Science.gov

Sample records for chemical manufacturers associ

  1. Assessment of local wood species used for the manufacture of cookware and the perception of chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with their use in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Historical proven wood species have no reported adverse health effect associated with its past use. Different historical proven species have traditionally been used to manufacture different wooden food contact items. This study uses survey questionnaires to assess suppliers’, manufacturers’, retailers’ and consumers’ (end-users’) preferences for specific wood species, to examine the considerations that inform these preferences and to investigate the extent of awareness of the chemical benefits and chemical hazards associated with wooden food contact material use. Methods Through the combined use of a cross sectional approach and a case study design, 25 suppliers, 25 manufacturers, 25 retailers and 125 consumers (end-users) of wooden food contact materials in four suburbs in Kumasi Metropolitan Area (Anloga junction, Ahinsan Bus Stop, Ahwia-Pankrono and Race Course) and Ashanti Akyim Agogo in the Ashanti Akyim North District of the Ashanti Region were administered with closed ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were prepared in English, but local language, Twi, was used to translate and communicate the content of the questionnaire where necessary. Results Suppliers’, manufacturers’ and retailers’ preferences for specific wood species for most wooden cookware differed from that of consumers (end-users). But all respondent groups failed to indicate any awareness of chemical benefits or chemical hazards associated with either the choice of specific wood species for specific wooden cookware or with the general use of wooden food contact materials. The lack of appreciation of chemical benefits or hazards associated with active principles of wooden cookware led to heavy reliance of consumers (end-users) on the wood density, price, attractive grain pattern and colour or on the judgement of retailers in their choice of specific species for a wooden cookware. Conclusion This study contributes some practical suggestions to guide national policy

  2. U-GAS process for chemical manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.; Leppin, D.; Patel, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of two important industrial chemicals, methanol and ammonia, are described. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of manufacture of methanol and ammonia are presented.

  3. Chemical-mechanical polishing: Enhancing the manufacturability of MEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1996-10-01

    The planarization technology of Chemical-Mechanical-Polishing (CMP), used for the manufacturing of multi-level metal interconnects for high-density Integrated Circuits (IC), is also readily adaptable as an enabling technology in Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication, particularly polysilicon surface micromachining. CMP not only eases the design and manufacturability of MEMS devices by eliminating several photolithographic and film issues generated by severe topography, but also enables far greater flexibility with process complexity and associated designs. Thus, the CMP planarization technique alleviates processing problems associated with fabrication of multi-level polysilicon structures, eliminates design constraints linked with non-planar topography, and provides an avenue for integrating different process technologies. Examples of these enhancements include: an simpler extension of surface micromachining fabrication to multiple mechanical layers, a novel method of monolithic integration of electronics and MEMS, and a novel combination of bulk and surface micromachining.

  4. News: Good chemical manufacturing process criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    This news column covers topics relating to manufacturing criteria, machine to machine technology, novel process windows, green chemistry indices, business resilience, immobilized enzymes, and Bt crops.

  5. A Summary of the Manufacture of Important Inorganic Chemicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenier, Philip J.

    1983-01-01

    Manufacture, properties, uses, and economic aspects of inorganic chemicals are discussed in an industrial chemistry course. Provided and discussed is a flowchart used in the course. The flowchart is a logical method of presenting the important features of inorganic chemicals and a summarizing their method of manufacture. (JN)

  6. Lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue cancer in a chemical manufacturing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, M.G.; Teta, M.J.; Greenberg, H.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Nested case-control studies of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (52 cases), multiple myeloma (20 cases), nonlymphocytic leukemia (39 cases), and lymphocytic leukemia (18 cases) were conducted within a cohort of employed men from two chemical manufacturing facilities and a research and development center. Exposure odds ratios were examined in relation to 111 work areas, 21 specific chemicals, and 52 chemical activity groups. Associations were observed for a maintenance and construction subgroup (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) and a chlorohydrin production unit (nonlymphocytic leukemia). The odds ratio for the association of foremen and others with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was 3.2 (CI95 = 1.47-7.2) based on 11 cases. A duration-response trend was observed for the chlorohydrin unit with three of four cases assigned 5+ years to that unit. An association between non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and assignment to strong acid alcohol production units (OR = 8.3; CI95 = 2.3-30.7) was not supported by a duration-response trend. Two highly correlated chemical groups, antioxidants (five cases) and nitriles (four cases), were over-represented among multiple myeloma cases. A duration effect was observed. However, examination of work histories did not reveal common jobs or departments among these cases.

  7. An Associate Degree in High Performance Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Arnold

    In order for more individuals to enter higher paying jobs, employers must create a sufficient number of high-performance positions (the demand side), and workers must acquire the skills needed to perform in these restructured workplaces (the supply side). Creating an associate degree in High Performance Manufacturing (HPM) will help address four…

  8. 131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. NORTH PLANT TANK CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS FROM GB MANUFACTURING PLANT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. Allergies associated with medical gloves. Manufacturing issues.

    PubMed

    Hamann, C P; Kick, S A

    1994-07-01

    The increase in glove usage that followed the advent of Universal Precautions has been associated with a concomitant increase in glove-related allergic reactions, many of which are potentially debilitating. Manufacturing issues that can affect the allergenicity of natural rubber latex, thermoplastic elastomer, and polyvinylchloride medical gloves are therefore examined. This information can enhance the ability of the occupational dermatologist to diagnose specific allergens and to recommend appropriate treatment based on knowledge of a product's allergenic ingredients. PMID:7923952

  10. The Exposure Data Landscape for Manufactured Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing chemical screening and prioritization programs to evaluate environmental chemicals for potential risk to human health in a rapid and efficient manner. As part of these efforts, it is important to catalog available information...

  11. The exposure data landscape for manufactured chemicals.

    PubMed

    Egeghy, Peter P; Judson, Richard; Gangwal, Sumit; Mosher, Shad; Smith, Doris; Vail, James; Cohen Hubal, Elaine A

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is developing chemical screening and prioritization programs to evaluate environmental chemicals for potential risk to human health in a rapid and efficient manner. As part of these efforts, it is important to catalog available information on chemical toxicity and exposure from widely dispersed sources. The main objective of this analysis is to define important aspects of the exposure space and to catalog the available exposure information for chemicals being considered for analysis as part of the U.S. EPA ToxCast™ screening and prioritization program. Publicly available exposure data have been extracted into ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource), which combines information for hundreds of thousands of chemicals from >600 public sources. We use data from ACToR to assess the exposure data landscape for environmental chemicals. Of the roughly 100,000 chemicals that have at least limited toxicity information available, less than one-fifth also have exposure information - and for most of these the information is of limited utility (e.g., production volume). Readily accessible data on concentrations in exposure-related media are only available for a much smaller fraction. Among these, the largest number of chemicals is measured in water with over 1150 unique compounds, followed by 788 substances measured in soil, and 670 in air. These small numbers clearly reflect a focus of resources on those substances previously identified as possibly posing a hazard to human health. Exposure to a much broader number of chemicals will need to be measured in order to fully realize the envisioned goal of using exposure information to guide toxicity testing. PMID:22104386

  12. The Oilheat Manufacturers Associations Oilheat Advantages Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, R.; Bately, J.E.

    1995-04-01

    The Oilheat Advantages Project is the Oilheat Manufacturers Association`s first project. It involves the creation and disseminaiton of the unified, well documented, compellingly packaged oilheat story. The project invovles three steps: the first step is to pull together all the existing data on the advantages of oilheat into a single, well documented engineering report. The second step will be to rewrite and package the technical document into a consumer piece and a scripted presentation supported with overheads, and to disseminate the information throughout the industry. The third step will be to fund new research to update existing information and discover new advantages of oilheat. This step will begin next year. The inforamtion will be packaged in the following formats: The Engineering Document. This will include all the technical information including the creditable third party sources for all the findings on the many advantages of oilheat; the Consumer Booklet. This summarizes all the findings in the Engineering Document in simple language with easy to understand illustrations and graphs; a series of single topic Statement Stuffers on each of the advantages; an Overhead Transparency-Supported Scripted Show that can be used by industry representatives for presentations to the general public, schools, civic groups, and service clubs; and the Periodic publication of updates to the Oilheat Advantages Study.

  13. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  14. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  15. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of...) PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. The provisions of...

  16. Manufacturing waste disposal practices of the chemical propulsion industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Benjamin E.; Adams, Daniel E.; Schutzenhofer, Scott A.

    1995-01-01

    The waste production, mitigation and disposal practices of the United States chemical propulsion industry have been investigated, delineated, and comparatively assessed to the U.S. industrial base. Special emphasis has been placed on examination of ozone depleting chemicals (ODC's). The research examines present and anticipated future practices and problems encountered in the manufacture of solid and liquid propulsion systems. Information collected includes current environmental laws and regulations that guide the industry practices, processes in which ODC's are or have been used, quantities of waste produced, funding required to maintain environmentally compliant practices, and preventive efforts.

  17. Human body burdens of chemicals used in plastic manufacture

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Holger M.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2009-01-01

    In the last decades, the availability of sophisticated analytical chemistry techniques has facilitated measuring trace levels of multiple environmental chemicals in human biological matrices (i.e. biomonitoring) with a high degree of accuracy and precision. As biomonitoring data have become readily available, interest in their interpretation has increased. We present an overview on the use of biomonitoring in exposure and risk assessment using phthalates and bisphenol A as examples of chemicals used in the manufacture of plastic goods. We present and review the most relevant research on biomarkers of exposure for phthalates and bisphenol A, including novel and most comprehensive biomonitoring data from Germany and the United States. We discuss several factors relevant for interpreting and understanding biomonitoring data, including selection of both biomarkers of exposure and human matrices, and toxicokinetic information. PMID:19528056

  18. Oil Heat Manufacturers Association (OMA) - update

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, R.

    1996-07-01

    Our industry must undergo a major paradigm shift if we are to prosper. We must change our {open_quotes}Fix it when it breaks{close_quotes} mind set to {open_quotes}Fix it so it won`t break.{close_quotes} Our main focus must be to improve Oilheat reliability. We have entered the era of the 100,000 mile tune-up. Meeting this challenge will require the best efforts of everyone in the industry from researchers, scientists, and engineers to manufacturers, dealers, sales people, installers, and service technicians.

  19. Source assessment of hexachlorobenzene from the organic chemical manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Jacoff, F S; Scarberry, R; Rosa, D

    1986-01-01

    The Office of Solid Waste of the US Environmental Protection Agency determines the hazards of wastes produced by the organic chemical manufacturing industry. Based on these determinations, regulations have been laid down for many wastes under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Additional wastes from this industry will be considered for regulation following further study and evaluation. Among the wastes under study are hexachlorobenzene (HCB)-containing wastes. Although HCB is no longer manufactured in the USA, the US Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that approximately 4130 t are generated annually as a by-product in the production of chlorinated organics and pesticides. Of this total, about 77% (3178 t) is generated from the production of three chlorinated solvents: tetrachloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene. All wastewater containing HCB is treated biologically in surface impoundments, resulting in HCB accumulation in the biological sludge. Disposal methods for HCB-containing sludges and distillation bottoms are incineration and landfilling, with 81% (3345 t) being incinerated and 19% (785 t) going to landfills. PMID:3596719

  20. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of...

  1. 40 CFR 455.30 - Applicability; description of the metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... metallo-organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory. 455.30 Section 455.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Metallo-Organic Pesticide Chemicals Manufacturing Subcategory § 455.30 Applicability; description of...

  2. Mortality experience among Louisiana chemical manufacturing employees, 1957-1992.

    PubMed

    Ott, M G

    1996-06-01

    A cohort mortality study was undertaken of persons ever employed at BASF's Geismar, Louisiana chemical manufacturing facilities for 3+ months prior to 1992. The 1,870 men and 263 women employees were traced through 1992 (99% follow-up) using employment and pension records, National Death Index searches, social security record matching, and credit bureau checks. Death certificates were obtained and coded for 92% of the 128 decedents. Overall and total cancer deaths among short-term ( < 10 years of site employment) and long-term hourly and salaried employees were fewer than expected based on comparisons to US general population death rates. Deaths due to external causes were higher than expected among short-term hourly employees (23 observed compared to 16 expected deaths). Among all employees, three accidental deaths occurred at work, the most recent in 1981. Four deaths each, due to urinary and brain cancers, exceeded expectation; however, there was no pattern of job assignments suggesting a work-related etiology for these occurrences. PMID:8699110

  3. 77 FR 38086 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chattem Chemicals Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chattem Chemicals Inc... 16, 2012, Chattem Chemicals Inc., 3801 St. Elmo Avenue, Chattanooga, Tennessee 37409,...

  4. 77 FR 60144 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chemic Laboratories, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Chemic Laboratories... July 26, 2012, Chemic Laboratories, Inc., 480 Neponset Street, Building 7, Canton, Massachusetts...

  5. 77 FR 4522 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    .... On October 29, 2009 (74 FR 56008), the EPA issued the NESHAP for the nine chemical manufacturing area... in 1999 in the Integrated Urban Air Toxics Strategy, (64 FR 38715, July 19, 1999) (Strategy... requirement in 2011 (76 FR 15308, March 21, 2011). The chemical manufacturing area source categories...

  6. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist mall- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. n an effort to assist these manufacturers, Waste Minimization Assessment Cen...

  7. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  8. The Effects of Hazardous Chemical Exposure on Cardiovascular Disease in Chemical Products Manufacturing Workers

    PubMed Central

    Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun; Heo, Kyung-Hwa; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanism of cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused by exposure to hazardous chemicals. We investigated changes in the symptoms of metabolic syndrome, which is strongly related to CVD, and in levels of other CVD risk factors, with a special emphasis on the roles of catecholamines and oxidative stress. The results revealed that neither body mass index (BMI) nor waist and hip circumferences were associated with exposure to hazardous chemicals. Among metabolic syndrome criteria, only HDL-cholesterol level increased on exposure to hazardous chemicals. Levels of epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NEP) were not influenced by exposure to hazardous chemicals; however, the total antioxidative capacity (TAC) reduced because of increased oxidative stress. Both hazardous chemical exposure level and metabolite excretion were related to EP, NEP, and the oxidative stress index (OSI). Logistic regression analysis with these factors as independent variables and metabolic syndrome criteria as dependent variables revealed that EP was associated with blood pressure, and NEP with metabolic syndrome in the chemicalexposed group. In conclusion, the results suggest that reactive oxygen species generated and oxidative stress due to exposure to hazardous chemicals act as mediators and cause changes in the physiological levels of EP and NEP to increase blood pressure. This ultimately leads to the development of CVD through increase in cholesterol, triglyceride, and blood glucose levels by lipid peroxidation. PMID:24278620

  9. The effects of hazardous chemical exposure on cardiovascular disease in chemical products manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Woong; Won, Yong Lim; Ko, Kyung Sun; Heo, Kyung-Hwa; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the mechanism of cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused by exposure to hazardous chemicals. We investigated changes in the symptoms of metabolic syndrome, which is strongly related to CVD, and in levels of other CVD risk factors, with a special emphasis on the roles of catecholamines and oxidative stress. The results revealed that neither body mass index (BMI) nor waist and hip circumferences were associated with exposure to hazardous chemicals. Among metabolic syndrome criteria, only HDL-cholesterol level increased on exposure to hazardous chemicals. Levels of epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NEP) were not influenced by exposure to hazardous chemicals; however, the total antioxidative capacity (TAC) reduced because of increased oxidative stress. Both hazardous chemical exposure level and metabolite excretion were related to EP, NEP, and the oxidative stress index (OSI). Logistic regression analysis with these factors as independent variables and metabolic syndrome criteria as dependent variables revealed that EP was associated with blood pressure, and NEP with metabolic syndrome in the chemicalexposed group. In conclusion, the results suggest that reactive oxygen species generated and oxidative stress due to exposure to hazardous chemicals act as mediators and cause changes in the physiological levels of EP and NEP to increase blood pressure. This ultimately leads to the development of CVD through increase in cholesterol, triglyceride, and blood glucose levels by lipid peroxidation. PMID:24278620

  10. Control of a chemical precursor used in the illicit manufacture of fentanyl as a List I chemical. Interim rule with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2007-04-23

    This rulemaking controls the chemical N-phenethyl-4-piperidone (NPP) as a List I chemical under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) (21 U.S.C. 801 et seq.). Clandestine laboratories are using this chemical to illicitly manufacture the schedule II controlled substance fentanyl. The recent distribution of illicitly manufactured fentanyl has caused an unprecedented outbreak of hundreds of suspected fentanyl-related overdoses, at least 972 confirmed fentanyl-related deaths, and 162 suspected fentanyl-related deaths occurring mostly in Delaware, Illinois, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. NPP has been identified as the starting material in several seized fentanyl clandestine laboratories. In addition to DEA's concern regarding the deaths associated with illicitly manufactured fentanyl, DEA is extremely concerned about the safety of law enforcement officers encountering these clandestine laboratories. Therefore, DEA is regulating NPP as a List I chemical through this Interim Rulemaking. DEA is soliciting comments on this Interim Rule. This rulemaking will subject handlers of NPP to the chemical regulatory provisions of the CSA and its implementing regulations, including 21 CFR Parts 1309, 1310, 1313, and 1316. This rulemaking does not establish a threshold for domestic and international transactions of NPP. As such, all transactions involving NPP, regardless of size, shall be regulated. This rulemaking also specifies that chemical mixtures containing NPP will not be exempt from regulatory requirements at any concentration. Therefore, all transactions of chemical mixtures containing any quantity of NPP will be regulated and will be subject to control under the CSA. PMID:17520757

  11. 78 FR 5500 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Chemic Laboratories, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... FR 60144, Chemic Laboratories, Inc., 480 Neponset Street, Building 7, Canton, Massachusetts 02021... manufacturer of Cocaine (9041), a basic class of controlled substance listed in schedule II. The company...

  12. 77 FR 24988 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; ISP Freetown Fine Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Chemicals By Notice dated October 8, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2010, 75 FR... Amphetamine (1100) II Phenylacetone (8501) II The company plans to manufacture bulk API, for distribution...

  13. 78 FR 64018 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated June 18, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2013, 78 FR... manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Methylphenidate (1724)...

  14. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Robinson, Sharon M

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  15. 77 FR 38085 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cayman Chemical Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cayman Chemical Company By Notice dated March 8, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on March 20, 2012, 77 FR 16263, Cayman Chemical Company, 1180 East Ellsworth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108, made application...

  16. Use of the LITEE Lorn Manufacturing Case Study in a Senior Chemical Engineering Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Abulencia, James Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of incorporating the Laboratory for Innovative Technology and Engineering Education (LITEE) Lorn Manufacturing case into a senior level chemical engineering unit operations course at Manhattan College. The purpose of using the case study is to demonstrate the relevance of ethics to chemical engineering…

  17. TREATMENT OF ORGANIC CHEMICAL MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER FOR REUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research demonstrated the quality of water produced by each step of a state-of-the-art, commercially available process sequence and determined the feasibility and economics of renovating organic chemical watewater for reuse as boiler feedwater or cycle cooling water. The 5-g...

  18. Power sources manufactures association : power technology roadmap workshop - 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, John S.

    2006-03-01

    The Power Sources Manufacturers Association (PSMA) is pleased to announce the release of the latest Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report. This Fifth Edition Workshop Report includes presentations and discussions from the workshop as seen by the participants that included many of the industry's most influential members representing end-users, power supply manufacturers, component suppliers, consultants and academia. This report provides detailed projections for the next three to four years of various technologies in a quantitative form. There was special emphasis on how the increasing use of digital technologies will affect the industry in the next four years. The technology trend analysis and the roadmap is provided for the following specific product families expected to be the areas of largest market growth: (1) Ac-dc front end power supplies--1 kW from a single phase ac source; (2) External ac-dc power supplies; (3) Dc-dc bus converters; and (4) Non-isolated dc-dc converters. Bruce Miller, Chairman of PSMA, stated that 'the Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is an extensive document that analyzes and provides projections for most major technical parameters for a specific power supply. It is a unique document as it contains technology/parametric trends in a roadmap fashion from a variety of diverse sources, giving significant depth to its content. No such information is available from any other source'. The Power Technology Roadmap Workshop Report is available at no cost as to PSMA Regular and Associate members and at a reduced price to Affiliate members as a benefit of membership. The report will be offered to non-members at a price of $2490. For further information or to buy a copy of the report, please visit the publications page or the PSMA website or contact the Association Office.

  19. Retrospective assessment of exposure to chemicals for a microelectronics and business machine manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Donald A; Woskie, Susan R; Jones, James H; Silver, Sharon R; Luo, Lian; Bertke, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment was performed for use in a health outcomes study of a facility manufacturing circuit boards, business machines, and other equipment during the years 1969-2002. A matrix was developed identifying chemical use by department-year based on company-provided information. Use of six chemical agents (fiberglass, lead, methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) and six chemical classes (acid-base, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, other hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, and metals), and general (including unspecified) chemicals was identified. The matrix also contained an assignment for each department-year categorizing the potential for use of chemicals as negligible, intermittent/incidental, or routine. These department-based exposure matrix data were combined with work history data to provide duration of potential chemical use for workers. Negligible, intermittent/incidental or routine extent-of-chemical-use categories comprised 42.6%, 39.4%, and 17.9%, respectively, of total person-years of employment. Cumulative exposure scores were also developed, representing a relative measure of the cumulative extent of potential exposure to the six chemical agents, six chemical classes, and general (including unspecified) chemicals. Additionally, the study period was divided into manufacturing eras showing trends in chemical use, and showing that process use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride ended in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, respectively. This approach may be useful in other assessments addressing a variety of chemicals, and with data constraints common to retrospective chemical exposure studies. PMID:24224613

  20. Retrospective Assessment of Exposure to Chemicals for a Microelectronics and Business Machine Manufacturing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Donald A.; Woskie, Susan R.; Jones, James H.; Silver, Sharon R.; Luo, Lian; Bertke, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment was performed for use in a health outcomes study of a facility manufacturing circuit boards, business machines, and other equipment during the years 1969–2002. A matrix was developed identifying chemical use by department-year based on company-provided information. Use of six chemical agents (fiberglass, lead, methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) and six chemical classes (acid-base, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, other hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, and metals), and general (including unspecified) chemicals was identified. The matrix also contained an assignment for each department-year categorizing the potential for use of chemicals as negligible, intermittent/incidental, or routine. These department-based exposure matrix data were combined with work history data to provide duration of potential chemical use for workers. Negligible, intermittent/incidental or routine extent-of-chemical-use categories comprised 42.6%, 39.4%, and 17.9%, respectively, of total person-years of employment. Cumulative exposure scores were also developed, representing a relative measure of the cumulative extent of potential exposure to the six chemical agents, six chemical classes, and general (including unspecified) chemicals. Additionally, the study period was divided into manufacturing eras showing trends in chemical use, and showing that process use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride ended in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, respectively. This approach may be useful in other assessments addressing a variety of chemicals, and with data constraints common to retrospective chemical exposure studies. PMID:24224613

  1. Chemical evolution of OB associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, D. N.; Olive, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    It is determined that the existence of Al-26 and Pd-107 in meteorites in the early solar system indicates that our solar system probably formed inside an OB association that had been contaminated by the debris of at least one supernova. In addition to these radioactive tracers, the contamination of the material out of which the solar system formed would have significantly enriched the heavy element composition of the solar system relative to that of the average interstellar medium. It is found that the solar system would be enriched in those isotopes which are produced by the more massive stars, such as O-16, C-12, Ne-20, and some other r-process material. It is proposed that specific isotopic ratios and elemental ratios reflecting these differences would include the Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio, which would be higher in the solar system than in the interstellar medium and the cosmic rays, the C-12/C-13 ratio which would be higher in the solar system than in the interstellar medium, and the oxygen-to-carbon ratio, which would also be higher in the solar system than in the typical interstellar medium.

  2. Chemical characteristics of aerosol mists in phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Lundgren, Dale A; Nall, J Wesley; Birky, Brian K

    2007-01-01

    Of the carcinogens listed by the National Toxicology Program (NTP), strong inorganic mists containing sulfuric acid were identified as a known human carcinogen. In this study, aerosol sampling was conducted at 24 locations in eight Florida phosphoric acid and concentrated fertilizer manufacturing plants and two locations as background in Winter Haven and Gainesville, Florida, using dichotomous samplers. The locations were selected where sulfuric acid mist may potentially exist, including sulfuric acid pump tank areas, belt or rotating table phosphoric acid filter floors, sulfuric acid truck loading/unloading stations, phosphoric acid production reactors (attack tanks), and a concentrated fertilizer granulator during scrubbing with a weak sulfuric acid mixture. An ion chromatography system was used to analyze sulfate and other water soluble ion species. In general, sulfate, fluoride, ammonium, and phosphate were the major species in the fertilizer facilities. For the rotating table/belt phosphoric acid filter floor, phosphate and fluoride were the dominant species for PM10, and the maximum concentrations were 170 and 106 microg/m3, respectively. For the attack tank, fluoride was the dominant species for PM10, and the maximum concentration was 462 microg/m3. At the sulfuric acid pump tank, sulfate was the dominant species, and the maximum PM10 sulfate concentration was 181 microg/m3. The concentration of PM10 sulfate including ammonium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and sulfuric acid were lower than 0.2 mg/m3 at all locations. The aerosols at the filter floor and the attack tank were acidic. The coarse mode aerosol at the sulfuric acid pump tank (an outdoor location) was acidic, whereas the fine mode aerosol was neutral to basic. PMID:17162477

  3. Identification of goat milk powder by manufacturer using multiple chemical parameters.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Rebecca J; Prosser, Colin G; Wakefield, Joshua W

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of multiple elements and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were measured and combined to create a chemical fingerprint of production batches of goat whole milk powder (WMP) produced by different manufacturers. Our objectives were to determine whether or not differences exist in the chemical fingerprint among samples of goat WMP produced at different sites, and assess temporal changes in the chemical fingerprint in product manufactured at one site. In total, 58 samples of goat WMP were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as well as isotope ratio mass spectrometry and a suite of 13 elements (Li, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cs, and Ba), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N selected to create the chemical fingerprint. Differences in the chemical fingerprint of samples between sites and over time were assessed using principal components analysis and canonical analysis of principal coordinates. Differences in the chemical fingerprints of samples between production sites provided a classification success rate (leave-one-out classification) of 98.1%, providing a basis for using the approach to test the authenticity of product manufactured at a site. Within one site, the chemical fingerprint of samples produced at the beginning of the production season differed from those produced in the middle and late season, driven predominantly by lower concentrations of Na, Mg, K, Mn, and Rb, and higher concentrations of Ba and Cu. This observed temporal variability highlights the importance of obtaining samples from throughout the season to ensure a representative chemical fingerprint is obtained for goat WMP from a single manufacturing site. The reconstitution and spray drying of samples from one manufacturer by the other manufacturer enabled the relative influence of the manufacturing process on the chemical fingerprint to be examined. It was found that such reprocessing altered the chemical fingerprint, although the degree of alteration

  4. METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING ENVIRONMENTAL LOADINGS FROM MANUFACTURE OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a methodology for estimating multimedia environmental loadings of a 'new' organic chemical (Section 2), the output data of which can be used to determine population exposure (within and without the manufacturing process plant battery limits) and to isolate th...

  5. Automated Manufacturing/Robotics Technology: Certificate and Associate Degree Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuay, Paul L.

    A description is provided of the Automated Manufacturing/Robotics program to be offered at Delaware County Community College beginning in September 1984. Section I provides information on the use of reprogramable industrial robots in manufacturing and the rapid changes in production that can be effected through the application of automated…

  6. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... chemicals which could be used to manufacture controlled substances. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Food and Drugs... manufacture controlled substances. (a) A Federal department or agency may not sell from the stocks of the... Administration, could be used in the manufacture of a controlled substance, unless the Administrator certifies...

  7. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chemicals which could be used to manufacture controlled substances. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Food and Drugs... manufacture controlled substances. (a) A Federal department or agency may not sell from the stocks of the... Administration, could be used in the manufacture of a controlled substance, unless the Administrator certifies...

  8. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... chemicals which could be used to manufacture controlled substances. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Food and Drugs... manufacture controlled substances. (a) A Federal department or agency may not sell from the stocks of the... Administration, could be used in the manufacture of a controlled substance, unless the Administrator certifies...

  9. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chemicals which could be used to manufacture controlled substances. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Food and Drugs... manufacture controlled substances. (a) A Federal department or agency may not sell from the stocks of the... Administration, could be used in the manufacture of a controlled substance, unless the Administrator certifies...

  10. 21 CFR 1310.21 - Sale by Federal departments or agencies of chemicals which could be used to manufacture...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chemicals which could be used to manufacture controlled substances. 1310.21 Section 1310.21 Food and Drugs... manufacture controlled substances. (a) A Federal department or agency may not sell from the stocks of the... Administration, could be used in the manufacture of a controlled substance, unless the Administrator certifies...

  11. Chemical vapor deposition techniques and related methods for manufacturing microminiature thermionic converters

    DOEpatents

    King, Donald B.; Sadwick, Laurence P.; Wernsman, Bernard R.

    2002-06-25

    Methods of manufacturing microminiature thermionic converters (MTCs) having high energy-conversion efficiencies and variable operating temperatures using MEMS manufacturing techniques including chemical vapor deposition. The MTCs made using the methods of the invention incorporate cathode to anode spacing of about 1 micron or less and use cathode and anode materials having work functions ranging from about 1 eV to about 3 eV. The MTCs also exhibit maximum efficiencies of just under 30%, and thousands of the devices can be fabricated at modest costs.

  12. Feasibility of Detecting Byproducts of Chemical Weapons Manufacturing in Environmental Media: A Preliminary Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, L; Reynolds, J G; Koester, C; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S; Love, A H; Viani, B E

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative information on the environmental transport and fate of organophosphorus nerve agents has been limited to studies conducted at high concentration representative of acute doses (Munroe et al. 1999). Nerve agents have relatively rapidly degradation rates at acute levels, and first order degradation pathways and half-lives have been characterized. However, similar knowledge is lacking in the open literature on the long-term environmental persistence of nerve agents, their manufacturing precursors and byproducts, and their degradation products, particularly at sub-acute or chronic health levels. Although many recent publications reflect low-level detection methods for chemical weapons signature compounds extracted from a variety of different media (e.g. D'Agostino et al., 2001; Kataoka et al., 2001), little of this work answers questions regarding their adsorptive character and chemical persistence. However, these questions are a central theme to both the detection of illegal chemical weapons manufacturing, as well as determining long-term cleanup needs and health risks associated with potential terrorist acts using such agents. Adsorption onto environmental surfaces can enhance the persistence of organophosphorus compounds, particularly with strong chelators like phosphonic acids. In particular, organophosphorus compound adsorption can lead to irreversible binding (e.g. Aubin and Smith, 1992), and current methods of chemical extraction and solid-state detection are challenged to detect them. This may be particularly true if the adsorbed compound is of a low initial concentration because it may be that the most preferred adsorption sites form the strongest bonds. This is particularly true in mixed media having various adsorption domains that adsorb at different rates (e.g. Weber and Huang, 1996). For high enough initial concentrations, sorption sites become saturated and solvent extraction has a relatively high efficiency. It is no surprise that many CW

  13. Chemical profiling and gene expression profiling during the manufacturing process of Taiwan oolong tea "Oriental Beauty".

    PubMed

    Cho, Jeong-Yong; Mizutani, Masaharu; Shimizu, Bun-ichi; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Ogura, Miharu; Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Lin, Mu-Lien; Sakata, Kanzo

    2007-06-01

    Oriental Beauty, which is made from tea leaves infested by the tea green leafhopper (Jacobiasca formosana) in Taiwan, has a unique aroma like ripe fruits and honey. To determine what occurs in the tea leaves during the oolong tea manufacturing process, the gene expression profiles and the chemical profiles were investigated. Tea samples were prepared from Camellia sinensis var. sinensis cv. Chin-shin Dah-pang while the tea leaves were attacked by the insect. The main volatile compounds, such as linalool-oxides, benzyl alcohol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2,6-dimethylocta-3,7-diene-2,6-diol, increased during manufacture. The gene expression profiles during manufacture were analyzed by differential screening between fresh leaves and tea leaves of the first turn over. Many up-regulated transcripts were found to encode various proteins homologous to stress response proteins. Accordingly, the endogenous contents of abscisic acid and raffinose increased during manufacture. Thus the traditional manufacturing method is a unique process that utilizes plant defense responses to elevate the production of volatile compounds and other metabolites. PMID:17587678

  14. Basic Education in the Workplace Exploratory Project. Canadian Manufacturers' Association. Perceptions of Workplace Literacy Skills in Manitoba's Manufacturing Sector. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeag, Janis

    A project assessed perceptions of manufacturing employers regarding the workplace literacy skills of occupational groups in their industry in Manitoba. A mailed survey was sent to 125 members of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association; 41 completed it. The first part of the survey obtained information about the occupations in manufacturing and…

  15. 40 CFR 63.149 - Control requirements for certain liquid streams in open systems within a chemical manufacturing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process... of 40 CFR 63.100(l)(1) or 40 CFR 63.100(l)(2), the criteria of this paragraph are also met if the... manufacturing process unit subject to the new source requirements of 40 CFR 63.100(l)(1) or 40 CFR 63.100...

  16. 40 CFR 63.149 - Control requirements for certain liquid streams in open systems within a chemical manufacturing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage... of 40 CFR 63.100(l)(1) or 40 CFR 63.100(l)(2), the criteria of this paragraph are also met if the... manufacturing process unit subject to the new source requirements of 40 CFR 63.100(l)(1) or 40 CFR 63.100...

  17. 40 CFR 63.149 - Control requirements for certain liquid streams in open systems within a chemical manufacturing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process... of 40 CFR 63.100(l)(1) or 40 CFR 63.100(l)(2), the criteria of this paragraph are also met if the... manufacturing process unit subject to the new source requirements of 40 CFR 63.100(l)(1) or 40 CFR 63.100...

  18. 40 CFR 63.149 - Control requirements for certain liquid streams in open systems within a chemical manufacturing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process... of 40 CFR 63.100(l)(1) or 40 CFR 63.100(l)(2), the criteria of this paragraph are also met if the... manufacturing process unit subject to the new source requirements of 40 CFR 63.100(l)(1) or 40 CFR 63.100...

