window tolerated 1.0 MPa (10 atm)

K. Takahashi; K. Sakamoto; A. Kasugai; T. Imai; J. R. Brandon; R. S. Sussmann

2000-01-01

365

Plasma chemical oxidation of phthalic anhydride: application to the treatment of Tunisian landfill  

E-print Network

Plasma chemical oxidation of phthalic anhydride: application to the treatment of Tunisian landfill catalysts (Fe (III), Fe (II) and TiO2) for the removal of phthalic anhydride by gliding arc plasma of TiO2. Keywords Phthalic anhydride, landfill leachate, gliding arc plasma, catalyst, hydroxyl radicals

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

366

Fertilizers for Rice in Texas.  

E-print Network

in the rice-growing area, however, dif- ferent soils responded differently to fertilizers applied to rice. In the experiments on Lake Charles clay soil near Devers, in Liberty County, and on the light-colored soils in Orange County, applications of super... ........................................ Tests in Liberty County 14 ........................................ Tests in Orange County 15 ................ Work with Manganese, Copper. Zinc. Iron. and Boron 16 Acknowledgments .......................................... 16 Summary...

Wyche, R. H. (Robert Henry)

1941-01-01

367

Analysis of Iron in Lawn Fertilizer: A Sampling Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment is described which uses a real-world sample of lawn fertilizer in a simple exercise to illustrate problems associated with the sampling step of a chemical analysis. A mixed-particle fertilizer containing discrete particles of iron oxide (magnetite, Fe[subscript 3]O[subscript 4]) mixed with other particles provides an excellent…

Jeannot, Michael A.

2006-01-01

368

Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 +/- 7.4 nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication.

Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

2014-07-01

369

Cadmium concentration in winter wheat as affected by nitrogen fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal which to a relatively large extent is ingested via wheat-based products. Conflicting results have been reported on how the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) affects the Cd concentration in grain. The objectives of this study were to investigate how and to what degree application of N fertilizer

H. Wångstrand; J. Eriksson; I. Öborn

2007-01-01

370

Utilization of phosphate rock from Lisina for direct application: release of plant nutrients in the exchange-fertilizer mixtures.  

PubMed

This study examined the possibility of direct application of phosphate rock (PR) from Lisina deposit, in a mixture with natural clinoptilolite (Cp) and clinoptilolite partially saturated with ammonium ions (NH4-Cp). Solution P concentrations of the NH4-Cp/PR mixtures were sufficient for plant growth and ranged from 0.36 to 0.82 mg L(-1). The median NH4-Cp/PR ratio and the longest proposed mixing time had the most positive impact on the P concentration. Solution Ca concentrations of the NH4-Cp/PR mixtures were between 112.5 and 700.5 mg L(-1), indicating that use of the proposed NH4-Cp/PR mixtures solves the potential lack of Ca(2+) in the solution, which is typical for substrates of similar composition. Selected artificial neural networks (ANNs) were able to predict experimental variables for a broad range of the process parameters all through assay. Manifold effects of small changes in composition of the mixtures and time on the observed concentrations of nutrients were shown using the sensitivity analysis. PMID:25229418

Mihajlovi?, Marija; Periši?, Nebojša; Pezo, Lato; Stojanovi?, Mirjana; Milojkovi?, Jelena; Lopi?i?, Zorica; Petrovi?, Marija

2014-10-15

371

ANALYSIS OF FERTILIZER PROFITABILITY AND USE IN KENYA By  

E-print Network

Despite upward trends in fertilizer use on maize fields in Kenya over the past twenty years, it is still widely viewed that fertilizer use is not expanding quickly enough and that application rates are not high enough to meet national food security and agricultural development goals. This thesis takes a critical look at the profitability and use of fertilizer with respect to maize in Kenya using five waves of household level panel data across thirteen years. I estimate a maize yield response model at the field level to ascertain district and soil group level fertilizer response rates by year, then use these estimates to calculate marginal and average value cost ratios under a number of household specific relative price scenarios including consideration of the transport cost of fertilizer and both the buying and selling prices of maize. I compare these profitability metrics and calculated optimal fertilizer application rates to actual fertilizer use values to learn that households in the highest potential areas are using fertilizer at or beyond the most profitable levels while households in the more marginal lowlands areas have steadily approached optimal use levels, with a small gap remaining in 2010. While fertilizer use could be expanded in the lowlands areas, lower application rates might be the most profitable strategy in other areas. When limiting my sample to only areas where fertilizer use is profitable, I estimate a

Megan Britney Sheahan; Megan Britney Sheahan

372

Mitosis, Meiosis and Fertilization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use model chromosomes to simulate the processes of mitosis, meiosis and fertilization, and they answer questions designed to promote understanding of these processes. To demonstrate the principle that genes are transmitted from parents to offspring through the processes of meiosis and fertilization, students follow two alleles of a gene through gametes to zygotes as they model meiosis and fertilization. Students also learn how a mistake in meiosis can result in Down Syndrome.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid; Poethig, Scott; Spindler, Lori

373

Tomato Fertilizers at Troupe.  

E-print Network

Texas Agricultural Fxperiment Stations -- -- - - - - - . pp ---- -- -- Bulletin No. 84 HORTICULTURAL SECTION JANUARY 1906 Tomato Fertilizers at Troupe By W. S HOTCHKISS and EDWARD C. GREEN Postoffice : College Station, Brazos County, Texas... -- Tomato Fertilizers at Troupe BY W. S. HOTCHKISS AND EDWARD C. GREEN. From the time of the establishment of the Troupe Experiment Stati four years ago, especial attention has been given to the subject of toms fertilizers. This is due to the commercial...

Hotchkiss, W. S.; Green, Edward C.

1906-01-01

374

Fertilizer use and price statistics, 1960-1991. Statistical bulletin  

SciTech Connect

Fertilizer consumption grew rapidly throughout the 1960's and 1970's and peaked at 23.7 million nutrient tons in 1981. After falling to 18.1 million tons in 1983, use has remained relatively stable, ranging from 19.1 million to 21.8 million tons in 1984-91. Use declined from its peak level because of fewer planted acres and stabilizing rates of application. Retail fertilizer prices, while stable or declining during the 1960's, have varied widely since 1973. The bulletin includes quarterly or semiannual time series for retail fertilizer prices, annual retail and wholesale fertilizer price indexes, fertilizer consumption by plant nutrient and major selected products, consumption of mixed fertilizers and secondary and micronutrients, and statistics on fertilizer use per acre by nutrient in the major producing States for corn, cotton, soybeans, and wheat.

Vroomen, H.; Taylor, H.

1992-11-01

375

APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS  

SciTech Connect

The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May

2000-04-01

376

APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS  

SciTech Connect

The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach

2001-05-01

377

Ultrafast electronic spectroscopy for chemical analysis near liquid water interfaces: concepts and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) being conceptually a photoelectron spectroscopy is established as a chemically specific probe mostly for surface analysis. Liquid phase ESCA for volatile liquids has become possible through the development of the liquid microjet technique in vacuum enabling the measurement of liquid interface photoelectron emission at the high vapor pressure of volatile liquids. Recently we have been able to add the dimension of time to the liquid interface ESCA technique employing high-harmonics soft X-ray and UV/near IR femtosecond pulses in combination with liquid water micro beams in vacuum. The concepts as well as technical details are outlined and several characteristic applications are highlighted.

Link, O.; Lugovoy, E.; Siefermann, K.; Liu, Y.; Faubel, M.; Abel, B.

2009-07-01

378

Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

Reneau, Fred; And Others

379

Controlled-release fertilizer (CRF): a green fertilizer for controlling non-point contamination in agriculture.  

PubMed

Fertilizers contribute greatly to high yields but also result in environmental non-point contamination, including the emission of greenhouse gas (N2O) and eutrophication of water bodies. How to solve this problem has become a serious challenge, especially for China as its high ecological pressure. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF) has been developed to minimize the contamination while keeping high yield and has become a green fertilizer for agriculture. Several CRFs made with special coating technology were used for testing the fertilizer effects in yield and environment through pot experiment and field trial. The result indicated that the CRFs had higher N use efficiency, thus reducing N loss through leaching and volatilization while keeping higher yields. Comparing with imported standard CRFs, the test on CRFs showed similar fertilizer effect but with much lower cost. CRFs application is becoming a new approach for minimizing non-point contamination in agriculture. PMID:16295884

Mao, Xiao-yun; Sun, Ke-jun; Wang, De-han; Liao, Zong-wen

2005-01-01

380

Fertility after breast cancer treatment.  