  19. 40 CFR 63.149 - Control requirements for certain liquid streams in open systems within a chemical manufacturing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage... of 40 CFR 63.100(l)(1) or 40 CFR 63.100(l)(2), the criteria of this paragraph are also met if the... manufacturing process unit subject to the new source requirements of 40 CFR 63.100(l)(1) or 40 CFR 63.100...

  20. Intake to Production Ratio: A Measure of Exposure Intimacy for Manufactured Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Weschler, Charles J.; Little, John C.; Hubal, Elaine A. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Limited data are available to assess human exposure to thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. Information that relates human intake of a chemical to its production and use can help inform understanding of mechanisms and pathways that control exposure and support efforts to protect public health. Objectives: We introduce the intake-to-production ratio (IPR) as an economy-wide quantitative indicator of the extent to which chemical production results in human exposure. Methods: The IPR was evaluated as the ratio of two terms: aggregate rate of chemical uptake in a human population (inferred from urinary excretion data) divided by the rate that chemical is produced in or imported into that population’s economy. We used biomonitoring data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with chemical manufacturing data reported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as well as other published data, to estimate the IPR for nine chemicals in the United States. Results are reported in units of parts per million, where 1 ppm indicates 1 g of chemical uptake for every million grams of economy-wide use. Results: Estimated IPR values for the studied compounds span many orders of magnitude from a low of 0.6 ppm for bisphenol A to a high of > 180,000 ppm for methyl paraben. Intermediate results were obtained for five phthalates and two chlorinated aromatic compounds: 120 ppm for butyl benzyl phthalate, 670 ppm for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 760 ppm for di(n-butyl) phthalate, 1,040 ppm for para-dichlorobenzene, 6,800 ppm for di(isobutyl) phthalate, 7,700 ppm for diethyl phthalate, and 8,000–24,000 ppm (range) for triclosan. Conclusion: The IPR is well suited as an aggregate metric of exposure intensity for characterizing population-level exposure to synthesized chemicals, particularly those that move fairly rapidly from manufacture to human intake and have relatively stable production and intake rates. PMID:23222017

  1. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) / Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) Review and Applicability for Chemical Security Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Iveson, Steven W.

    2014-11-01

    Global chemical security has been enhanced through the determined use and integration of both voluntary and legislated standards. Many popular standards contain components that specifically detail requirements for the security of materials, facilities and other vital assets. In this document we examine the roll of quality management standards and how they affect the security culture within the institutions that adopt these standards in order to conduct business within the international market place. Good manufacturing practices and good laboratory practices are two of a number of quality management systems that have been adopted as law in many nations. These standards are designed to protect the quality of drugs, medicines, foods and analytical test results in order to provide the world-wide consumer with safe and affective products for consumption. These standards provide no established security protocols and yet manage to increase the security of chemicals, materials, facilities and the supply chain via the effective and complete control over the manufacturing, the global supply chains and testing processes. We discuss the means through which these systems enhance security and how nations can further improve these systems with additional regulations that deal specifically with security in the realm of these management systems. We conclude with a discussion of new technologies that may cause disruption within the industries covered by these standards and how these issues might be addressed in order to maintain or increase the level of security within the industries and nations that have adopted these standards.

  2. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that manufacturing output in America…

  3. Chemical inertness of UV-cured optical elastomers within the printed circuit board manufacturing process for embedded waveguide applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Kevin; Walczak, Karl; Thomas, Nicholas; Swatowski, Brandon; Demars, Casey; Middlebrook, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Embedding polymer optical waveguides (WGs) into printed circuit boards (PCBs) for intra-board or board-to-board high speed data communications requires polymer materials that are compatible and inert when exposed to common PCB manufacturing processes. Ensuring both WG functionality after chemical exposure and maintaining PCB manufacturing integrities within the production process is crucial for successful implementation. The PCB manufacturing flow is analyzed to expose major requirements that would be required for the successful implementation of polymer materials for embedded WG development. Chemical testing and analysis were performed on Dow Corning ® OE-4140 UV-Cured Optical Elastomer Core and Dow Corning® OE-4141 UV-Cured Optical Elastomer Cladding which are designed for low loss embedded optical WGs. Contamination testing was conducted to demonstrate polymer compatibility in both cured and uncured form. Various PCB chemicals were treated with uncured polymer material and tested for effective contamination. Fully polymerized multimode WGs were fabricated and exposed to PCB chemicals at temperatures and durations comparable to PCB manufacturing conditions. Chemical analysis shows that the chosen polymer is compatible and inert with most common PCB manufacturing processes.

  4. Laser nanolithography and chemical metalization for the manufacturing of 3D metallic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonavičius, Tomas; RekštytÄ--, Sima; Žukauskas, Albertas; Malinauskas, Mangirdas

    2014-03-01

    We present a developed method based on direct laser writing (DLW) and chemical metallization (CM) for microfabrication of three-dimensional (3D) metallic structures. Such approach enables manufacturing of free­-form electro conductive interconnects which can be used in integrated electric circuits such micro-opto-electro mechanical systems (MOEMS). The proposed technique employing ultrafast high repetition rate laser enables efficient fabrication of 3D microstructures on dielectric as well as conductive substrates. The produced polymer links out of organic-inorganic composite matrix after CM serve as interconnects of separate metallic contacts, their dimensions are: height 15μm, width 5μm, length 35-45 μm and could provide 300 nΩm resistivity measured in a macroscopic way. This proves the techniques potential for creating integrated 3D electric circuits at microscale.

  5. Selenium recovery from kiln powder of cement manufacturing by chemical leaching and bioreduction.

    PubMed

    Soda, S; Hasegawa, A; Kuroda, M; Hanada, A; Yamashita, M; Ike, M

    2015-01-01

    A novel process by using chemical leaching followed by bacterial reductive precipitation was proposed for selenium recovery from kiln powder as a byproduct of cement manufacturing. The kiln powder at a slurry concentration of 10 w/v% with 0.25 M Na2CO3 at 28°C produced wastewater containing about 30 mg-Se/L selenium. The wastewater was diluted four-fold and adjusted to pH 8.0 as preconditioning for bioreduction. A bacterial strain Pseudomonas stutzeri NT-I, capable of reducing selenate and selenite into insoluble elemental selenium, could recover about 90% selenium from the preconditioned wastewater containing selenium of 5 mg-Se/L when supplemented with lactate or glycerol. The selenium concentrations in the treated wastewater were low around the regulated effluent concentration of 0.1 mg-Se/L in Japan. PMID:26465298

  6. Sustainable chemical manufacturing: a matter of resources, wastes, hazards, and costs.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable development is gaining importance in the chemical industry. It encompasses social, environmental, and economical aspects. Herein, sustainable development is translated into four basic dimensions, called "sustainability stresses": resources, wastes, hazards, and costs. These sustainability stresses are discussed in some detail and their usefulness is illustrated by applying them to three manufacturing processes applied commercially by Shell, namely Shell's OMEGA, SMPO, and "low monol" technologies for producing ethene diol, styrene/propene oxide, and polyether polyols, respectively. These examples show that large reductions in sustainable stresses have been achieved in a few decades. They also show that the economical, environmental, and social issues are not in conflict when tackled at their roots: they can be all addressed simultaneously. PMID:19437479

  7. Study of process variables associated with manufacturing hermetically-sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L.

    1974-01-01

    A two year study of the major process variables associated with the manufacturing process for sealed, nickel-cadmium, areospace cells is summarized. Effort was directed toward identifying the major process variables associated with a manufacturing process, experimentally assessing each variable's effect, and imposing the necessary changes (optimization) and controls for the critical process variables to improve results and uniformity. A critical process variable associated with the sintered nickel plaque manufacturing process was identified as the manual forming operation. Critical process variables identified with the positive electrode impregnation/polarization process were impregnation solution temperature, free acid content, vacuum impregnation, and sintered plaque strength. Positive and negative electrodes were identified as a major source of carbonate contamination in sealed cells.

  8. Investigation of reports of sexual dysfunction among male chemical workers manufacturing stilbene derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, M.M.; Wegman, D.H.; Greaves, I.A.; Hammond, S.K.; Ellenbecker, M.J.; Spark, R.F.; Smith, E.R. )

    1990-01-01

    A Health Hazard Evaluation was conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in an area of a large chemical plant that manufactured the stilbene derivative 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, an intermediate used for the production of optical brightening agents. Men employed in the area reported problems with impotence. The study population consisted of 44 men aged 20-57 years (mean age 37) employed in the area at the time of the evaluation. An industrial hygiene investigation, health and work history questionnaire survey, physical examinations, and blood chemistry and serum hormone evaluation were conducted. Fourteen percent of the men reported symptoms of impotence over the preceding 6 or more months, 7% had potency problems of shorter duration, and 7% were not currently impotent but had experienced impotence for 6 or more months in the past; 36% experienced decreased libido, all since beginning work in the production area. Low levels of serum testosterone (less than 350 ng/dl) were observed in 37% of the men. The low serum testosterone concentrations were not accounted for fully by diurnal variation or an effect of rotating shift work. It is suggested that exposures to chemicals possessing estrogenic activity may be related to the observed health effects in these workers.

  9. Acid mine drainage treatment using by-products from quicklime manufacturing as neutralization chemicals.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Sarpola, Arja; Hu, Tao; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether by-products from quicklime manufacturing could be used instead of commercial quicklime (CaO) or hydrated lime (Ca(OH)2), which are traditionally used as neutralization chemicals in acid mine drainage treatment. Four by-products were studied and the results were compared with quicklime and hydrated lime. The studied by-products were partly burnt lime stored outdoors, partly burnt lime stored in a silo, kiln dust and a mixture of partly burnt lime stored outdoors and dolomite. Present application options for these by-products are limited and they are largely considered waste. Chemical precipitation experiments were performed with the jar test. All the studied by-products removed over 99% of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and approximately 60% of sulphate from acid mine drainage. However, the neutralization capacity of the by-products and thus the amount of by-product needed as well as the amount of sludge produced varied. The results indicated that two out of the four studied by-products could be used as an alternative to quicklime or hydrated lime for acid mine drainage treatment. PMID:25193795

  10. 77 FR 30327 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Alltech Associates, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application, Alltech Associates, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on April 19, 2012, Alltech...

  11. 78 FR 30331 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Alltech Associates, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Alltech Associates, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on March 28, 2013, Alltech...

  12. 77 FR 30026 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Application, Ampac Fine Chemicals LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Thebaine (9333) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company is a contract manufacturer. In reference to Poppy Straw Concentrate the company will manufacture Thebaine intermediates for sale to...

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Chemical Manufacturing Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt. VVVVVV,...

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations 1 Table 1 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED)...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants Used To Determine Applicability of Chemical Manufacturing Operations 1 Table 1 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED)...

  16. Chemical Manufacturing and Refining Industry Legitimacy: Reflective Management, Trust, Precrisis Communication to Achieve Community Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Heath, Robert L; Lee, Jaesub

    2016-06-01

    Calls for emergency right-to-know in the 1980s, and, in the 1990s, risk management planning, motivated U.S. chemical manufacturing and refining industries to operationalize a three-pronged approach to risk minimization and communication: reflective management to increase legitimacy, operational safety programs to raise trust, and community engagement designed to facilitate citizens' emergency response efficacy. To assess these management, operational, and communication initiatives, communities (often through Local Emergency Planning Committees) monitored the impact of such programs. In 2012, the fourth phase of a quasi-longitudinal study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of operational change and community outreach in one bellwether community. This study focuses on legitimacy, trust, and response efficacy to suggest that an industry can earn legitimacy credits by raising its safety and environmental impact standards, by building trust via that change, and by communicating emergency response messages to near residents to raise their response efficacy. As part of its campaign to demonstrate its concern for community safety through research, planning, and implementation of safe operations and viable emergency response systems, this industry uses a simple narrative of risk/emergency response-shelter-in-place-communicated by a spokes-character: Wally Wise Guy. PMID:26503696

  17. Bladder cancer incidence among workers exposed to o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    Carreón, Tania; Hein, Misty J; Hanley, Kevin W; Viet, Susan M; Ruder, Avima M

    2015-01-01

    Background An earlier investigation found increased bladder cancer incidence among workers at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant that used o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene. The cohort was expanded to include additional workers (n=1875) and updated through 2007 to assess bladder cancer with improved exposure characterisation. Methods Work histories were updated and exposure categories and ranks were developed for o-toluidine, aniline and nitrobenzene combined. Incident cancers were identified by linkage to six state cancer registries. Residency in time-dependent cancer registry catchment areas was determined. SIR and standardised rate ratios for bladder cancer were calculated by exposure category and cumulative rank quartiles for different lag periods. Cox regression was used to model bladder cancer incidence with estimated cumulative rank, adjusting for confounders. Indirect methods were used to control for smoking. Results Excess bladder cancer was observed compared to the New York State population (SIR=2.87, 95% CI 2.02 to 3.96), with higher elevations among workers definitely exposed (moderate/high) (SIR=3.90, 95% CI 2.57 to 5.68), and in the highest cumulative rank quartile (SIR=6.13, 95% CI 2.80 to 11.6, 10-year lag). Bladder cancer rates increased significantly with estimated cumulative rank (10-year lag). Smoking only accounted for an estimated 8% elevation in bladder cancer incidence. Conclusions Bladder cancer incidence remains elevated in this cohort and significantly associated with estimated cumulative exposure. Results are consistent with earlier findings in this and other cohorts. Despite other concurrent chemical exposures, we consider o-toluidine most likely responsible for the bladder cancer incidence elevation and recommend a re-examination of occupational exposure limits. PMID:24368697

  18. On the Concept "Chemical Equilibrium": The Associative Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussarsky, Esther; Gorodetsky, Malka

    1990-01-01

    Word associations were used to map high school students' concepts of "chemical equilibrium" and "equilibrium." It was found that the preconception of the two concepts was differentiated on noncritical dimensions. (Author/CW)

  19. Optimization of the chemical composition and manufacturing route for ODS RAF steels for fusion reactor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksiuta, Z.; Baluc, N.

    2009-05-01

    As the upper temperature for use of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels is presently limited by a drop in mechanical strength at about 550 °C, Europe, Japan and the US are actively researching steels with high strength at higher operating temperatures, mainly using stable oxide dispersion. In addition, the numerous interfaces between matrix and oxide particles are expected to act as sinks for the irradiation-induced defects. The main R&D activities aim at finding a compromise between good tensile and creep strength and sufficient ductility, especially in terms of fracture toughness. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) reduced activation ferritic (RAF) steels appear as promising materials for application in fusion power reactors up to about 750 °C. Six different ODS RAF steels, with compositions of Fe-(12-14)Cr-2W-(0.1-0.3-0.5)Ti-0.3Y2O3 (in wt%), were produced by powder metallurgy techniques, including mechanical alloying, canning and degassing of the milled powders and compaction of the powders by hot isostatic pressing, using various devices and conditions. The materials have been characterized in terms of microstructure and mechanical properties. The results have been analysed in terms of optimal chemical composition and manufacturing conditions. In particular, it was found that the composition of the materials should lie in the range Fe-14Cr-2W-(0.3-0.4)Ti-(0.25-0.3)Y2O3, as 14Cr ODS RAF steels exhibit higher tensile strength and better Charpy impact properties and are more stable than 12Cr materials (no risk of martensitic transformation), while materials with 0.5% Ti or more should not be further investigated, due to potential embrittlement by large TiO2 particles.

  20. Process development for the manufacture of an integrated dispenser cathode assembly using laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ryan William

    2005-07-01

    Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition (LCVD) has been shown to have great potential for the manufacture of small, complex, two or three dimensional metal and ceramic parts. One of the most promising applications of the technology is in the fabrication of an integrated dispenser cathode assembly. This application requires the deposition of a boron nitride-molybdenum composite structure. In order to realize this structure, work was done to improve the control and understanding of the LCVD process and to determine experimental conditions conducive to the growth of the required materials. A series of carbon fiber and line deposition studies were used to characterize process-shape relationships and study the kinetics of carbon LCVD. These studies provided a foundation for the fabrication of the first high aspect ratio multi-layered LCVD wall structures. The kinetics studies enabled the formulation of an advanced computational model in the FLUENT CFD package for studying energy transport, mass and momentum transport, and species transport within a forced flow LCVD environment. The model was applied to two different material systems and used to quantify deposition rates and identify rate-limiting regimes. A computational thermal-structural model was also developed using the ANSYS software package to study the thermal stress state within an LCVD deposit during growth. Georgia Tech's LCVD system was modified and used to characterize both boron nitride and molybdenum deposition independently. The focus was on understanding the relations among process parameters and deposit shape. Boron nitride was deposited using a B3 N3H6-N2 mixture and growth was characterized by sporadic nucleation followed by rapid bulk growth. Molybdenum was deposited from the MoCl5-H2 system and showed slow, but stable growth. Each material was used to grow both fibers and lines. The fabrication of a boron nitride-molybdenum composite was also demonstrated. In sum, this work served to both advance the

  1. Study of process variables associated with manufacturing hermetically-sealed nickel-cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L.; Doan, D. J.; Carr, E. S.

    1971-01-01

    A program to determine and study the critical process variables associated with the manufacture of aerospace, hermetically-sealed, nickel-cadmium cells is described. The determination and study of the process variables associated with the positive and negative plaque impregnation/polarization process are emphasized. The experimental data resulting from the implementation of fractional factorial design experiments are analyzed by means of a linear multiple regression analysis technique. This analysis permits the selection of preferred levels for certain process variables to achieve desirable impregnated plaque characteristics.

  2. 78 FR 46372 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Ampac Fine Chemicals, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... Methylphenidate (1724) II Thebaine (9333) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II Tapentadol (9780) II The company is a contract manufacturer. In reference to Poppy Straw Concentrate the company will...

  3. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR 124.8. ... thuringiensis, insect growth hormones, plant extracts such as pyrethrins; sex attractants and botanicals such as Rotenone are also excluded from BPT coverage in this subpart. (d) A plant that manufactures a...

  4. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 124.8. ... thuringiensis, insect growth hormones, plant extracts such as pyrethrins; sex attractants and botanicals such as Rotenone are also excluded from BPT coverage in this subpart. (d) A plant that manufactures a...

  5. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 124.8. ... thuringiensis, insect growth hormones, plant extracts such as pyrethrins; sex attractants and botanicals such as Rotenone are also excluded from BPT coverage in this subpart. (d) A plant that manufactures a...

  6. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR 124.8. ... thuringiensis, insect growth hormones, plant extracts such as pyrethrins; sex attractants and botanicals such as Rotenone are also excluded from BPT coverage in this subpart. (d) A plant that manufactures a...

  7. 40 CFR 455.20 - Applicability; description of the organic pesticide chemicals manufacturing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 124.8. ... thuringiensis, insect growth hormones, plant extracts such as pyrethrins; sex attractants and botanicals such as Rotenone are also excluded from BPT coverage in this subpart. (d) A plant that manufactures a...

  8. Maximizing productivity of CHO cell-based fed-batch culture using chemically defined media conditions and typical manufacturing equipment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Ming; Hu, WeiWei; Rustandi, Eddie; Chang, Kevin; Yusuf-Makagiansar, Helena; Ryll, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A highly productive chemically defined fed-batch process was developed to maximize titer and volumetric productivity for Chinese hamster ovary cell-based recombinant protein manufacturing. Two cell lines producing a recombinant antibody (cell line A) and an Fc-fusion protein (cell line B) were used for development. Both processes achieved product titers of 10 g/L on day 18 under chemically defined conditions. For cell line B, the use of plant derived hydrolysates combined with the optimized chemically defined medium increased the titer to 13 g/L. Volumetric productivities were increased from a base line of about 200 mg/L/d to about 500 mg/L/d under chemically defined conditions and as high as 700 mg/L/d with cell line B using plant derived hydrolysates. Peak cell densities reached greater than 20E6 vc/mL, and cell viabilities were maintained above 80% on day 18 without the use of antiapoptotic genes or temperature shift. A rapid compound screening method was developed to effectively test positive factors within 72 h. Peak volumetric oxygen uptake rates (OUR) more than tripled from the baseline condition. Oxygen demand continued to increase after maximum cell density was reached with a maximal OUR of 3.7 mmol/L/h. The new process format was scaled up and verified at 100 L pilot scale using reactor equipment of similar configuration as used at manufacturing scale. PMID:20945494

  9. Changes on physico-chemical, textural, lipolysis and volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina".

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the physico-chemical and textural properties, lipolysis and volatile compounds during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina" were studied. The pH increased during the last stages of processing but gradually declined over the curing period. TBARS values, hardness and chewiness increased with processing time from 0.14, 2.74 and 0.83 to 3.49 mg malonaldehyde/kg, 20.33 kg and 5.05 kg∗mm, respectively. Ripening time also affected the colour parameters: lightness (L*), redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) (P<0.001). The total average content of free fatty acid (FFA) increased significantly from 433.7 mg/100 g of fat in the raw pieces to 2655.5 mg/100 g of fat at the end of the drying-ripening stage. The main FFA at the end of the manufacturing process was palmitic acid (C16:0), followed by oleic (C18:1cis9), stearic (C18:0) and linoleic (C18:2n-6). A total of fifty five volatile compounds were identified during the manufacture of dry-cured foal "cecina", including esters, aldehydes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, branched hydrocarbons, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, ketones. Aldehydes reached their maximum level at the end of the post-salting stage. In the final product, esters became the dominant chemical compounds. PMID:23916960

  10. 77 FR 70188 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman Chemical Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... (7438) I 2C-D (7508) I 2C-E (7509) I 2C-H (7517) I 2C-I (7518) I 2C-C (7519) I 2C-N (7521) I 2C-P (7524... Enforcement Administration. BILLING CODE 4410-09-P ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; Cayman...

  11. EFFECTS OF MANUFACTURING PARAMETERS ON THE CHEMICAL, FUNCTIONAL, AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF QUESO CHIHUAHUA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality variations noted among Queso Chihuahua, a semi-hard cheese made in northern Mexico traditionally from raw milk, are due to the diverse manufacturing conditions used to make the cheese, the compositional and microbiological differences in the cheesemilk, and heat treatment (raw versus pa...

  12. 78 FR 69134 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration: AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ..., LLC. By Notice dated July 23, 2013, and published in the Federal Register on July 31, 2013, 78 FR... to import narcotic raw material are not appropriate. 72 FR 3417 (2007). DEA has considered the... manufacturer of the following basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Methylphenidate (1724)...

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOXICANT ASSOCIATED FATTY LIVER DISEASE IN RODENTS

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eryani, Laila; Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K.C.; Guardiola, J. J.; Clair, H.B.; Prough, R.A.; Cave, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxicant associated fatty liver disease (TAFLD) is a recently identified form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with exposure to industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants. Numerous studies have been conducted to test the association between industrial chemicals/ environmental pollutants and fatty liver disease both in vivo and in vitro. Objectives The objective of the paper is to report a list of chemicals associated with TAFLD. Methods Two federal databases of rodent toxicology studies– ToxRefDB (Environmental Protection Agency) and Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS, National Toxicology Program) were searched for liver endpoints. Combined, these two databases archive nearly 2000 rodent studies. TASH descriptors including fatty change, fatty necrosis, Oil red O positive staining, steatosis and lipid deposition were queried. Results Using these search terms, 123 chemicals associated with fatty liver were identified. Pesticides and solvents were the most frequently identified chemicals, while PCBs/dioxins were the most potent. About 44% of identified compounds were pesticides or their intermediates, and nearly 10% of pesticide registration studies in ToxRefDB were associated with fatty liver. Fungicides and herbicides were more frequently associated with fatty liver than insecticides. Conclusions More research on pesticides, solvents, metals and PCBs/dioxins in NAFLD/TAFLD is warranted due to their association with liver damage. PMID:25326588

  14. 78 FR 23959 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Cayman Chemical Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... FR 70188, Cayman Chemical Company, 1180 East Ellsworth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48108, made... substances for distribution to their research and forensic customers conducting drug testing and analysis....

  15. Comprehensive Mass Analysis for Chemical Processes, a Case Study on L-Dopa Manufacture

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the “greenness” of chemical processes in route selection and process development, we propose a comprehensive mass analysis to inform the stakeholders from different fields. This is carried out by characterizing the mass intensity for each contributing chemical or wast...

  16. Solutia: Massachusetts Chemical Manufacturer Uses SECURE Methodology to Identify Potential Reductions in Utility and Process Energy Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    2005-07-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Solutia Inc. chemical production facility in Springfield, Massachusetts. Solutia manufactures polymers, intermediates, and chemicals for a variety of products. The assessment focused on finding ways to reduce the plant's use of steam, electricity, compressed air, and water. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings could be about 9.6 million kWh for electricity and more than 338,000 MBtu for natural gas. Annual cost savings could amount to nearly $3.3 million.

  17. 78 FR 5500 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Ampac Fine Chemicals, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... FR 60145, AMPAC Fine Chemicals, LLC, Highway 50 and Hazel Avenue, Building 05001, Rancho Cordova... and history. Therefore, pursuant to 21 U.S.C. 823(a), and in accordance with 21 CFR 1301.33, the...

  18. 78 FR 49547 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ..., 2013, 78 FR 23596, American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc., 101 Arc Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63146... Dimethyltryptamine (7435) I 1- piperidine I (7470). Dihydromorphine (9145) I Heroin (9200) I Normorphine (9313)...

  19. 77 FR 52368 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; American Radiolabeled Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ..., 77 FR 30027, American Radiolabeled Chemicals, INC., 101 Arc Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63146, made... (7435) I 1- piperidine I (7470). Dihydromorphine (9145) I Normorphine (9313) I Heroin (9200)...

  20. 77 FR 70188 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Boehringer Ingelheim Chemicals, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... Chemicals, Inc. By Notice dated July 17, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2012, 77 FR... Lisdexamfetamine (1205) II Methylphenidate (1724) II Methadone (9250) II Methadone Intermediate (9254)...

  1. Global chemical weathering and associated P-release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Jens; Moosdorf, Nils; Lauerwald, Ronny; Hinderer, Matthias; West, A. Joshua

    2014-05-01

    Chemical weathering releases phosphorus to soils and ecosystems. To improve understanding of the spatial distribution of the global P-release characteristics, a model framework for estimating global chemical weathering rates was coupled with geochemical information. Results suggest that the global soil shielding reduces chemical weathering fluxes by about 44%, compared to an Earth surface with no deeply weathered soils but relatively young rock surfaces (e.g. as in volcanic arc and other tectonically active areas). About 70% of the weathering fluxes globally derive from 10% of the land area, with Southeast Asia being a primary "hot spot" of chemical weathering and for P-release. In contrast, only 50% of runoff is attributed to 10% of the land area; thus the global chemical weathering rating curve is to some extent disconnected from the global runoff curve due to the spatially heterogeneous climate as well as differences in rock and soil properties. In addition to total chemical weathering fluxes, the release of P, a nutrient that controls biological productivity at large spatial scales, is affected by the spatial correlation between runoff, lithology, temperature and soil properties. The areal abundance of deeply weathered soils in Earth's past may have influenced weathering fluxes and P-fuelled biological productivity significantly, specifically in the case of larger climate shifts when high runoff fields shift to areas with thinner soils or areas with more weatherable rocks and relatively increased P-content. This observation may be particularly important for spatially resolved Earth system models targeting geological time scales. The full research text can be found in: Hartmann, J., N. Moosdorf, R. Lauerwald, M. Hinderer, A.J. West (2014) Global chemical weathering and associated P-release - the role of lithology, temperature and soil properties. Chemical Geology 363, 145-163. doi: 10.1016/j.chemgeo.2013.10.025 (open access)

  2. Determination of the chemical parameters and manufacturer of divins from their broadband transmission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodasevich, M. A.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Skorbanova, E. A.; Rogovaya, M. V.; Kambur, E. I.; Aseev, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of multiparametric data on transmission spectra of 24 divins (Moldovan cognacs) in the 190-2600 nm range allows identification of outliers and their removal from a sample under study in the following consideration. The principal component analysis and classification tree with a single-rank predictor constructed in the 2D space of principal components allow classification of divin manufacturers. It is shown that the accuracy of syringaldehyde, ethyl acetate, vanillin, and gallic acid concentrations in divins calculated with the regression to latent structures depends on the sample volume and is 3, 6, 16, and 20%, respectively, which is acceptable for the application.

  3. Manufacturing of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors for clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Nathalie; Grieger, Joshua C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to elicit robust and long-term transgene expression in vivo together with minimal immunogenicity and little to no toxicity are only a few features that make recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors ideally suited for many gene therapy applications. Successful preclinical studies have encouraged the use of rAAV for therapeutic gene transfer to patients in the clinical setting. Nevertheless, the use of rAAV in clinical trials has underscored the need for production and purification systems capable of generating large amounts of highly pure rAAV particles. To date, generating vector quantities sufficient to meet the expanding clinical demand is still a hurdle when using current production systems. In this chapter, we will provide a description of the current methods to produce clinical grade of rAAV under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) settings. PMID:27014711

  4. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosols in Algiers city area: influence of a fat manufacture plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yassaa, Noureddine; Meklati, Brahim Youcef; Cecinato, Angelo

    Total concentrations and homologue distributions of organic fraction constituents have been determined in particulate matter emitted from different units of a fat manufacturer (i.e. oils refining and conditioning plants, and production and conditioning units of a soap industry) located in Algiers area, as well as in atmospheric aerosols. In particular n-alkanes, n-alkanoic and n-alkenoic acids, n-alkan-2-ones and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated. Organic aerosol contents varied broadly among the plant units, depending upon nature of the manufactured products. The percent composition of all classes of compounds investigated in ambient atmosphere was similar to those observed indoor at industrial plant units. Organic acids, n-alkanoic as well as n-alkenoic, appeared by far the most abundant organic constituents of aerosols, both indoor and outdoor, ranging from 7.7 to 19.8 and from 12.7 to 17.1 μg m -3, respectively. The huge occurrence of acids and n-alkanes in ambient aerosols was consistent with their high levels present in oil and fat materials. Among minor components of aerosols, n-alkan-2-ones and PAH, seemed to be related to thermally induced ageing and direct combustion of raw organic material used for oil and soap production.

  5. Regulation of drugs and chemicals used by the poultry industry. Good manufacturing practices.

    PubMed

    Boyd, L H

    1994-09-01

    Good manufacturing practices (GMP) are required to be followed in the use of animal drugs to produce medicated feeds. The authority is found in the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which states that medicated feed can be deemed adulterated if GMP were not followed in its production. This authority has been translated into GMP regulations applicable to all medicated feed production. More detailed GMP are imposed on those using high potency sources of drugs that require a withdrawal period (Category II). Less detailed GMP are imposed on all other drug uses (Category I and lower potency sources of Category II). Facility registration, medicated feed applications, and biennial inspections are also imposed on those required to follow the more detailed GMP regulations. The basic thrust of the regulations is assurance that drug use is correct in all respects and that the integrity of all medicated and nonmedicated feeds is maintained. The objective is food free of illegal drug residues, i.e., food safety. The GMP regulations are based on joint industry-government endeavor and reflect the practical realities of feed manufacturing. They are, for all practical purposes, good business practices assuring that medicated feeds make a positive contribution to food production and consumer confidence. PMID:7800642

  6. An Analysis of National Surveys: Associate Degree Programs in Manufacturing Engineering and Related Programs. A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Elizabeth A.

    In 1993, a study was conducted to investigate the responses of associate degree programs in manufacturing and related technical programs to current technical education initiatives. The study focused on the relationships of associate degree programs to secondary and postsecondary education and industry, curricular trends, familiarity with the…

  7. Chemical Transport--Coping with Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawls, Rebecca L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes operations of CHEMTREC, a chemical emergency information system supported by the Chemical Manufacturer's Association. Presents data on transportation incidents involving hazardous materials and the most frequently involved chemicals in transportation incidents. (CS)

  8. The manufacture of replacement low pressure carrier casings and associated stationary guide vane blading through on site component sample measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    In today`s competitive utility market place, the manufacture of replacement components by alternate manufacturing has become an increasingly important available option for turbine operators seeking to achieve substantive cost and lead time reductions in spare part purchasing. Essential to this strategy--in the absence of a total redesign of the component(s) or their assemblies--is the provision or access to the selected alternate manufacture of the necessary sample parts. This paper details the manufacture by reverse engineering of 3 replacement low pressure carrier guide vane blade casings for a 60 MW steam turbine complete with their associated blading and ancillary parts where the necessary sample parts and assemblies could not be released from site due to outage constraints.

  9. Experiences with a compost biofilter for VOC control from batch chemical manufacturing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, G.L.; Briggs, T.G.

    1997-12-31

    The Synthetic Chemicals Division of Eastman Kodak Company makes a large number of complex organic chemicals using batch reactor syntheses. Exhaust gas, resulting from batch reactor operations, typically contains many different volatile organic chemicals with dynamic concentration profiles. Exhaust streams of this type have been considered difficult to treat effectively by biofiltration. Eastman Kodak Company was interested in exploring the applicability of biofiltration to treat these types of off-gas streams as an alternative to more costly control technologies. To this end, a 20,000 cfm capacity BIOTON{reg_sign} biofilter was installed in December 1995 in Kodak Park, Rochester, New York. A study was initiated to determine the overall efficiency of the biofilter, as well as the chemical specific efficiencies for a number of organic compounds. Flame ionization detectors operated continuously on the inlet and outlet of the biofilter to measure total hydrocarbon concentrations. A process mass spectrometer was installed to simultaneously monitor the concentrations of seven organics in the inlet and outlet of the biofilter. In addition, the process control software for the biofilter continuously recorded pressure drop, temperature, and moisture content of the bed. This paper presents operating and performance data for the BIOTON biofilter from start-up through about eleven months of continuous operation. Included are data collected over a wide range of loading conditions, during initial start-up, and during start-up after shutdown periods. Data for total hydrocarbons, methanol, acetone, and heptane are presented. The relationship between organic loading and removal efficiency is discussed in the biofilter, which typically operates significantly below its design loading specification. The overall control efficiency of the biofilter at design loadings exceeds the design control efficiency of 90%.

  10. Chemical characteristics of organic aerosol in Bab-Ezzouar (Algiers). Contribution of bituminous product manufacture.

    PubMed

    Yassaa, N; Meklati, B Y; Cecinato, A; Marino, F

    2001-10-01

    The organic compositions of atmospheric particulate matter from Bab-Ezzouar (Algiers) have been investigated to assess the air pollution levels suspected to be caused by asphalt product and yeast manufactures. After a medium-volume air sampling, soxhlet extraction, alumina elution and HPLC separation, the extracts were analysed by high-resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The composition of n-alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) fractions reflected the petrogenic origin from the emission of asphalt materials production in addition to vascular plant wax emissions. In contrast, microbial activities seemed to play the main role for the presence of n-alkanoic acids at Bab-Ezzouar. The sole nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH) observed, i.e., 2-nitrofluoranthene (2NFA), was very likely to arise from gas-phase photochemical reaction of parent PAH in the atmosphere. The total aerial levels ranged from 75 to 206 ng m(-3) for n-alkanes, from 153 to 345 ng m(-3) for n-alkanoic acids and from 44 to 100 ng m(-3) for PAH and NPAH. Although the samples were collected during the hot season, the levels of these pollutants seemed to be important and of environmental concern, especially for PAH species. PMID:11592421

  11. Changes in physico-chemical properties and volatile compounds throughout the manufacturing process of dry-cured foal loin.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Carballo, J

    2015-01-01

    Physico-chemical, textural, lipolytic and volatile compound changes that occur during the manufacture of dry-cured foal loin were studied. Hardness and chewiness increased significantly (P<0.001) from 1.67 kg and 0.48 kg ∗ mm to 18.33 kg and 5.01 kg∗mm, respectively during ripening process. The total average content of free fatty acid increased significantly (P<0.001), from 768.8 mg/100g of fat in the loins immediately after the seasoning period to 1271.1mg/100g of fat at the end of the drying-ripening period. In the final product, aldehydes became the dominant volatile compounds. PMID:25280362

  12. Association between payments from manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and regional prescribing: cross sectional ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shantanu; King, Marissa; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Krumholz, Harlan M; McKee, Douglas; Brown, Douglas; Ross, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between payments made by the manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and prescribing by physicians within hospital referral regions. Design Cross sectional analysis of 2013 and 2014 Open Payments and Medicare Part D prescribing data for two classes of commonly prescribed, commonly marketed drugs: oral anticoagulants and non-insulin diabetes drugs, overall and stratified by physician and payment type. Setting 306 hospital referral regions, United States. Participants 45 949 454 Medicare Part D prescriptions written by 623 886 physicians to 10 513 173 patients for two drug classes: oral anticoagulants and non-insulin diabetes drugs. Main outcome measures Proportion, or market share, of marketed oral anticoagulants and non-insulin diabetes drugs prescribed by physicians among all drugs in each class and within hospital referral regions. Results Among 306 hospital referral regions, there were 977 407 payments to physicians totaling $61 026 140 (£46 174 600; €54 632 500) related to oral anticoagulants, and 1 787 884 payments totaling $108 417 616 related to non-insulin diabetes drugs. The median market share of the hospital referral regions was 21.6% for marketed oral anticoagulants and 12.6% for marketed non-insulin diabetes drugs. Among hospital referral regions, one additional payment (median value $13, interquartile range, $10-$18) was associated with 94 (95% confidence interval 76 to 112) additional days filled of marketed oral anticoagulants and 107 (89 to 125) additional days filled of marketed non-insulin diabetes drugs (P<0.001). Payments to specialists were associated with greater prescribing of marketed drugs than payments to non-specialists (212 v 100 additional days filled per payment of marketed oral anticoagulants, 331 v 114 for marketed non-insulin diabetes drugs, P<0.001). Payments for speaker and consulting fees for non-insulin diabetes drugs were associated with

  13. Guayule rubber: Cultivation and manufacture. (Latest citations from the Rubber and Plastics Rsearch Association database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning research and development of guayule as a natural rubber source. Cultivation methods and locations, physical and chemical properties, economic factors of cultivation through manufacture, production forecasts, effects of mixing with synthetic rubbers, and vulcanization are among the topics discussed. Industrial health hazards, performance in the world market, and applications are considered. (Contains a minimum of 206 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. As Others See Vocational Education. Book 1: A Survey of the National Association of Manufacturers. Research and Development Series No. 225A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Ann R.; Russell, Jill Frymier

    A survey of manufacturers was conducted to assess views of National Association of Manufacturers members about vocational education, including its effectiveness, collaborative activities with vocational education, and manufacturers' suggestions for improvement. Findings based on the 775 returned surveys were that the most frequent grade awarded to…

  15. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Douglas C.

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  16. Life cycle cost study for coated conductor manufacture by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.N.

    1999-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to calculate the cost of producing high temperature superconducting wire by the Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) process. The technology status is reviewed from the literature and a plant conceptual design is assumed for the cost calculation. The critical issues discussed are the high cost of the metal organic precursors, the material utilization efficiency and the capability of the final product as measured by the critical current density achieved. Capital, operating and material costs are estimated and summed as the basis for calculating the cost per unit length of wire. Sensitivity analyses of key assumptions are examined to determine their effects on the final wire cost. Additionally, the cost of wire on the basis of cost per kiloampere per meter is calculated for operation at lower temperatures than the liquid nitrogen boiling temperature. It is concluded that this process should not be ruled out on the basis of high cost of precursors alone.

  17. Real-time measurement of sub-PPM concentrations of airborne chemicals in semiconductor manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Corn, M; Cohen, R

    1993-01-01

    Real-time mass spectroscopy (ICAMS) can provide hourly or daily estimates of employee exposure. Field calibration of the unit indicated essentially linear response from 0.01 (Cellosolve Acetate) and 0.03 ppm (Diglyme) to 1 ppm in semiconductor cleanrooms. The instrument can be programmed for 4 minute readings on a single compound, or for rotation among several chemicals, each requiring 4 minute dwell times for analysis. In contrast to full shift personal sampling methods to measure exposure, ICAMS offers insights into the occurrence of peak exposures. In addition, in the occupational environment ICAMS results can be integrated to estimate full-shift within a zone exposures. Thus, the ICAMS extends measurement sensitivities below those currently available and offers a viable alternative to personal sampling in the semiconductor industry. PMID:9857292

  18. The FEMA GRAS assessment of furfural used as a flavour ingredient. Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association.

    PubMed

    Adams, T B; Doull, J; Goodman, J I; Munro, I C; Newberne, P; Portoghese, P S; Smith, R L; Wagner, B M; Weil, C S; Woods, L A; Ford, R A

    1997-08-01

    The Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers' Association (FEMA) has assessed the safety of furfural for its continued use as a flavour ingredient. The safety assessment takes into account the current scientific information on exposure, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. Furfural was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr) as a flavour ingredient under conditions of intended use based on: (1) its mode of metabolic detoxication in humans; (2) its low level of flavour use compared with higher intake levels as a naturally occurring component of food; (3) the safety factor calculated from results of subchronic and chronic studies, (4) the lack of reactivity with DNA; and (5) the conclusion that the only statistically significant finding in the 2-year NTP bioassays, an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in the high-dose group of male mice, was secondary to pronounced hepatotoxicity. Taken together, these data do not indicate any risk to human health under conditions of use as a flavour ingredient. This evidence of safety is supported by the occurrence of furfural as a natural component of traditional foods, at concentrations in the diet resulting in a 'natural intake' that is at least 100 times higher than the intake of furfural from use as a flavour ingredient. PMID:9350219

  19. Manufacture of fiber-epoxy test specimens: Including associated jigs and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, S. B.; Felbeck, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental work on the manufacture and strength of graphite-epoxy composites is considered. The correct data and thus a true assessment of the strength properties based on a proper and scientifically modeled test specimen with engineered design, construction, and manufacture has led to claims of a very broad spread in optimized values. Such behavior is in the main due to inadequate control during manufacture of test specimen, improper curing, and uneven scatter in the fiber orientation. The graphite fibers are strong but brittle. Even with various epoxy matrices and volume fraction, the fracture toughness is still relatively low. Graphite-epoxy prepreg tape was investigated as a sandwich construction with intermittent interlaminar bonding between the laminates in order to produce high strength, high fracture toughness composites. The quality and control of manufacture of the multilaminate test specimen blanks was emphasized. The dimensions, orientation and cure must be meticulous in order to produce the desired mix.

  20. Optimization of ammonia-peroxide water mixture (APM) for high volume manufacturing through surface chemical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Shariq

    Ammonia-peroxide mixture (APM) is a widely used wet chemical system for particle removal from silicon surfaces. The conventional APM solution in a volume ratio of 1:1:5 (NH4OH:H2O2:H 2O) is employed at elevated temperatures of 70--80 °C. At these temperatures, APM solution etch es silicon at a rate of ˜3 A/min, which is unacceptable for current technology node. Additionally, APM solutions are unstable due to the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and evaporative loss of ammonium hydroxide resulting in the change in APM solution composition. This has generated interest in the use of dilute APM solutions. However, dilution ratios are chosen without any established fundamental relationship between particle-wafer interactions and APM solutions. Atomic force microscopy has been used to measure interaction forces between H-terminated Si surface and Si tip in APM solutions of different compositions. The approach force curves results show attractive forces in DI-water, NH 4OH:H2O (1:100) and H2O2:H2O (1:100) solutions at separation distances of less than 10 nm for all immersion times (2, 10 and 60 min) investigated. In the case of dilute APM solutions, the forces are purely repulsive within 2 min of immersion time. During retraction, the adhesion force between Si surface and Si tip was in the range of 0.8 nN to 10.0 nN. In dilute APM solutions, no adhesion force is measured between Si surfaces and repulsive forces dominated at all distances. These results show that even in very dilute APM solutions, repulsive forces exist between Si surface and particle re-deposition can be prevented. The stability of APM solutions has been investigated as a function of temperature (24--65 °C), dilution ratio (1:1:5--1:2:100), solution pH (8.0--9.7) and Fe2+ concentration (0--10 ppb) using an optical concentration monitor. The results show that the rate of H2O2 decomposition increased with an increase in temperature, solution pH and Fe2+ concentration. The kinetic analysis showed that

  1. Pyrotechnic hazards classification and evaluation program. Phase 2, segment 3: Test plan for determining hazards associated with pyrotechnic manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A comprehensive test plan for determining the hazards associated with pyrotechnic manufacturing processes is presented. The rationale for each test is based on a systematic analysis of historical accounts of accidents and a detailed study of the characteristics of each manufacturing process. The most hazardous manufacturing operations have been determined to be pressing, mixing, reaming, and filling. The hazard potential of a given situation is evaluated in terms of the probabilities of initiation, communication, and transition to detonation (ICT). The characteristics which affect the ICT probabilities include the ignition mechanisms which are present either in normal or abnormal operation, the condition and properties of the pyrotechnic material, and the configuration of the processing equipment. Analytic expressions are derived which describe the physical conditions of the system, thus permitting a variety of processes to be evaluated in terms of a small number of experiments.

  2. Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering.

  3. Exposure to o-toluidine, aniline, and nitrobenzene in a rubber chemical manufacturing plant: a retrospective exposure assessment update.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Kevin W; Viet, Susan M; Hein, Misty J; Carreón, Tania; Ruder, Avima M

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health previously conducted a retrospective cancer incidence and mortality study of workers employed at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant. Compared with New York State incidence, the bladder cancer risk was 6.5 times higher for workers considered to have definite exposure to ortho-toluidine and aniline, and 4 times higher for workers with possible exposure. Exposure characterization in the original study utilized a surrogate measure based only on departments in which each worker was ever employed. As part of an update of that study, some departments in the three original exposure groups were reclassified based on a follow-up site visit; interviews with employees, management, and union representatives; and review of records including exposure data. An additional evaluation of department-job combinations, rather than only departments, was used to stratify exposure into four categories. An approximate rank of "relative" exposure level for each department-job-year combination was also assigned using a ranking scale of 0 to 10. The ranks were supported by quantitative exposure levels and by professional judgment. The numerical ranking scale was applied to each worker by multiplying the exposure rank by duration for each job held based on comprehensive individual work histories. The cumulative rank scores for this cohort ranged from 0 to 300 unit-years. The medians of the cumulative rank scores for the exposure categories showed very good agreement with increasing exposure classifications (e.g., 0.72, 4.6, 11, 14 unit-years for the four exposure categories). Workers' breathing zone air sampling data collected at this plant from 1976-2004 were well below published occupational exposure limits for these chemicals, but additional cases of bladder cancer have been reported. The exposure assessment revisions and rank estimates will be used to analyze the updated bladder cancer incidence data. PMID:22708702

  4. Numerical Investigation of Parameters Impacting the Wall Thickness of Carbon Nanotubes Manufactured by Template-Based Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahedein, Yashar Seyed

    Template-based chemical vapor deposition (TB-CVD) is a versatile technique for manufacturing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or CNT-based devices for various applications. In this process, carbon is deposited by thermal decomposition of a carbon-based precursor gas inside the nanoscopic cylindrical pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates to form CNTs. Experimental results show CNT formation in templates is controlled by TB-CVD process parameters, such as time, temperature and flow rate. Optimization of this process is done empirically, requiring tremendous time and effort. Moreover, there is a need for a more comprehensive and low cost way to characterize the flow in the furnace in order to understand how process parameters may affect CNT formation. In this report, we describe the development of four, three-dimensional numerical models, each varying in complexity, to elucidate the thermo-fluid behavior inside the TB-CVD process. Using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) commercial codes, the four models were compared to determine how the presence of the template and boat, composition of the precursor gas, and consumption of species at the template surface affect the temperature profiles and velocity fields in the system. The most accurate model will be used to conduct particle injection/tracking near the templates and to characterize the particle residence time as a function of time and consumption rate. The developments in this work build the groundwork for explaining how flow characteristics affect carbon deposition on templates in any CVD reactor.

  5. Quantum-chemical study of CHCl3-SO2 association.

    PubMed

    Hippler, Michael

    2005-11-22

    CHCl(3)-SO(2) association is studied by high-level quantum-chemical calculations of stationary points of the dimer electronic potential-energy hypersurface, including correlated second-order Moller-Plesset and CCSD(T) calculations with basis sets up to 6-311++G(d,p). During geometry optimization, frequency, and energy calculations, a self-written computer code embedding the GAMESS ab initio program suite applies counterpoise correction of the basis set superposition error. A CH...O hydrogen-bonded complex (DeltaE(0)=-8.73 kJmol) with a 2.4 A intermolecular H...O distance and two very weak van der Waals complexes (DeltaE(0)=-3.78 and -2.94 kJmol) are located on the counterpoise-corrected potential-energy surface. The intermolecular interactions are characterized by Kitaura-Morokuma interaction energy decompositions and Mulliken electron population analyses. The unusual hydrogen bond is distinguished by a CH-bond contraction, a pronounced enhancement of the IR intensity and a shift to higher frequency ("blueshift") of the CH-stretching vibration compared to the CHCl(3) monomer. Spectroscopy and association in liquid solution is also discussed; our results provide an alternative explanation for features in the CH-stretching vibration spectrum of chloroform dissolved in liquid sulfur dioxide which have been attributed previously to an intermolecular Fermi resonance. PMID:16351260

  6. Quantum-chemical study of CHCl3-SO2 association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippler, Michael

    2005-11-01

    CHCl3-SO2 association is studied by high-level quantum-chemical calculations of stationary points of the dimer electronic potential-energy hypersurface, including correlated second-order Møller-Plesset and CCSD(T) calculations with basis sets up to 6-311++G(d,p). During geometry optimization, frequency, and energy calculations, a self-written computer code embedding the GAMESS ab initio program suite applies counterpoise correction of the basis set superposition error. A CH ⋯O hydrogen-bonded complex (ΔE0=-8.73kJ/mol) with a 2.4Å intermolecular H ⋯O distance and two very weak van der Waals complexes (ΔE0=-3.78 and -2.94kJ /mol) are located on the counterpoise-corrected potential-energy surface. The intermolecular interactions are characterized by Kitaura-Morokuma interaction energy decompositions and Mulliken electron population analyses. The unusual hydrogen bond is distinguished by a CH-bond contraction, a pronounced enhancement of the IR intensity and a shift to higher frequency ("blueshift") of the CH-stretching vibration compared to the CHCl3 monomer. Spectroscopy and association in liquid solution is also discussed; our results provide an alternative explanation for features in the CH-stretching vibration spectrum of chloroform dissolved in liquid sulfur dioxide which have been attributed previously to an intermolecular Fermi resonance.

  7. Chemical speciation of lead dust associated with primary lead smelting.

    PubMed Central

    Spear, T M; Svee, W; Vincent, J H; Stanisich, N

    1998-01-01

    The research presented in this article assessed geochemical factors relating to dust produced during primary lead smelting. Bulk dust samples and size-selective airborne dust samples were collected from four areas of a primary lead smelter and analyzed by X-ray diffraction and sequential chemical extraction. X-ray diffraction showed that the smelter dusts were composed primarily of sulfides, oxides, sulfates, and silicates of metal ores, with galena being the primary dust component. Sequential extraction revealed the solubility of lead compounds at less than 7% in the exchangeable and mildly acidic steps for the bulk dusts collected from four smelter areas. The later steps of the extraction procedure were more effective in dissolving the lead compounds associated with the bulk dust samples, with 43%, 26%, and 8% of the total lead, in the ore storage, sinter, and blast/dross smelter areas, respectively, being extracted in the residual step. Sequential extraction of coarse airborne dust samples from the ore storage and sinter plant showed that 1.2% and 4.1% of the total lead, respectively, was exchangeable. The finer particle size fractions from these areas of the smelter showed higher percentages of exchangeable lead. Of the course airborne dust from the blast/dross furnace processes, 65% of the total lead was exchangeable. However, the largest percentage of lead from these areas was associated with the finer particle-size fractions. If lead bioavailability is related to its solubility as determined through sequential extraction, the health hazards associated with lead exposure may be appreciably enhanced in the blast and dross furnace processes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9721256

  8. Microdevice having interior cavity with high aspect ratio surface features and associated methods of manufacture and use

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2002-01-01

    A microdevice having interior cavity with high aspect ratio features and ultrasmooth surfaces, and associated method of manufacture and use is described. An LIGA-produced shaped bit is used to contour polish the surface of a sacrificial mandrel. The contoured sacrificial mandrel is subsequently coated with a structural material and the mandrel removed to produce microdevices having micrometer-sized surface features and sub-micrometer RMS surface roughness.

  9. 78 FR 12103 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Alltech Associates, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...).... I 2C-E (2-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4- I ethylphenyl)ethanamine) (7509). 2C-H (2-(2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl..., Office of Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration. BILLING CODE 4410-09-P ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Alltech...

  10. Critical Factors Associated with Substance Abuse and Chemical Dependency in Nurse Anesthesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jack; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Conducted survey to identify characteristics associated with chemical dependency among chemically dependent nurse anesthetists. Subjects were 21 nurse anesthetists who had been chemically dependent, had completed some form of drug treatment, and had been chemically free for at least one year. Investigated areas of employment setting, educational…

  11. Chemical signals associated with life inhibit necrophoresis in Argentine ants.

    PubMed

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Millar, Jocelyn G; Rust, Michael K

    2009-05-19

    One of the most conspicuous and stereotyped activities of social insects such as ants and honey bees is necrophoresis, the removal of dead colony members from the nest. Previous researchers suggested that decomposition products such as fatty acids trigger necrophoric behavior by ant workers. However, fatty acids elicit both foraging and necrophoric responses, depending on the current nest activities (e.g., feeding or nest maintenance). Furthermore, workers often carry even freshly killed workers (dead for <1 h) to refuse piles before significant decomposition has a chance to occur. Here, we show that the cuticular chemistry of Argentine ant workers, Linepithema humile, undergoes rapid changes after death. When the workers are alive or freshly killed, relatively large amounts of 2 characteristic ant-produced compounds, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, are present on the ants' cuticle. However, these compounds disappear from the cuticle within about 1 h after death. We demonstrate how this phenomenon supports an alternative mechanism of ant necrophoresis in which the precise recognition and rapid removal of dead nestmates are elicited by the disappearance of these chemical signals associated with life. PMID:19416815

  12. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    De Coster, Sam; van Larebeke, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand. PMID:22991565

  13. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-01

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed. PMID:27517866

  14. Implementing chemically amplified resist to 10kV raster e-beam process in photomask manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sook-Kyeong; Kim, Byung-Gook; Moon, Seong-Yong; Choi, Sung-Woon; Han, Woo-Sung

    2005-06-01

    CAR(Chemically amplified resist) is widely used in 50keV VSB (Variable Shaped Beam) e-beam process in photomask manufacturing due to its advantage of high sensitivity which gives to reduced writing time compared to non-CAR. The 10kV raster e-beam system, however, is spread out already worldwide and plays a important role till now in middle grade mask-making. Conventionally the non-CAR like ZEP7000 has been applied to the 10kV raster e-beam system and it gives good performance for raster scan e-beam system. In mass production, sometimes, maintaining two kinds of resist simultaneously of CAR and non-CAR are inefficient strategy to the mask house which has limited resources. This situation makes the authors to apply CAR to the 10kV raster e-beam process. Generally, the grid of 10kV raster e-beam(MEBES) is large and limited compared to the current VSB grid. Historically, many layout data is designed already based on the large limited grid and this gives to limited sizing value. Moreover, it is difficult to control exposure dose in raster e-beam system and control bias with develop time in CAR process. These situations make more difficult CAR application to raster e-beam system under the simple mask data preparation strategy. In this paper, some critical problems will be discussed in isofocal process making for raster scan e-beam system. Advantage and disadvantage will be also discussed through the comparison of basic parameters such as dose margin, develop margin, and the fogging effect between the CAR and non-CAR process in 10kV raster e-beam process.

  15. Quantification of microbial populations associated with the manufacture of vacuum-packaged, smoked vienna sausages.

    PubMed

    Dykes, G A; Cloete, T E; von Holy, A

    1991-08-01

    Sources of contamination of vacuum-packaged vienna sausages by spoilage microorganisms were examined in a meat-processing plant. Microbial numbers present in the environment, on working surfaces and workers' hands and aprons were quantified by plate counting on selective media. Product line samples were taken at critical control points in the manufacturing process and analysed before and after preliminary incubation of vacuum-packaged samples at 25 degrees C for 24 h. In all samples the numbers of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were determined by standard procedures. Contamination of sausage surfaces by lactic acid bacteria occurred as a result of the manufacturing and handling processes. The environment and specifically packers' hands, as well as working surfaces contributed to microbiological contamination of various types after removal of the peel from individual sausages. The preliminary incubation procedure allowed detection of low numbers of spoilage microorganisms. PMID:1911080

  16. Increased Risk of Respiratory Mortality Associated with the High-Tech Manufacturing Industry: A 26-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Christiani, David C.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chiang, Po-Huang; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Global high-tech manufacturers are mainly located in newly industrialized countries, raising concerns about adverse health consequences from industrial pollution for people living nearby. We investigated the ecological association between respiratory mortality and the development of Taiwan’s high-tech manufacturing, taking into account industrialization and socioeconomic development, for 19 cities and counties—6 in the science park group and 13 in the control group—from 1982 to 2007. We applied a linear mixed-effects model to analyze how science park development over time is associated with age-adjusted and sex-specific mortality rates for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Asthma and female COPD mortality rates decreased in both groups, but they decreased 9%–16% slower in the science park group. Male COPD mortality rates increased in both groups, but the rate increased 10% faster in the science park group. Science park development over time was a significant predictor of death from asthma (p ≤ 0.0001) and COPD (p = 0.0212). The long-term development of clustered high-tech manufacturing may negatively affect nearby populations, constraining health advantages that were anticipated, given overall progress in living standards, knowledge, and health services. National governments should incorporate the long-term health effects on local populations into environmental impact assessments. PMID:27271647

  17. Increased Risk of Respiratory Mortality Associated with the High-Tech Manufacturing Industry: A 26-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Christiani, David C; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chiang, Po-Huang; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Global high-tech manufacturers are mainly located in newly industrialized countries, raising concerns about adverse health consequences from industrial pollution for people living nearby. We investigated the ecological association between respiratory mortality and the development of Taiwan's high-tech manufacturing, taking into account industrialization and socioeconomic development, for 19 cities and counties-6 in the science park group and 13 in the control group-from 1982 to 2007. We applied a linear mixed-effects model to analyze how science park development over time is associated with age-adjusted and sex-specific mortality rates for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Asthma and female COPD mortality rates decreased in both groups, but they decreased 9%-16% slower in the science park group. Male COPD mortality rates increased in both groups, but the rate increased 10% faster in the science park group. Science park development over time was a significant predictor of death from asthma (p ≤ 0.0001) and COPD (p = 0.0212). The long-term development of clustered high-tech manufacturing may negatively affect nearby populations, constraining health advantages that were anticipated, given overall progress in living standards, knowledge, and health services. National governments should incorporate the long-term health effects on local populations into environmental impact assessments. PMID:27271647

  18. Chemical sensing in mammalian host-bacterial commensal associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by a complex consortium of bacterial species. Bacteria engage in chemical signaling to coordinate population-wide behavior. However, it is unclear if chemical sensing plays a role in establishing mammalian host–bacterial commensal relationships....

  19. Ultra resolution chemical fingerprinting of dense non-aqueous phase liquids from manufactured gas plants by reversed phase comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Laura A; Gauchotte-Lindsay, Caroline; Daéid, Niamh Nic; Thomas, Russell; Daly, Paddy; Kalin, Robert M

    2011-07-22

    Ultra resolution chemical fingerprinting of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from former manufactured gas plants (FMGPs) was investigated using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC TOFMS). Reversed phase GC×GC (i.e. a polar primary column coupled to a non-polar secondary column) was found to significantly improve the separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated homologues. Sample extraction and cleanup was performed simultaneously using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), with recovery rates between 76% and 97%, allowing fast, efficient extraction with minimal solvent consumption. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the GC×GC data was performed in an attempt to differentiate between twelve DNAPLs based on their chemical composition. Correlations were discovered between DNAPL composition and historic manufacturing processes used at different FMGP sites. Traditional chemical fingerprinting methods generally follow a tiered approach with sample analysis on several different instruments. We propose ultra resolution chemical fingerprinting as a fast, accurate and precise method of obtaining more chemical information than traditional tiered approaches while using only a single analytical technique. PMID:21652041

  20. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  1. Analysis and assessment of film materials and associated manufacturing processes for a solar sail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradbury, E. J.; Jakobsen, R. J.; Sliemers, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Candidate resin manufacturers and film producers were surveyed to determine the availability of key materials and to establish the capabilities of fabricators to prepare ultrathin films of these materials within the capacity/cost/time constraints of the Halley program. Infrared spectra of three candidate samples were obtained by pressing each sample against an internal reflection crystal with the polymer sandwiched between the crystal and the metal backing. The sample size was such that less than one-fourth of the surface of the crystal was covered with the sample. This resulted in weak spectra requiring a six-fold expansion. Internal reflection spectra of the three samples were obtained using both a KRS-5 and a Ge internal reflection crystal. Subtracted infrared spectra of the three samples are presented.

  2. Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  3. Trends in the Chemical Industry. 1987 Survey of ACS Corporation Associates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    In July, 1986, the American Chemical Society (ACS) initiated a study which was intended to address future trends in the chemical industry. A survey was developed by and distributed to the member companies of Corporation Associates, which is the formal link between ACS and the chemical industry. The Executive Summary of the report, which makes up…

  4. 78 FR 23959 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Alltech Associates, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... FR 70188, Alltech Associates, Inc., 2051 Waukegan Road, Deerfield, Illinois 60015, made application... applications only in clinical, toxicological, and forensic laboratories. No comments or objections have...

  5. Waste Issues Associated with the Safe Movement of Hazardous Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Dare, J. H.; Cournoyer, M. E.

    2002-02-26

    Moving hazardous chemicals presents the risk of exposure for workers engaged in the activity and others that might be in the immediate area. Adverse affects are specific to the chemicals and can range from minor skin, eye, or mucous membrane irritation, to burns, respiratory distress, nervous system dysfunction, or even death. A case study is presented where in the interest of waste minimization; original shipping packaging was removed from a glass bottle of nitric acid, while moving corrosive liquid through a security protocol into a Radiological Control Area (RCA). During the transfer, the glass bottle broke. The resulting release of nitric acid possibly exposed 12 employees with one employee being admitted overnight at a hospital for observation. This is a clear example of administrative controls to reduce the generation of suspect radioactive waste being implemented at the expense of employee health. As a result of this event, material handling procedures that assure the safe movement of hazardous chemicals through a security protocol into a radiological control area were developed. Specifically, hazardous material must be transferred using original shipping containers and packaging. While this represents the potential to increase the generation of suspect radioactive waste in a radiological controlled area, arguments are presented that justify this change. Security protocols for accidental releases are also discussed. In summary, the 12th rule of ''Green Chemistry'' (Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention) should be followed: the form of a substance used in a chemical process (Movement of Hazardous Chemicals) should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases.

  6. Endocrine Disruptors and Asthma-Associated Chemicals in Consumer Products

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J.; Perovich, Laura J.; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. Objectives: We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. Methods: We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. Results: We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Conclusions: Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in

  7. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Intermediate means any chemical substance which is consumed in whole or in part in a chemical reaction(s) used... contaminants, as described in 29 CFR 1910.134. Selection of an appropriate respirator must be made according to... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical substances used in or for...

  8. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Intermediate means any chemical substance which is consumed in whole or in part in a chemical reaction(s) used... contaminants, as described in 29 CFR 1910.134. Selection of an appropriate respirator must be made according to... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chemical substances used in or for...

  9. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Intermediate means any chemical substance which is consumed in whole or in part in a chemical reaction(s) used... contaminants, as described in 29 CFR 1910.134. Selection of an appropriate respirator must be made according to... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chemical substances used in or for...

  10. 40 CFR 723.175 - Chemical substances used in or for the manufacture or processing of instant photographic and peel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Intermediate means any chemical substance which is consumed in whole or in part in a chemical reaction(s) used... contaminants, as described in 29 CFR 1910.134. Selection of an appropriate respirator must be made according to... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chemical substances used in or for...

  11. Chemical sensing in mammalian host–bacterial commensal associations

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, David T.; Terekhova, Darya A.; Liou, Linda; Hovde, Carolyn J.; Sahl, Jason W.; Patankar, Arati V.; Gonzalez, Juan E.; Edrington, Thomas S.; Rasko, David A.; Sperandio, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract is colonized by a complex consortium of bacterial species. Bacteria engage in chemical signaling to coordinate population-wide behavior. However, it is unclear if chemical sensing plays a role in establishing mammalian host–bacterial commensal relationships. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a deadly human pathogen but is a member of the GI flora in cattle, its main reservoir. EHEC harbors SdiA, a regulator that senses acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) produced by other bacteria. Here, we show that SdiA is necessary for EHEC colonization of cattle and that AHLs are prominent within the bovine rumen but absent in other areas of the GI tract. We also assessed the rumen metagenome of heifers, and we show that it is dominated by Clostridia and/or Bacilli but also harbors Bacteroidetes. Of note, some members of the Bacteroidetes phyla have been previously reported to produce AHLs. SdiA-AHL chemical signaling aids EHEC in gauging these GI environments, and promotes adaptation to a commensal lifestyle. We show that chemical sensing in the mammalian GI tract determines the niche specificity for colonization by a commensal bacterium of its natural animal reservoir. Chemical sensing may be a general mechanism used by commensal bacteria to sense and adapt to their mammalian hosts. Additionally, because EHEC is largely prevalent in cattle herds, interference with SdiA-mediated cattle colonization is an exciting alternative to diminish contamination of meat products and cross-contamination of produce crops because of cattle shedding of this human pathogen. PMID:20457895

  12. 78 FR 33443 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Alltech Associates, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... FR 12103, Alltech Associates, Inc., 2051 Waukegan Road, Deerfield, Illinois 60015, made application... forensic laboratories. No comments or objections have been received. DEA has considered the factors in 21...

  13. Drug development and manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  14. The Extreme Chemical Environments Associated with Dying Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziurys, Lucy

    Mass loss from dying stars is the main avenue by which material enters the interstellar medium, and eventually forms solar systems and planets. When stars consume all the hydrogen burning in their core, they start to burn helium, first in their centers, and then in a surrounding shell. During these phases, the so-called ``giant branches,'' large instabilities are created, and stars begin to shed their outer atmospheres, producing so-called circumstellar envelopes. Molecules form readily in these envelopes, in part by LTE chemistry at the base of the stellar photosphere, and also by radical reactions in the outer regions. Eventually most stars shed almost all their mass, creating ``planetary nebulae,'' which consist of a hot, ultraviolet-emitting white dwarf surrounded by the remnant stellar material. The environs in such nebulae are not conducive to chemical synthesis; yet molecular gas exits. The ejecta from these nebulae then flows into the interstellar medium, becoming the starting material for diffuse clouds, which subsequently collapse into dense clouds and then stars. This molecular ``life cycle'' is repeated many times in the course of the evolution of our Galaxy. We have been investigating the interstellar molecular life cycle, in particular the chemical environments of circumstellar shells and planetary nebulae, through both observational and laboratory studies. Using the facilities of the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO), we have conducted broad-band spectral-line surveys to characterize the contrasting chemical and physical properties of carbon (IRC +10216) vs. oxygen-rich envelopes (VY CMa and NML Cyg). The carbon-rich types are clearly more complex in terms of numbers of chemical compounds, but the O-rich variety appear to have more energetic, shocked material. We have also been conducting surveys of polyatomic molecules towards planetary nebulae. Species such as HCN, HCO+, HNC, CCH, and H2CO appear to be common constituents of these objects, and their

  15. Human health hazards associated with chemical contamination of aquatic environment.

    PubMed Central

    Stara, J F; Kello, D; Durkin, P

    1980-01-01

    Given the finite supply of water available for human use, continued chemical contamination of the aquatic environment may pose a significant human health hazard. Consequently, an effort must be made to develop ambient water quality criteria to protect human health and preserve the integrity of the aquatic environment. In developing water quality criteria based on human health effects, information on sources of exposure, pharmacokinetics, and adverse effects must be carefully evaluated. Information on sources of exposure is needed to determine the contribution of exposure from water relative to all other sources. Pharmacokinetic data are used in inter- and intraspecies extrapolation and in characterizing the mode of toxic action. Information on toxic effects includes data on acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity. In analyzing such information, a distinction is made between threshold and nonthreshold effects. Currently, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity are considered to be nonthreshold effects. For carcinogens and mutagens, criteria are calculated by postulating an "acceptable" increased level of risk and using extrapolation models to estimate the dose which would result in this increased level of risk. For other chemicals, thresholds are assumed and criteria are calculated by deriving "acceptable daily intakes" for man which would presumably result in no observable adverse effects. Neither process is exact, and attempts must be made to improve and verify risk assessment methodologies. PMID:6993199

  16. Changes on physico-chemical properties, lipid oxidation and volatile compounds during the manufacture of celta dry-cured loin.