PubMed

In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established fertility preservation strategy, providing a 25-35% chance of pregnancy. In addition, oocyte freezing can be considered as an alternative in patients who are single and in those who do not wish a sperm donor. Although ovarian tissue harvesting appears to be safe, experience regarding ovarian transplantation is still limited due to low utilization, so the true value of this procedure remains to be determined. Nevertheless, in clinical situations in which chemotherapy needs to be started in young patients facing premature ovarian failure, ovarian tissue preservation seems to be a promising option for restoring fertility, especially in conjunction with other options like immature oocyte retrieval, in vitro maturation of oocytes, oocyte vitrification, or embryo cryopreservation. It seems that in vitro maturation is a useful strategy because it improves oocyte or cryopreservation outcome in breast cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation. PMID:24315568

Kasum, Miro; Beketi?-Oreškovi?, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Oreškovi?, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

2014-02-01

381

Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC's Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across' the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

Scheib, R.M. (ed.)

1991-11-01

382

Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC`s Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across` the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

Scheib, R.M. [ed.

1991-11-01

383

Enhancing crop yield with the use of N-based fertilizers co-applied with plant hormones or growth regulators.  

PubMed

Crop yield, vegetative or reproductive, depends on access to an adequate supply of essential mineral nutrients. At the same time, a crop plant's growth and development, and thus yield, also depend on in situ production of plant hormones. Thus optimizing mineral nutrition and providing supplemental hormones are two mechanisms for gaining appreciable yield increases. Optimizing the mineral nutrient supply is a common and accepted agricultural practice, but the co-application of nitrogen-based fertilizers with plant hormones or plant growth regulators is relatively uncommon. Our review discusses possible uses of plant hormones (gibberellins, auxins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene) and specific growth regulators (glycine betaine and polyamines) to enhance and optimize crop yield when co-applied with nitrogen-based fertilizers. We conclude that use of growth-active gibberellins, together with a nitrogen-based fertilizer, can result in appreciable and significant additive increases in shoot dry biomass of crops, including forage crops growing under low-temperature conditions. There may also be a potential for use of an auxin or cytokinin, together with a nitrogen-based fertilizer, for obtaining additive increases in dry shoot biomass and/or reproductive yield. Further research, though, is needed to determine the potential of co-application of nitrogen-based fertilizers with abscisic acid, ethylene and other growth regulators. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25267003

Zaman, Mohammad; Kurepin, Leonid V; Catto, Warwick; Pharis, Richard P

2014-09-30

384

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Projection: N. America Albers Equal Area  

E-print Network

Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 ´Projection: N. America Albers Equal Area 0 500 Kilometers. Ramankutty, et al. (2010). Global Fertilizer Application and Manure Production. Data distributed by the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC): http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/data/collection/fertilizer

Columbia University

385

[Effectiveness of symbiotic n2-fixation in leguminous plants, as affected by inoculation with rhizobia, by substrate, n-fertilizing, and 14c-sucrose application (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Cultivation experiments (Mitscherlich-vessels, quartz sand, 15N-labelled soil, 15N-fertilizer) showed, that various strains of Rhizobium lupini (white and yellow lupines) and of Rhizobium leguminosarum (field beans and peas) induced a different N2-fixation of the inoculated plants, the most effective Rhizobium strains being 367a, Cz, T3, 271 (Rh. lupini), and Azotogen (Rh, leguminosarum). Yellow lupines and field bean plants were supplied with N2 from the air considerably better than white lupines and peas after inoculation with the most effective Rhizobium strains. Application of mineral N to the white lupines and peas not only substituted the inhibited N2-fixation, but increased N amounts in the plants. White lupines fixed more N2 under soil conditions than in quartz sand. An experiment with steam-sterilized and 15-labelled soil as a comparative substrate showed, that this finding was mainly caused by an additional Rhizobium infection from the soil. Contrary to field beans and yellow lupines which fix N2 up to ripeness, white lupines and peas finished N2-fixation in the time of flowering. Mineral-N applied at that time was an additional source of N for last-named plants and they utilized it for production of higher protein yields. Continual spraying of white lupine plants with 14C-labelled sucrose solution after the time of flowering caused continuance of N2-fixation up to the stage of ripeness. It is assumed that the cause of this effect was the competition of growing seeds and nodules for the photosynthates. The supply of nodules was inadequate without external sucrose application. Mineral N inhibited the sucrose-induced N2-fixation of white lupine nodules and their consumption of photosynthates. Consequently, the applied 14C was transported into seeds to a larger extent. The investigations allow the following conclusion: Effective N2-fixation requires nodules being a powerful sink for assimilates on the basis of a highly efficient photosynthetic system of the host plant. PMID:6252716

Merbach, W; Schilling, G

1980-01-01

386

Economic development and fertility.  

PubMed

Two schools of theorists have been concerned with the effect of economic development on fertility. One school has contended that economic development has an inhibiting effect on fertility. The demographic transition which has occurred among the non-developed countries confirms their viewpoint. Another school of thought, including in its members Thomas Malthus, has believed that economic development promoted fertility. Much empirical evidence may also be brought to bear to support this viewpoint.The present paper attempts to reconcile these viewpoints. It is hypothesized that the direct effect of economic development is to increase fertility. However, various factors which usually accompany the process of economic development serve to reduce fertility. These include an increase in the level of education and a reduction in infant and childhood mortality. Making use of data for 41 nations pertaining to the decade of the 1950's, it is found that fertility is directly associated with per capita net national product when controls for other relevant variables are in8tituted. On the other hand, per capita newspaper circulation is inversely related to fertility, and infant mortality is directly related.If the hypothesis advanced in this paper is correct, relatively large governmental expenditures on health and education will enhance the reduction in fertility obtainable from an increase in national economic level alone. PMID:21318713

Heer, D M

1966-06-01

387

Fertility, conception, and HIV.  

PubMed

The subject of HIV/AIDS as it relates to fertility and conception has begun to generate interest among biological and sociobehavioral researchers. As a result, a better understanding of the fertility-related intentions and desires of HIV positive individuals, as well as advancing knowledge regarding reproductive technologies, now offer the hope of parenthood to childless couples. PMID:15386843

Margolese, Shari

2004-01-01

388

Prospects of chemically deposited metal chalcogenide thin films for solar control applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar control coatings, required for architectural glazing applications in warm climates, must provide controlled optical transmission ( approximately 10-50%) of the solar radiation in the visible region and should reflect efficiently in the infrared (>0.7 mu m) region to create a cool interior in the buildings. Thin films of PbS and CuxS on glass substrates, deposited from chemical baths, are

P. K. Nair; M. T. S. Nair; A. Fernandez; M. Ocampo

1989-01-01

389

Principles of ESCA and applications to metal corrosion, coating and lubrication. [Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The principles of ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) are described by comparison with other spectroscopic techniques. The advantages and disadvantages of ESCA as compared to other surface sensitive analytical techniques are evaluated. The use of ESCA is illustrated by actual applications to oxidation of steel and Rene 41, the chemistry of lubricant additives on steel, and the composition of sputter deposited hard coatings. Finally, a bibliography of material that is useful for further study of ESCA is presented and commented upon.

Wheeler, D. R.

1978-01-01

390

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ELECTROSPRAY MASS SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINING PERCHLORATE IN FERTILIZERS  

EPA Science Inventory

An electrospray mass spectrometric method has been developed for application to agricultural and horticultural fertilizers to determine perchlorate. After fertilizers are leached or dissolved in water, the method relies on the formation of stable ion pair complex of the perchlor...

391

Surface runoff pollution by cattle slurry and inorganic fertilizer spreading: chemical oxygen demand, ortho-phosphates, and electrical conductivity levels for different buffer strip lengths.  