    PubMed

    Pateiro, M; Franco, D; Carril, J A; Lorenzo, J M

    2015-08-01

    The present study deals with the changes on the main technological characteristics and volatile compounds profile of a traditional Spanish dry-ripened loin from Celta pig breed. The evolution of physicochemical properties, colour, texture, free fatty acid profile and volatile compounds were assessed throughout the process seasoning, post-seasoning and after 30 and 60 days of dry-ripening. As it was expected, pH, moisture and activity water were significantly (P < 0.001) influenced by ripening time. Statistical analysis also displayed that colour parameters (lightness, L*; redness, a*; yellowness, b*) decreased significantly (P < 0.001) during the manufacturing process. On the other hand, lipid oxidation reached the highest levels at the end of process with mean values of 0.34 mg MDA/kg. Regarding total FFA, a significant (P < 0.001) increase was observed during the manufacturing process, being MUFA the most abundant at the end of process. Finally, sixty seven volatile compounds were identified during the manufacture of Celta dry-cured loin. At the end of process, volatile compounds from microbial activity were the most abundant followed by volatile compounds from lipid oxidation. PMID:26243901

  17. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  18. Steam system opportunity assessment for the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and petroleum refining industries: Main report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-10-01

    This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

  19. 76 FR 17778 - Control of Ergocristine, a Chemical Precursor Used in the Illicit Manufacture of Lysergic Acid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (75 FR 8287), such controls are deemed necessary for law enforcement to identify... application. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christine A. Sannerud, PhD, Chief, Drug and Chemical...

  20. Factors associated with chemical burns in Zhejiang province, China: An epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Work-related burns are common among occupational injuries. Zhejiang Province is an industrial area with a high incidence of chemical burns. We aimed to survey epidemiological features of chemical burns in Zhejiang province to determine associated factors and acquire data for developing a strategy to prevent and treat chemical burns. Methods Questionnaires were developed, reviewed and validated by experts, and sent to 25 hospitals in Zhejiang province to prospectively collect data of 492 chemical burn patients admitted during one year from Sept. 1, 2008 to Aug. 31, 2009. Questions included victims' characteristics and general condition, injury location, causes of accident, causative chemicals, total body surface area burn, concomitant injuries, employee safety training, and awareness level of protective measures. Surveys were completed for each of burn patients by burn department personnel who interviewed the hospitalized patients. Results In this study, 417 victims (87.61%) got chemical burn at work, of which 355 victims (74.58%) worked in private or individual enterprises. Most frequent chemicals involved were hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid. Main causes of chemical injury accidents were inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals and absence of or failure to use effective individual protection. Conclusions Most chemical burns are preventable occupational injuries that can be attributed to inappropriate operation of equipment or handling of chemicals, lack of employee awareness about appropriate action and lack of effective protective equipment and training. Emphasis on safety education and protection for workers may help protect workers and prevent chemical burns. PMID:21958110

  1. Chemical Synthesis of the Tumor-Associated Globo H Antigen†

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Satadru S.; Liao, Guochao; Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    A derivative of the tumor-associated globo H antigen, a complex hexasaccharide, was synthesized by a convergent and efficient [3+2+1] strategy using various glycosylation methods. All glycosylation reactions afforded good to excellent yields and outstanding stereoselectivity, including the installation of cis α-linked D-galactose and L-fucose. The longest linear sequence for this synthesis was 11 steps from a galactose derivative 11 to give an overall yield of 2.6%. The synthetic target had a free and reactive amino group at the glycan reducing end, facilitating its conjugation with other molecules for various applications. PMID:26257889

  2. Pretreatment of ultra-high concentrated wastewater from phthalonitrile resin manufacturing by chemical precipitation, reduction and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qingqing; Yuan, Yue; Lai, Bo; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Yuexi

    2016-05-01

    To remove the toxic and refractory pollutants in the phthalonitrile resin wastewater and improve its biodegradability, a combined process (i.e., CaCl2+AA+Fe/Cu/air) was developed to pretreat this wastewater obtained from a phthalonitrile resin manufacturing plant in southwestern China. First, CO3(2-) was precipitated and removed by adding CaCl2. Furthermore, its ultra-high concentrated NO2(-) (22.7±0.1g/L) was reduced into N2 by adding amidosulphonic acid (AA). Meanwhile, two control experiments were setup to confirm the superiority of the combined process (i.e., CaCl2+AA). Subsequently, the wastewater was further treated by Fe/Cu/air process after the removal of CO3(2-) and NO2(-). The results suggest that the developed method not only could effectively remove the ultra-high concentrated CO3(2-) (>99%) and NO2(-) (>99%), but also could obtain high COD (58.8%) and colority (95.2%) removal efficiencies. Meanwhile, B/C ratio of this wastewater increased from 0.19 to 0.45, which suggests the biodegradability also was improved significantly. Finally, the high treatment efficiency was mainly attributed to the synergistic effects of CaCl2, AA and Fe/Cu/air. Therefore, the combined process is a promising pretreatment process for the ultra-high concentrated wastewater from phthalonitrile resin manufacturing. PMID:26848825

  3. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, O N; Haynes, R J

    2009-11-01

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase (50 degrees C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38 degrees C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil. PMID:19539464

  4. The chemical composition of young galactic clusters and associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. J. F.

    1986-09-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric data for main-sequence stars in the southern clusters NGC 2362, 3293, 4755, 6611, 6231, 6531, IC 2944, the Northern Hemisphere clusters h and Chi Per, Cep OBIII, Be 94, and a loose association obtained between April 1984-September 1985 using the South African Astronomical Observatory, Anglo-Australian, and Issac Newton telescopes are analyzed. The observed line strength and photometric data are compared with predictions derived using local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative-transfer codes. It is observed that, except for the stars of NGC 6611, the effective temperatures and gravities correlate well. Mean abundances for the southern clusters are derived and compared with the data of Lynga (1981); the good agreement between the average abundance for each cluster and those for normal objects indicate that the stars in this region formed from relatively homogeneous interstellar material.

  5. Assessment of Semi-Quantitative Health Risks of Exposure to Harmful Chemical Agents in the Context of Carcinogenesis in the Latex Glove Manufacturing Industry.

    PubMed

    Yari, Saeed; Fallah Asadi, Ayda; Varmazyar, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk. To calculate the exposure rate, two exposure index methods and the actual level of exposure were employed. After identifying risks, group H (high) and E (very high) classified as high-risk were considered. Of the total of 271 only 39 (15%) were at a high risk level and 3% were very high (E). These risks only was relevant to 7 materials with only sulfuric acid placed in group E and 6 other materials in group H, including nitric acid (48.3%), chromic acid (6.9%), hydrochloric acid (10.3%), ammonia (3.4%), potassium hydroxide (20.7%) and chlorine (10.3%). Overall, the average hazard rate level was estimated to be 4 and average exposure rate to be 3.5. Health risks identified in this study showed that the manufacturing industry for latex gloves has a high level of risk because of carcinogens, acids and strong alkalisand dangerous drugs. Also according to the average level of risk impact, it is better that the safety design strategy for latex gloves production industry be placed on the agenda. PMID:27165227

  6. Large-scale adeno-associated viral vector production using a herpesvirus-based system enables manufacturing for clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Clément, Nathalie; Knop, David R; Byrne, Barry J

    2009-08-01

    The ability of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors to exhibit minimal immunogenicity and little to no toxicity or inflammation while eliciting robust, multiyear gene expression in vivo are only a few of the salient features that make them ideally suited for many gene therapy applications. A major hurdle for the use of rAAV in sizeable research and clinical applications is the lack of efficient and versatile large-scale production systems. Continued progression toward flexible, scalable production techniques is a prerequisite to support human clinical evaluation of these novel biotherapeutics. This review examines the current state of large-scale production methods that employ the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) platform to produce rAAV vectors for gene delivery. Improvements have substantially advanced the HSV/AAV hybrid method for large-scale rAAV manufacture, facilitating the generation of highly potent, clinical-grade purity rAAV vector stocks. At least one human clinical trial employing rAAV generated via rHSV helper-assisted replication is poised to commence, highlighting the advances and relevance of this production method. PMID:19569968

  7. Spectroscopy-based photonic instrumentation for the manufacturing industry: contactless measurements of distances, temperatures, and chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noharet, B.; Zetterlund, E.; Tarasenko, O.; Lindblom, M.; Gurell, J.; Bengtson, A.; Lundin, P.

    2014-03-01

    The steady progress in photonic components in terms of cost-to-performance ratio, maturity and robustness opens new avenues for the commercial deployment of photonic sensor systems in a wide range of industrial applications. Advanced sensing can be used to optimize complex processes and thereby enable significant savings in energy consumption. Three cases of robust photonic instrumentation for process optimization and quality control in manufacturing industries are presented: improved metal recycling with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, quality control in precision machining by white-light interferometry with optical fiber probes embedded in machining tools, and process optimization in steel foundries by stand-off temperature measurements in blast furnaces with optical fiber lances and spectral analysis techniques. Each of these methods utilizes a low-cost spectrometer, and requires dedicated calibration and signal processing methods to guarantee robust operation in industrial environments with varying conditions. Experimental results are presented, including on-line steel alloy analysis with correct classification rates in excess of 95%, distance measurements with axial resolution of +/- 2nm over a 75μm range, and continuous temperature monitoring of molten steel in oxygen blast furnaces with temperature measurement accuracy better than 1%.

  8. Chemical, physical and microbial properties and microbial diversity in manufactured soils produced from co-composting green waste and biosolids.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, O N; Haynes, R J; Sturm, E C

    2012-12-01

    The effects of adding biosolids to a green waste feedstock (100% green waste, 25% v/v biosolids or 50% biosolids) on the properties of composted products were investigated. Following initial composting, 20% soil or 20% fly ash/river sand mix was added to the composts as would be carried out commercially to produce manufactured soil. Temperatures during composting reached 50 °C, or above, for 23 days when biosolids were included as a composting feedstock but temperatures barely reached 40 °C when green waste alone was composted. Addition of biosolids to the feedstock increased total N, EC, extractable NH(4), NO(3) and P but lowered pH, macroporosity, water holding capacity, microbial biomass C and basal respiration in composts. Additions of soil or ash/sand to the composts greatly increased the available water holding capacity of the materials. Principal component analysis (PCA) of PCR-DGGE 16S rDNA amplicons separated bacterial communities according to addition of soil to the compost. For fungal ITS-RNA amplicons, PCA separated communities based on the addition of biosolids. Bacterial species richness and Shannon's diversity index were greatest for composts where soil had been added but for fungal communities these parameters were greatest in the treatments where 50% biosolids had been included. These results were interpreted in relation to soil having an inoculation effect and biosolids having an acidifying effect thereby favouring a fungal community. PMID:22770779

  9. Effect of siloxane emissions and water vapor on the determination of methanol emissions from a batch chemical manufacturing facility: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, K.R.; Traister, M.

    1996-12-31

    To identify potential emissions of HAPs, a batch chemical manufacturing facility in western New York conducted stationary source testing of a blending operation to determine emissions of methyl alcohol from the process. NIOSH Method 2000 was used to quantify emissions. The 1-hour blending operation applies a siloxane-containing spray to coat powdered materials that are mixed under controlled conditions. The siloxane reacts slowly with residual moisture in the powdered materials to form a triol. This reaction theoretically evolves and releases trace amounts of methyl alcohol. Initial source testing of methyl alcohol emissions indicated that approximately 0.002 kg/s were released, far exceeding expectations. Additional investigations were conducted. A review of NIOSH Method 2000 indicated that no interferences were known to occur, but the siloxane manufacturer said that siloxane would also react with the silica gel to form methyl alcohol. In addition, it was theorized that water vapor in the air stream was reacting with the siloxane spray to form methyl alcohol. 1 tab.

  10. In vitro cellular responses to silicon carbide particles manufactured through the Acheson process: impact of physico-chemical features on pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative effects.

    PubMed

    Boudard, Delphine; Forest, Valérie; Pourchez, Jérémie; Boumahdi, Najih; Tomatis, Maura; Fubini, Bice; Guilhot, Bernard; Cottier, Michèle; Grosseau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) an industrial-scale product manufactured through the Acheson process, is largely employed in various applications. Its toxicity has been poorly investigated. Our study aims at characterizing the physico-chemical features and the in vitro impact on biological activity of five manufactured SiC powders: two coarse powders (SiC C1/C2), two fine powders (SiC F1/F2) and a powder rich in iron impurities (SiC I). RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the different SiC particles and the cellular responses were evaluated. Contrary to what happens with silica, no SiC cytotoxicity was observed but pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory responses of variable intensity were evidenced. Oxidative stress (H₂O₂ production) appeared related to SiC particle size, while iron level regulated pro-inflammatory response (TNFα production). To investigate the impact of surface reactivity on the biological responses, coarse SiC C1 and fine SiC F1 powders were submitted to different thermal treatments (650-1400 °C) in order to alter the oxidation state of the particle surface. At 1400 °C a decrease in TNFα production and an increase in HO·, COO(·-) radicals production were observed in correlation with the formation of a surface layer of crystalline silica. Finally, a strong correlation was observed between surface oxidation state and in vitro toxicity. PMID:24603312

  11. Field test of a generic method for halogenated hydrocarbons: A vost test at a chemical manufacturing facility. Final report, September 1992-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, J.F.; Bursey, J.T.; Merrill, R.G.

    1994-06-01

    In evaluating stationary source sampling and analytical methodology, two different source types are used. EPA is evaluating the volatile halogenated organic compounds listed in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. An initial field evaluation study was conducted for the VOST (SW-846 sampling Method 0030, analytical Method 5041) at a coal fired steam generating plant. A chemical manufacturing facility was selected as a second test site. The presence of low levels of some of the compounds of interest was established by the VOST analysis of samples collected during a presurvey. The sampling plan followed the requirements of EPA Method 301, and the data were evaluated statistically. Of 23 volatile halogenated organic compounds tested, the VOST showed acceptable performance with respect to recovery and precision for 17.

  12. Technology for Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste Generated during Uranium and Plutonium Chemical and Metallurgical Manufacturing in FSUE PO Mayak - 13616

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, D.

    2013-07-01

    Created technological scheme for treatment of liquid radioactive waste generated while uranium and plutonium chemical and metallurgical manufacturing consists of: - Liquid radioactive waste (LRW) purification from radionuclides and its transfer into category of manufacturing waste; - Concentration of suspensions containing alpha-nuclides and their further conversion to safe dry state (calcinate) and moving to long controlled storage. The following technologies are implemented in LRW treatment complex: - Settling and filtering technology for treatment of liquid intermediate-level waste (ILW) with volume about 1500m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} Bq/dm{sup 3} - Membrane and sorption technology for processing of low-level waste (LLW) of radioactive drain waters with volume about 150 000 m{sup 3}/year and alpha-activity from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4} Bq/dm{sup 3}. Settling and filtering technology includes two stages of ILW immobilization accompanied with primary settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following flushing and drying of the pulp generated; secondary deep after settling of radionuclides on transition metal hydroxides with the following solid phase concentration by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration. Besides, the installation capacity on permeate is not less than 3 m{sup 3}/h. Concentrates generated are sent to calcination on microwave drying (MW drying) unit. Membrane and sorption technology includes processing of averaged sewage flux by the method of tangential flow ultrafiltration with total capacity of installations on permeate not less than 18 m{sup 3}/h and sorption extraction of uranium from permeate on anionite. According to radionuclide contamination level purified solution refers to general industrial waste. Concentrates generated during suspension filtering are evaporated in rotary film evaporator (RFE) in order to remove excess water, thereafter they are dried on infrared heating

  13. Alkemio: association of chemicals with biomedical topics by text and data mining

    PubMed Central

    Gijón-Correas, José A.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Fontaine, Jean F.

    2014-01-01

    The PubMed® database of biomedical citations allows the retrieval of scientific articles studying the function of chemicals in biology and medicine. Mining millions of available citations to search reported associations between chemicals and topics of interest would require substantial human time. We have implemented the Alkemio text mining web tool and SOAP web service to help in this task. The tool uses biomedical articles discussing chemicals (including drugs), predicts their relatedness to the query topic with a naïve Bayesian classifier and ranks all chemicals by P-values computed from random simulations. Benchmarks on seven human pathways showed good retrieval performance (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves ranged from 73.6 to 94.5%). Comparison with existing tools to retrieve chemicals associated to eight diseases showed the higher precision and recall of Alkemio when considering the top 10 candidate chemicals. Alkemio is a high performing web tool ranking chemicals for any biomedical topics and it is free to non-commercial users. Availability: http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/∼medlineranker/cms/alkemio. PMID:24838570

  14. Optimization of chemically amplified resist for high-volume manufacturing by electron-beam direct writing toward 14nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon, Jun-ichi; Maruyama, Takashi; Kojima, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Yasushi; Sugatani, Shinji; Ogino, Kozo; Hoshino, Hiromi; Isobe, Hideaki; Kurokawa, Masaki; Yamada, Akio

    2012-03-01

    We investigated a high-resolution chemically amplified resist for introducing a multi-column cell electron-beam directwriting system into the manufacturing of sub-14 nm technology node LSIs. The target of total blur, which leads to an exposure latitude above 10%, is less than 13.6 nm for 14 nm logic node LSIs. We divided the total blur into three terms, forward-scattering, electron-beam and resist. At a 40 nm-thick resist, the forward-scattering blur was calculated as 1.0 nm in lithography simulation, and beam blur was estimated to be 7.1 nm from the patterning results of hydrogen silsesquioxane. We found that there is a proportional relation between resist blur and acid diffusion length by using a new evaluation method that uses a water-soluble polymer. By applying a chemically amplified resist with a short acid diffusion length, resist blur decreased to 14.5 nm. Even though total blur is still 16.2 nm, we have already succeeded in resolving 20 nm line and space patterns at an exposure dose of 79.6 μC/cm2.

  15. Development of a process for the manufacture of shelf stable dhal and its physico-chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Jafri, Mahwash; Jha, Alok; Rasane, Prasad; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-09-01

    Thermally processed, ready-to consume dhal with natural sensory attributes was developed. Product optimization was done using two variables, retort process time and ratio of water to dhal. Dhal were packed in retortable pouches and processed in a stationary air-steam retort. The product was characterized by a short lag period for the heating curve, j h (0.52-0.64), small heating rate index, f h (3.9-6.5 min) and a short lag factor for the cooling curve, j c (0.53-0.73) implying essentially convective heating regime. The total process time (B') was 11.56-40.25 min for F o value of 2.30-27.30 min. Process time of 25 min at 121 °C and ratio of water to dhal of 2.5 yielded a product that was microbiologically safe as well as sensorily acceptable. During storage, chemical parameters like thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid increased, while pH decreased with concomitant decrease in sensory scores. Textural properties like, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity underwent a significant (P < 0.05) increase during the storage. PMID:26344984

  16. Manufacture of gasification briquettes from meager-lean coal for use in chemical fertilizer-plant gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Zhao Yinrong; Wang Xingou; Hu Kunmo; Wang Shiquan; Tao Xilo; Wang Guangnan; Meng Zhongze

    1998-12-31

    Chinese fertilizer plants, especially middle or small fertilizer plants, feed lump anthracite to atmospheric fixed bed gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. However, the available lump coal meets less than one half the demand for fertilizer production, and the price of good lump anthracite has risen. Most good anthracite is produced in Shanxi Province. Chemical fertilizer plants in other areas pay high transportation costs and leave Shanxi mines with waste fine coal and slime that cause environmental pollution. So, it is important to fully utilize fine anthracite coal or bituminous coal to produce the industrial gasification briquettes. That may mitigate the disparity between supply and demand of lump coal, reduce the fertilizer production cost, and decrease the degree of environmental pollution. The briquettes don`t require heat-drying in their production and have the characteristics of high strength and water resistance. This technology is very important for local fertilizer plants where only meager-lean coal is produced. This paper discusses the processing technique and parameters, the quality standards and testing methods of briquettes made from meager-lean coal.

  17. Different Methods of Manufacturing Fe-Based Oxygen Carrier Particles for Reforming Via Chemical Looping, and Their Effect on Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleeton, J. P. E.; Bonn, C. D.; Müller, C. R.; Dennis, J. S.; Scott, S. A.

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a means of combusting carbonaceous fuels, which inherently separates the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide from the remaining combustion products, and has the potential to be used for the production of high-purity hydrogen. Iron-based oxygen carriers for CLC have been subject to considerable work; however, there are issues regarding the lifespan of iron-based oxygen carriers over repeated cycles. In this work, haematite (Fe2O3) was reduced in an N2+CO+CO2 mixture within a fluidised bed at 850°C, and oxidised back to magnetite (Fe3O4) in a H2O+N2 mixture, with the subsequent yield of hydrogen during oxidation being of interest. Subsequent cycles started from Fe3O4 and two transition regimes were studied; Fe3O4↔Fe0.947O and Fe3O4↔Fe. Particles were produced by mechanical mixing and co-precipitation. In the case of co-precipitated particles, Al was added such that the ratio of Fe:Al by weight was 9:1, and the final pH of the particles during precipitation was investigated for its subsequent effect on reactivity. This paper shows that co-precipitated particles containing additives such as Al may be able to achieve consistently high H2 yields when cycling between Fe3O4 and Fe, and that these yields are a function of the ratio of [CO2] to [CO] during reduction, where thermodynamic arguments suggest that the yield should be independent of this ratio. A striking feature with our materials was that particles made by mechanical mixing performed much better than those made by co-precipitation when cycling between Fe3O4 and Fe0.947O, but much worse than co-precipitated particles when cycling between Fe3O4 and Fe.

  18. Utilization of wastewater originated from naturally fermented virgin coconut oil manufacturing process for bioextract production: physico-chemical and microbial evolution.

    PubMed

    Tripetchkul, Sudarut; Kusuwanwichid, Sasithorn; Koonsrisuk, Songpon; Akeprathumchai, Saengchai

    2010-08-01

    Production of virgin coconut oil via natural fermentation has led to large amount of wastes being generated, i.e., coconut pulp and wastewater containing coconut crème. Objective of this study is to gain more insight into the feasibility of utilization of such wastes as raw materials together with several types of wastes such as fish waste and/or pineapple peel for bioextract production. Chemical, physico-chemical and biological changes including phytotoxicity of the fermented mixture were closely monitored. Physical observation suggested that fermentation of bioextract obtained with fish waste appeared to be complete within the first month of fermentation while bioextract obtained using pineapple waste seemed to be complete after 8 months post-fermentation. Fermentation broth is of blackish color with alcoholic as well as acidic odour with no gas bubble and/or yeast film present on top of the surface. During the whole fermentation interval, several attributes of both bioextracts, e.g., pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and organic acids, were statistically different. Further, the total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria present in pineapple bioextract were statistically higher than those of the fish bioextract (p<0.01). The highest germination indices of 123 and 106 were obtained at 21 and 14 days post-fermentation for fish and pineapple bioextracts, respectively. In addition, qualities of both bioextracts conformed well with those specified by the Thai standard for liquid biofertilizer after 1 month fermentation. Results further showed that wastewater derived from virgin coconut oil manufacturing process could effectively be employed together with other types of wastes such as fish waste and pineapple peel for bioextract production. However, for the best bioextract quality, fermentation should be carefully planned since over fermentation led to bioextract of low qualities. PMID:20362440

  19. Impacts of supplementing chemical fertilizers with organic fertilizers manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes in soil.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yijun; Hao, Yangyang; Shen, Min; Zhao, Qingxin; Li, Qing; Hu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Using pig manure (PM) compost as a partial substitute for the conventional chemical fertilizers (CFs) is considered an effective approach in sustainable agricultural systems. This study aimed to analyze the impacts of supplementing CF with organic fertilizers (OFs) manufactured using pig manure as a substrate on the spread of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) as well as the community structures and diversities of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (TRB) in bulk and cucumber rhizosphere soils. In this study, three organic fertilizers manufactured using the PM as a substrate, namely fresh PM, common OF, and bio-organic fertilizer (BF), were supplemented with a CF. Composted manures combined with a CF did not significantly increase TRB compared with the CF alone, but PM treatment resulted in the long-term survival of TRB in soil. The use of CF+PM also increased the risk of spreading TRGs in soil. As beneficial microorganisms in BF may function as reservoirs for the spread of antibiotic resistance genes, care should be taken when adding them to the OF matrix. The PM treatment significantly altered the community structures and increased the species diversity of TRB, especially in the rhizosphere soil. BF treatment caused insignificant changes in the community structure of TRB compared with CF treatment, yet it reduced the species diversities of TRB in soil. Thus, the partial use of fresh PM as a substitute for CF could increase the risk of spread of TRGs. Apart from plant growth promotion, BF was a promising fertilizer owing to its potential ability to control TRGs. PMID:27152658

  20. Identification of chemicals that mimic transcriptional changes associated with autism, brain aging and neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Brandon L.; Simon, Jeremy M.; McCoy, Eric S.; Salazar, Gabriela; Fragola, Giulia; Zylka, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors, including pesticides, have been linked to autism and neurodegeneration risk using retrospective epidemiological studies. Here we sought to prospectively identify chemicals that share transcriptomic signatures with neurological disorders, by exposing mouse cortical neuron-enriched cultures to hundreds of chemicals commonly found in the environment and on food. We find that rotenone, a pesticide associated with Parkinson's disease risk, and certain fungicides, including pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, famoxadone and fenamidone, produce transcriptional changes in vitro that are similar to those seen in brain samples from humans with autism, advanced age and neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease). These chemicals stimulate free radical production and disrupt microtubules in neurons, effects that can be reduced by pretreating with a microtubule stabilizer, an antioxidant, or with sulforaphane. Our study provides an approach to prospectively identify environmental chemicals that transcriptionally mimic autism and other brain disorders. PMID:27029645

  1. Chemical Plaque Control Strategies in the Prevention of Biofilm-associated Oral Diseases.

    PubMed

    Jafer, Mohammed; Patil, Shankargouda; Hosmani, Jagadish; Bhandi, Shilpa H; Chalisserry, Elna P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Dental plaque is a biofilm that forms naturally on the surfaces of exposed teeth and other areas of the oral cavity. It is the primary etiological factor for the most frequently occurring oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specific, nonspecific, and ecologic plaque hypothesis explains the causation of dental and associated diseases. Adequate control of biofilm accumulation on teeth has been the cornerstone of prevention of periodontitis and dental caries. Mechanical plaque control is the mainstay for prevention of oral diseases, but it requires patient cooperation and motivation; therefore, chemical plaque control agents act as useful adjuvants for achieving the desired results. Hence, it is imperative for the clinicians to update their knowledge in chemical antiplaque agents and other developments for the effective management of plaque biofilm-associated diseases. This article explores the critical analysis of various chemical plaque control strategies and the current trends in the control and prevention of dental plaque biofilm. PMID:27340170

  2. Evaluation of surface waters associated with animal feeding operations for estrogenic chemicals and activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogens and estrogenic activity (EA) were evaluated in surface waters associated with animal feeding operations. Water was sampled at 19 sites in 12 states using discrete (n=41) and POCIS (n=19) sampling methods. Estrogenic chemicals measured in unfiltered water by GC/MS2 included: estrone (E1),17...

  3. EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL RELEASES AND WORKER EXPOSURES FROM FILTER PRESS OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposures (inhalation and dermal) and releases (air, water, solids, and process streams) associated with the filtration of industrial wastewater sludge from an electronics manufacturing plant were characterized. Chemical releases and worker exposures for a target chemical (t...

  4. Blade Manufacturing Improvement: Remote Blade Manufacturing Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    ASHWILL, THOMAS D.

    2003-05-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate manufacturing improvements for wind turbine blades. The program included a series of test activities to evaluate the strength, deflection, performance, and loading characteristics of the prototype blades. The original contract was extended in order to continue development of several key blade technologies identified in the project. The objective of the remote build task was to demonstrate the concept of manufacturing wind turbine blades at a temporary manufacturing facility in a rural environment. TPI Composites successfully completed a remote manufacturing demonstration in which four blades were fabricated. The remote demonstration used a manufacturing approach which relied upon material ''kits'' that were organized in the factory and shipped to the site. Manufacturing blades at the wind plant site presents serious logistics difficulties and does not appear to be the best approach. A better method appears to be regional manufacturing facilities, which will eliminate most of the transportation cost, without incurring the logistical problems associated with fabrication directly onsite. With this approach the remote facilities would use commonly available industrial infrastructure such as enclosed workbays, overhead cranes, and paved staging areas. Additional fatigue testing of the M20 root stud design was completed with good results. This design provides adhesive bond strength under fatigue loading that exceeds that of the fastener. A new thru-stud bonding concept was developed for the M30 stud design. This approach offers several manufacturing advantages; however, the test results were inconclusive.

  5. Options for the destruction of chemical weapons and management of the associated risks.

    PubMed

    Manley, Ron G

    2006-09-01

    The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved. PMID:17119231

  6. Laser assisted direct manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    2007-06-01

    Direct Laser Manufacturing (DLM) with coaxial powder injection (TRUMPF DMD 505 installation) was applied for fabrication of 3D objects from metallic and ceramic powder. One of the advantages of DLM is the possibility to build functionally graded objects in one-step manufacturing cycle by application of a 2-channel powder feeder. Several models with different types of material gradients (smooth, sharp, periodic) and multi-layered structures were manufactured from SS, stellite (Cobalt alloy), Cu and W alloys. Technology of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) was applied for manufacturing of net shaped objects from different powders (PHENIX PM-100 machine) : Inox 904L, Ni625, Cu/Sn, W and Zr02-Y2O3. Performance and limitations of SLM technology for fabrication of elements for chemical and mechanical industries are analysed. Two-component objects (Stainless steel /Cu - H13/CuNi) were fabricated in a two-step manufacturing cycle.

  7. Plasma-aided manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohet, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  8. [Comparative evaluation of health hazards associated with industrial chemicals and their derivates forming during water chlorination].

    PubMed

    Zholdakova, Z I; Poliakova, E E; Lebedev, A T

    2006-01-01

    Many industrial chemicals found in waste waters are able to form organochlorine by-products during water disinfection. The transformation of seven model compounds, cyclohexene, n-butanol, diphenylmethane, acetophenone, aniline, 1-methylnaphthalene, and phenylxylylethane during a reaction with active chlorine was studied. Aqueous chlorine and sodium hypochlorite were used as chlorinating agents. The products of the reaction were analyzed by means of chromatomass-spectrometry. A schematic model of diphenylmethane transformation was proposed. Comparative evaluation of hazards associated with the model chemicals and their derivates confirmed that chlorination products can be more toxic and dangerous than the initial compounds, and may possess mutagenic and cancerigenic properties. PMID:16889350

  9. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Norstrom, Ross J; Orazio, Carl E; Schmitt, Christopher J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2009-02-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p'- and o,p'-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p'- versus p,p'-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife. PMID:18851891

  10. Persistence of organochlorine chemical residues in fish from the Tombigbee River (Alabama, USA): Continuing risk to wildlife from a former DDT manufacturing facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Norstrom, R.J.; Orazio, C.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticide and total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were measured in largemouth bass from the Tombigbee River near a former DDT manufacturing facility at McIntosh, Alabama. Evaluation of mean p,p???- and o,p???-DDT isomer concentrations and o,p???- versus p,p???-isomer proportions in McIntosh bass indicated that DDT is moving off site from the facility and into the Tombigbee River. Concentrations of p,p???-DDT isomers in McIntosh bass remained unchanged from 1974 to 2004 and were four times greater than contemporary concentrations from a national program. Total DDT in McIntosh bass exceeded dietary effect concentrations developed for bald eagle and osprey. Hexachlorobenzene, PCBs, and toxaphene concentrations in bass from McIntosh also exceeded thresholds to protect fish and piscivorous wildlife. Whereas concentrations of DDT and most other organochlorine chemicals in fish have generally declined in the U.S. since their ban, concentrations of DDT in fish from McIntosh remain elevated and represent a threat to wildlife.

  11. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  12. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter and Associations between Particulate Chemical Constituents and Mortality in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jung, Kweon

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have linked fine particles [≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] and health. Most studies focused on the total mass of the particles, although the chemical composition of the particles varies substantially. Which chemical components of fine particles that are the most harmful is not well understood, and research on the chemical composition of PM2.5 and the components that are the most harmful is particularly limited in Asia. Objectives: We characterized PM2.5 chemical composition and estimated the effects of cause-specific mortality of PM2.5 mass and constituents in Seoul, Korea. We compared the chemical composition of particles to those of the eastern and western United States. Methods: We examined temporal variability of PM2.5 mass and its composition using hourly data. We applied an overdispersed Poisson generalized linear model, adjusting for time, day of week, temperature, and relative humidity to investigate the association between risk of mortality and PM2.5 mass and its constituents in Seoul, Korea, for August 2008 through October 2009. Results: PM2.5 and chemical components exhibited temporal patterns by time of day and season. The chemical characteristics of Seoul’s PM2.5 were more similar to PM2.5 found in the western United States than in the eastern United States. Seoul’s PM2.5 had lower sulfate (SO4) contributions and higher nitrate (NO3) contributions than that of the eastern United States, although overall PM2.5 levels in Seoul were higher than in the United States. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in magnesium (Mg) (0.05 μg/m3) was associated with a 1.4% increase (95% confidence interval: 0.2%, 2.6%) in total mortality on the following day. Several components that were among the largest contributors to PM2.5 total mass—NO3, SO4, and ammonium (NH4)—were moderately associated with same-day cardiovascular mortality at the p < 0.10 level. Other components with smaller mass contributions [Mg and

  13. Development of land disposal restrictions for military chemical agent-associated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.; Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1997-04-01

    In July 1988, the State of Utah, Department of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW) listed certain military chemical agents as hazardous waste, as well as residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, and testing of these chemicals. These materials are listed as hazardous waste in Utah, but are not listed as hazardous wastes under the Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the primary law governing management of hazardous waste in the United States. Pursuant to the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) treatment standards for most categories of hazardous wastes. However, considering that EPA has not listed chemical agent-associated wastes as hazardous waste under RCRA, LDR treatment standards have not been established specifically for these wastes. In February 1995, the DSHW announced a regulatory initiative to develop LDRs for chemical agent-associated wastes and solicited data and information from the U.S. Army to support a rulemaking effort. The Army`s Chemical and Biological Defense Command (CBDCOM) was designated the lead agency for the Army to assist the DSHW in developing the rule. CBDCOM established the U.S. Army Land Disposal Restrictions Utah Group (LDRUG) and initiated a project with Argonne National Laboratory to support the LDRUG. The focus is on providing the state with accurate and up-to-date data and information to support the rulemaking and the establishment of LDRs. The purpose of this paper is to review the general direction of the proposed rule and to discuss overall progress. Potential impacts of the imposition of LDRs on the management of agent-associated wastes are also reviewed.

  14. Unplanned releases and injuries associated with aerial application of chemicals, 1995-2002.

    PubMed

    Rice, Nancy; Messing, Rita; Souther, Larry; Berkowitz, Zahava

    2005-11-01

    For this article, records of the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system were reviewed to identify and describe acute, unplanned releases of agricultural chemicals and associated injuries related to aerial application during 1995-2002. Records of aerial-application accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board were also reviewed. Of the 54,090 events in the HSEES system for 1995-2002, 91 were identified as aerial-application events. The most commonly released substance was malathion. There were 56 victims; 12 died, and 34 required treatment at a hospital. A higher percentage of HSEES aerial-applicator events involved injury and death than did other HSEES transportation events. The relatively high number of injuries and fatalities underscores the need for precautions such as monitoring and limiting pilot cumulative exposures to pesticides, and using appropriate personal protective equipment and decontamination equipment. Emergency responders should be educated about the hazards associated with chemicals at aerial-application crash sites. PMID:16334093

  15. Harmonisation of standards related to limiting chemical risk associated with work processes.

    PubMed

    Bostan, Ionel

    2013-01-01

    The presented paper tackles the issue of risk factors specific to work processes that involve the presence of chemicals. The reason that supports the present approach is the fact that the risks most likely to affect health in the workplace have been lately associated with the exposure of workers engaged in industrial activities to aggressive chemical agents. In order to tackle this problem, we shall resort to the normative regulations that have been adjusted upon Romania's inclusion in the European Union. The harmonization and alignment of the national standards--applied to the work systems that make use of various chemical substances likely to affect the health of the human resource--to the European guidelines and regulations has brought about a significant improvement in workplace security practices. Consequently, the arguments and demonstrations in the presented study are based on elements of the European acquis and the Romanian regulations which are all related to the chemical risk factors generated by harmful chemicals, or the potentially accident-prone properties of the substances used in work processes. PMID:24069850

  16. Association between chemical pattern in breast milk and congenital cryptorchidism: modelling of complex human exposures.

    PubMed

    Krysiak-Baltyn, K; Toppari, J; Skakkebaek, N E; Jensen, T S; Virtanen, H E; Schramm, K-W; Shen, H; Vartiainen, T; Kiviranta, H; Taboureau, O; Audouze, K; Brunak, S; Main, K M

    2012-06-01

    During the past four decades, there has been an increase in the incidence rate of male reproductive disorders in some, but not all, Western countries. The observed increase in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders is suspected to be ascribable to environmental factors as the increase has been too rapid to be explained by genetics alone. To study the association between complex chemical exposures of humans and congenital cryptorchidism, the most common malformation of the male genitalia, we measured 121 environmental chemicals with suspected or known endocrine disrupting properties in 130 breast milk samples from Danish and Finnish mothers. Half the newborns were healthy controls, whereas the other half was boys with congenital cryptorchidism. The measured chemicals included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl-ethers, dioxins (OCDD/PCDFs), phthalates, polybrominated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides. Computational analysis of the data was performed using logistic regression and three multivariate machine learning classifiers. Furthermore, we performed systems biology analysis to explore the chemical influence on a molecular level. After correction for multiple testing, exposure to nine chemicals was significantly different between the cases and controls in the Danish cohort, but not in the Finnish cohort. The multivariate analysis indicated that Danish samples exhibited a stronger correlation between chemical exposure patterns in breast milk and cryptorchidism than Finnish samples. Moreover, PCBs were indicated as having a protective effect within the Danish cohort, which was supported by molecular data recovered through systems biology. Our results lend further support to the hypothesis that the mixture of environmental chemicals may contribute to observed adverse trends in male reproductive health. PMID:22519522

  17. Chemical Changes Associated with Increased Acid Resistance of Er:YAG Laser Irradiated Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Olea-Mejía, Oscar Fernando; García-Fabila, María Magdalena; Rodríguez-Vilchis, Laura Emma; Sánchez-Flores, Ignacio; Centeno-Pedraza, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background. An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. Purpose. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Group I (control); Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100 mJ (12.7 J/cm2), 200 mJ (25.5 J/cm2), and 300 mJ (38.2 J/cm2), respectively. Results. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine) and in the amount of calcium released. Conclusions. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution. PMID:24600327

  18. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  19. Leuconostoc bacteriophages from blue cheese manufacture: long-term survival, resistance to thermal treatments, high pressure homogenization and chemical biocides of industrial application.

    PubMed

    Pujato, Silvina A; Guglielmotti, Daniela M; Ackermann, Hans-W; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Reinheimer, Jorge A; Quiberoni, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Nine Leuconostoc mesenteroides phages were isolated during blue cheese manufacture yielding faulty products with reduced eye formation. Their morphologies, restriction profiles, host ranges and long-term survival rates (25°C, 8°C, -20°C and -80°C) were analysed. Based on restriction analysis, six of them were further examined regarding resistance to physical (heat and high pressure homogenization, HPH) and chemical treatments (ethanol, sodium hypochlorite, peracetic acid, biocides A, C, E and F). According to their morphology, L. mesenteroides phages studied in the present work belonged to the Caudovirales order and Siphoviridae family. Six distinct restriction patterns were obtained with EcoRV, HindIII, ClaI and XhoI enzymes, revealing interesting phage diversity in the dairy environment. No significant reductions in phage counts were observed after ten months of storage at -20°C and -80°C, while slightly and moderate decrease in phage numbers were noticed at 8°C and 25°C, respectively. The phages subjected to heat treatments generally showed high resistance at 63°C and moderate resistance at 72°C. However, 80°C for 30 min and 90°C for 2 min led to complete inactivation of viral particles. In general, the best ethanol concentration tested was 75%, as complete inactivation for most Leuconostoc phages within 30 min of incubation was achieved. Peracetic acid, and biocides A, C, E and F were highly effective when used at the same or at a moderately lower concentration as recommended by the producer. Usually, moderate or high concentrations (600-1,600 ppm) of sodium hypochlorite were necessary to completely inactivate phage particles. Leuconostoc phages were partially inactivated by HPH treatments as remaining viral particles were found even after 8 passes at 100 MPa. This is the first report of L. mesenteroides phages isolated from an Argentinean dairy cheese plant. The results of this work could be useful for establishing the most effective physical and

  20. Behavioural and Genetic Evidence for C. elegans' Ability to Detect Volatile Chemicals Associated with Explosives

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chunyan; Gock, Andrew; Michie, Michelle; Morton, Bethany; Anderson, Alisha; Trowell, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background Automated standoff detection and classification of explosives based on their characteristic vapours would be highly desirable. Biologically derived odorant receptors have potential as the explosive recognition element in novel biosensors. Caenorhabditis elegans' genome contains over 1,000 uncharacterised candidate chemosensory receptors. It was not known whether any of these respond to volatile chemicals derived from or associated with explosives. Methodology/Principal Findings We assayed C. elegans for chemotactic responses to chemical vapours of explosives and compounds associated with explosives. C. elegans failed to respond to many of the explosive materials themselves but showed strong chemotaxis with a number of compounds associated with commercial or homemade explosives. Genetic mutant strains were used to identify the likely neuronal location of a putative receptor responding to cyclohexanone, which is a contaminant of some compounded explosives, and to identify the specific transduction pathway involved. Upper limits on the sensitivity of the nematode were calculated. A sensory adaptation protocol was used to estimate the receptive range of the receptor. Conclusions/Significance: The results suggest that C. elegans may be a convenient source of highly sensitive, narrowly tuned receptors to detect a range of explosive-associated volatiles. PMID:20830309

  1. Search for associations containing young stars (SACY). II. Chemical abundances of stars in 11 young associations in the solar neighborhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana Almeida, P.; Santos, N. C.; Melo, C.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Torres, C. A. O.; Quast, G. R.; Gameiro, J. F.; Sterzik, M.

    2009-07-01

    The recently discovered coeval, moving groups of young stellar objects in the solar neighborhood represent invaluable laboratories for studying recent star formation and searching for high metallicity stars that can be included in future exo-planet surveys. In this study, we derived through an uniform and homogeneous method stellar atmospheric parameters and abundances for iron, silicium, and nickel in 63 post-T Tauri stars from 11 nearby young associations. We further compare the results with two different pre-main sequence (PMS) and main sequence (MS) star populations. The stellar atmospheric parameters and the abundances presented here were derived using the equivalent width of individual lines in the stellar spectra by assuming the excitation/ionization equilibrium of iron. Moreover, we compared the observed Balmer lines with synthetic profiles calculated for model atmospheres with a different line-formation code. We found that the synthetic profiles agree reasonably well with the observed profiles, although the Balmer lines of many stars are substantially filled-in, probably by chromospheric emission. Solar metallicity is found to be a common trend in all the nearby young associations studied. The low abundance dispersion within each association strengthens the idea that the origin of these nearby young associations is related to the nearby star-forming regions (SFR). Abundances of elements other than iron are consistent with previous results for Main Sequence stars in the solar neighborhood. The chemical characterization of the members of the newly found nearby young associations, performed in this study and intended to proceed in subsequent works, is essential to understanding and testing the context of local star formation and the evolutionary history of the galaxy. Based on observations collected with the UVES spectrograph at the VLT/UT2 8.2-m Kueyen Telescope (ESO run ID. 079.C-0556(A)) at the Paranal Observatory, Chile. Tables 1, 2 and 5 are only

  2. Occupational Injuries in Ohio Wood Product Manufacturing: A Descriptive Analysis With Emphasis on Saw-Related Injuries and Associated Causes

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Lindsay; Harris, James R.; Collins, James W.; Current, Richard S.; Amendola, Alfred A.; Meyers, Alysha R.; Wurzelbacher, Steven J.; Lampl, Mike; Bertke, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stationary sawing machinery is often a basic tool in the wood product manufacturing industry and was the source for over 2,500 injury/illness events that resulted in days away from work in 2010. Methods We examined 9 years of workers’ compensation claims for the state of Ohio in wood product manufacturing with specific attention to saw-related claims. For the study period, 8,547 claims were evaluated; from this group, 716 saw-related cases were examined. Results The sawmills and wood preservation sub-sector experienced a 71% reduction in average incidence rate and an 87% reduction in average lost-time incidence rate from 2001 to 2009. The top three injury category descriptions for lost-time incidents within saw-related claims were fracture (35.8%), open wounds (29.6%), and amputation (14.8%). Conclusions For saw-related injuries, preventing blade contact remains important but securing the work piece to prevent kickback is also important. PMID:25123487

  3. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  4. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  5. Fatalities associated with ingestion of diethylene glycol-contaminated glycerin used to manufacture acetaminophen syrup--Haiti, November 1995-June 1996.

    PubMed

    1996-08-01

    From November 1995 through June 1996, acute anuric renal failure was diagnosed in 86 children (aged 3 months-13 years) in Haiti; most (85%) children were aged < or = 5 years. On June 14, 1996, a joint investigation was initiated by the Ministry of Health of Haiti, the University General Hospital in Port-au-Prince, the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the Caribbean Epidemiology Center, and CDC. This report summarizes the preliminary findings of this ongoing investigation, which indicate that this outbreak was associated with diethylene glycol (DEG)-contaminated glycerin used to manufacture acetaminophen syrup. PMID:8769471

  6. Thermoreversible associating polymer networks. I. Interplay of thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, and polymer physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Robert S.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.

    2009-12-01

    Hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo simulations are used to study melts of unentangled, thermoreversibly associating supramolecular polymers. In this first of a series of papers, we describe and validate a model that is effective in separating the effects of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics on the dynamics and mechanics of these systems, and is extensible to arbitrarily nonequilibrium situations and nonlinear mechanical properties. We examine the model's quiescent (and heterogeneous) dynamics, nonequilibrium chemical dynamics, and mechanical properties. Many of our results may be understood in terms of the crossover from diffusion-limited to kinetically limited sticky bond recombination, which both influences and is influenced by polymer physics, i.e., the connectivity of the parent chains.

  7. Association between occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures and farmer health in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xusheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Li, Yifan; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the associations of farmers’ exposure to organophosphates (OPs), organosulfurs (OSs), organonitrogens (ONs) and pyrethroids (PYRs) with parameters of the blood complete counts (CBC), a blood chemistry panel (BCP) and the conventional nerve conduction studies among 224 farmers in China in 2012. Two health examinations and a series of follow-up field surveys were conducted. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations. The results show considerable associations between multiple groups of pesticides and several CBC parameters, but it was not enough to provide evidence of hematological disorders. The short- and medium-term OPs exposures were mainly associated with liver damage and peripheral nerve impairment, respectively, while OSs exposure might induce liver damage and renal dysfunction. The neurotoxicity of ONs was second only to OPs in addition to its potential liver damage and the induced alterations in glucose. In comparison, the estimated results show that PYRs would be the least toxic in terms of the low-dose application. In conclusion, occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures are associated with farmer health in different patterns, and the association between a specific group of pesticides and farmer health also differs between the short- and medium-term exposures. PMID:27117655

  8. Association between occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures and farmer health in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xusheng; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Li, Yifan; Yin, Yanhong; Chen, Zhaohui; Cai, Jinyang; Cui, Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the associations of farmers' exposure to organophosphates (OPs), organosulfurs (OSs), organonitrogens (ONs) and pyrethroids (PYRs) with parameters of the blood complete counts (CBC), a blood chemistry panel (BCP) and the conventional nerve conduction studies among 224 farmers in China in 2012. Two health examinations and a series of follow-up field surveys were conducted. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations. The results show considerable associations between multiple groups of pesticides and several CBC parameters, but it was not enough to provide evidence of hematological disorders. The short- and medium-term OPs exposures were mainly associated with liver damage and peripheral nerve impairment, respectively, while OSs exposure might induce liver damage and renal dysfunction. The neurotoxicity of ONs was second only to OPs in addition to its potential liver damage and the induced alterations in glucose. In comparison, the estimated results show that PYRs would be the least toxic in terms of the low-dose application. In conclusion, occupational exposures to pesticides with heterogeneous chemical structures are associated with farmer health in different patterns, and the association between a specific group of pesticides and farmer health also differs between the short- and medium-term exposures. PMID:27117655

  9. An Informatics Approach to Evaluating Combined Chemical Exposures from Consumer Products: A Case Study of Asthma-Associated Chemicals and Potential Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Gabb, Henry A.; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Simultaneous or sequential exposure to multiple environmental stressors can affect chemical toxicity. Cumulative risk assessments consider multiple stressors but it is impractical to test every chemical combination to which people are exposed. New methods are needed to prioritize chemical combinations based on their prevalence and possible health impacts. Objectives: We introduce an informatics approach that uses publicly available data to identify chemicals that co-occur in consumer products, which account for a significant proportion of overall chemical load. Methods: Fifty-five asthma-associated and endocrine disrupting chemicals (target chemicals) were selected. A database of 38,975 distinct consumer products and 32,231 distinct ingredient names was created from online sources, and PubChem and the Unified Medical Language System were used to resolve synonymous ingredient names. Synonymous ingredient names are different names for the same chemical (e.g., vitamin E and tocopherol). Results: Nearly one-third of the products (11,688 products, 30%) contained ≥ 1 target chemical and 5,229 products (13%) contained > 1. Of the 55 target chemicals, 31 (56%) appear in ≥ 1 product and 19 (35%) appear under more than one name. The most frequent three-way chemical combination (2-phenoxyethanol, methyl paraben, and ethyl paraben) appears in 1,059 products. Further work is needed to assess combined chemical exposures related to the use of multiple products. Conclusions: The informatics approach increased the number of products considered in a traditional analysis by two orders of magnitude, but missing/incomplete product labels can limit the effectiveness of this approach. Such an approach must resolve synonymy to ensure that chemicals of interest are not missed. Commonly occurring chemical combinations can be used to prioritize cumulative toxicology risk assessments. Citation: Gabb HA, Blake C. 2016. An informatics approach to evaluating combined chemical

  10. Developments in Agile Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Clinesmith, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    As part of a project design initiative, Sandia National Laboratories and AlliedSignal Inc. Kansas City Division have joined efforts to develop a concurrent engineering capability for the manufacturing of complex precision components. The primary effort of this project, called Agile Manufacturing, is directed toward: (1) Understand the error associated with manufacturing and inspection. (2) Develop methods for correcting error. (3) Integrate diverse software technologies into a compatible process. The Agile Manufacturing System (AMS) is a system that integrates product design, manufacturing, and inspection into a closed loop, concurrent engineering process. The goal of developing the Agile Manufacturing System is to: (1) Optimize accuracy in manufacturing and inspection. (A) Use of softgage software for product evaluation. This will ensure ANSI Y14.5 compliance. (B) Establish and monitor bias between CMM and machine center. (C) Map probe deflection error and apply correction to inspection results. This applies to both on machine probing and CMM inspections. (D) Inspection process. (2) Compress the cycle time from product concept to production level manufacturing and verification. (3) Create a self-correcting process that feeds inspection results back into the machining process. (4) Link subordinate processes (cutting/probing path, softgage model, etc.) to the solid model definition.

  11. Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2011-01-15

    This review paper summarizes the existing knowledge on the chemical hazards associated with recycling and other end-of-life treatment options of waste electrical and electronic equipment (e-waste). The hazards arise from the presence of heavy metals (e.g., mercury, cadmium, lead, etc.), flame retardants (e.g., pentabromophenol, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), etc.) and other potentially harmful substances in e-waste. If improperly managed, the substances may pose significant human and environmental health risks. The review describes the potentially hazardous content of e-waste, examines the existing e-waste management practices and presents scientific data on human exposure to chemicals, workplace and environmental pollution associated with the three major e-waste management options, i.e., recycling, incineration and landfilling. The existing e-waste management practices and associated hazards are reviewed separately for developed and developing countries. Finally, based on this review, the paper identifies gaps in the existing knowledge and makes some recommendations for future research.

  12. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  13. Dairy maturation of milk used in the manufacture of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese: effects on physico-chemical characteristics, rennet-coagulation aptitude and rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Malacarne, Massimo; Summer, Andrea; Formaggioni, Paolo; Franceschi, Piero; Sandri, Sandro; Pecorari, Mauro; Vecchia, Paola; Mariani, Primo

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effects of dairy maturation on the physico-chemical characteristics and technological properties of milk used for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese manufacture. Three different operating conditions (CF1, CF2 and CF3) were considered. Full cream milk from the evening milking was stored on the farm and delivered to the cheese factory in churns (CF1) or in thermoregulated tanks at a temperature not lower than 18 degrees C (CF2 and CF3). The natural creaming (10-12 h overnight) was performed in a traditional large flat vat containing 10-12 hl (CF1 and CF2) or in thermoregulated large flat vats containing 60 hl at about 15 degrees C (CF3). Twenty-four, 24 and 22 maturation trials were performed in CF1, CF2, and CF3, respectively, during 2 consecutive years. A significant increase (P

  14. Particle size and chemical constituents of ambient particulate pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hualiang; Tao, Jun; Du, Yaodong; Liu, Tao; Qian, Zhengmin; Tian, Linwei; Di, Qian; Rutherford, Shannon; Guo, Lingchuan; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; He, Zhihui; Xu, Yanjun; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    Though significant associations between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and cardiovascular diseases have been widely reported, it remains unclear what characteristics, such as particle size and chemical constituents, may be responsible for the effects. A time-series model was applied to examine the cardiovascular effects of particle size (for the period of 2009-2011) and chemical constituents (2007-2010) in Guangzhou, we controlled for potential confounders in the model, such as time trends, day of the week, public holidays, meteorological factors and influenza epidemic. We found significant associations of cardiovascular mortality with PM10, PM2.5 and PM1; the excess risk (ER) was 6.10% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%), 6.11% (95% CI: 1.76%, 10.64%) and 6.48% (95% CI: 2.10%, 11.06%) for per IQR increase in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at moving averages for the current day and the previous 3 days (lag03), respectively. We did not find significant effects of PM2.5-10 and PM1-2.5. For PM2.5 constituents, we found that organic carbon, elemental carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were significantly associated with cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding ER for an IQR concentration increase at lag03 was 1.13% (95% CI: 0.10%, 2.17%), 2.77% (95% CI: 0.72%, 4.86%), 2.21% (95% CI: 1.05%, 3.38%), 1.98% (95% CI: 0.54%, 3.44%), and 3.38% (95% CI: 1.56%, 5.23%), respectively. These results were robust to adjustment of other air pollutants and they remained consistent in various sensitivity analyses by changing model parameters. Our study suggests that PM1 and constituents from combustion and secondary aerosols might be important characteristics of PM pollution associated with cardiovascular mortality in Guangzhou. PMID:26561449

  15. Associations between employee and manager gender: impacts on gender-specific risk of acute occupational injury in metal manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown increased risk of injury for female employees compared to male employees after controlling for job and tasks, but have not explored whether this increased risk might be moderated by manager gender. The gender of one’s manager could in theory affect injury rates among male and female employees through their managers’ response to an employee’s psychosocial stress or through how employees differentially report injuries. Other explanations for the gender disparity in injury experience, such as ergonomic factors or differential training, are unlikely to be impacted by supervisor gender. This study seeks to explore whether an employee’s manager’s gender modifies the effect of employee gender with regards to risk of acute injury. Methods A cohort of employees and managers were identified using human resources and injury management data between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2007 for six facilities of a large US aluminum manufacturing company. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to examine the interaction between employee gender and whether the employee had female only manager(s), male only manager(s), or both male and female managers on injury risk. Manager gender category was included as a time varying covariate and reassessed for each employee at the midpoint of each year. Results The percentage of departments with both female and male managers increased dramatically during the study period due to corporate efforts to increase female representation in management. After adjustment for fixed effects at the facility level and shared frailty by department, manager gender category does not appear to moderate the effect of employee gender (p = 0.717). Manager category was not a significant predictor (p = 0.093) of time to first acute injury. Similarly, having at least one female manager did not modify the hazard of injury for female employees compared to males (p = 0.899) and was not a significant predictor

  16. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing. PMID:25898070

  17. Microbial and chemical composition of liquid-associated bacteria in goats' rumen and fermenters.

    PubMed

    Abecia, L; Soto, E C; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between chemical composition and microbial profile of rumen liquid-associated bacteria (LAB) in vivo (Murciano-Granadina goats) and in a rumen simulation system (single-flow continuous-culture fermenters). To achieve this aim, analyses of purine bases along with some molecular techniques (quantitative PCR to assess abundance and DGGE to identify biodiversity and bacterial profile) were carried out. A control diet (AHC) based on alfalfa hay (AH) and concentrate (C) in a 1:1 ratio and two experimental diets (AHCBI and AHCBII), in which concentrate was partially replaced with multinutrient blocks, were used. Diets AHCBI and AHCBII included multinutrient blocks differing in the relative amount of two-stage olive cake and the source of protein (sunflower meal vs. fava beans). We aimed to investigate the effect of these blocks on rumen microbiota to evaluate their potential as safe substitutes of cereal-based concentrates. Similar patterns of response to diet were found for chemical composition, microbial abundances and diversity in LAB isolated from goat's rumen and fermenters. Whereas bacterial density (log10 gene copies/g FM: 11.6 and 9.4 for bacteria and methanogens, respectively, in rumen) and diversity indexes (Shannon index: 3.6) were not affected by diet, DGGE analyses showed that bacterial community profile was affected. The cluster analysis suggested differences in bacterial profile between LAB pellets isolated from the rumen of goat and fermenters. A relationship between chemical composition and bacterial community composition in LAB pellets seems to exist. Changes in the former were reflected in the bacterial community profile. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between chemical and microbial composition of ruminal bacterial pellets with diets of different quality. PMID:24460876

  18. Associations of chemical tracers and faecal indicator bacteria in a tropical urban catchment.

    PubMed

    Ekklesia, E; Shanahan, P; Chua, L H C; Eikaas, H S

    2015-05-15

    Surface water contamination by human faecal wastes is a widespread hazard for human health. Faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are the most widely used indicators to assess surface water quality but are less-human-specific and have the potential to survive longer and/or occur naturally in tropical areas. In this study, 13 wastewater chemicals (chloride, boron, orthosphophate, detergents as methylene blue active substances, cholesterol, cholestanol, coprostanol, diethylhexyl phthalate, caffeine, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, sucralose and saccharin) were investigated in order to evaluate tracers for human faecal and sewage contamination in tropical urban catchments. Surface water samples were collected at an hourly interval from sampling locations with distinct major land uses: high-density residential, low-density residential, commercial and industrial. Measured concentrations were analysed to investigate the association among indicators and tracers for each land-use category. Better correlations were found between different indicators and tracers in each land-use dataset than in the dataset for all land uses, which shows that land use is an important determinant of drain water quality. Data were further segregated based on the hourly FIB concentrations. There were better correlations between FIB and chemical tracers when FIB concentrations were higher. Therefore, sampling programs must be designed carefully to take the time of sampling and land use into account in order to effectively assess human faecal and sewage contamination in urban catchments. FIB is recommended as the first tier in assessment of surface water quality impairment and chemical tracers as the second tier. Acetaminophen and coprostanol are recommended as chemical tracers for high-density residential areas, while chloride, coprostanol and caffeine are recommended for low-density residential areas. PMID:25770447

  19. 76 FR 59998 - Notice of Intent To Suspend the Postharvest Chemical Use Survey and All Associated Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Postharvest Chemical Use Survey and All Associated Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  20. 76 FR 71310 - Notice of Intent To Reduce the Frequency of Chemical Use Surveys and All Associated Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Reduce the Frequency of Chemical Use Surveys and All Associated Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  1. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  2. Chemical Nature and Turnover of Carbon Associated with Diagnostic Aggregate Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six, J.

    2004-12-01

    Recently, many studies have shown the importance of aggregation in controlling soil organic C dynamics and storage. Nevertheless, very few studies have characterized the chemical nature of aggregated associated C fractions to elucidate the origin and degree of microbial alteration of these C fractions. Here, I summarize several studies employing biomarker analyses for plant-derived lignin, bacterial-derived muramic acid, and fungal-derived glucosamine to aggregate associated C fractions. A comparison of different particulate organic matter (POM) fractions indicated that fine POM occluded within microaggregates-within-macroaggregates (mM) had the greatest amino sugar content, greatest ratio of glucosamine over muramic acid, and lowest phenolic CuO oxidation products. The latter result suggest that the fine POM is the most degraded POM fraction, which was confirmed by C isotope analyses. However, side chain oxidation of lignin compounds of fine POM was intermediate, suggesting an average microbial alteration of lignin. These results suggest a significant microbial contribution, especially fungal, to this relative older C fraction protected within the mM. Carbon and isotopic analyses of the mM confirmed that this structural unit within the soil protects C from fast decomposition and facilitates the long-term stabilization of C in undisturbed soil. Furthermore, amino sugar analyses indicated that microbial-derived C is stabilized in the mM, due primarily to a greater fungal-mediated improvement of soil structural stability and concurrent deposition of fungal-derived C. In conclusion, the characterizing the chemical nature and turnover of aggregate associated C fractions elucidated that the mM fraction plays an important role in the long term stabilization of C and seems to be an ideal indicator or diagnostic fraction for C sequestration potential in soils.

  3. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  4. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  5. CHEMICAL STORAGE: MYTHS VERSUS REALITY

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    2007-03-19

    A large number of resources explaining proper chemical storage are available. These resources include books, databases/tables, and articles that explain various aspects of chemical storage including compatible chemical storage, signage, and regulatory requirements. Another source is the chemical manufacturer or distributor who provides storage information in the form of icons or color coding schemes on container labels. Despite the availability of these resources, chemical accidents stemming from improper storage, according to recent reports (1) (2), make up almost 25% of all chemical accidents. This relatively high percentage of chemical storage accidents suggests that these publications and color coding schemes although helpful, still provide incomplete information that may not completely mitigate storage risks. This manuscript will explore some ways published storage information may be incomplete, examine the associated risks, and suggest methods to help further eliminate chemical storage risks.

  6. Association of allergic asthma emergency room visits with the main biological and chemical air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Makra, László; Matyasovszky, István; Bálint, Beatrix

    2012-08-15

    Joint effect of biological (pollen) and chemical air pollutants on asthma emergency room (ER) visits was analyzed for Szeged region of Southern Hungary. Our database of a nine-year period (1999-2007) includes daily number of asthma emergency room (ER) visits, and daily mean concentrations of CO, PM(10), NO, NO(2), O(3) and SO(2), furthermore two pollen variables (Ambrosia and total pollen excluding Ambrosia), as well. The analysis was performed for ER visits of asthma bronchiale using two age groups (adults and the elderly) of males and females for three seasons. Factor analysis was performed in order to clarify the relative importance of the pollutant variables affecting asthma ER visits. Asthma ER visits denote notably stronger associations with the pollutants in adult male than in adult female patients both for the pollen season of Ambrosia and the pollen-free season. Furthermore, adults are substantially more sensitive to severe asthma attack than the elderly for the season of total pollen excluding Ambrosia pollen. The joint effect of the chemical and pollen variables is the highest for the asthma ER cases in the pollen season of Ambrosia, basically due to the extra impact of the total pollen excluding Ambrosia pollen and partly due to Ambrosia pollen. A nonparametric regression technique was applied to discriminate between events of ER visit-no ER visit using pollen and chemical pollutants as explaining variables. Based on multiple correlations, the strongest relationships between ER visits and pollutants are observed during the pollen-free season. The elderly group with asthma bronchiale is characterized by weaker relationships between ER visits and pollutants compared to adults. Ratio of the number of correct decisions on the events of ER visit-no ER visit is lowest for the season of total pollen excluding Ambrosia pollen. Otherwise, similar conclusions hold as those received by multiple correlations. PMID:22750174

  7. Physico-chemical properties of quartz from industrial manufacturing and its cytotoxic effects on alveolar macrophages: The case of green sand mould casting for iron production.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, Francesco; Gazzano, Elena; Tomatis, Maura; Turci, Francesco; Pardi, Luca A; Bronco, Simona; Fornaciai, Gabriele; Innocenti, Massimo; Montegrossi, Giordano; Muniz Miranda, Maurizio; Zoleo, Alfonso; Capacci, Fabio; Fubini, Bice; Ghigo, Dario; Romanelli, Maurizio

    2016-07-15

    Industrial processing of materials containing quartz induces physico-chemical modifications that contribute to the variability of quartz hazard in different plants. Here, modifications affecting a quartz-rich sand during cast iron production, have been investigated. Composition, morphology, presence of radicals associated to quartz and reactivity in free radical generation were studied on a raw sand and on a dust recovered after mould dismantling. Additionally, cytotoxicity of the processed dust and ROS and NO generation were evaluated on MH-S macrophages. Particle morphology and size were marginally affected by casting processing, which caused only a slight increase of the amount of respirable fraction. The raw sand was able to catalyze OH and CO2(-) generation in cell-free test, even if in a lesser extent than the reference quartz (Min-U-Sil), and shows hAl radicals, conventionally found in any quartz-bearing raw materials. Enrichment in iron and extensive coverage with amorphous carbon were observed during processing. They likely contributed, respectively, to increasing the ability of processed dust to release CO2- and to suppressing OH generation respect to the raw sand. Carbon coverage and repeated thermal treatments during industrial processing also caused annealing of radiogenic hAl defects. Finally, no cellular responses were observed with the respirable fraction of the processed powder. PMID:27015375

  8. A Precise Chemical Strategy To Alter the Receptor Specificity of the Adeno-Associated Virus.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Rachel E; Mukherjee, Raja; Cao, Xiaofu; Erickson, Sarah B; Zheng, Yunan; Chatterjee, Abhishek

    2016-08-26

    The ability to target the adeno-associated virus (AAV) to specific types of cells, by altering the cell-surface receptor it binds, is desirable to generate safe and efficient therapeutic vectors. Chemical attachment of receptor-targeting agents onto the AAV capsid holds potential to alter its tropism, but is limited by the lack of site specificity of available conjugation strategies. The development of an AAV production platform is reported that enables incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into specific sites on the virus capsid. Incorporation of an azido-UAA enabled site-specific attachment of a cyclic-RGD peptide onto the capsid, retargeting the virus to the αv β3 integrin receptors, which are overexpressed in tumor vasculature. Retargeting ability was site-dependent, underscoring the importance of achieving site-selective capsid modification. This work provides a general chemical approach to introduce various receptor binding agents onto the AAV capsid with site selectivity to generate optimized vectors with engineered infectivity. PMID:27483453

  9. Radon: Chemical and physical processes associated with its distribution. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.

    1992-12-01

    Assessing the mechanisms which govern the distribution, fate, and pathways of entry into biological systems, as well as the ultimate hazards associated with the radon progeny and their secondary reaction products, depends on knowledge of their chemistry. Our studies are directed toward developing fundamental information which will provide a basis for modeling studies that are requisite in obtaining a complete picture of growth, attachment to aerosols, and transport to the bioreceptor and ultimate incorporation within. Our program is divided into three major areas of research. These include measurement of the determination of their mobilities, study of the role of radon progeny ions in affecting reactions, including study of the influence of the degree of solvation (clustering), and examination of the important secondary reaction products, with particular attention to processes leading to chemical conversion of either the core ions or the ligands as a function of the degree of clustering.

  10. Manufacturing consumption of energy 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides estimates on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector of the U.S. economy based on data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey. The sample used in this report represented about 250,000 of the largest manufacturing establishments which account for approximately 98 percent of U.S. economic output from manufacturing, and an expected similar proportion of manufacturing energy use. The amount of energy use was collected for all operations of each establishment surveyed. Highlights of the report include profiles for the four major energy-consuming industries (petroleum refining, chemical, paper, and primary metal industries), and an analysis of the effects of changes in the natural gas and electricity markets on the manufacturing sector. Seven appendices are included to provide detailed background information. 10 figs., 51 tabs.