PubMed

As a way of dealing with the removal of pollutants from farming practices generated wastewater in the EU, we investigate the effect of spreading cattle slurry and inorganic fertiliser on 8 x 5 m2 and 8 x 3 m2 areas, referred to surface runoff chemical oxygen demand (COD), ortho-phosphates (o-P) and electrical conductivity (EC) levels, and the efficiency of grass buffer strips of various lengths in removing pollutants from runoff. The experimental plot was a 15% sloped Lolium perenne pasture. Surface runoff was generated by means of a rainfall simulator working at 47 mm h-1 rainfall intensity. Runoff was sampled by using Gerlach-type troughs situated 2, 4, 6 and 8 m downslope from the amended areas. During the first rainfall simulation, COD, o-P and EC levels were consistently higher in the slurry zone, more evidently in the larger amended area. During the second and third rainfall simulations, concentration and mass levels show a downslope drift into the buffer zones, with no clear buffer strip length attenuation. Correlation between runoff and mass drift is clearly higher in the slurry zone. Percentage attenuation in COD and o-P levels, referred to initial slurry concentrations--including rainfall dilution--were higher than 98%, and higher than 90% for EC. PMID:11496670

Núñez-Delgado, A; López-Periago, E; Quiroga-Lago, F; Díaz-Fierros Viqueira, F

2001-01-01

392

Design and functionality of colloidal-crystal-templated materials--chemical applications of inverse opals.  

PubMed

Templating with colloidal crystals composed of monodisperse spheres is a convenient chemical method to obtain porous materials with well-ordered periodicity and interconnected pore systems. The three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) products or inverse opals are of interest for numerous applications, both for the optical properties related to structural color of these photonic crystal materials and because of their bicontinuous nanostructure, i.e., a continuous nanostructured skeleton with large interfacial area and a three-dimensionally interconnected pore system with low tortuosity. This review outlines various synthetic methods used to control the morphology of 3DOM materials with different compositions. It highlights aspects of the choice of colloidal particles, assembly of the colloidal crystal template, infiltration and processing, template removal, and other necessary modifications to enhance the functionality of the materials. It also considers syntheses within the confinement of 3DOM materials and summarizes characterization methods that are particularly useful in the analysis of 3DOM materials. The review then discusses chemical applications of 3DOM materials, namely sorption and controlled release, optical and electrochemical sensors, solar cells, lithium ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, and environmental and chemical fuel catalysis. A focus is on structural features and materials properties that enable these applications. PMID:23079696

Stein, Andreas; Wilson, Benjamin E; Rudisill, Stephen G

2013-04-01

393

Applications of a versatile technique for trace analysis: atmospheric pressure negative chemical ionization.  

PubMed Central

The ability to use ambient air as a carrier and reagent gas in an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source allows instantaneous air analysis to be combined with hypersensitivity toward a wide variety of compounds. The TAGA (Trace Atmospheric Gas Analyser) is an instrument which is designed to use both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) for trace gas analysis; this paper describes several applications of negative APCI which demonstrates that the technique is not limited to environmental monitoring. Examples are described which suggest that the TAGA can be used for the detection of illicit drugs and explosives, and for the analysis of breath or skin emissions, as well as for air pollution measurements. The applications are not restricted by the use of ambient air as a reagent gas; addition to the air carrier of various gases allows specific reagent ions such as Cl- or Br- to be generated. Furthermore, in certain situations pure gas carriers can be used to provide even more flexibility in the ion chemistry, with a short term absorber-desorber system used to transfer the sample from the ambient air into the ion source region. The potential uses for APCI are expanding continuously as the understanding of the complex ion-molecule chemistry grows. This paper underlines the complementary relation between the development of new negative chemical ionization (NCI) techniques and practical applications using the TAGA system. PMID:6775945

Thomson, B A; Davidson, W R; Lovett, A M

1980-01-01

394

Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at moderate levels (67 kg N ha-1). Increasing fertilizer application beyond the point of diminishing returns for grain (67 kg N ha-1) to double the regionally-recommended amount (202 kg N ha-1) resulted in only marginal increases (25%) in crop residue carbohydrate yield, while increasing lignin yields 41%. In the case of at least this ecosystem, high fertilization rates did not result in large carbohydrate yield increases in the crop residue, and instead produced a lower quality feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production.

Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

2010-12-01

395

DERMAL ABSORPTION OF CHEMICALS: EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF CHEMICAL AS A SOLID, AQUEOUS PASTE, SUSPENSION OR IN VOLATILE VEHICLE  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this study was to investigate the dermal absorption of chemicals applied to female F344 rats in different physical forms. hese forms included chemical as a solid, aqueous paste, suspension or dissolved in the volatile vehicle ethanol. he chemicals investigated were...

396

Fertilizing Trees and Shrubs Why fertilize?  

E-print Network

. Established plants that are putting on very little new growth each year or whose leaves are small and light or in autumn after shoot growth ceases, as root growth and maximum nutrient uptake occurs during these periods. Plants take in few nutrients during periods of active shoot growth. Do not fertilize plants showing

New Hampshire, University of

397

Emission Factors of Nitrous Oxide by Organic Manure Fertilizers in Japanese Upland Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preliminary data of field experiments which were conducted to estimate emission factors of nitrous oxide by organic manure fertilizers in 10 Japan-wide experiment sites, 2010 was reported. We compared nitrous oxide emission from urea as chemical fertilizers and cow manure as organic applications, in 1o Japanese prefectures of Yamagata, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Aichi, Shiga, Tokushima, Nagasaki, Kumamoto and Kagoshima. Same amounts of nitrogen were applied in organic and inorganic fertilizers in each field. In each site, 3 replication plots were organized in randomized block design with zero-nitrogen application plots. N2O gas fluxes were measured every one week or more during cultivation seasons. We also measured several soil physical and chemical parameters of inorganic nitrogen species, soil moisture contents or WFPS (Water Filled Pore Space), soil temperatures, bulk densities etc. Gas fluxes ware measured by automated Shimadzu GC-2014 ECD gas chromatograph. Soil moistures were measured by Camplel's Hydrosense in each site. Vegetation of conducting fields were cabbage in 7 fields, wheat in 1, pear orchard and onion in 1. Microorganisms' abundance was also considered to clarify N2O emission processes by the PCR-DGGE method.

Sudo, S.

2011-12-01

398

Integrated luminescent chemical microsensors based on GaN LEDs for security applications using smartphones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of PCB-integrateable microsensors for monitoring chemical species is a goal in areas such as lab-on-a-chip analytical devices, diagnostics medicine and electronics for hand-held instruments where the device size is a major issue. Cellular phones have pervaded the world inhabitants and their usefulness has dramatically increased with the introduction of smartphones due to a combination of amazing processing power in a confined space, geolocalization and manifold telecommunication features. Therefore, a number of physical and chemical sensors that add value to the terminal for health monitoring, personal safety (at home, at work) and, eventually, national security have started to be developed, capitalizing also on the huge number of circulating cell phones. The chemical sensor-enabled "super" smartphone provides a unique (bio)sensing platform for monitoring airborne or waterborne hazardous chemicals or microorganisms for both single user and crowdsourcing security applications. Some of the latest ones are illustrated by a few examples. Moreover, we have recently achieved for the first time (covalent) functionalization of p- and n-GaN semiconductor surfaces with tuneable luminescent indicator dyes of the Ru-polypyridyl family, as a key step in the development of innovative microsensors for smartphone applications. Chemical "sensoring" of GaN-based blue LED chips with those indicators has also been achieved by plasma treatment of their surface, and the micrometer-sized devices have been tested to monitor O2 in the gas phase to show their full functionality. Novel strategies to enhance the sensor sensitivity such as changing the length and nature of the siloxane buffer layer are discussed in this paper.

Orellana, Guillermo; Muñoz, Elias; Gil-Herrera, Luz K.; Muñoz, Pablo; Lopez-Gejo, Juan; Palacio, Carlos

2012-09-01

399

The chemical mechanism generation programme CHEMATA—Part 1: The programme and first applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical mechanism generation programme CHEMATA (CHEmical Mechanism Adaptation to Tropospheric Applications) generates explicit or lumped gasphase chemical mechanisms. Input data are a list of species and their source strengths (emissions or atmospheric production), kinetic data and lumping group definitions. All these input data can be changed by the user in order to generate a mechanism which is adapted to the needs of the user and to the conditions of the modelling area. The programme converts the information about the chemical structure of each species into a number code which contains all necessary information about the atoms of this molecule and the way they are connected to each other. For describing a chemical reaction the code is modified in a well-defined way which corresponds to the change in the molecule structure which in reality occurs during this reaction. This number code is also used to identify species for which experimental kinetic data are available or for employing structure-reactivity relationships for estimating kinetic data. To enable lumping to be as flexible as possible all organic mechanism species can be defined by their functional groups, their reactivity, and their chain lengths. CHEMATA compares these definitions with the number codes of the real species in order to determine the correct lumping group for each real species. Then the lumped mechanism is produced considering the source strengths of all real species. As an application of CHEMATA two sensitivity studies were performed: one on the influence of species lumping by extending and reducing the regional atmospheric chemistry mechanism and the other on the influence of updating the kinetic data for the kinetics of oxy radical reactions.