  11. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil at the Former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company Site, Fairfield, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Faillace, E.R.; Nimmagadda, M.; Yu, C.

    1995-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the former Associate Aircraft Tool and Manufacturing Company site in Fairfield, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Single-nuclide and total-uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that, after remedial action, the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual living or working in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed (1) 30 mrem/yr for the current-use and likely future-use scenarios or (2) 100 mrem/yr for less likely future-use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material (RESRAD) computer code, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation.

  12. Microgravity Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing capability in outer space remains one of the critical milestones to surpass to allow humans to conduct long-duration manned space exploration. The high cost-to-orbit for leaving the Earth's gravitational field continues to be the limiting factor in carrying sufficient hardware to maintain extended life support in microgravity or on other planets. Additive manufacturing techniques, or 'chipless' fabrication, like RP are being considered as the most promising technologies for achieving in situ or remote processing of hardware components, as well as for the repair of existing hardware. At least three RP technologies are currently being explored for use in microgravity and extraterrestrial fabrication.

  13. Obesity, Diabetes, and Associated Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Legler, Juliette; Fletcher, Tony; Govarts, Eva; Porta, Miquel; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Obesity and diabetes are epidemic in the European Union (EU). Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is increasingly recognized as a contributor, independent of diet and physical activity. Objective: The objective was to estimate obesity, diabetes, and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the EU. Design: An expert panel evaluated evidence for probability of causation using weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from that applied by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized published cost estimates for childhood obesity, adult obesity, and adult diabetes. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was performed from the societal perspective. Results: The panel identified a 40% to 69% probability of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 1555 cases of overweight at age 10 (sensitivity analysis: 1555–5463) in 2010 with associated costs of €24.6 million (sensitivity analysis: €24.6–86.4 million). A 20% to 39% probability was identified for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene causing 28 200 cases of adult diabetes (sensitivity analysis: 28 200–56 400) with associated costs of €835 million (sensitivity analysis: €835 million–16.6 billion). The panel also identified a 40% to 69% probability of phthalate exposure causing 53 900 cases of obesity in older women and €15.6 billion in associated costs. Phthalate exposure was also found to have a 40% to 69% probability of causing 20 500 new-onset cases of diabetes in older women with €607 million in associated costs. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure was identified to have a 20% to 69% probability of causing 42 400 cases of childhood obesity, with associated lifetime costs of €1.54 billion

  14. Effect of chemical etching and aging in boiling water on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol wires with black oxide resulting from manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Shabalovskaya, S; Rondelli, G; Anderegg, J; Simpson, B; Budko, S

    2003-07-15

    The effect of chemical etching in a HF/HNO(3) acid solution and aging in boiling water on the corrosion resistance of Nitinol wires with black oxide has been evaluated with the use of potentiodynamic, modified potentiostatic ASTM F746, and scratch tests. Scanning-electron microscopy, elemental XPS, and Auger analysis were employed to characterize surface alterations induced by surface treatment and corrosion testing. The effect of aging in boiling water on the temperatures of martensitic transformations and shape recovery was evaluated by means of measuring the wire electroresistance. After corrosion tests, as-received wires revealed uniformly cracked surfaces reminiscent of the stress-corrosion-cracking phenomenon. These wires exhibited negative breakdown potentials in potentiostatic tests and variable breakdown potentials in potentiodynamic tests (- 100 mV to + 400 mV versus SCE). Wires with treated surfaces did not reveal cracking or other traces of corrosion attacks in potentiodynamic tests up to + 900-1400-mV potentials and no pitting after stimulation at + 800 mV in potentiostatic tests. They exhibited corrosion behavior satisfactory for medical applications. Significant improvement of corrosion parameters was observed on the reverse scans in potentiodynamic tests after exposure of treated wires to potentials > 1000 mV. In scratch tests, the prepared surfaces repassivated only at low potentials, comparable to that of stainless steel. Tremendous improvement of the corrosion behavior of treated Nitinol wires is associated with the removal of defect surface material and the growth of stable TiO(2) oxide. The role of precipitates in the corrosion resistance of Nitinol-scratch repassivation capacity in particular-is emphasized in the discussion. PMID:12808592

  15. Associations of polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and endogenous hormones with diabetes in post-menopausal women previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel; McCann, Kenneth

    2011-08-01

    There is an increasing body of literature showing associations of organochlorine exposure with risk of diabetes and insulin resistance. Some studies suggest that associations differ by gender and that diabetes risk, in turn, may be affected by endogenous steroid hormones. This report examines the relationships of serum PCBs and endogenous hormones with history of diabetes in a cohort of persons previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant. A total of 118 women were post-menopausal with complete data, of whom 93 were not using steroid hormones in 1996, at the time of examination, which included a survey of exposure and medical history, height, weight and collection of blood and urine for measurements of lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. This analysis examines relationships of serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), work exposure and endogenous hormones with self-reported history of diabetes after control for potential confounders. All PCB exposure groups were significantly related to history of diabetes, but not to insulin resistance as measured by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetics. Diabetes was also independently and inversely associated with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and triiodothyronine (T3) uptake. HOMA-IR was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and inversely associated with sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and T3 uptake after control for PCB exposure. Possible biologic mechanisms are discussed. This study confirms previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggests possible hormonal pathways deserving further exploration. PMID:21684538

  16. Estimating the Potential Toxicity of Chemicals Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations Using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Modeling.

    PubMed

    Yost, Erin E; Stanek, John; DeWoskin, Robert S; Burgoon, Lyle D

    2016-07-19

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified 1173 chemicals associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids, flowback, or produced water, of which 1026 (87%) lack chronic oral toxicity values for human health assessments. To facilitate the ranking and prioritization of chemicals that lack toxicity values, it may be useful to employ toxicity estimates from quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. Here we describe an approach for applying the results of a QSAR model from the TOPKAT program suite, which provides estimates of the rat chronic oral lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL). Of the 1173 chemicals, TOPKAT was able to generate LOAEL estimates for 515 (44%). To address the uncertainty associated with these estimates, we assigned qualitative confidence scores (high, medium, or low) to each TOPKAT LOAEL estimate, and found 481 to be high-confidence. For 48 chemicals that had both a high-confidence TOPKAT LOAEL estimate and a chronic oral reference dose from EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database, Spearman rank correlation identified 68% agreement between the two values (permutation p-value =1 × 10(-11)). These results provide support for the use of TOPKAT LOAEL estimates in identifying and prioritizing potentially hazardous chemicals. High-confidence TOPKAT LOAEL estimates were available for 389 of 1026 hydraulic fracturing-related chemicals that lack chronic oral RfVs and OSFs from EPA-identified sources, including a subset of chemicals that are frequently used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. PMID:27172125

  17. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  18. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  19. Associations between self-reported odour annoyance and volatile organic compounds in 'Chemical Valley', Sarnia, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Atari, Dominic Odwa; Luginaah, Isaac N; Gorey, Kevin; Xu, Xiaohong; Fung, Karen

    2013-06-01

    Annoyance produced by air pollution has been suggested as a useful proxy for determining ambient air pollution exposure. However, most of the studies, to date, have focused on nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide, with no work done on volatile organic compounds (VOC). This study is aimed at examining the associations between odour annoyance and VOC in 'Chemical Valley', Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. Annoyance scores were extracted from a community health survey (N = 774), and exposures to VOC were estimated from respondents' six-digit alphanumeric postal codes using land use regression models. Univariate analyses were used to explore the relationships between odour annoyance and modelled pollutants, whilst multivariate ordinal logistic regression was utilized to examine the determinants of odour annoyance. The results indicate that odour annoyance is significantly associated with modelled benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene and (m + p) xylene (BTEX) pollutants. The findings also show that the determinants of odour annoyance in the context of VOC include gender, number of relatives in the community, perception of air pollution, community satisfaction, medical checkups, ability to cope with daily life demands and general symptoms. When compared, the analysis indicates that Sarnia residents respond to considerably lower BTEX concentrations than the allowable 'safe' levels in the province of Ontario. In general, the results exhibit a dose-response gradient with annoyance score increasing with rising modelled pollutant concentrations. The observed relationships suggest that odour annoyance might be a function of true exposure and may serve as a proxy for air quality and ambient air pollution monitoring. However, questionnaire-based odour annoyance scores need to be longitudinally validated across different geographical scales and pollutants if they are to be adopted at the national level. PMID:23014924

  20. Contaminated sediments: Lectures on environmental aspects of particle-associated chemicals in aquatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forstner, U.

    1989-01-01

    Sediments are increasingly recognized as both a carrier and a possible source of contaminants in aquatic systems. Since the early part of the century, limnological research on eutrophication problems and acidification indicated that particle-interactions can affect aquatic ecosystems. In contrast to the eutrophication and acidification problems, research on toxic chemicals has included sediment aspects from its beginning. In the lecture notes, following the description of priority pollutants related to sedimentary phases, four aspects were covered, which in an overlapping succession also reflect the development of knowledge in particle-associated pollutants during the past 25 years: the identification, surveillance, monitoring and control of sources and distribution of pollutants; the evaluation of solid/solution relations of contaminants in surface waters; the study of in-situ processes and mechanisms in pollutant transfer in various compartments of the aquatic ecosystems and, the assessment of the environmental impact of particle-bound contaminants. The last chapter focuses on dredged materials, including their disposal and the treatment of strongly contaminated sediments. Cases studies include the Niagara River/Lake Ontario pollution; solid speciation of metals in river sediments; the Rhine River; Puget Sound; Rotterdam Harbor; and the mobilization of cadmium from tidal river sediments.

  1. Chemical element concentrations in liquids and solids associated with power plants using FGD systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wangen, L.E.; Jones, M.M.

    1981-08-01

    Solid and liquid process steam samples from eight power plants using wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers have been analyzed for the trace elements As, B, Br, Cl, Cd, Co, Cr, F, Ga, I, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Se, Th, U, V, W, and Zn as well as several major and minor elements. Four plants burned high-sulfur coals and three burned low-sulfur coals. One plant used a low-sulfur lignite coal. Four FGD systems used limestone, two used lime, and two used alkaline flyash as scrubbing reagent. Elemental concentration data were used to identify chemical elements of concern regarding their potential for causing environmental harm as a result of the disposal of residues associated with FGD systems. Elemental concentrations were evaluated by the Environmental Protection Agency's minimum acute-toxicity-of-effluents criteria. Calcium, Mg, Mn, Ni, Se, and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ were identified as most generally problematic. The elements B, Cd, F, and Mo were judged as potentially problematic in certain situations. Generally FGD liquors from power plants that burned low-sulfur western coals had highest concentrations of most trace elements.

  2. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database facilitates identification and understanding of chemical-gene-disease associations: arsenic as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Allan P; Murphy, Cynthia G; Rosenstein, Michael C; Wiegers, Thomas C; Mattingly, Carolyn J

    2008-01-01

    Background The etiology of many chronic diseases involves interactions between environmental factors and genes that modulate physiological processes. Understanding interactions between environmental chemicals and genes/proteins may provide insights into the mechanisms of chemical actions, disease susceptibility, toxicity, and therapeutic drug interactions. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; ) provides these insights by curating and integrating data describing relationships between chemicals, genes/proteins, and human diseases. To illustrate the scope and application of CTD, we present an analysis of curated data for the chemical arsenic. Arsenic represents a major global environmental health threat and is associated with many diseases. The mechanisms by which arsenic modulates these diseases are not well understood. Methods Curated interactions between arsenic compounds and genes were downloaded using export and batch query tools at CTD. The list of genes was analyzed for molecular interactions, Gene Ontology (GO) terms, KEGG pathway annotations, and inferred disease relationships. Results CTD contains curated data from the published literature describing 2,738 molecular interactions between 21 different arsenic compounds and 1,456 genes and proteins. Analysis of these genes and proteins provide insight into the biological functions and molecular networks that are affected by exposure to arsenic, including stress response, apoptosis, cell cycle, and specific protein signaling pathways. Integrating arsenic-gene data with gene-disease data yields a list of diseases that may be associated with arsenic exposure and genes that may explain this association. Conclusion CTD data integration and curation strategies yield insight into the actions of environmental chemicals and provide a basis for developing hypotheses about the molecular mechanisms underlying the etiology of environmental diseases. While many reports describe the molecular response to arsenic, CTD

  3. Chemical and chemically-related considerations associated with sluicing tank C-106 waste to tank AY-102

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1997-04-04

    New data on tank 241-C-106 were obtained from grab sampling and from compatibility testing of tank C-106 and tank AY-102 wastes. All chemistry-associated and other compatibility Information compiled in this report strongly suggests that the sluicing of the contents of tank C-106, in accord with appropriate controls, will pose no unacceptable risk to workers, public safety, or the environment. In addition, it is expected that the sluicing operation will successfully resolve the High-Heat Safety Issue for tank C-106.

  4. Radio-Ecological Situation in the Area of the Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association - 13522

    SciTech Connect

    Semenova, M.P.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.; Titov, A.V.; Zhuravleva, L.A.; Marenny, A.M.

    2013-07-01

    'The Priargun Production Mining and Chemical Association' (hereinafter referred to as PPMCA) is a diversified mining company which, in addition to underground mining of uranium ore, carries out refining of such ores in hydrometallurgical process to produce natural uranium oxide. The PPMCA facilities are sources of radiation and chemical contamination of the environment in the areas of their location. In order to establish the strategy and develop criteria for the site remediation, independent radiation hygienic monitoring is being carried out over some years. In particular, this monitoring includes determination of concentration of the main dose-forming nuclides in the environmental media. The subjects of research include: soil, grass and local foodstuff (milk and potato), as well as media of open ponds (water, bottom sediments, water vegetation). We also measured the radon activity concentration inside surface workshops and auxiliaries. We determined the specific activity of the following natural radionuclides: U-238, Th-232, K-40, Ra-226. The researches performed showed that in soil, vegetation, groundwater and local foods sampled in the vicinity of the uranium mines, there is a significant excess of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th content compared to areas outside the zone of influence of uranium mining. The ecological and hygienic situation is as follows: - at health protection zone (HPZ) gamma dose rate outdoors varies within 0.11 to 5.4 μSv/h (The mean value in the reference (background) settlement (Soktui-Molozan village) is 0.14 μSv/h); - gamma dose rate in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 0.14 - 4.3 μSv/h. - the specific activity of natural radionuclides in soil at HPZ reaches 12800 Bq/kg and 510 Bq/kg for Ra-226 and Th-232, respectively. - beyond HPZ the elevated values for {sup 226}Ra have been registered near Lantsovo Lake - 430 Bq/kg; - the radon activity concentration in workshops within HPZ varies over the range 22 - 10800 Bq/m{sup 3}. The

  5. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  6. Utilizing high-throughput bioassays associated with US EPA ToxCast Program to assess biological activity of environmental contaminants: A case study of chemical mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects-based monitoring and surveillance is increasingly being utilized in conjunction with chemical monitoring to determine potential biological activity associated with environmental contaminants. Supervised approaches targeting specific chemical activity or molecular pathways...

  7. Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  8. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  9. Chemical and biological sensing applications of integrated photonics with an introduction to the American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics (AIM Photonics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Justin; Guicheteau, Jason

    2016-05-01

    Integrated photonics affords an opportunity to explore novel sensing and lab-on-a-chip concepts. It offers a route to high sensitivity, high selectivity, and low SWaP-C test systems that can be operated autonomously or by minimallytrained field personnel. We'll introduce the topic, discuss possible sensing modalities, and highlight the advantages and limitations of this technology. We'll also introduce the recent American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics (AIM Photonics), give an overview of its vision and capabilities, how to utilize its Electronic-Photonic Design Automation (EPDA) tools and its Multi-Project Wafer and Assembly (MPWA) services, how to engage in its road mapping efforts, and how to become a contributing member.

  10. Chemical microsensors

    DOEpatents

    Li, DeQuan; Swanson, Basil I.

    1995-01-01

    An article of manufacture is provided including a substrate having an oxide surface layer and a selective thin film of a cyclodextrin derivative chemically bound upon said substrate, said film is adapted for the inclusion of a selected organic compound therewith. Such an article can be either a chemical sensor capable of detecting a resultant mass change from inclusion of the selected organic compound or a chemical separator capable of reversibly selectively separating a selected organic compound.

  11. Chemical characterization of binding properties of opacity-associated protein II from Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Bessen, D; Gotschlich, E C

    1987-01-01

    Binding of an opacity-associated protein II (PIIop) from Neisseria gonorrhoeae to eucaryotic macromolecules was studied. HeLa cell extracts were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose, and purified PIIop bound to approximately 50 distinct molecular species. The binding of PIIop to HeLa cell components was stable in high salt and nonionic detergent and was not inhibited by a variety of monosaccharides and polyionic substances. PIIop binding behavior was compared with that of two model carbohydrate-binding proteins, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and concanavalin A (ConA). Model glycoproteins (ovomucoid, fetuin, mucin, ovalbumin) inhibited binding by PIIop, WGA, and ConA to various degrees. HeLa cell glycopeptides, generated by pronase digestion of chloroform-methanol-extracted cells, were tested for their ability to inhibit binding by PIIop to Western blots of HeLa cell macromolecules. HeLa cell extracts inhibited PIIop binding before pronase treatment, but inhibitory activity was lost as a result of pronase digestion. Direct binding to defined glycosylated and nonglycosylated proteins revealed that ConA and WGA bound only glycoproteins, whereas PIIop bound to proteins lacking carbohydrate as well. PIIop binding to human and bovine serum albumins was of high affinity and required partial unfolding of albumin; native albumin was not bound by PIIop; however, both the denatured, reduced form of albumin and the compact, nonreduced form of carboxymethylated albumin were bound strongly by PIIop. Albumin-PIIop interaction did not involve covalent bond formation through sulfhydryl groups. The predominant binding interactions of PIIop found in this study were with protein rather than carbohydrate, and the chemical nature of the interactions is more complex than involvement of purely ionic or hydrophobic forces. Images PMID:3098683

  12. Studies of the chemical mixing state of sea spray aerosol and associated climate relevant properties (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, K. A.; Bertram, T. H.; Grassian, V. H.; Collins, D. B.; Ault, A. P.; Ruppel, M. J.; Axson, J. L.; Ryder, O. S.; Schill, S.

    2013-12-01

    The ocean plays a large but highly uncertain role in affecting clouds and climate, generating sea spray aerosols that can directly impact climate by scattering solar radiation and indirectly through nucleating clouds. A tremendous amount has been learned about these interactions over decades of marine studies, however the goal of establishing robust relationships between seawater composition and sea spray climate properties has remained elusive. Much of the impediment stems from difficulties associated with unraveling the impacts of nascent sea spray and background marine aerosols which have been shown to dominate field measurements. In an effort to advance our understanding of nascent sea spray properties, we have developed a new approach for studying this issue in a newly developed ocean-atmosphere facility equipped with breaking waves. After establishing extremely low background aerosol concentrations (< 1 per cc), studies have probed the size distribution and chemical mixing state of sea spray aerosols produced by breaking waves in natural seawater. The critical importance of using bubble size distributions representative of real breaking waves to generate sea spray aerosol (SSA) is discussed. Using a combination of techniques probing individual particle composition and morphology including aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS), scanning tunnel x-ray microscopy (STXM), and electron microscopy, four major sea spray particle types are prevalent in all studies, consisting of sea salt, mixed sea salt and biogenic organic species, biogenic organic species, and primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP). Results from studies aimed at probing how changes in seawater composition due to biological activity impact sea spray aerosol composition and climate properties will be discussed.

  13. Multiple Classes of Environmental Chemicals are Associated with Liver Disease: NHANES 2003-2006 [Journal Article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomonitoring of human tissues and fluids has shown that virtually all individuals, worldwide, carry a “body burden” of synthetic chemicals (Thornton et al. 2002; CDC 2009). Although the measurement of an environmental chemical in a person’s tissues or fluids is an indication of...

  14. Manufacturing Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Manufacturing Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The Manufacturing Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) focuses on developing methods and technologies that will assist manufacturers of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, as well as other renewable energy technologies, to scale up their manufacturing capabilities to volumes that meet DOE and industry targets. Specifically, the manufacturing activity is currently focused on developing and validating quality control techniques to assist manufacturers of low temperature and high temperature fuel cells in the transition from low to high volume production methods for cells and stacks. Capabilities include initial proof-of-concept studies through prototype system development and in-line validation. Existing diagnostic capabilities address a wide range of materials, including polymer films, carbon and catalyst coatings, carbon fiber papers and wovens, and multi-layer assemblies of these materials, as well as ceramic-based materials in pre- or post-fired forms. Work leading to the development of non-contact, non-destructive techniques to measure critical dimensional and functional properties of fuel cell and other materials, and validation of those techniques on the continuous processing line. This work will be supported by materials provided by our partners. Looking forward, the equipment in the laboratory is set up to be modified and extended to provide processing capabilities such as coating, casting, and deposition of functional layers, as well as associated processes such as drying or curing. In addition, continuous processes are used for components of organic and thin film photovoltaics (PV) as well as battery technologies, so synergies with these important areas will be explored.

  15. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  16. Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report and Appendices (CD-ROM)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-10-01

    The main report on this CD assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performace and efficiency improvements. The Appendices on this CD provide supporting information for the analyses and provides and recommendations for assessing the effectiveness of the U.S. Department of Energy BestPractices Steam Program.

  17. Investigation of potential health effects associated with well water chemical contamination in Londonderry Township, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Logue, J N; Stroman, R M; Reid, D; Hayes, C W; Sivarajah, K

    1985-01-01

    A community health survey was conducted by the Pennsylvania Department of Health in Londonderry Township, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, in response to concerns about potential health effects associated with residential exposure to chemical contaminants in well water. The data indicate that there were no observable adverse health effects in the exposed group of residents, compared with the control group, which could be ascribed to long-term, low-level exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and other volatile organic chemicals. Significantly more individuals in the exposed group than in the control group experienced eye irritation, diarrhea, and sleepiness during the 12-month period prior to the survey. This indicated the possibility of an association of contaminated water with the manifestation of symptoms. It is hypothesized that the increased rate of symptoms observed in the exposed group, when compared to the control group, may have been caused by one or more of the following factors: (1) effect of TCE at a threshold level higher than 28 ppb, (2) effect of a single chemical entity other than TCE, and (3) additive or synergistic effects of several chemicals. It is also possible that there are factors other than water contaminants associated with the recorded symptoms, e.g., stress, that may have had an important influence in the exposed group but not in the control group. PMID:4026385

  18. PRESENTATIONS AT CALIFORNIA WATER ENVIRONMENT ASSOCIATION SPECIALTY CONFERENCE ON CHEMICALS OF EMERGING CONCERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. Introduction to Emerging Contaminants

    2. Why are emerging Contaminants Important?

    3. Regulatory Response to Emerging Contaminants

    4. Identifying Chemical Compounds from Wastewater Discharge

  19. Community Colleges Critical to Manufacturing's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    The "Dream It. Do It." campaign was launched by a community that cares about its growth, its future and the future of its young people. Launched as a joint initiative with the National Association of Manufacturers and its Manufacturing Institute in a bold and committed effort to fill the talent shortage looming for U.S. manufacturers, Dream It. Do…

  20. High-throughput characterization of chemical-associated embryonic behavioral changes predicts teratogenic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Reif, David M; Truong, Lisa; Mandrell, David; Marvel, Skylar; Zhang, Guozhu; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    New strategies are needed to address the data gap between the bioactivity of chemicals in the environment versus existing hazard information. We address whether a high-throughput screening (HTS) system using a vertebrate organism (embryonic zebrafish) can characterize chemical-elicited behavioral responses at an early, 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf) stage that predict teratogenic consequences at a later developmental stage. The system was used to generate full concentration-response behavioral profiles at 24 hpf across 1060 ToxCast™ chemicals. Detailed, morphological evaluation of all individuals was performed as experimental follow-up at 5 days post-fertilization (dpf). Chemicals eliciting behavioral responses were also mapped against external HTS in vitro results to identify specific molecular targets and neurosignalling pathways. We found that, as an integrative measure of normal development, significant alterations in movement highlighted active chemicals representing several modes of action. These early behavioral responses were predictive for 17 specific developmental abnormalities and mortality measured at 5 dpf, often at lower (i.e., more potent) concentrations than those at which morphological effects were observed. Therefore, this system can provide rapid characterization of chemical-elicited behavioral responses at an early developmental stage that are predictive of observable adverse effects later in life. PMID:26126630

  1. Systems toxicology of chemically induced liver and kidney injuries: histopathology-associated gene co-expression modules.

    PubMed

    Te, Jerez A; AbdulHameed, Mohamed Diwan M; Wallqvist, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Organ injuries caused by environmental chemical exposures or use of pharmaceutical drugs pose a serious health risk that may be difficult to assess because of a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tests. Mapping chemical injuries to organ-specific histopathology outcomes via biomarkers will provide a foundation for designing precise and robust diagnostic tests. We identified co-expressed genes (modules) specific to injury endpoints using the Open Toxicogenomics Project-Genomics Assisted Toxicity Evaluation System (TG-GATEs) - a toxicogenomics database containing organ-specific gene expression data matched to dose- and time-dependent chemical exposures and adverse histopathology assessments in Sprague-Dawley rats. We proposed a protocol for selecting gene modules associated with chemical-induced injuries that classify 11 liver and eight kidney histopathology endpoints based on dose-dependent activation of the identified modules. We showed that the activation of the modules for a particular chemical exposure condition, i.e., chemical-time-dose combination, correlated with the severity of histopathological damage in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the modules could distinguish different types of injuries caused by chemical exposures as well as determine whether the injury module activation was specific to the tissue of origin (liver and kidney). The generated modules provide a link between toxic chemical exposures, different molecular initiating events among underlying molecular pathways and resultant organ damage. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Journal of Applied Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26725466

  2. 40 CFR 761.193 - Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing... records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing inadvertently generated PCBs. (a) Persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or...

  3. 40 CFR 761.193 - Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing... records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing inadvertently generated PCBs. (a) Persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or...

  4. 40 CFR 761.193 - Maintenance of monitoring records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing... records by persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or use chemicals containing inadvertently generated PCBs. (a) Persons who import, manufacture, process, distribute in commerce, or...

  5. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  6. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  7. Safe food manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A; Mercier, C

    1994-03-31

    Food safety is a growing preoccupation of the health authorities and the major food companies in any European country. All the aspects of food manufacturing, from the raw materials until the product is consumed have to insure they are innoxious to human health, eliminate any harmful effects related either to food handling or consumption in domestic or common eating places, as well as protect, as much as possible, our environment. Thus, the food manufacturer has to examine step-by-step the security of the agro-cultures, their composition, but also the possible residues of pollutants and contaminants, or chemicals used to protect them against various pests and determine the possible loss or retention of these substances during technological processes. Animal raw materials should not contain veterinary drug residues or an abnormal amount of some components that result from inadequate feeding. Care should be taken to ensure the security of foods manufactured by biotechnology processes. The organisms and the whole processes used in food biotechnologies should eliminate any impurities. Any minor food ingredients, such as food additives, are under a permanent revision from the point of view of their safety. The industry reacts immediately if any justification requires that a particular food additive should not be used. In other words all the raw materials must conform to their specifications. Technological processes must create a food with an adequate microbiological quality, e.g. free of pathogens and their toxic metabolites. Any danger of microbiological contamination or accidental pollution, such as mechanical particles, chemical substances, etc. should be eliminated. The particular role of food packaging is crucial, since this is a barrier to protect the food against further parasites or microbial contamination and preserve the food from alterations due to enzymatic reactions that require particular oxygen and water activity conditions. The packaging should also

  8. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  9. Exposure of Unwounded Plants to Chemical Cues Associated with Herbivores Leads to Exposure-Dependent Changes in Subsequent Herbivore Attack

    PubMed Central

    Orrock, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Although chemical predator cues often lead to changes in the anti-predator behavior of animal prey, it is not clear whether non-volatile herbivore kairomones (i.e. incidental chemical cues produced by herbivore movement or metabolism but not produced by an attack) trigger the induction of defense in plants prior to attack. I found that unwounded plants (Brassica nigra) that were regularly exposed to kairomones from snails (mucus and feces produced during movement of Helix aspersa) subsequently experienced reduced rates of attack by snails, unlike unwounded plants that received only one initial early exposure to snail kairomones. A follow-up experiment found that mucus alone did not affect snail feeding on previously harvested B. oleracea leaves, suggesting that changes in herbivory on B. nigra were due to changes in plant quality. The finding that chemicals associated with herbivores leads to changes in palatability of unwounded plants suggests that plants eavesdrop on components of non-volatile kairomones of their snail herbivores. Moreover, this work shows that the nature of plant exposure matters, supporting the conclusion that plants that have not been attacked or wounded nonetheless tailor their use of defenses based on incidental chemical information associated with herbivores and the timing with which cues of potential attack are encountered. PMID:24278210

  10. Exposure of unwounded plants to chemical cues associated with herbivores leads to exposure-dependent changes in subsequent herbivore attack.

    PubMed

    Orrock, John L

    2013-01-01

    Although chemical predator cues often lead to changes in the anti-predator behavior of animal prey, it is not clear whether non-volatile herbivore kairomones (i.e. incidental chemical cues produced by herbivore movement or metabolism but not produced by an attack) trigger the induction of defense in plants prior to attack. I found that unwounded plants (Brassica nigra) that were regularly exposed to kairomones from snails (mucus and feces produced during movement of Helix aspersa) subsequently experienced reduced rates of attack by snails, unlike unwounded plants that received only one initial early exposure to snail kairomones. A follow-up experiment found that mucus alone did not affect snail feeding on previously harvested B. oleracea leaves, suggesting that changes in herbivory on B. nigra were due to changes in plant quality. The finding that chemicals associated with herbivores leads to changes in palatability of unwounded plants suggests that plants eavesdrop on components of non-volatile kairomones of their snail herbivores. Moreover, this work shows that the nature of plant exposure matters, supporting the conclusion that plants that have not been attacked or wounded nonetheless tailor their use of defenses based on incidental chemical information associated with herbivores and the timing with which cues of potential attack are encountered. PMID:24278210

  11. Shared genes related to aggression, rather than chemical communication, are associated with reproductive dominance in paper wasps (Polistes metricus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In social groups, dominant individuals may socially inhibit reproduction of subordinates using aggressive interactions or, in the case of highly eusocial insects, pheromonal communication. It has been hypothesized these two modes of reproductive inhibition utilize conserved pathways. Here, we use a comparative framework to investigate the chemical and genomic underpinnings of reproductive dominance in the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes metricus. Our goals were to first characterize transcriptomic and chemical correlates of reproductive dominance and second, to test whether dominance-associated mechanisms in paper wasps overlapped with aggression or pheromone-related gene expression patterns in other species. To explore whether conserved molecular pathways relate to dominance, we compared wasp transcriptomic data to previous studies of gene expression associated with pheromonal communication and queen-worker differences in honey bees, and aggressive behavior in bees, Drosophila, and mice. Results By examining dominant and subordinate females from queen and worker castes in early and late season colonies, we found that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles and genome-wide patterns of brain gene expression were primarily associated with season/social environment rather than dominance status. In contrast, gene expression patterns in the ovaries were associated primarily with caste and ovary activation. Comparative analyses suggest genes identified as differentially expressed in wasp brains are not related to queen pheromonal communication or caste in bees, but were significantly more likely to be associated with aggression in other insects (bees, flies), and even a mammal (mice). Conclusions This study provides the first comprehensive chemical and molecular analysis of reproductive dominance in paper wasps. We found little evidence for a chemical basis for reproductive dominance in P. metricus, and our transcriptomic analyses suggest that different pathways

  12. Cloud manufacturing: a new manufacturing paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Luo, Yongliang; Tao, Fei; Li, Bo Hu; Ren, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Ying; Hu, Anrui; Liu, Yongkui

    2014-03-01

    Combining with the emerged technologies such as cloud computing, the Internet of things, service-oriented technologies and high performance computing, a new manufacturing paradigm - cloud manufacturing (CMfg) - for solving the bottlenecks in the informatisation development and manufacturing applications is introduced. The concept of CMfg, including its architecture, typical characteristics and the key technologies for implementing a CMfg service platform, is discussed. Three core components for constructing a CMfg system, i.e. CMfg resources, manufacturing cloud service and manufacturing cloud are studied, and the constructing method for manufacturing cloud is investigated. Finally, a prototype of CMfg and the existing related works conducted by the authors' group on CMfg are briefly presented.

  13. CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities of sedime...

  14. SEDIMENT CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH A COASTAL GOLF COURSE COMPLEX.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing density of golf courses represents a potential source of sediment contamination to nearby coastal areas, the chemical and biological magnitude of which is almost unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of contaminants and toxicities...

  15. Manufacturing process applications team (MATeam)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bangs, E. R.; Meyer, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing applications team (MATeam) in effecting widespread transfer of NASA technology to aid in the solution of manufacturing problems in the industrial sector are described. During the program's first year of operation, 450 companies, industry associations, and government agencies were contacted, 150 manufacturing problems were documented, and 20 potential technology transfers were identified. Although none of the technology transfers has been commercialized and put in use, several are in the applications engineering phase, and others are in the early stages of implementation. The technology transfer process is described and guidelines used for the preparation of problems statements are included.

  16. Investigation of chemical properties and transport phenomena associated with pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Heather A.

    Under the Clean Air Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is required to determine which air pollutants are harmful to human health, then regulate, monitor and establish criteria levels for these pollutants. To accomplish this and for scientific advancement, integration of knowledge from several disciplines is required including: engineering, atmospheric science, chemistry and public health. Recently, a shift has been made to establish interdisciplinary research groups to better understand the atmospheric processes that govern the transport of pollutants and chemical reactions of species in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The primary reason for interdisciplinary collaboration is the need for atmospheric processes to be treated as a coupled system, and to design experiments that measure meteorological, chemical and physical variables simultaneously so forecasting models can be improved (i.e., meteorological and chemical process models). This dissertation focuses on integrating research disciplines to provide a more complete framework to study pollutants in the ABL. For example, chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) and the physical processes governing PM distribution and mixing are combined to provide more comprehensive data for source apportionment. Data from three field experiments were utilized to study turbulence, meteorological and chemical parameters in the ABL. Two air quality field studies were conducted on the U.S./Mexico border. The first was located in Yuma, AZ to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of PM in an urban environment and relate chemical properties of ambient aerosols to physical findings. The second border air quality study was conducted in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico to investigate the relationship between indoor and outdoor air quality in order to better correlate cooking fuel types and home activities to elevated indoor PM concentrations. The final study was executed in southern Idaho and focused on

  17. Association between airborne PM2.5 chemical constituents and birth weight—implication of buffer exposure assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-08-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30 km in Connecticut (2000-2006), in the New England region of the USA. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics.

  18. The Association between Airborne PM2.5 Chemical Constituents and Birth Weight–Implication of Buffer Exposure Assignment

    PubMed Central

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30km in Connecticut (2000–2006), in the New England region of the U.S. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics. PMID:26594233

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  20. Comparative studies on the chemical and cell-based antioxidant activities and antitumor cell proliferation properties of soy milk manufactured by conventional and commercial UHT methods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C; Liu, Zhisheng; Yuan, Shaohong; Zou, Yanping; Tan, Yingying

    2010-03-24

    The aims of this work were to compare antiproliferation, antioxidant activities and total phytochemicals and individual isoflavone profiles in soy milk processed by various methods including traditional stove cooking, direct steam injection, direct ultrahigh temperature (UHT), indirect UHT, and a two-stage simulated industry method, and a selected commercial soy milk product. Various processing methods significantly affected total saponin, phytic acid, and total phenolic content and individual isoflavone distribution. The laboratory UHT and the two-stage processed soy milk exhibited relatively higher total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, saponin and phytic acid than those processed by the traditional and steam processed methods. Thermal processing caused obvious intertransformation but did not cause severe degradation except for breaking down of aglycons. Thermal processing significantly increased antioxidant capacities of soy milk determined by chemical analyses, but decreased cellular antioxidant capacities as compared to the raw soy milk. The raw and all processed soy milk exhibited antipoliferative activities against human HL-60 leukemia cells, AGS gastric tumor cells, and DU145 prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The raw soy milk, but not the processed soy milk, exhibited a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect against colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that various thermal processing methods change not only phytochemcials but also potential health-promoting effects of soy milk. PMID:20158254

  1. Reproductive health in humans and wildlife: are adverse trends associated with environmental chemical exposure?

    PubMed

    Harrison, P T; Holmes, P; Humfrey, C D

    1997-10-20

    In recent years, evidence from disparate observations has indicated adverse changes in the reproductive health and fecundity of animals and humans. In humans, there is strong evidence for such trends in the incidences of testicular and female breast cancer, and concern has also been expressed regarding semen quality, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and polycystic ovaries. Laboratory studies have indicated that some chemicals in the environment, both natural and synthetic, have the potential to disrupt the endocrine system and that these could, at least theoretically, be partly responsible for the observed changes. Chemicals thus identified include the naturally occurring steroid hormones, phyto- and myco-estrogens, and anthropogenic chemicals such as synthetic hormones, organotins, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, alkylphenol polyethoxylates, phthalates and bisphenol-A. While there is no direct evidence from human studies to confirm a causal link between exposure and effect, concern exists and is strengthened by reports of adverse reproductive and developmental effects in wildlife, possibly mediated via endocrine disruptive pathways. The development of imposex in neogastropod molluscs exposed to tributyltin has been attributed to such a mechanism and in wild populations of fish, alligators and birds, instances of masculinisation or feminisation in polluted areas have been noted. Among mammals, disturbed fertility of Florida panthers and some marine species has also been reported. A concentrated research and monitoring programme is required to clarify the nature and extent of effects on reproductive health in humans and wildlife, and to assess human and wildlife exposure to relevant naturally occurring or anthropogenic endocrine disrupting substances. This will enable a more robust evaluation of the contribution that environmental chemical exposure may have on adverse trends in the reproductive health of humans and wildlife. PMID:9372623

  2. Quantum-chemical study and FTIR jet spectroscopy of CHCl(3)-NH(3) association in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Hippler, Michael; Hesse, Susanne; Suhm, Martin A

    2010-11-01

    High level ab initio quantum chemical calculations have been performed on the association of chloroform with ammonia in the gas phase (counterpoise corrected MP2 and coupled-cluster CCSD(T) calculations with 6-311++G(d,p) basis functions). Minimum energy equilibrium structures have been found for CHCl(3)-NH(3) dimer, CHCl(3)-(NH(3))(2) trimer and CHCl(3)-(NH(3))(3) tetramer. Association is characterised by a CHN hydrogen bond between a chloroform and an ammonia molecule, with further ammonia units attached by hydrogen bonds to ammonia and by an electrostatic NHCl interaction to chloroform. Cooperative effects provide additional stabilisation. The complexes exhibit characteristic shifts of vibrational bands and change of IR intensity; in particular there is a pronounced progressive shift of the CH-stretching vibration towards lower wavenumber with each unit of ammonia attached in the complex. The shift is accompanied by an up to 600 fold increase in IR intensity. The experimental FTIR jet spectra have provided firm evidence of CHCl(3)-NH(3) association, with the clearest effects seen in the region of the CH-stretching vibration. First tentative assignments have been made based on the dependence of relative intensities of cluster features on the concentration of monomers, and assignments have been corroborated by the quantum chemical calculations. The present combined ab initio and FTIR spectroscopy study reveals the structure and energetics of cluster formation and intermolecular bonding in CHCl(3)-NH(3) association. PMID:20694238

  3. Cross-sectional association between polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and cognitive limitation in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Power, Melinda C.; Webster, Thomas F.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Our limited understanding of how polyflouoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) may impact human health suggests the potential for a protective impact on brain health. This study was designed to explore the association between PFCs and cognitive ability in older adults. Methods We assessed the association between four PFCs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and self-reported limitation due to difficulty remembering or periods of confusion using data from participants aged 60–85 from the 1999–2000 and 2003–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We also considered whether diabetic status or diabetic medication use modifies this association in light of in vitro evidence that PFCs may act on the same receptors as some diabetic medications. Results In multivariable adjusted models, point estimates suggest a protective association between PFCs and self-reported cognitive limitation (OR (95% CI) for a doubling in PFOS, 0.90 (0.78, 1.03); PFOA, 0.92 (0.78, 1.09); PFNA, 0.91 (0.79, 1.04); PFHxS, 0.93 (0.82, 1.06)). The protective association was concentrated in diabetics, with strong, significant protective associations in non-medicated diabetics. Conclusions This cross-sectional study suggests that there may be a protective association between exposure to PFCs and cognition in older adults, particularly diabetics. PMID:23095808

  4. Carcinogenesis studies in rodents for evaluating risks associated with chemical carcinogens in aquatic food animals.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J; Bucher, J; Yang, R

    1991-01-01

    Fish and shellfish caught in polluted waters contain potentially dangerous amounts of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. Public concern was heightened when a large percentage of winter flounder taken from Boston Harbor was found to have visible cancer of the liver; winter flounder outside the estuary area had no liver lesions. Long-term chemical carcinogenesis studies could be easily and feasibly designed using laboratory rodents offered diets containing fish caught in polluted waters. Induced cancers in rodents would corroborate field observations in fish; positive results from these studies would provide further evidence about potential human health hazards from eating substantial amounts of chemically contaminated fish. Nonetheless, fish and aquatic organisms should be viewed as environmental biological monitors of pollution or of potential human health hazards, and authorities responsible for assuring clean and safe rivers, bodies of water, and biota should give more attention to these valid biological indicators or sentinels of environmental pollution. Consequently, fish and other sea creatures alone should serve as alarms regarding whether water areas constitute public health hazards. PMID:2050050

  5. Carcinogenesis studies in rodents for evaluating risks associated with chemical carcinogens in aquatic food animals

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, J.; Bucher, J.; Yang, R. )

    1991-01-01

    Fish and shellfish caught in polluted waters contain potentially dangerous amounts of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. Public concern was heightened when a large percentage of winter flounder taken from Boston Harbor was found to have visible cancer of the liver; winter flounder outside the estuary area had no liver lesions. Long-term chemical carcinogenesis studies could be easily and feasibly designed using laboratory rodents offered diets containing fish caught in polluted waters. Induced cancers in rodents would corroborate field observations in fish; positive results from these studies would provide further evidence about potential human health hazards from eating substantial amounts of chemically contaminated fish. Nonetheless, fish and aquatic organisms should be viewed as environmental biological monitors of pollution or of potential human health hazards, and authorities responsible for assuring clean and safe rivers, bodies of water, and biota should give more attention to these valid biological indicators or sentinels of environmental pollution. Consequently, fish and other sea creatures alone should serve as alarms regarding whether water areas constitute public health hazards. 101 refs.

  6. Integrated Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Phenomena Associated with Geologic Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Kihm, Jung-Hwi

    2014-05-01

    A series of numerical simulations was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydro-chemical numerical model to predict integratedly and evaluate quantitatively thermo-hydro-chemical phenomena due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The average mineralogical composition of the fifteen unweathered igneous rock bodies, which were classified as granite, in Republic of Korea was adopted as an initial (primary) mineralogical composition of the host rock of the repository of high-level radioactive waste in the numerical simulations. The numerical simulation results show that temperature rises and thus convective groundwater flow occurs near the repository due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Under these circumstances, a series of water-rock interactions take place. As a result, among the primary minerals, quartz, plagioclase (albite), biotite (annite), and muscovite are dissolved. However, orthoclase is initially precipitated and is then dissolved, whereas microcline is initially dissolved and is then precipitated. On the other hand, the secondary minerals such as kaolinite, Na-smectite, chlorite, and hematite are precipitated and are then partly dissolved. In addition, such dissolution and precipitation of the primary and secondary minerals change groundwater chemistry (quality) and induce reactive chemical transport. As a result, in groundwater, Na+, Fe2+, and HCO3- concentrations initially decrease, whereas K+, AlO2-, and aqueous SiO2 concentrations initially increase. On the other hand, H+ concentration initially increases and thus pH initially decreases due to dissociation of groundwater in order to provide OH-, which is essential in precipitation of Na-smectite and chlorite. Thus, the above-mentioned numerical simulation results suggest that thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulation can provide a better understanding of heat transport, groundwater flow, and reactive

  7. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  8. Chemical risks associated with consumption of shellfish harvested on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River's lower estuary.

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Fabien; Tremblay, Thierry; Rouette, Justine; Cartier, Jacques-François

    2004-01-01

    Shellfish have the capacity to accumulate chemical contaminants found in their biotope and therefore present a potential risk for consumers. This study was conducted to assess the chemical risks associated with consumption of shellfish harvested on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River's lower estuary. A survey was carried out on 162 recreational harvesters, and shellfish were sampled for chemical contaminant analysis. We quantified 10 metals, 22 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 10 chlorinated pesticides. We subsequently evaluated cancer and noncancer risks for four consumption scenarios based on our survey results and published results. Soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria) were by far the most consumed shellfish species. Of the 56 selected contaminants, 36 were detected in the 23 homogenates of soft-shell clam meat. None of the contaminants found in the soft-shell clams were associated with intakes that exceed the main exposure limit recommendations proposed to prevent noncancer effects. However, several limits must be considered before drawing conclusions about the relative safety of shellfish consumption regarding this end point. Furthermore, inorganic arsenic and PCBs were present in sufficient concentrations to lead to cancer risks exceeding the level often considered acceptable for environmental exposure (1 x 10 (-4) to 1 x 10(-6)) in each of the four scenarios, even for the lowest observed scenario of 15 meals of soft-shell clams per year. PMID:15175177

  9. Ecotoxicological and environmental problems associated with the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, Poland.

    PubMed

    Malina, Grzegorz

    2004-12-15

    The environmental problems related to the former chemical plant in Tarnowskie Gory, with respect to the Quaternary and Triassic groundwater as main receptors, are described and the eco-toxicological impact is discussed. The historical use of that site included industrial mining of ores (Ag, Pb, Zn) and use of Ba, B, Sr, Al, Cu during production of pigment. The majority of used and produced substances were toxic or hazardous. The applied technologies resulted in generation of waste which were mostly dumped without any elementary protection principles. Hydrodynamic modelling showed potential hazard to water-intakes. The variations of spatial distributions of selected contaminants within the Triassic carbonate series indicate that the chemical waste dumped in vicinity of the plant are the sources of groundwater contamination of boron. The results of soil and groundwater monitoring at the constructed landfill show significant contamination, mainly due to leaching from dumped waste, but also from infiltration of non-operating underground installations, and spills of toxic substances during the plant operation. The Quaternary aquifers are heavily contaminated due to the leaching out of chemical compounds from dumping sites. This is hazardous to the Triassic reservoirs--the main sources of potable water for the region. The characteristics of the key contaminants (As, B, Ba and Sr) are provided, including their transport, fate and toxicity. The spatial and temporal distribution of contaminants in groundwater is presented, and observed trends of groundwater quality decrease, mainly with respect to the Triassic aquifers, are discussed. The groundwater risk assessment being developed for the Tarnowskie Gory site should consider the present situation, and provide an approach towards evaluation and assessment of the required remediation measures. PMID:15464626

  10. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D.

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  11. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Populations of Annona crassiflora Mart. of Brazilian Savanna and Its Association with Chemical Variability.

    PubMed

    Egydio-Brandão, Anary Priscila Monteiro; Furlan, Claudia Maria; Dos Santos, Déborah Yara Alves Cursino

    2016-08-01

    Annona crassiflora Mart. is a native tree from Brazilian savanna. Isoquinoline alkaloids are characteristic of species of Annonaceae. This work aimed to assess the magnitude of genetic diversity among different populations of A. crassiflora using AFLP markers, and verify the existence of any correlation between the AFLP data and previous reported alkaloid composition. A. crassiflora from eight populations in the states of São Paulo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, and Distrito Federal were analyzed. The data suggest a low, moderate, and high level of genetic diversity from different populations of A. crassiflora. Concentration of alkaloids was significantly correlated with AFLP data, suggesting interaction between chemical and molecular markers in A. crassiflora. The data of association between the chemical and genetic differentiation of A. crassiflora may be useful to establish cultivation areas allowing the definition of strategies to preserve their genetic diversity with an interest in specific chemotypes for genetic improvement programs focused on sustainable utilization of this specie. PMID:27286480

  12. Artificial plasma experiments. Chemical release observations associated with the CRRES program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, Stephen B.

    1994-01-01

    This report submitted is the final report and covers work performed under the contract for the period Apr. 12, 1985 - Dec. 23, 1993. The CRRES program investigated earth plasma environment by active experiments in which metal vapors were injected into the upper atmosphere and magnetosphere. The vapor clouds perturb the ambient ionospheric / magnetospheric environment and the effects could be monitored by passive observing instruments. Our part of the CRRES program, the Artificial Plasma Experiment program, was a ground based and aircraft based investigation to observe artificial chemical releases by optical techniques.

  13. A model for transient electric fields associated with chemical release experiments by rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, G.; Brenning, N.; Holmgren, G.; Haerendel, G.

    As a follow-up to the chemical release experiment Trigger in 1977, the TOR rocket was launched from Esrange on October 24,1984. A large amplitude electric field pulse of 250 mV/m was detected shortly after the explosion. The central part of the pulse was found to be clearly correlated with an intense layer of swept up ambient particles behind a propagating shockfront. The field was directed towards the center of the expanding ionized cloud, which is indicative of a polarization electric field source. An expression for this radial polarization field is derived and found to result in an excellent agreement with observations.

  14. Chemical Signatures Associated with the Freshening of Northern Atlantic Waters Between 1972 and 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broecker, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    Further insight into the possible causes of the freshening of deep water in the northern Atlantic between the GEOSECS survey (1972) and the TTO survey (1981) is provided by measurements of dissolved silica and dissolved oxygen. As all the northern end member waters are low in dissolved silica content and high in dissolved oxygen content, the message carried by these chemical properties of silica has to do with the extent to which the waters in the northern Atlantic have mixed with the high silica content waters of Antarctic origin. A change in the degree and pattern of this intrusion is noted between the GEOSECS and TTO surveys.

  15. Using Ambystoma mexicanum (Mexican axolotl) embryos, chemical genetics, and microarray analysis to identify signaling pathways associated with tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ponomareva, Larissa V; Athippozhy, Antony; Thorson, Jon S; Voss, S Randal

    2015-12-01

    Amphibian vertebrates are important models in regenerative biology because they present exceptional regenerative capabilities throughout life. However, it takes considerable effort to rear amphibians to juvenile and adult stages for regeneration studies, and the relatively large sizes that frogs and salamanders achieve during development make them difficult to use in chemical screens. Here, we introduce a new tail regeneration model using late stage Mexican axolotl embryos. We show that axolotl embryos completely regenerate amputated tails in 7days before they exhaust their yolk supply and begin to feed. Further, we show that axolotl embryos can be efficiently reared in microtiter plates to achieve moderate throughput screening of soluble chemicals to investigate toxicity and identify molecules that alter regenerative outcome. As proof of principle, we identified integration 1 / wingless (Wnt), transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-β), and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) pathway antagonists that completely block tail regeneration and additional chemicals that significantly affected tail outgrowth. Furthermore, we used microarray analysis to show that inhibition of Wnt signaling broadly affects transcription of genes associated with Wnt, Fgf, Tgf-β, epidermal growth factor (Egf), Notch, nerve growth factor (Ngf), homeotic gene (Hox), rat sarcoma/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/Mapk), myelocytomatosis viral oncogene (Myc), tumor protein 53 (p53), and retinoic acid (RA) pathways. Punctuated changes in the expression of genes known to regulate vertebrate development were observed; this suggests the tail regeneration transcriptional program is hierarchically structured and temporally ordered. Our study establishes the axolotl as a chemical screening model to investigate signaling pathways associated with tissue regeneration. PMID:26092703

  16. Chromosome alterations associated with in vitro exposure of human fibroblasts to chemical or physical carcinogens

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, N.C.; Amsbaugh, S.C.; Milo, G.; DiPaolo, J.A.

    1986-09-01

    Normal human foreskin fibroblasts treated in vitro with a chemical carcinogen or irradiated with ultraviolet light subsequently acquired anchorage independent growth and an extended but finite capacity for exponential growth. All cell lines were derived from cells recovered from colonies that had grown in semisolid medium; cell lines originally treated with a chemical carcinogen produced nodules after s.c. inoculation into nude mice. G-banding analysis of 10 cell lines (including one ultraviolet light line) revealed that seven were chromosomally abnormal with structural and numerical chromosome alterations, one was characterized by a consistent trisomy, and the other two were normal diploid. Structural alterations consisted of chromosome deletions, translocations, and partial chromosome duplications. Although no common structural or numerical abnormality was detected, several structural alterations were observed involving chromosomes 1, 7, 11, and 22, where fgr, erb-B, H-ras-1, and sis protooncogenes, respectively, are located. In one cell line trisomy 17 was a unique chromosome alteration. The induction of chromosome changes may have influenced the proliferative capacity of the treated cells relative to nontreated cells. However, the two cell lines without detectable chromosome changes also had an increased proliferative life span, suggesting that other submicroscopic genetic alterations may have affected cell multiplication. Although carcinogen induced chromosome abnormalities may represent a step in the process of neoplastic development, additional genetic and/or epigenetic changes, are required for indefinite growth and the expression of malignancy.

  17. Balancing health benefits and chemical risks associated to dietary habits: RIBEFOOD, a new Internet resource.

    PubMed

    Martí-Cid, Roser; Bocio, Ana; Llobet, Juan M; Domingo, José L

    2008-02-28

    In recent years, a notable number of studies have shown that some foodstuffs might be a potential source of exposure to chemical pollutants, some of them with a well-known toxicity in humans. Based on the importance of a healthy diet, we have designed the software RIBEFOOD, a new Internet resource that allows the quantitative determination of the human intake of a long series of micro- and macronutrients contained in widely consumed foodstuffs, and with an important nutritional value. RIBEFOOD is also able to determine the dietary intake of a number of chemical contaminants (i.e., metals, dioxins and furans, PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.). In this paper, we introduce RIBEFOOD, and how it may be used as an easy Internet tool in order to optimize the dietary habits of any subject by increasing the intake of beneficial nutrients and by reducing that of toxic pollutants. RIBEFOOD can be useful not only for professionals (general physicians, nutritionists, endocrinologists, toxicologists, etc.), but also for the general population. It is available at: http://www.fmcs.urv.cat/ribefood/. PMID:18248871

  18. Associating Physical and Chemical Properties to Evaluate Buffer Materials by Th and U Sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Jan, Yi-Lin; Chen, Tzu-Yun; Cheng, Hwai-Ping; Hsu, Chun-Nan; Tseng, Chia-Liang; Wei,Yuan-Yaw; Yang, Jen-Yan; Ke, Cheng-Hsiung; Chuang, Jui-Tang; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2003-02-27

    The physical and chemical properties of buffer materials to be used for a radwaste disposal repository should be evaluated prior to use. In a conventional approach, independent studies of physical and/or chemical characteristics are conducted. This study investigated the relationship between the plastic index (PI) and distribution ratio (Rd) of buffer materials composed of varying ratios of quartz sand and bentonite. Thorium (Th) and Uranium (U) were the nuclides of interest, and both synthetic groundwater and seawater were used as the liquid phases to simulate conditions representative of deep geological disposal within an island. Atterberg tests were used to determine PI values, and batch sorption experiments were employed to measure Rd values. The results show that Th reached maximum sorption behavior when the bentonite content exceeded 30 % of the mixture. Contrariwise, the sorption of U increased linearly with bentonite content, up to bentonite contents of 100%, and this correlation was present regardless of the liquid phase used. A further result is that U has a better additivity with respect to Rd than Th in both synthetic groundwater and synthetic seawater. These results will allow a determination of more effective buffer material composition, and improved estimates of the overall Rd of the buffer material mixture from the Rd of each mineral component.

  19. Cryptic effects of habitat declines: coral-associated fishes avoid coral-seaweed interactions due to visual and chemical cues.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rohan M; Brandl, Simon J; Dixson, Danielle L

    2016-01-01

    Seaweed-dominated coral reefs are becoming increasingly common as environmental conditions shift away from those required by corals and toward those ideal for rampant seaweed growth. How coral-associated organisms respond to seaweed will not only impact their fate following environmental change but potentially also the trajectories of the coral communities on which they rely. However, behavioral responses by coral-associated organisms to seaweeds are poorly understood. This study examined interactions between a guild of obligate and opportunistic coral-feeding butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) and scleractinian corals to determine whether fishes continue to interact with corals in contact with seaweed or if they are avoided. Under natural conditions, all species interacted almost exclusively with seaweed-free corals. In a controlled patch reef experiment, fishes avoided corals in physical contact with seaweed, irrespective of dietary preferences. When visual seaweed cues were removed, butterflyfish continued to avoid corals that had been in contact with the allelopathic Galaxaura filamentosa, suggesting that chemical cues produced by coral-seaweed interactions are repellent. These findings suggest that, due to deleterious visual and chemical cues produced by coral-seaweed interactions, coral-associated organisms may struggle to locate resources as seaweed-free corals decline in abundance. PMID:26725835

  20. Cryptic effects of habitat declines: coral-associated fishes avoid coral-seaweed interactions due to visual and chemical cues

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rohan M.; Brandl, Simon J.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2016-01-01

    Seaweed-dominated coral reefs are becoming increasingly common as environmental conditions shift away from those required by corals and toward those ideal for rampant seaweed growth. How coral-associated organisms respond to seaweed will not only impact their fate following environmental change but potentially also the trajectories of the coral communities on which they rely. However, behavioral responses by coral-associated organisms to seaweeds are poorly understood. This study examined interactions between a guild of obligate and opportunistic coral-feeding butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae) and scleractinian corals to determine whether fishes continue to interact with corals in contact with seaweed or if they are avoided. Under natural conditions, all species interacted almost exclusively with seaweed-free corals. In a controlled patch reef experiment, fishes avoided corals in physical contact with seaweed, irrespective of dietary preferences. When visual seaweed cues were removed, butterflyfish continued to avoid corals that had been in contact with the allelopathic Galaxaura filamentosa, suggesting that chemical cues produced by coral-seaweed interactions are repellent. These findings suggest that, due to deleterious visual and chemical cues produced by coral-seaweed interactions, coral-associated organisms may struggle to locate resources as seaweed-free corals decline in abundance. PMID:26725835

  1. Paradigms for environmentally conscious manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinbarough, Immanuel A.; Wells, Wayne E.

    2004-12-01

    There are several stories involving the industries that pledge themselves for the environmentally conscious manufacturing practices. Paradigms for environmentally conscious manufacturing are associated with one of the aspects of environmental quality, protection, resource management, commitment or sustainability. The engineering rules of thumb that can easily be adopted by aspiring companies need identification. The underlying thread that unifies the efforts of environmentally conscious manufacturing companies, in offering the environmentally safe products to the world, is grouped and presented in the paper as paradigms for successful practices. The various ways in which a start up company, that wants to excel in environmentally conscious manufacturing, can position itself based on the paradigms is also discussed in the paper.

  2. Chemical compatibility issues associated with use of SiC/SiC in advanced reactor concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Dane F.

    2015-09-01

    Silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) composites are of interest for components that will experience high radiation fields in the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR), the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR), or the Fluoride-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR). In all of the reactor systems considered, reactions of SiC/SiC composites with the constituents of the coolant determine suitability of materials of construction. The material of interest is nuclear grade SiC/SiC composites, which consist of a SiC matrix [high-purity, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) SiC or liquid phase-sintered SiC that is crystalline beta-phase SiC containing small amounts of alumina-yttria impurity], a pyrolytic carbon interphase, and somewhat impure yet crystalline beta-phase SiC fibers. The interphase and fiber components may or may not be exposed, at least initially, to the reactor coolant. The chemical compatibility of SiC/SiC composites in the three reactor environments is highly dependent on thermodynamic stability with the pure coolant, and on reactions with impurities present in the environment including any ingress of oxygen and moisture. In general, there is a dearth of information on the performance of SiC in these environments. While there is little to no excess Si present in the new SiC/SiC composites, the reaction of Si with O2 cannot be ignored, especially for the FHR, in which environment the product, SiO2, can be readily removed by the fluoride salt. In all systems, reaction of the carbon interphase layer with oxygen is possible especially under abnormal conditions such as loss of coolant (resulting in increased temperature), and air and/ or steam ingress. A global outline of an approach to resolving SiC/SiC chemical compatibility concerns with the environments of the three reactors is presented along with ideas to quickly determine the baseline compatibility performance of SiC/SiC.

  3. The mechanics of manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.; Stori, J.; King, C.

    1996-10-01

    Economic pressures, particularly related to the quality of manufactured goods and `time-to-market` are forcing designers to think not only in terms of product design but also in terms of integrated product and process design, and finally in terms of deterministic manufacturing planning and control. As a result of these three high level needs, there is now an even greater need for comprehensive simulations that predict material behavior during a manufacturing process, the stresses and/or temperatures on associated tooling, and the final-product integrity. The phrase `manufacturing processes` of course covers a broad scope; it includes semiconductor manufacturing, injection molding of polymers, metal machining and precision lapping, wood and textile production, and the final assembly of piece-parts into a consumer product. It can be seen from this partial listing that the fields of fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, dynamics and tribology can all play a role. The introduction to the paper will contain a review of manufacturing processes and describe where simulations have been successfully applied, and where simulations are still lacking. The best of the simulations are those where the models accurately fit the physical phenomena, where accurate constitutive equations are available, and where boundary conditions are realistic. Thus, the body of the paper will focus on the results from one of these more successful simulations. It has been used to predict the deflections of tooling and the most appropriate operating conditions for the manufacturing process under study. A new method for manufacturing planning is described. In this method, closed form, somewhat simplified, analytical models are used to determine manufacturing planning parameters and then the results from these simpler models are refined by the fuller simulations. A case study in machining parameter selection for peripheral finish milling operations is developed.

  4. Chemical constituents of the mangrove-associated fungus Capnodium sp. SZ-F22. A new eremophilane sesquiterpene.

    PubMed

    He, Haibing; Ma, Zhongjun; Wang, Qianqian; Liu, Yu; Xu, Hualin

    2016-07-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, capnodiumone (1), along with five known eremophilane sesquiterpenes (2-6) and eight other compounds (7-14), have been isolated from a mangrove-associated fungus Capnodium sp. SZ-F22. The chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The broth extract of the fungus exhibited a good inhibitory effect on the mycelium growth against Fusarium graminearum at 100 μg/mL, however, all the 14 compounds showed no expected antifungal activity. The probable reasons were discussed. PMID:26615670

  5. Primitive models of chemical association. II. Polymerization into flexible chain molecules of prescribed length

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyuzhnyi, Y.V. |; Lin, C.; Stell, G.

    1997-02-01

    The structural properties of the totally flexible sticky two-point (S2P) model for polymerization into chain molecules of fixed length are studied. The model is represented by an n-component mixture of hard spheres of the same size with species 2,{hor_ellipsis},n{minus}1 bearing two attractive sticky sites A and B, randomly distributed on the surface. The hard spheres of species 1 and n have only one site per particle, site B for species 1 and site A for species n. Due to the specific choice for the attractive interaction, which is present only between site B of the particles of species a and site A of the particles of species a+1, this version of the S2P model represents an associating fluid that polymerizes into freely jointed tangent hard-sphere chain molecules. The correlation functions of this model are studied at all degrees of association using a recently obtained general solution of the polymer Percus{endash}Yevick (PPY) approximation [Yu. Kalyuzhnyi and P. Cummings, J. Chem. Phys. {bold 103}, 3265 (1995)]. Comparison of the results of the present theory in the complete association limit with corresponding computer-simulation results and results of other theories is presented and discussed. The complete-association results constitute a quantitatively successful theory of the mean monomer{endash}monomer distribution functions for n{le}16 but for n=50 these functions are no longer quantitatively accurate. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Associative learning of host-plant chemical stimuli in immature glassy-winged sharpshooter.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study are to determine whether nymphs can associatively learn to recognize olfactory stimuli produced by host plants, and to evaluate the relative importance of olfactory conditioning in host-plant recognition. To provide nymphs for testing, second to fourth instars were plac...

  7. Panel report on coupled thermo-mechanical-hydro-chemical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, C.F.; Mangold, D.C.

    1984-07-01

    Four basic physical processes, thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical, are likely to occur in 11 different types of coupling during the service life of an underground nuclear waste repository. A great number of coupled processes with various degrees of importance for geological repositories were identified and arranged into these 11 types. A qualitative description of these processes and a tentative evaluation of their significance and the degree of uncertainty in prediction is given. Suggestions for methods of investigation generally include, besides theoretical work, laboratory and large scale field testing. Great efforts of a multidisciplinary nature are needed to elucidate details of several coupled processes under different temperature conditions in different geological formations. It was suggested that by limiting the maximum temperature to 100{sup 0}C in the backfill and in the host rock during the whole service life of the repository the uncertainties in prediction of long-term repository behavior might be considerably reduced.

  8. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  9. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  10. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  11. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  12. 21 CFR 1315.22 - Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturing quotas. 1315.22 Section 1315.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Individual Manufacturing Quotas § 1315.22 Procedure for applying for individual manufacturing quotas. Any... desires to manufacture a quantity of the chemical must apply on DEA Form 189 for a manufacturing quota...

  13. Evolution of porosity and diffusivity associated with chemical weathering of a basalt clast

    SciTech Connect

    Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.; Tomutsa, L.; Brantley, S.L.

    2009-02-15

    Weathering of rocks as a result of exposure to water and the atmosphere can cause significant changes in their chemistry and porosity. In low-porosity rocks, such as basalts, changes in porosity, resulting from chemical weathering, are likely to modify the rock's effective diffusivity and permeability, affecting the rate of solute transport and thus potentially the rate of overall weathering to the extent that transport is the rate limiting step. Changes in total porosity as a result of mineral dissolution and precipitation have typically been used to calculate effective diffusion coefficients through Archie's law for reactive transport simulations of chemical weathering, but this approach fails to account for unconnected porosity that does not contribute to transport. In this study, we combine synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography ({mu}CT) and laboratory and numerical diffusion experiments to examine changes in both total and effective porosity and effective diffusion coefficients across a weathering interface in a weathered basalt clast from Costa Rica. The {mu}CT data indicate that below a critical value of {approx}9%, the porosity is largely unconnected in the basalt clast. The {mu}CT data were further used to construct a numerical pore network model to determine upscaled, effective diffusivities as a function of total porosity (ranging from 3 to 30%) for comparison with diffusivities determined in laboratory tracer experiments. By using effective porosity as the scaling parameter and accounting for critical porosity, a model is developed that accurately predicts continuum-scale effective diffusivities across the weathering interface of the basalt clast.