Kirchner, Frank

400

Contact Irritant Responses of Aedes aegypti Using Sublethal Concentration and Focal Application of Pyrethroid Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. Methods Contact irritancy (escape) behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru) using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC) of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. Results Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR) resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at <100% SAC using ½FAR of all test compounds. In most trials, KD and 24 hour mortality rates were higher in mosquitoes that did not escape than in those that escaped. In Thailand, field validation studies indicated an early time of exit (by four hours) and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. Conclusions/Significance Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human–vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is currently unknown and will depend on rate of biting on human hosts prior to house exiting. PMID:23469302

Manda, Hortance; Shah, Pankhil; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Morrison, Amy; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Grieco, John P.; Achee, Nicole L.

2013-01-01

401

A Web Service Infrastructure and its Application for Distributed Chemical Equilibrium Computation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

W3C standardized Web Services are becoming an increasingly popular middleware technology used to facilitate the open exchange of data and perform distributed computation. In this paper we propose a modern alternative to commonly used software applications such as STANJAN and NASA CEA for performing chemical equilibrium analysis in a platform-independent manner in combustion, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics research. Our approach is based on the next generation style of computational software development that relies on loosely-coupled network accessible software components called Web Services. While several projects in existence use Web Services to wrap existing commercial and open-source tools to mine thermodynamic data, no Web Service infrastructure has yet been developed to provide the thermal science community with a collection of publicly accessible remote functions for performing complex computations involving reacting flows. This work represents the first effort to provide such an infrastructure where we have developed a remotely accessible software service that allows developers of thermodynamics and combustion software to perform complex, multiphase chemical equilibrium computation with relative ease. Coupled with the data service that we have already built, we show how the use of this service can be integrated into any numerical application and invoked within commonly used commercial applications such as Microsoft Excel and MATLAB® for use in computational work. A rich internet application (RIA) is presented in this work to demonstrate some of the features of these newly created Web Services.

Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Paolini, Christopher P.; Patterson, Mark

402

Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability in Ammonia Emissions from Agricultural Fertilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia (NH3), is an important component of the reactive nitrogen cycle and a precursor to formation of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Predicting regional PM concentrations and deposition of nitrogen species to ecosystems requires representative emission inventories. Emission inventories have traditionally been developed using top down approaches and more recently from data assimilation based on satellite and ground based ambient concentrations and wet deposition data. The National Emission Inventory (NEI) indicates agricultural fertilization as the predominant contributor (56%) to NH3 emissions in Midwest USA, in 2002. However, due to limited understanding of the complex interactions between fertilizer usage, farm practices, soil and meteorological conditions and absence of detailed statistical data, such emission estimates are currently based on generic emission factors, time-averaged temporal factors and coarse spatial resolution. Given the significance of this source, our study focuses on developing an improved NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization at finer spatial and temporal scales for air quality modeling studies. Firstly, a high-spatial resolution 4 km x 4 km NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization has been developed for Illinois by modifying spatial allocation of emissions based on combining crop-specific fertilization rates with cropland distribution in the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions model. Net emission estimates of our method are within 2% of NEI, since both methods are constrained by fertilizer sales data. However, we identified localized crop-specific NH3 emission hotspots at sub-county resolutions absent in NEI. Secondly, we have adopted the use of the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) Biogeochemistry model to simulate the physical and chemical processes that control volatilization of nitrogen as NH3 to the atmosphere after fertilizer application and resolve the variability at the hourly scale. Representative temporal factors are being developed to capture crop-specific NH3 emission variability by combining knowledge of local crop management practices with high resolution cropland and soil maps. This improved spatially and temporally dependent NH3 emission inventory for agricultural fertilization is being prepared as a direct input to a state of the art air quality model to evaluate the effects of agricultural fertilization on regional air quality and atmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen species.

Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.

2013-12-01

403

Nutrient use efficiencies and crop responses to N, P and manure applications in Zimbabwean soils: Exploring management strategies across soil fertility gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial variability in crop yields commonly observed in smallholder farms of sub-Saharan Africa is often caused by gradients of declining soil fertility with increasing distance from the homestead. This heterogeneity means that recommendations based on regional soil surveys are of limited value. The variability in soil qualities within farms must be considered when designing management strategies, and their feasibility

P. A. Tittonell; S. Zingore; M. T. van Wijk; M. Corbeels; K. E. Giller

2007-01-01

404

Nitrous oxide emissions from fertilized, irrigated cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Aral Sea Basin, Uzbekistan: Influence of nitrogen applications and irrigation practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrous oxide emissions were monitored at three sites over a 2-year period in irrigated cotton fields in Khorezm, Uzbekistan, a region located in the arid deserts of the Aral Sea Basin. The fields were managed using different fertilizer management strategies and irrigation water regimes. N2O emissions varied widely between years, within 1 year throughout the vegetation season, and between the

Clemens Scheer; Reiner Wassmann; Kirsten Kienzler; Nazar Ibragimov; Ruzimboy Eschanov

2008-01-01

405

The region's most experienced fertility center. Strong Fertility Center  

E-print Network

The region's most experienced fertility center. Strong Fertility Center In knowledge, there's hope. #12;How we stand apart among fertility centers. Here are some of the important benefits you can only find at the Strong Fertility Center. · We are part of the University of Rochester Medical Center

Goldman, Steven A.

406

Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb  

E-print Network

Nitrogen Fertilization of Irrigated Cotton as Fertilizer Prices Climb As gasoline prices at the pump continue to climb above $ 3.00/gallon, fertilizer prices, especially Nitrogen (N) are doing. Just a few years ago we were paying $ 0.21/lb N (Fig. 1). Other sources of N fertilizer have been

Mukhtar, Saqib

407

Chemical engineer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do chemical engineers actually do? This is the introductory page for a set of materials about chemical engineering as a career. Here the job of a chemical engineer is defined and described. Chemical engineers often work with industrial manufacturing processes that involve a mix of chemistry and engineering. In the rest of the resource, students can examine a specialized job title associated with chemical engineering: process engineer. Students can view a five-minute video clip of the process engineer as he works in a fertilizer plant making ammonia and urea. Students follow the engineer around the plant as he checks pressure in chemical lines. Students get a glimpse of the inside of a furnace during the chemical-making process. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2002-01-01

408

Computer program for calculation of complex chemical equilibrium compositions and applications. Part 1: Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.

Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.

1994-01-01

409

Rational application of chemicals in response to oil spills may reduce environmental damage.  

PubMed

Oil spills, for example those due to tanker collisions and groundings or platform accidents, can have huge adverse impacts on marine systems. The impact of an oil spill at sea depends on a number of factors, such as spill volume, type of oil spilled, weather conditions, and proximity to environmentally, economically, or socially sensitive areas. Oil spilled at sea threatens marine organisms, whole ecosystems, and economic resources in the immediate vicinity, such as fisheries, aquaculture, recreation, and tourism. Adequate response to any oil spill to minimize damage is therefore of great importance. The common response to an oil spill is to remove all visible oil from the water surface, either mechanically or by using chemicals to disperse the oil into the water column to biodegrade. This is not always the most suitable response to an oil spill, as the chemical application itself may also have adverse effects, or no response may be needed. In this article we discuss advantages and disadvantages of using chemical treatments to reduce the impact of an oil spill in relation to the conditions of the spill. The main characteristics of chemical treatment agents are discussed and presented within the context of a basic decision support scheme. PMID:21853522

Tamis, Jacqueline E; Jongbloed, Ruud H; Karman, Chris C; Koops, Wierd; Murk, Albertinka J

2012-04-01

410

TVA`s coproduction of electricity and fertilizer project  

SciTech Connect

TVA is proposing to develop and commercially demonstrate the coproduction of electricity and fertilizer using integrated gasification/combined cycle (IGCC) technology. The Coproduction Demonstration Project (CDP) will show that coproduction of chemicals with electricity can economically and environmentally enhance the production of electric power from coal. The proposed CDP will be a nominal 250-M plant. During normal operation, the CDP will produce about 150 MW of base-load capacity and 1000 tons per day (TPD) of urea. Sulfur is recovered either as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur. During peak power demand, the fertilizer capacity can be bypassed, and the full 250 MW can be produced. Subsequent IGCC/fertilizer coproduction (IGCC/F) plants may convert only 20 to 25 percent of the plant`s capacity as fertilizer or other chemicals, depending on optimum IGCC/F operating conditions. The coproduction of electricity and fertilizer allows the continuous operation of the capital intensive gasification-related process units at 100-percent capacity, while varying the amount of electricity produced from 60 percent to 100 percent of rated capacity. Coproduction also will further reduce the annual revenue requirements for power generation by the coproduction of the higher valued fertilizer coproduct. Since nitrogen fertilizers are produced from natural gas, the real escalation of natural gas prices in the 1990s is expected to result in significant price increases in natural gas-based chemicals, especially fertilizers. The overall risk of producing revenues is reduced because two countercyclic coproducts are produced. Electricity has peak demands in the summer and winter while fertilizer`s peak demand is in the spring.