  14. Plant-associated bacteria degrade defense chemicals and reduce their adverse effects on an insect defoliator.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Couture, John J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-07-01

    Phytophagous insects must contend with numerous secondary defense compounds that can adversely affect their growth and development. The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a polyphagous herbivore that encounters an extensive range of hosts and chemicals. We used this folivore and a primary component of aspen chemical defenses, namely, phenolic glycosides, to investigate if bacteria detoxify phytochemicals and benefit larvae. We conducted insect bioassays using bacteria enriched from environmental samples, analyses of the microbial community in the midguts of bioassay larvae, and in vitro phenolic glycoside metabolism assays. Inoculation with bacteria enhanced larval growth in the presence, but not absence, of phenolic glycosides in the artificial diet. This effect of bacteria on growth was observed only in larvae administered bacteria from aspen foliage. The resulting midgut community composition varied among the bacterial treatments. When phenolic glycosides were included in diet, the composition of midguts in larvae fed aspen bacteria was significantly altered. Phenolic glycosides increased population responses by bacteria that we found able to metabolize these compounds in liquid growth cultures. Several aspects of these results suggest that vectoring or pairwise symbiosis models are inadequate for understanding microbial mediation of plant-herbivore interactions in some systems. First, bacteria that most benefitted larvae were initially foliar residents, suggesting that toxin-degrading abilities of phyllosphere inhabitants indirectly benefit herbivores upon ingestion. Second, assays with single bacteria did not confer the benefits to larvae obtained with consortia, suggesting multi- and inter-microbial interactions are also involved. Our results show that bacteria mediate insect interactions with plant defenses but that these interactions are community specific and highly complex. PMID:24798201

  15. Health and environmental threats associated with the destruction of chemical weapons.

    PubMed

    Matousek, Jirí

    2006-09-01

    Still existing arsenals of chemical weapons (CW) pose not only security threats for possible use in hostilities by state actors or misuse by terrorists but also safety threats to humans and biota due to leakages and possible accidents. The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) commits the States Parties (SPs) to destroy CW using technologies taking into consideration human health and environmental protection. It does not allow methods, routinely used up to the 1970s, such as earth burial, open-pit burning, and sea dumping. Long-term health and environmental threats and some accidents that have already occurred in the known localities of the sea-dumped and earth-buried arsenals of Nazi-German armed forces in the Baltic Region and of Imperial Japanese forces in the Far East Region are analyzed according to the impact of major CW and ammunition types (i.e., sulfur mustard--HD, tabun--GA, arsenicals--DA, DC, DM, arsine oil, and chloroacetophenone--CN). Any possible operations and handling with CW envisaged by the CWC as well as their verification are summarized taking into account the health threat they pose. CW and toxic armament waste to be destroyed and applied technologies (both developed and under current use in operational CW destruction facilities [CWDF]) are reviewed as are systems of health safety and environmental protection of the destruction/demilitarization stems from the extraordinary high toxicity of supertoxic lethal agents in man and biota. Problems of currently used Russian and U.S. standards for maximum allowable workplace concentrations and general population limits and possibilities of their determination by available analytical instrumentation are discussed. PMID:17119232

  16. Exploring Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iley, John; And Others

    These teacher's materials for an eight-unit course were developed to help students develop technological literacy, career exploration, and problem-solving skills relative to the manufacturing industries. The eight units include an overview of manufacturing, manufacturing enterprises and systems, manufacturing materials and selection, manufacturing…

  17. Analysis of Yeast Flora Associated with Grape Sour Rot and of the Chemical Disease Markers

    PubMed Central

    Guerzoni, Elisabetta; Marchetti, Rosa

    1987-01-01

    The frequency and the density of the species associated with grape sour rot in different cultivars were determined. The most frequent species in the rotten grapes, Candida krusei, Kloeckera apiculata, and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, and a less frequent species, Issatchenkia occidentalis, when inoculated with Saccharomycopsis crataegensis were able to induce in vitro the symptoms of the disease. The gas chromatographic determination of the volatile compounds in the headspace was used to evaluate the metabolic role of the different species associated with the disease. These analyses made it possible to presume that, whereas some species, such as Candida krusei and Hanseniaspora uvarum, can be considered responsible for these modifications and in particular for the ethyl acetate production, others, such as Saccharomycopsis crataegensis, can promote the development of the former species. PMID:16347305

  18. Chemical and meteorological characteristics associated with rapid increases of O3 in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Jobson, Tom; Jiang, Guangfeng; Spicer, Chester W.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2004-05-01

    We report here on measurements made from the 62nd story of the Williams Tower on the west side of Houston, Texas between 15 August and 15 September 2000. The time series of trace gases differ from those at many other urban sites in having very rapidly increasing spikes of O3, HCHO, and PAN. Measurements show that the highest O3 levels in Houston are not always those measured at the surface, and the extreme values may occur aloft. Plumes with high O3 appear to be produced largely from local sources and to have the potential to form additional O3. The ozone production efficiency (7 molecules of O3 produced per molecule of NOx consumed) when ΔO3/Δt ≥ 20 ppb per 15 min was found to be smaller than estimates made from observations directly downwind of the Ship Channel petrochemical plants (e.g., ˜12). Back trajectories show that simple straight line flow was associated with mean O3 levels of 56 ppb, in contrast to flow patterns associated with a decrease in wind speed or flow reversal, which were associated with mean values of 63 ppb and extremes in excess of 125ppb. VOC samples taken during periods when ΔO3/Δt ≥ 20 ppb per 15 min were elevated and in particular light olefins were more than a factor of 7 greater than the corresponding samples collected on other occasions. No significant increase in isoprene at the Williams Tower was associated with these episodes. When air passed over stack emissions in eastern Houston, rich in VOCs, a Lagrangian model simulated O3 production rates of ˜50 ppb hr-1.

  19. Chemical Modulation of Endocytic Sorting Augments Adeno-associated Viral Transduction.

    PubMed

    Berry, Garrett E; Asokan, Aravind

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular trafficking of viruses can be influenced by a variety of inter-connected cellular sorting and degradation pathways involving endo-lysosomal vesicles, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy-based or endoplasmic reticulum-associated machinery. In the case of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV), proteasome inhibitors are known to prevent degradation of ubiquitinated AAV capsids, thereby leading to increased nuclear accumulation and transduction. However, the impact of other cellular degradation pathways on AAV trafficking is not well understood. In the current study, we screened a panel of small molecules focused on modulating different cellular degradation pathways and identified eeyarestatin I (EerI) as a novel reagent that enhances AAV transduction. EerI improved AAV transduction by an order of magnitude regardless of vector dose, genome architecture, cell type, or serotype. This effect was preceded by sequestration of AAV within enlarged vesicles that were dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. Specifically, EerI treatment redirected AAV particles toward large vesicles positive for late endosomal (Rab7) and lysosomal (LAMP1) markers. Notably, MG132 and EerI (proteasomal and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation inhibitors, respectively) appear to enhance AAV transduction by increasing the intracellular accumulation of viral particles in a mutually exclusive fashion. Taken together, our results expand on potential strategies to redirect recombinant AAV vectors toward more productive trafficking pathways by deregulating cellular degradation mechanisms. PMID:26527686

  20. Yeasts associated with an abandoned mining area in Pernek and their tolerance to different chemical elements.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Lux, Alexander; Vaculík, Marek; Lišková, Desana

    2016-05-01

    Four plants, Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle), Equisetum arvense (field horsetail), Oxalis acetosella (wood sorrel) and Phragmites australis (common reed), which grew in an abandoned Sb-mining area in Pernek (Malé Karpaty Mts., Slovakia), were investigated for the yeast species. Yeasts were isolated from both the leaves of the plants and the soil adjacent to the plants. In total, 65 yeast cultures, belonging to 11 ascomycetous and 5 basidiomycetous yeast species, were isolated. The species most frequently isolated from both the soil and leaf samples were Trichosporon porosum, Galactomyces candidus and Candida solani, whereas Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida tsuchiyae and Sporidiobolus metaroseus were isolated exclusively from the plant leaves. All the yeast species isolated were tested for their tolerance to two heavy metals (Cd, Zn) and three metalloids (As, Sb and Si). The yeasts isolated from both the leaves and soils exhibited a high tolerance level to both As and Sb, present in elevated concentrations at the locality. Among the yeast species tested, Cryptococcus musci, a close relative to Cryptococcus humicola, was the species most tolerant to all the chemical elements tested, with the exception of Si. It grew in the presence of 200 mmol/L Zn, 200 mmol/L Cd, 60 mmol/L As and 50 mmol/L Sb, and therefore, it can be considered as a multi-tolerant species. Some of the yeast species were tolerant to the individual chemical elements. The yeast-like species Trichosporon laibachii exhibited the highest tolerance to Si of all yeasts tested, and Cryptococcus flavescens and Lindnera saturnus showed the same tolerance as Cryptococcus musci to Zn and As, respectively. The majority of the yeasts showed a notably low tolerance to Cd (not exceeded 0.5 mmol/L), which was present in small amounts in the soil. However, Candida solani, isolated from the soil, exhibited a higher tolerance to Cd (20 mmol/L) than to As (2 mmol/L). PMID:26358066

  1. Infrared emission associated with chemical reactions on Shuttle and SIRTF surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D. J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1984-01-01

    The infrared intensities which would be observed by the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF), and which are produced by surface chemistry following atmospheric impact on SIRTF and the shuttle are estimated. Three possible sources of reactants are analyzed: (1) direct atmospheric and scattered contaminant fluxes onto the shuttle's surface; (2) direct atmospheric and scattered contaminant fluxes onto the SIRTF sunshade; and (3) scattered fluxes onto the cold SIRTF mirror. The chemical reactions are primarily initiated by the dominent flux of reactive atomic oxygen on the surfaces. Using observations of the optical glow to constrain theoretical parameters, it is estimated for source (1) that the infrared glow on the SIRTF mirror will be comparable to the zodiacal background between 1 and 10 micron wavelengths. It is speculated that oxygen reacts with the atoms and the radicals bound in the organic molecules that reside on the shuttle and the Explorer surfaces. It is concluded that for source (2) that with suitable construction, a warm sunshade will produce insignificant infrared glow. It is noted that the atomic oxygen flux on the cold SIRTF mirror (3) is insufficient to produce significant infrared glow. Infrared absorption by the ice buildup on the mirror is also small.

  2. Reexamination of the Association Between Melting Point, Buoyant Density, and Chemical Base Composition of Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    PubMed Central

    De Ley, J.

    1970-01-01

    The equations currently used for the calculation of the chemical base composition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), expressed as moles per cent guanine plus cytosine (% GC), from either buoyant density (ρ) or midpoint of thermal denaturation (Tm) were recalculated by using only sets of data on DNA determined with the same strains. All available information from the literature was screened and supplemented by unpublished data. The results were calculated by regression and correlation analysis and treated statistically. From the data on 96 strains of bacteria, it was calculated that% GC = 2.44 (Tm – 69.4). Tm appears to be unaffected by the substitution of cytosine by hydroxymethylcytosine. This equation is also valid for nonbacterial DNA. From the data on 84 strains of bacteria, the relation% GC = 1038.47 (–1.6616) was calculated. The constants in this equation are slightly modified when data on nonbacterial DNA are included. Both correlations differ only slightly from those currently used, but now they lean on a statistically sound basis. As a control, the relation between ρ and Tm was calculated from data of 197 strains; it agrees excellently with the above two equations. PMID:5438045

  3. New approaches in catalyst manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Lostaglio, V.J.; Carruthers, J.D.

    1986-03-01

    Changes in both petroleum refinery feedstocks and refinery product slates during the past 10 years have necessitated new approaches in catalyst manufacture. New hydrotreating catalysts are expected to improve polynuclear aromatic saturation, and to increase cetane index, mild hydrocracking, asphaltene conversion, and contaminant metal removal. Sulfur and nitrogen removal were once considered the sole benefits of hydroprocessing. To accommodate these needs, catalyst manufacturers have focused added attention on defining and achieving rigorous physical and chemical specifications for each new catalyst. It is considered essential to continually improve quality and process control in each manufacturing step. In addition, manufacturers have introduced new technology both in the process and in the evaluation of product. The importance of pore size distribution (PSD), for example, has been appreciated for 20 years or more but it is only within the past 10 years that routine measurement of PSD by mercury and/or nitrogen porosimetry has been applied throughout the entire manufacturing process. A greater emphasis on heavy oil hydrotreating has spurred demands for wide pore catalysts of small external dimensions to overcome the problems of diffusion-limited reactions. In turn, however, these properties may create problems with crush strength and catalyst attrition.

  4. Chemical speciation and association of plutonium with bacteria, kaolinite clay, and their mixture.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Takahiro; Ozaki, Takuo; Kozai, Naofumi; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Nankawa, Takuya; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Francis, Arokiasamy J

    2007-05-01

    We investigated the interactions of Pu(VI) with Bacillus subtilis, kaolinite clay, and a mixture of the two to determine and delineate the role of the microbes in regulating the environmental mobility of Pu. The bacteria, the kaolinite, and their mixture were exposed to a 4 x 10(-4) M Pu(VI) solution at pH 5.0. The amount of Pu sorbed by B. subtilis increased with time, but had not reached equilibrium in 48 h, whereas equilibrium was attained in kaolinite within 8 h. After 48 h, the oxidation state of Pu in the solutions exposed to B. subtilis and the mixture had changed to Pu-(V), whereas the oxidation state of Pu associated with B. subtilis and the mixture was Pu(IV). Exudates released from B. subtilis reduced Pu(VI) to Pu(V). In contrast, there was no change in the oxidation state of Pu in the solution or on kaolinite after exposure to Pu(VI). Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry analysis indicated that most of the Pu in the mixture was associated with B. subtilis. These results suggest that Pu-(IV) is preferably sorbed to bacterial cells in the mixture and that Pu(VI) is reduced to Pu(V) and Pu(IV). PMID:17539516

  5. Cigarette Butt Decomposition and Associated Chemical Changes Assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR

    PubMed Central

    Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; Cesarano, Gaspare; Gaglione, Salvatore A.; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette butts (CBs) are the most common type of litter on earth, with an estimated 4.5 trillion discarded annually. Apart from being unsightly, CBs pose a serious threat to living organisms and ecosystem health when discarded in the environment because they are toxic to microbes, insects, fish and mammals. In spite of the CB toxic hazard, no studies have addressed the effects of environmental conditions on CB decomposition rate. In this study we investigate the interactive effects of substrate fertility and N transfer dynamics on CB decomposition rate and carbon quality changes. We carried out an experiment using smoked CBs and wood sticks, used as a slow decomposing standard organic substrate, incubated in both laboratory and field conditions for two years. CB carbon quality changes during decomposition was assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR. Our experiment confirmed the low degradation rate of CBs which, on average, lost only 37.8% of their initial mass after two years of decomposition. Although a net N transfer occurred from soil to CBs, contrary to our hypothesis, mass loss in the medium-term (two years) was unaffected by N availability in the surrounding substrate. The opposite held for wood sticks, in agreement with the model that N-rich substrates promote the decomposition of other N-poor natural organic materials with a high C/N ratio. As regards CB chemical quality, after two years of decomposition 13C NMR spectroscopy highlighted very small changes in C quality that are likely to reflect a limited microbial attack. PMID:25625643

  6. Chemical and microbiological hazards associated with recycling of anaerobic digested residue intended for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect

    Govasmark, Espen; Staeb, Jessica; Holen, Borge; Hoornstra, Douwe; Nesbakk, Tommy; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

    2011-12-15

    In the present study, three full-scale biogas plants (BGP) were investigated for the concentration of heavy metals, organic pollutants, pesticides and the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli in the anaerobically digested residues (ADR). The BGPs mainly utilize source-separated organic wastes and industrial food waste as energy sources and separate the ADR into an ADR-liquid and an ADR-solid fraction by centrifugation at the BGP. According to the Norwegian standard for organic fertilizers, the ADR were classified as quality 1 mainly because of high zinc (132-422 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and copper (23-93 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations, but also because of high cadmium (0.21-0.60 mg kg{sup -1} DM) concentrations in the liquid-ADR. In the screening of organic pollutants, only DEHP (9.7-62.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and {Sigma} PAH 16 (0.2-1.98 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were detected in high concentrations according to international regulations. Of the 250 pesticides analyzed, 11 were detected, but only imazalil (<0.30-5.77 mg kg{sup -1} DM) and thiabendazol (<0.14-0.73 mg kg{sup -1} DM) were frequently detected in the ADR-fiber. Concentrations of imazalil and thiabendazol were highest during the winter months, due to a high consumption of citrus fruits in Norway in this period. Ten percent of the ADR-liquid samples contained cereulide-producing B. cereus, whereas no verotoxigenic E. coli was detected. The authors conclude that the risk of chemical and bacterial contamination of the food chain or the environment from agricultural use of ADR seems low.

  7. Chemical and radiological risk factors associated with waste from energy production.

    PubMed

    Christensen, T; Fuglestvedt, J; Benestad, C; Ehdwall, H; Hansen, H; Mustonen, R; Stranden, E

    1992-04-01

    We have tried to estimate the toxic potential of waste from nuclear power plants and from power plants burning fossil fuels. The potential risks have been expressed as 'risk potentials' or 'person equivalents.' These are purely theoretical units and represent only an attempt to quantify the potential impact of different sources and substances on human health. Existing concentration limits for effects on human health are used. The philosophy behind establishing limits for several carcinogenic chemicals is based on a linear dose-effect curve. That is, no lower concentration of no effect exists and one has to accept a certain small risk by accepting the concentration limit. This is in line with the establishment of limits for radiation. Waste products from coal combustion have the highest potential risk among the fossil fuel alternatives. The highest risk is caused by metals, and the fly ash represents the effluent stream giving the largest contribution to the potential risk. The waste from nuclear power production has a lower potential risk than coal if today's limit values re used. If one adjusts the limits for radiation dose and the concentration limit values so that a similar risk is accepted by the limits, nuclear waste seems to have a much higher potential risk than waste from fossil fuel. The possibility that such risk estimates may be used as arguments for safe storage of the different types of waste is discussed. In order to obtain the actual risk from the potential risk, the dispersion of the waste in the environment and its uptake and effects in man have to be taken into account. PMID:1594925

  8. Cigarette butt decomposition and associated chemical changes assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Bonanomi, Giuliano; Incerti, Guido; Cesarano, Gaspare; Gaglione, Salvatore A; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette butts (CBs) are the most common type of litter on earth, with an estimated 4.5 trillion discarded annually. Apart from being unsightly, CBs pose a serious threat to living organisms and ecosystem health when discarded in the environment because they are toxic to microbes, insects, fish and mammals. In spite of the CB toxic hazard, no studies have addressed the effects of environmental conditions on CB decomposition rate. In this study we investigate the interactive effects of substrate fertility and N transfer dynamics on CB decomposition rate and carbon quality changes. We carried out an experiment using smoked CBs and wood sticks, used as a slow decomposing standard organic substrate, incubated in both laboratory and field conditions for two years. CB carbon quality changes during decomposition was assessed by 13C CPMAS NMR. Our experiment confirmed the low degradation rate of CBs which, on average, lost only 37.8% of their initial mass after two years of decomposition. Although a net N transfer occurred from soil to CBs, contrary to our hypothesis, mass loss in the medium-term (two years) was unaffected by N availability in the surrounding substrate. The opposite held for wood sticks, in agreement with the model that N-rich substrates promote the decomposition of other N-poor natural organic materials with a high C/N ratio. As regards CB chemical quality, after two years of decomposition 13C NMR spectroscopy highlighted very small changes in C quality that are likely to reflect a limited microbial attack. PMID:25625643

  9. Immobilization and physiological parameters associated with chemical restraint of wild pigs with Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, R A; Ghneim, G S; Gardner, I A; Van Vuren, D; Gonzales, B J; Boyce, W M

    1997-04-01

    We used a combination of Telazol (3.3 mg/kg) and xylazine hydrochloride (1.6 mg/kg to immobilize 144 wild pigs (Sus scrofa) with blow darts. This drug combination was safe and effective for rapidly immobilizing animals ranging in size from 34 to > 170 kg and avoided difficulties associated with hand injections. For 123 single injection immobilizations, mean (+/- SD) induction times and effective handling periods averaged 5 (+/- 2.5) and 52 (+/- 18) min, respectively, and animals generally recovered for release within 120 min of initial injections. Animals that required two injections to immobilize (n = 21) received lower initial doses of Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride than those immobilized with a single injection because of errors in estimating body sizes; we found that there was a threshold dose required to immobilize wild pigs from 2.8 to 3.3 mg/kg Telazol and 1.4 to 1.6 mg/kg xylazine. Although neither age or sex influenced immobilization parameters, animals in good condition required longer to recover than those in poor condition. However, animals immobilized with two injections recovered as rapidly as those immobilized with a single injection. Heart rates and body temperatures declined slightly during the immobilization period, but respiration rates and blood oxygen saturation levels remained stable. In general, single injection immobilizations were preferable because they minimized problems associated with injecting partially immobilized animals. because it was difficult to accurately estimate the sizes of large wild pigs (> or = 90 kg), and because wild pigs that were partially immobilized were difficult to handle, we recommend increasing the drug doses to 4 mg/kg Telazol and 2 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride when injecting relatively large animals to assure single injection immobilizations. Although recovery periods may be prolonged, higher doses of Telazol and xylazine should be safe based on data from domestic pigs. PMID:9131548

  10. Chemical abundances associated with gamma-ray bursts: nucleosynthesis in afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) ejecta carries huge amounts of energy expanding into the surrounding medium and heats up these materials, making it possible that nucleosynthesis can take place in such hot sites in afterglow stage. Here, we study possible changes in chemical abundances in the GRB afterglow processes of Wolf-Rayet (WR) star wind environments (Case A) and constant density surroundings (Case B). We find that the light element of lithium-beryllium-boron could occur in the afterglows via He+He process and spallation reactions. Some isotopes of F, Ne, Mg, Al, Si, P, S and Fe-group elements are also new species formed in the afterglows via proton-, neutron- and α-capture. The results show that the nucleosynthetic yields might be a diagnostic of the GRB's ambient environment. Our calculations indicate that Mg, Al, Si, P, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co have trended to appear in Case A, while Ne, Ti and Ni trend to occur in Case B. Furthermore, although some species have occurred both in Cases A and B, their mass fractions are quite different in these two cases. Here, we show that the mass fractions of 7Li, 7Be, 24Mg and 30Si are higher in Case A than that in Case B, but 18F gives an opposite conclusion. Nucleosynthetic outputs might also be an indice to estimate the luminosity-temperature relation factor β. In this study, when β reduces, the mass abundances of 11B and 20Ne are higher in Case B than that in Case A; in contrast, as the β becomes larger, this trend would be reversed; therefore, perhaps we could select the above elements as the indicators to estimate the properties of the surroundings around the GRBs. We also suggest that the spectroscopic observations of a GRB afterglow could only reveal the nucleosynthetic outputs from the interaction site between the GRB jet and its ambient matter, but could not represent the original composition of the pre-GRB surrounding medium.

  11. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of zinc gluconate associated with dimethyl sulphoxide for sexually mature canine males chemical neutering.

    PubMed

    Soto, F R M; Viana, W G; Mucciolo, G C B; Hosomi, F Y M; Vannucchi, C I; Mazzei, C P; Eyherabide, A R; de Fátima Lúcio, C; Dias, R A; de Azevedo, S S

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of zinc gluconate associated with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for chemical neutering in canine males. Fifteen sexually mature male dogs were divided in two groups, named control and treated. An injection was administered to both testicles, at a concentration of 26.2 mg zinc gluconate per ml and 0.5% DMSO in the treated group (11 dogs). The control group was given injections of saline solution (four dogs). Clinical examination and blood collection for a haemogram were done both before and after drug injection. There were 12 spermograms performed to analyse sperm motility, sperm vigour, ejaculate volume, testicle size, pathology and sperm concentrations. Libido was also measured. An ultrasound examination and histopathology were performed at the end of the experiment. Dogs' libido after chemical injection was reduced by over 50%. The spermogram analysis showed final mean results of 14.54% for sperm motility, 0.72 of sperm vigour and 37,150 per million spermatozoa per millilitre, values considered below the necessary levels at which fertilization can occur. Ultrasound and histopathology analyses of testicles for the treated group revealed more intense injuries when compared with the control group, with compromised testicular parenchyma and a decrease of germ cell number leading to total atrophy, indicating that the treatment reduced the fertilizing potential of male dogs, promoting a possible subfertile status. PMID:18992122

  12. Successions and diversity of humic-reducing microorganisms and their association with physical-chemical parameters during composting.

    PubMed

    Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Huang, Caihong; Tan, Wenbing; Gao, Rutai; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Humic-reducing microorganisms (HRMs) could utilize humic substances (HS) as terminal electron mediator to promote the biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, the dynamics of HRMs during composting has not been explored. Here, high throughput sequencing technology was applied to investigate the patterns of HRMs during three composting systems. A total of 30 main genera of HRMs were identified in three composts, with Proteobacteria being the largest phylum. HRMs were detected with increased diversity and abundance and distinct patterns during composting, which were significantly associated with dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen and germination index. Regulating key physical-chemical parameters is a process control of HRMs community composition, thus promoting the redox capability of the compost. The redox capability of HRMs were strengthened during composting, suggesting that HRMs of the compost may play an important role on pollutant degradation of the compost or when they are applied to the contaminated soils. PMID:27494101

  13. The Relationship Between of Manufacturing Flexibility, Innovation Capability, and Operational Performance in Indonesian Manufacturing SMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, U. S.; Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between manufacturing flexibility competence and operational performance with technological innovation capability as mediator variables. A survey method was applied to collect data pertaining to the variables being investigated. The findings indicated that manufacturing flexibility competence is positively associated with technological innovation capability and operational performance. The findings also suggested that technological innovation capability types mediated positively to the operational performance implication of manufacturing flexibility competence. This implies that manufacturing organizations pursuing manufacturing flexibility competence need to develop technological innovation capability in obtaining a high operational performance.

  14. Implementing Computer Integrated Manufacturing Technician Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Roger

    A computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) technician program was developed to provide training and technical assistance to meet the needs of business and industry in the face of the demands of high technology. The Computer and Automated Systems Association (CASA) of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers provided the incentive and guidelines…

  15. Asynchronous Learning in Manufacturing: Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundy, Gail E.

    This research paper examines the potential for asynchronous learning networks as a viable training alternative for small and medium manufacturing businesses. This first phase of the project, conducted by the Colorado Community College and Occupational System and the National Association of Manufacturers reviews existing research with a specific…

  16. Energy Use in Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses both manufacturing energy consumption and characteristics of the manufacturing economy related to energy consumption. In addition, special sections on fuel switching capacity and energy-management activities between 1998 and 2002 are also featured in this report.

  17. Feed Formulation and Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturin...

  18. Association between particulate matter and its chemical constituents of urban air pollution and daily mortality or morbidity in Beijing City.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Xin, Jinyuan; Wang, Yuesi; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan; Wang, Shigong; Cheng, Mengtian; Wen, Tianxue; Wang, Guangcheng; Liu, Zirui

    2015-01-01

    Recent time series studies have indicated that daily mortality and morbidity are associated with particulate matters. However, about the relative effects and its seasonal patterns of fine particulate matter constituents is particularly limited in developing Asian countries. In this study, we examined the role of particulate matters and its key chemical components of fine particles on both mortality and morbidity in Beijing. We applied several overdispersed Poisson generalized nonlinear models, adjusting for time, day of week, holiday, temperature, and relative humidity, to investigate the association between risk of mortality or morbidity and particulate matters and its constituents in Beijing, China, for January 2005 through December 2009. Particles and several constituents were associated with multiple mortality or morbidity categories, especially on respiratory health. For a 3-day lag, the nonaccident mortality increased by 1.52, 0.19, 1.03, 0.56, 0.42, and 0.32% for particulate matter (PM)2.5, PM10, K(+), SO4(2-), Ca(2+), and NO3(-) based on interquartile ranges of 36.00, 64.00, 0.41, 8.75, 1.43, and 2.24 μg/m(3), respectively. The estimates of short-term effects for PM2.5 and its components in the cold season were 1 ~ 6 times higher than that in the full year on these health outcomes. Most of components had stronger adverse effects on human health in the heavy PM2.5 mass concentrations, especially for K(+), NO3(-), and SO4(2-). This analysis added to the growing body of evidence linking PM2.5 with mortality or morbidity and indicated that excess risks may vary among specific PM2.5 components. Combustion-related products, traffic sources, vegetative burning, and crustal component and resuspended road dust may play a key role in the associations between air pollution and public health in Beijing. PMID:25074829

  19. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  20. Chemical weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption in a tropical river basin (Swarna River), Southwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muguli, T.; Gurumurthy, G. P.; Balakrishna, K.; Audry, S.; Riotte, J.; Braun, J.; Chadaga, M.; Shankar HN, U.

    2013-12-01

    Chemical weathering in river basins forms the key process to study the global climate change on a long term scale due to its association with the carbon sequestration. Water samples from a west flowing tropical river (Swarna River) of Southern India were collected for a period of two years to study the chemical weathering process and to quantify the weathering and associated carbon-dioxide consumption rates in the river basin. In addition, the major ion chemistry of Swarna River is studied for the first time on a spatial and temporal (monthly) scale to decipher the factors (lithology, precipitation/ discharge, temperature, slope and physical weathering) controlling the chemical weathering process. Swarna River originates in Western Ghats at an altitude of 1100 m above mean sea level and flows westwards draining Peninsular Gneiss and Dharwar Schist to join the Arabian Sea near Udupi. The river basin receives annual rainfall of 4500 mm and experiences warm climate with average temperature of 30°C. Major ion composition and radiogenic strontium isotopic composition measured in the Swarna river water reflects the influence of silicate rocks in the basin. The river water chemistry is found to be least affected by anthropogenic impact; however, the effect of evaporation is observed on few samples during the peak dry season. The atmospheric inputs and carbonate contributions to the river water are corrected to estimate the silicate weathering rate (SWR) and the associated carbon-dioxide consumption rate (CCR) using local rainwater and bed rock composition respectively. The SWR and CCR in the Swarna river basin are estimated to be 46 tons/km2/yr and 4.4 x 10^5 mol/km2/yr respectively. This estimation is observed to be relatively higher than the recently reported SWR and CCR in the adjacent larger Nethravati river basin (Gurumurthy et al., 2012). The increased rate could be attributed to the relatively higher precipitation in the Swarna river basin than the lithological

  1. Biotechnology for Chemical Production: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Burk, Mark J; Van Dien, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    Biotechnology offers a new sustainable approach to manufacturing chemicals, enabling the replacement of petroleum-based raw materials with renewable biobased feedstocks, thereby reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, toxic byproducts, and the safety risks associated with traditional petrochemical processing. Development of such bioprocesses is enabled by recent advances in genomics, molecular biology, and systems biology, and will continue to accelerate as access to these tools becomes faster and cheaper. PMID:26683567

  2. Characterizing synthetic gypsum for wallboard manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Henkels, P.J.; Gynor, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    United States Gypsum Company (USGC) has developed specifications and guidelines covering the chemical and physical aspects of synthetic gypsum to help predict end use acceptability in wallboard manufacture. These guidelines are based in part on past experiences with natural and synthetic gypsum. Similarly, most wallboard manufacturers in North America have developed their own guidelines based in part on its unique history and particular experiences with synthetic gypsum. While there are similarities between manufacturers` guidelines, differences do exist. This paper discusses the importance of selected parameters contained in the FGD gypsum guidelines. In most cases, the parameters are equally relevant to other synthetic gypsums and the naturally occurring gypsum mineral as well.

  3. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Gee, J.M.; Menna, P.; Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V.

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  4. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  5. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Izu, M. )

    1992-03-01

    This report examines manufacturing multiple-band-gap, multiple- junction solar cells and photovoltaic modules. Amorphous silicon alloy material is deposited (using microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition) on a stainless-steel substrate using a roll-to-roll process that is continuous and automated. Rapid thermal equilibration of the metal substrate allows rapid throughput of large-area devices in smaller production machines. Potential improvements in the design, deposition, and module fabrication process are described. Problems are also discussed that could impede using these potential improvements. Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) proposes cost and time estimates for investigating and solving these problems. Manufacturing modules for less than $1.00 per peak watt and stable module efficiencies of greater than 10% are near-term goals proposed by ECD. 18 refs.

  6. Bioassay of estrogenicity and chemical analyses of estrogens in streams across the United States associated with livestock operations.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, D A; Shappell, N W; Billey, L O; Bermudez, D S; Wilson, V S; Kolpin, D W; Perkins, S D; Evans, N; Foreman, W T; Gray, J L; Shipitalo, M J; Meyer, M T

    2013-06-15

    Animal manures, used as a nitrogen source for crop production, are often associated with negative impacts on nutrient levels in surface water. The concentrations of estrogens in streams from these manures also are of concern due to potential endocrine disruption in aquatic species. Streams associated with livestock operations were sampled by discrete samples (n = 38) or by time-integrated polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS, n = 19). Samples were analyzed for estrogens by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS(2)) and estrogenic activity was assessed by three bioassays: Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES), T47D-KBluc Assay, MCF-7 Estrogenicity Screen (E-Screen). Samples were collected from 19 streams within small (≈ 1-30 km(2)) watersheds in 12 U.S. states representing a range of hydrogeologic conditions, dominated by: dairy (3), grazing beef (3), feedlot cattle (1); swine (5); poultry (3); and 4 areas where no livestock were raised or manure was applied. Water samples were consistently below the United Kingdom proposed Lowest Observable Effect Concentration for 17β-estradiol in fish (10 ng/L) in all watersheds, regardless of land use. Estrogenic activity was often higher in samples during runoff conditions following a period of manure application. Estrone was the most commonly detected estrogen (13 of 38 water samples, mean 1.9, maximum 8.3 ng/L). Because of the T47D-KBluc assay's sensitivity towards estrone (1.4 times 17β-estradiol) it was the most sensitive method for detecting estrogens, followed by the E-Screen, GC-MS(2), and YES. POCIS resulted in more frequent detections of estrogens than discrete water samples across all sites, even when applying the less-sensitive YES bioassay to the POCIS extracts. PMID:23623470

  7. PAH exposure biomarkers are associated with clinico-chemical changes in the brick kiln workers in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Martellini, Tania; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2014-08-15

    In this study we investigated the clinico-chemical parameters and the level of exposure of brick kiln workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Punjab (Pakistan). The brick kiln workers and a non-occupationally exposed group were recruited for comparative analysis of urinary biomarkers of PAH exposure (i.e. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr), α-naphthol and β-naphthol) and blood level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), as a biomarker of oxidative stress and other hematologic parameters. Questionnaires were used to document information on socio-demographic characteristics of all the subjects. The analysis of urinary biomarkers showed higher median concentrations of 1-OHPyr, and α- and β-naphthols in brick kiln workers (1.53, 3.65 and 1.53 μmol/mol-Cr, respectively) than non-occupationally exposed group (0.62, 0.64 and 0.66 μmol/mol-Cr, respectively). The 1-OHPyr in brick kiln workers was above the occupational exposure level. Among the clinical parameters of brick kiln workers, hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells (RBCs) were very low and closely associate with 1-OHPyr and β-naphthol. Additionally, the white blood cells (WBCs) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also elevated in brick kiln workers, which suggested inflammatory symptoms and high oxidative stress. The results show that regardless of possibly being affected by the poor nutrition, the anemic state and hematological changes observed in brick kiln workers may be associated with their exposure to smoke present in the environment of brick kilns. PMID:24878696

  8. Bioassay of estrogenicity and chemical analyses of estrogens in streams across the United States associated with livestock operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, David A.; Shappell, Nancy W.; Billey, L.O.; Bermudez, Dietrich S.; Wilson, Vickie S.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Evans, Nicola; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; Shipitalo, J.M.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Animal manures, used as a nitrogen source for crop production, are often associated with negative impacts on nutrient levels in surface water. The concentrations of estrogens in streams from these manures also are of concern due to potential endocrine disruption in aquatic species. Streams associated with livestock operations were sampled by discrete samples (n = 38) or by time-integrated polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS,n