Bradshaw, D.T.; Wright, T.L. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States); Faucett, H.L.; Weatherington, R.W. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States)

1991-12-31

411

Improved predictability of fertilizer nitrogen need for corn following alfalfa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accounting for alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn reduces fertilizer N costs, over-application of N, and the risk of nitrate loss to ground water. It is equally important, however, to avoid inadequate N supply for corn. We analyzed nearly all previous research on fertilizer N response i...

412

Fertilizer intensification and its impacts in China's HHH Plains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The accomplishment of China’s food security by application of high rates of fertilizers has generated several controversies regarding the quality of soil and water resources. Thus, the objective of this article is to assess the effects and causes of the fertilizer intensification in the Huang Huai ...

413

EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY, AND FUSARIUM WILT IN  

E-print Network

1 EFFECTS OF COMPOST AND LIME APPLICATION ON SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY compost as an antagonistic suppression approach to combat soil-borne disease effects on crop yields the effect of compost and lime on soil chemical properties, the soil microbial community (including Fusarium

Ma, Lena

414

North American fertilizer capacity data  

SciTech Connect

This listing of producers and their fertilizer production capacities was compiled in October 1991 with the cooperation of the US and Canadian fertilizer industry. Fertilizers production is reported or forecasted for the years 1987 through 1997. The fertilizers reported on are: ammonia, ammonium nitrate, nitrogen solutions, urea, phosphate rock, wet-process phosphoric acid, ammonium phosphates, concentrated superphosphates, and potash.

Not Available

1991-12-01

415

Synthesis and physico-chemical characterization of a polysialate-hydroxyapatite composite for potential biomedical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New composite materials based on aluminosilicate materials were developed to be used in orthopaedic or maxillo-facial surgery. They are called geopolymers or polysialate-siloxo (PSS) and were studied alone or mixed with hydroxyapatite (HAP). The properties of these materials were investigated for potential use in biological or surgery applications. In this work, the chemistry involved in materials preparation was described. Samples were characterized by some physico-chemical methods like X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrometry (IR) and electron dispersion X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Results indicate that the mixing hydroxyapatite-geopolymer (PSS) leads to a neutral porous composite material with interesting physico-chemical properties. A preliminary evaluation of its cytotoxicity reveals an harmlessness towards fibroblasts. These properties allow to envisage this association as a potential biomaterial.

Zoulgami, M.; Lucas-Girot, A.; Michaud, V.; Briard, P.; Gaudé, J.; Oudadesse, H.

2002-09-01

416

Gapped graphene nanopores with enhanced operating current and sensitivity for biological and chemical sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene nanopores (GNPs) hold great promise as sensors for biological and chemical sensing applications because of their potential in achieving ultra-high sensitivity and sizeable operating currents. However, it remains a challenging task to realize the full potential of GNP sensors in real biological and chemical environment because of strong noise and interference. Here we propose a new GNP based sensor that consists of two conduction units. Due to the opening of additional conductive channels and enhanced transmission pathways around the nanopore, the proposed gapped-GNP structure is shown to operate with significantly improved conductivity and sensitivity over standard GNPs. The proposed device shows promise in dealing with noise and interference observed in practice.

Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios

2014-07-01

417

In situ chemical synthesis of ruthenium oxide/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for electrochemical capacitor applications.  

PubMed

An in situ chemical synthesis approach has been developed to prepare ruthenium oxide/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites. It is found that as the C/O ratio increases, the number density of RuO2 nanoparticles decreases, because the chemical interaction between the Ru ions and the oxygen-containing functional groups provides anchoring sites where the nucleation of particles takes place. For electrochemical capacitor applications, the microwave-hydrothermal process was carried out to improve the conductivity of RGO in RuO2/RGO nanocomposites. The significant improvement in capacitance and high rate capability might result from the RuO2 nanoparticles used as spacers that make the interior layers of the reduced graphene oxide electrode available for electrolyte access. PMID:23765196

Kim, Ji-Young; Kim, Kwang-Heon; Yoon, Seung-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Park, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Bum

2013-08-01

418

A algorithm benchmark data suite for chemical and biological (chem/bio) defense applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Chem/Bio Defense Algorithm Benchmark is proposed as a way to leverage algorithm expertise and apply it to high fidelity Chem/Bio challenge problems in a high fidelity simulation environment. Initially intended to provide risk mitigation to the DTRA-sponsored US Army CUGR ACTD, its intent is to enable the assessment and transition of algorithms to support P3I of future spiral updates. The key chemical sensor in the CUGR ACTD is the Joint Contaminated Surface Detector (JCSD), a short-range stand-off Raman spectroscopy sensor for tactical in-the-field applications. The significant challenges in discriminating chemical signatures in such a system include, but are not limited to, complex background clutter and low signal to noise ratios (SNR). This paper will present an overview of the Chem-Bio Defense Algorithm Benchmark, and the JCSD Challenge Problem specifically.

Slamani, Mohamed-Adel; Fisk, Brian; Chyba, Thomas; Emge, Darren; Waugh, Steve

2008-04-01

419

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2013, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Harris Kagan; K.K. Gan; Richard Kass

2009-03-31

420

Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications  

SciTech Connect

Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2010, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2015, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed and operational in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

Rainer Wallny

2012-10-15

421

Total-Internal-Reflection Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensing platforms based on the principle of total internal reflection (TIR) represent a fairly mature yet still expanding and exciting field of research. Sensor development has mainly been driven by the need for rapid, stand-alone, automated devices for application in the fields of clinical diagnosis and screening, food and water safety, environmental monitoring, and chemical and biological warfare agent detection. The technologies highlighted in this chapter are continually evolving, taking advantage of emerging advances in microfabrication, lab-on-a-chip, excitation, and detection techniques. This chapter describes many of the underlying principles of TIR-based sensing platforms and additionally focusses on planar TIR fluorescence (TIRF)-based chemical and biological sensors.

Sapsford, Kim E.

422

Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil  

SciTech Connect

To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- and compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R. [Rutherglen Center, Rutherglen, Vic. (Australia)

2008-07-15

423

Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable.

Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

2002-02-20

424

Infertility and Fertility  

MedlinePLUS

... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Infertility and Fertility: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is infertility? "Infertility" is a term that describes when a ...

425

Fertility Treatments for Women  

MedlinePLUS

... become pregnant after taking clomiphene for six menstrual cycles, a health care provider may prescribe other fertility ... on days 3 to 5 of the menstrual cycle. Clomiphene causes ovulation to occur in 80% of ...

426

Metal Nanoparticles Protected with Monolayers: Applications for Chemical Vapor Sensing and Gas Chromatography  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticles and nanoparticle-based materials are of considerable interest for their unique properties and their potential for use in a variety of applications. Metal nanoparticles, in which each particle’s surface is coated with a protective organic monolayer, are of particular interest because the surface monolayer stabilizes them relative to aggregation and they can be taken up into solutions.(1-4) As a result they can be processed into thin films for device applications. We will refer to these materials as monolayer-protected nanoparticles, or MPNs. Typically the metal is gold, the organic layer is a self-assembled thiol layer, and this composition will be assumed throughout the remainder of this chapter. A diversity of materials and properties is readily accessible by straightforward synthetic procedures, either by the structures of the monolayer-forming thiols used in the synthesis or by post-synthetic modifications of the monolayers. A particularly promising application for these materials is as selective layers on chemical vapor sensors. In this role, the thin film of MPNs on the device surface serves to collect and concentrate gas molecules at the sensor’s surface. Their sorptive properties also lend them to use as new nanostructured gas chromatographic stationary phases. This chapter will focus on the sorptive properties of MPNs as they relate to chemical sensors and gas chromatography.

Grate, Jay W.; Nelson, David A.; Skaggs, Rhonda L.; Synovec, Robert E.; Gross, Gwen M.

2004-03-31

427

Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY. A & M COLLEGE, CAMPUS I TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 469 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY Fertilizer Experiments with Cotton AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE... of seven years experiments with fertilizers on cotton at Troup, Nacogdoches, Angleton, College Station, Beeville, Tem- ple, and Denton, Texas, are reported in this Bulletin. The Kirvin fine sandy loam at Troup and the Nacogdoches and Ruston fine sandy...

Reynolds, E. B. (Elbert Brunner)

1932-01-01

428

[Comprehensive evaluation of cultivated black soil fertility].  

PubMed

Black soil is one of the main soil types in northeastern China, and is a valuable soil resource of this country. Based on the analysis of the physical and chemical properties of soil samples collected from the north-south transaction of black soil, the index system of black soil fertility was established, the fertility level was evaluated and classified by Fuzzy and Factor Analysis, and the fertility map of black soil zone was drawn with GIS software ArcInfo. It was found that the humus layer in black soil region was thick in north and thin in south, which was due to the climatic condition and soil-forming process. The soil fertility level was high in east and low in west. From north to south, it was decreased in the order of central part > northern part > south part. In most part of this region, soil fertility level was medium, and the area accounted for 73.6% of the black soil area. PMID:15624835

Ma, Qiang; Yu, Wantai; Zhao, Shaohua; Zhang, Lu; Shen, Shanmin; Wang, Yongbao

2004-10-01

429

Development of chemical species mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) technique: An application to Artic ozone loss estimate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheme to create synoptic maps of stratospheric minor species from asynoptic satellite measurements by utilizing a photochemical box model and trajectory analysis was developed and named Chemical Species Mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) . Pierce et al. [1994] and Morris et al. [1995; 2000] developed B+c(BTrajectory Mapping (TM)B+c(B, which creates synoptic maps from asynoptic satellite data by advecting fields backwards or forwards in time on an analyzed field. Trajectory mapping has been successfully used to make synoptic maps of long-lived minor species. We incorporated a chemical box model with TM to estimate chemical change in the concentration of chemical species. The CSMT succeeds to all advantages of TM and has potential of applications to various sciences including analysis of chemical ozone loss mechanisms, by combining with suitable satellite data. We applied CSMT to the Arctic winter of 1997, combined with Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) data [Kagawa and Hayashida, submitted to JGR]. Long and short lived species in the stratosphere were successfully mapped by the CSMT with initialization of ILAS-observed ozone and nitric acid. Comparison of CSMT-derived ozone with ozonesonde measurements proved the reliability of the scheme. The CSMT-derived nitric acid, and ClO also showed sufficiently good correlation to MLS version 5.20 data. The maximum rate of ozone loss was estimated as 34 +/- 10 ppbv/day in late February, and the integrated ozone loss from 13 January to 31 March was 41 %, averaged over the polar vortex. The ozone loss rates and integrated ozone loss derived in this study are fairly consistent with the results of other studies, which again proves the reliability of the scheme. References Kagawa, A., and S. Hayashida, Analysis of ozone loss in the Arctic stratosphere during the late winter and spring of 1997, using the Chemical Species Mapping on Trajectories (CSMT) technique, submitted to J. Geophys. Res Morris, G.A.et al., Trajectory mapping and application to data from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 16491-16505, 1995. Morris, G.A. et. al., Trajectory Mapping : A tool for validation of trace gas observations, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 17825-17894, 2000. Pierce, R.B. et al., Evolution of southern hemisphere spring air mass observed by HALOE, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 213-216, 1994.

Hayashida, S.; Kagawa, A.; Ikeda, N.

2003-04-01

430

Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils  

SciTech Connect

Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

2003-03-06

431

The application of in vitro sperm competition test to evaluate the impact of ZP-derived peptides on fertilization capacity of cat sperm.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to establish a sensitive in vitro assay to assess the binding capacity of cat spermatozoa. Cat oocytes and epididymal sperm cells were isolated from gonads and cultured for in vitro fertilization. Before fertilization, the sperm cells were incubated either in 10 microM green dye Fluo-3-AM or 10 microM orange dye CellTracker Orange CMTMR (Molecular Probes), respectively. After removing the dyes by washing, sperm cells stained with each dye were added to medium drops containing oocytes in various proportions and cultured for 16 h at 37 degrees C, 5% CO(2). The oocytes were examined using fluorescence microscopy. Sperm bound to oocytes, and stained with different colors, were counted. When fresh epididymal sperm were mixed in at a specific proportion, the number of sperm bound to the zona pellucida (ZP) of oocytes reflected the proportion of differently colored sperm in the medium. This indicated that neither dye influenced the binding capacity of cat sperm. Mixing fresh and cryopreserved sperm, however, resulted in a higher number of fresh sperm bound to the oocyte surface in comparison to frozen-thawed sperm. Also, the pre-incubation of cat sperm cells with ZP derived peptide reduced the sperm binding capacity by 40%. In conclusion, the presented sperm competition assay allows assessment of fertilizing capacity of cat spermatozoa in vitro when a mixture of two different populations is used. The applied supravital fluorescence dyes do not affect motility and binding capacity of sperm cells and were clearly distinguishable under fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that the assay can be used to study the impact of sperm treatment, such as cryopreservation or pre-incubation in bioactive peptides, on fertilizing capacity. PMID:16620930

Niu, Yuyu; Greube, Alexa; Ji, Weizhi; Jewgenow, Katarina

2006-09-01

432

Evaluation of the CENTURY model using long-term fertilization trials under corn-wheat cropping systems in the typical croplands of China.  

PubMed

Soil organic matter models are widely used to study soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Here, we used the CENTURY model to simulate SOC in wheat-corn cropping systems at three long-term fertilization trials. Our study indicates that CENTURY can simulate fertilization effects on SOC dynamics under different climate and soil conditions. The normalized root mean square error is less than 15% for all the treatments. Soil carbon presents various changes under different fertilization management. Treatment with straw return would enhance SOC to a relatively stable level whereas chemical fertilization affects SOC differently across the three sites. After running CENTURY over the period of 1990-2050, the SOC levels are predicted to increase from 31.8 to 52.1 Mg ha-1 across the three sites. We estimate that the carbon sequestration potential between 1990 and 2050 would be 9.4-35.7 Mg ha-1 under the current high manure application at the three sites. Analysis of SOC in each carbon pool indicates that long-term fertilization enhances the slow pool proportion but decreases the passive pool proportion. Model results suggest that change in the slow carbon pool is the major driver of the overall trends in SOC stocks under long-term fertilization. PMID:24751981

Cong, Rihuan; Wang, Xiujun; Xu, Minggang; Ogle, Stephen M; Parton, William J

2014-01-01

433

Evaluation of the CENTURY Model Using Long-Term Fertilization Trials under Corn-Wheat Cropping Systems in the Typical Croplands of China  

PubMed Central

Soil organic matter models are widely used to study soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Here, we used the CENTURY model to simulate SOC in wheat-corn cropping systems at three long-term fertilization trials. Our study indicates that CENTURY can simulate fertilization effects on SOC dynamics under different climate and soil conditions. The normalized root mean square error is less than 15% for all the treatments. Soil carbon presents various changes under different fertilization management. Treatment with straw return would enhance SOC to a relatively stable level whereas chemical fertilization affects SOC differently across the three sites. After running CENTURY over the period of 1990–2050, the SOC levels are predicted to increase from 31.8 to 52.1 Mg ha?1 across the three sites. We estimate that the carbon sequestration potential between 1990 and 2050 would be 9.4–35.7 Mg ha?1 under the current high manure application at the three sites. Analysis of SOC in each carbon pool indicates that long-term fertilization enhances the slow pool proportion but decreases the passive pool proportion. Model results suggest that change in the slow carbon pool is the major driver of the overall trends in SOC stocks under long-term fertilization. PMID:24751981

Cong, Rihuan; Wang, Xiujun; Xu, Minggang; Ogle, Stephen M.; Parton, William J.

2014-01-01

434

Winter Wheat Fertilization: Post Ammonium Nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The potential for overwinter losses of nitrogen by denitrification and leaching have led to the recommendation that nitrogen fertilization of winter wheat be done using ammonium nitrate broadcast in the spring. However, spring broadcast application of urea can result in significant loss of nitrogen by volatilization and immobilization by surface residues. Since prilled ammonium nitrate is not available for

R. Byron Irvine; Guy Lafond; Randy Kutcher

435

Porous silicon optical microcavity for chemical sensing application using tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper reports the study of a porous silicon based microcavity for a potential chemical sensing application using tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) molecules. Porous silicon based planar microcavity was first designed and fabricated using the electrochemical etching technique. Photoluminescence emission of a single porous silicon layer after immersion in an Alq3 solution was first carried out in order to verify that the Alq3 molecules were bound to the porous surface. A wide green band centered at 519 nm, typical of a nano-structured Alq3 film, was observed. Reflectivity measurements of the porous silicon microcavity were then performed for different aluminum concentrations of the Alq3 solution. The microcavity device showed a good sensibility for the Alq3 molecules and an important shift of the microcavity photonic resonance was observed. This device might be considered for a potential aluminiun sensing application.

Bardaoui, A.; Bchir, R.; Hamzaoui, H.; Chtourou, R.

2010-09-01

436

Phosphorus fertilizer can increase pea and lentil yield on many Montana soils  

E-print Network

Phosphorus fertilizer can increase pea and lentil yield on many Montana soils December 15, 2006 -- By Carol Flaherty BOZEMAN--Applications of phosphorus fertilizer can increase pea and lentil yield, two of available phosphorus in central Montana found that phosphorus fertilizer improved grain yield of spring pea

Maxwell, Bruce D.

437

Microcantilever technology for law enforcement and anti-terrorism applications: chemical, biological, and explosive material detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remarkable sensitivity, compactness, low cost, low power-consumption, scalability, and versatility of microcantilever sensors make this technology among the most promising solutions for detection of chemical and biological agents, as well as explosives. The University of Nevada, Reno, and Nevada Nanotech Systems, Inc (NNTS) are currently developing a microcantilever-based detection system that will measure trace concentrations of explosives, toxic chemicals, and biological agents in air. A baseline sensor unit design that includes the sensor array, electronics, power supply and air handling has been created and preliminary demonstrations of the microcantilever platform have been conducted. The envisioned device would measure about two cubic inches, run on a small watch battery and cost a few hundred dollars. The device could be operated by untrained law enforcement personnel. Microcantilever-based devices could be used to "sniff out" illegal and/or hazardous chemical and biological agents in high traffic public areas, or be packaged as a compact, low-power system used to monitor cargo in shipping containers. Among the best detectors for such applications at present is the dog, an animal which is expensive, requires significant training and can only be made to work for limited time periods. The public is already accustomed to explosives and metal detection systems in airports and other public venues, making the integration of the proposed device into such security protocols straightforward.

Adams, J. D.; Rogers, B.; Whitten, R.

2005-05-01

438

Hancornia speciosa latex for biomedical applications: physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic activity.  

PubMed

The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa is used in folk medicine for treatment of several diseases, such as acne, warts, diabetes, gastritis and inflammation. In this work, we describe the biocompatibility assessment and angiogenic properties of H. speciosa latex and its potential application in medicine. The physical-chemical characterization was carried out following different methodologies (CHN elemental analyses; thermogravimetric analyses and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). The biocompatibility was evaluated through cytotoxicity and genotoxicity tests in fibroblast mouse cells and the angiogenic properties were evaluated using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay model. The physical-chemical results showed that the structure of Hancornia speciosa latex biomembrane is very similar to that of Hevea brasiliensis (commercially available product). Moreover, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that H. speciosa latex is biocompatible with life systems and can be a good biomaterial for medical applications. The CAM test showed the efficient ability of H. speciosa latex in neovascularization of tissues. The histological analysis was in accordance with the results obtained in the CAM assay. Our data indicate that the latex obtained from H. speciosa and eluted in water showed significant angiogenic activity without any cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on life systems. The same did not occur with H. speciosa latex stabilized with ammonia. Addition of ammonia does not have significant effects on the structure of biomembranes, but showed a smaller cell survival and a significant genotoxicity effect. This study contributes to the understanding of the potentialities of H. speciosa latex as a source of new phytomedicines. PMID:24973907

Almeida, Luciane Madureira; Floriano, Juliana Ferreira; Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Magno, Lais Nogueira; da Mota, Lígia Souza Lima Silveira; Peixoto, Nei; Mrué, Fátima; Melo-Reis, Paulo; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Graeff, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Pablo José

2014-09-01

439

Novel ZnO nanorod films by chemical solution deposition for planar device applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smooth and continuous ZnO films consisting of densely packed ZnO nanorods (NRs), which can be used for electronic device fabrication, were synthesized using a hydro-thermo-chemical solution deposition method. Such devices would have the novelty of high performance, benefiting from the inherited unique properties of the nanomaterials, and can be fabricated on these smooth films using a conventional, low cost planar process. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the NR films have much stronger shallow donor to valence band emissions than those from discrete ZnO NRs, and hence have the potential for the development of ZnO light emission diodes and lasers, etc. The NR films have been used to fabricate large area surface acoustic wave devices by conventional photolithography. These demonstrated two well-defined resonant peaks and their potential for large area device applications. The chemical solution deposition method is simple, reproducible, scalable and economic. These NR films are suitable for large scale production on cost-effective substrates and are promising for various fields such as sensing systems, renewable energy and optoelectronic applications.

Singh, D.; Narasimulu, A. A.; Garcia-Gancedo, L.; Fu, Y. Q.; Soin, N.; Shao, G.; Luo, J. K.

2013-07-01

440

Novel ZnO nanorod films by chemical solution deposition for planar device applications.  

PubMed

Smooth and continuous ZnO films consisting of densely packed ZnO nanorods (NRs), which can be used for electronic device fabrication, were synthesized using a hydro-thermo-chemical solution deposition method. Such devices would have the novelty of high performance, benefiting from the inherited unique properties of the nanomaterials, and can be fabricated on these smooth films using a conventional, low cost planar process. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the NR films have much stronger shallow donor to valence band emissions than those from discrete ZnO NRs, and hence have the potential for the development of ZnO light emission diodes and lasers, etc. The NR films have been used to fabricate large area surface acoustic wave devices by conventional photolithography. These demonstrated two well-defined resonant peaks and their potential for large area device applications. The chemical solution deposition method is simple, reproducible, scalable and economic. These NR films are suitable for large scale production on cost-effective substrates and are promising for various fields such as sensing systems, renewable energy and optoelectronic applications. PMID:23743485

Singh, D; Narasimulu, A A; Garcia-Gancedo, L; Fu, Y Q; Soin, N; Shao, G; Luo, J K

2013-07-12

441

Chemical-radiation degradation of natural oligoamino-polysaccharides for agricultural application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the research was to elaborate the method of degradation of natural aminopolysaccharides to obtain a product applicable as biospecimen in protection and stimulation of the plants growth. Depolymerization of chitosan can be carried out by radiation or chemical degradation combined with irradiation method. The efficiency of these methods was verified by viscometric analysis. The chemical-radiation method was much more appropriate from economical point of view. By application of this method it was possible to obtain product with lower crystalline phase content than initial one, what was proved by X-ray diffraction studies. Finally preliminary agricultural tests on spring rape seeds were performed. The results show that the biggest growth was observed for chitosan (molecular weight 47,000 Da) in concentration of 0.1 g/kg of seeds. The higher concentration did not affect plant's growth. The average growth over-ground plant parts was about 16-22%, diameter of roots was about 11-13%, and mass of roots was about 51-65% higher in comparison to the control.

Chmielewski, A. G.; Migdal, W.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J.; Jakubaszek, U.; Tarnowski, T.

2007-11-01

442

Hand-held hyperspectral imager for chemical/biological and environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small, hand held, battery operated imaging infrared spectrometer, Sherlock, has been developed by Pacific Advanced Technology and was field tested in early 2003. The Sherlock spectral imaging camera has been designed for remote gas leak detection, however, the architecture of the camera is versatile enough that it can be applied to numerous other applications such as homeland security, chemical/biological agent detection, medical and pharmaceutical applications as well as standard research and development. This paper describes the Sherlock camera, theory of operations, shows current applications and touches on potential future applications for the camera. The Sherlock has an embedded Power PC and performs real-time-image processing function in an embedded FPGA. The camera has a built in LCD display as well as output to a standard monitor, or NTSC display. It has several I/O ports, ethernet, firewire, RS232 and thus can be easily controlled from a remote location. In addition, software upgrades can be performed over the ethernet eliminating the need to send the camera back to the factory for a retrofit. Using the USB port a mouse and key board can be connected and the camera can be used in a laboratory environment as a stand alone imaging spectrometer.

Hinnrichs, Michele; Piatek, Bob

2004-03-01

443

Handheld hyperspectral imager system for chemical/biological and environmental applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small, hand held, battery operated imaging infrared spectrometer, Sherlock, has been developed by Pacific Advanced Technology and was field tested in early 2003. The Sherlock spectral imaging camera has been designed for remote gas leak detection, however, the architecture of the camera is versatile enough that it can be applied to numerous other applications such as homeland security, chemical/biological agent detection, medical and pharmaceutical applications as well as standard research and development. This paper describes the Sherlock camera, theory of operations, shows current applications and touches on potential future applications for the camera. The Sherlock has an embedded Power PC and performs real-time-image processing function in an embedded FPGA. The camera has a built in LCD display as well as output to a standard monitor, or NTSC display. It has several I/O ports, ethernet, firewire, RS232 and thus can be easily controlled from a remote location. In addition, software upgrades can be performed over the ethernet eliminating the need to send the camera back to the factory for a retrofit. Using the USB port a mouse and key board can be connected and the camera can be used in a laboratory environment as a stand alone imaging spectrometer.

Hinnrichs, Michele; Piatek, Bob

2004-08-01

444

Plant–microbes interactions in enhanced fertilizer-use efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued use of chemical fertilizers and manures for enhanced soil fertility and crop productivity often results in unexpected\\u000a harmful environmental effects, including leaching of nitrate into ground water, surface run-off of phosphorus and nitrogen\\u000a run-off, and eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Integrated nutrient management systems are needed to maintain agricultural\\u000a productivity and protect the environment. Microbial inoculants are promising components

Anthony O. Adesemoye; Joseph W. Kloepper

2009-01-01

445

[Phytoexclusion potential studies of Si fertilization modes on rice cadmium].  

PubMed

The research used serious situ multi-metal contaminated soils to explore Cd repair potential in rice by adding different kinds of fertilizers, based on the outdoor pot experiment. The experiment was consisted of four treatments including non-used fertilizers (CK), the silicon fertilizer applicated into soil (Tsi), the silicon fertilizer applicated as foliar spray (Ysi) and the silicon fertilizer applicated into soil combined with the foliar spray silicon fertilizer application( Tsi + Ysi). The research examined Cd concentrations in tissues of five key growth periods to reveal cadmium (Cd) migration rules, translocation coefficients, rice biomass and yields. The results showed that, compared to CK, different fertilization methods of Si had significant impacts on decreasing Cd in brown rice and polished rice, but not in rice yields; In addition, Tsi + Ysi had the best effects to decrease Cd in edible grains, which resulted in Cd concentrations of husk, brown rice and polished rice reduced by 62.59%, 58.33% and 65.83%, respectively, and the effects of applying Tsi and Ysi were the second. Therefore, Tsi, Ysi and Tsi + Ysi were confirmed to be potential Cd pollution control technologies to rice. PMID:25244866

Chen, Zhe; Tie, Bo-Qing; Lei, Ming; Liu, Xiao-Li; Ye, Chang-Cheng; Luo, Mei-Mei; Mao, Yi-De

2014-07-01

446

Fertility of American Women  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Census Bureau prepares numerous papers each year, and they are an important source of information for public policy analysts, geographers, economists, and civic leaders. These reports are based on the biannual Current Population Surveys (CPS) conducted across the country. The reports here date back to 1994, and they look at fertility rates among American women in the noninstitutionalized population. Each report contains a detailed analysis of these biannual trends, along with historical tables and notes of the methodologies used in each report. Also, visitors will note that there are also supplemental fertility tables that break the data down into smaller segments such as "Fertility Indicators for Women in Their Thirties" and "Women 15 to 44 Years Old Who Had a Child in the Last Year and Their Percentage in the Labor Force".

447

Double Fertilization and Post-fertilization Events: Measuring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf includes background information and ideas for lessons involving the processes that occur between fertilization and seed production in Fast Plants. Fertilization is explained and illustrated and an activity for students to observe reproductive development is described.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

448

Lawn Fertilization for Texas Warm-Season Grasses  

E-print Network

in the spring and, if needed, once again in the fall no later than 6 weeks before the expected fi rst frost. It?s best to split the fertilizer into two smaller applications rather than make one heavy application. If your lawn management level is moderate... it is actively growing and able to take up the fertilizer. The growing season is usually the period between the last spring frost date (Fig. 2) and fi rst autumn frost date (Fig. 3). Longer growing seasons may need more nitrogen fertilizer each year...

Chalmers, David; McAfee, James; Havlak, Roger

2007-01-31

449

Modification of Experimental Protocols for a Space Shuttle Flight and Applications for the Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structures During Fertilization, Cell Division , and Development in Sea Urchin Embryos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To explore the role of microgravity on cytoskeletal organization and skeletal calcium deposition during fertilization, cell division, and early development, the sea urchin was chosen as a model developmental system. Methods were developed to employ light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy on cultures being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle. For analysis of microfilaments, microtubules, centrosomes, and calcium-requiring events, our standard laboratory protocols had to be modified substantially for experimentation on the Space Shuttle. All manipulations were carried out in a closed culture chamber containing 35 ml artificial sea water as a culture fluid. Unfertilized eggs stored for 24 hours in these chambers were fertilized with sperm diluted in sea water and fixed with concentrated fixatives for final fixation in formaldehyde, taxol, EGTA, and MgCl2(exp -6)H2O for 1 cell to 16 cell stages to preserve cytoskeletal structures for simultaneous analysis with light, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, and 1.5 percent glutaraldehyde and 0.4 percent formaldehyde for blastula and plueus stages. The fixed samples wre maintained in chambers without degradation for up to two weeks after which the specimens were processed and analyzed with routine methods. Since complex manipulations are not possible in the closed chambers, the fertilization coat was removed from fixation using 0.5 percent freshly prepared sodium thioglycolate solution at pH 10.0 which provided reliable immunofluorescence staining for microtubules. Sperm/egg fusion, mitosis, cytokinesis, and calcium deposition during spicule formatin in early embryogenesis were found to be without artificial alterations when compared to cells fixed fresh and processed with conventional methods.

Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Stoecker, Andrew; Schatten, Heide

1995-01-01

450

Use of isotopically labeled fertilizer to trace nitrogen fertilizer contributions to surface, soil, and ground water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fate and transport of a single N fertilizer application through plants, soil, runoff, and the unsaturated and saturated zones was determined for four years at a field site under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) management. Claypan soils, which underlie the site, were hypothesized to restrict the movement of agrichemicals from the soil surface to ground water. However, N fertilizer moved rapidly through preferential flow paths in the soil and into the underlying glacial till aquifer. Most N transport occurred during the fall and winter when crops were not available to use excess N. Forty months after application, 33 percent of the fertilizer had been removed by grain harvests, 30 percent had been transpired to the atmosphere, and 33 percent had migrated to ground water. Although runoff volumes were 50 percent greater than infiltration, less than 2 percent of the fertilizer was lost to runoff. Small measured denitrification rates and large measured dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water favor the long-term stability of NO3-1 in ground water. Successive fertilizer applications, in areas that lack the ability to moderate N concentrations through consumptive N reactions, risk the potential of N-saturated ecosystems.

Wilkison, D.H.; Blevins, D.W.; Silva, S.R.

2000-01-01

451

Root Growth and Soil Water Dynamics in Relation to Inorganic and Organic Fertilization in Maize–Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural productivity is increasingly becoming dependent upon soil fertility, which is generally thought to be supplemented through the application of nutrients mainly through inorganic fertilizers. The present study aims to characterize the soil physical environment in relation to long-term application of farmyard manure (FYM) and inorganic fertilizers in a maize–wheat cropping system. The treatments in both the maize and wheat

Rehana Rasool; S. S. Kukal; G. S. Hira

2010-01-01

452

Fertility desires and fertility: Hers, his, and theirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between desired and achieved fertility may be misspecified by excluding husbands’ fertility desires or by\\u000a confounding effects of shared desires with the resolution of conflicting desires. Using couple data from the classic Princeton\\u000a Fertility Surveys, we find relatively large husband effects on fertility outcomes as well as unique effects of spousal disagreement.\\u000a Wives and husbands were equally likely

Elizabeth Thomson; Elaine McDonald; Larry L. Bumpass

1990-01-01

453

Fertility and the economy.  

PubMed

Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects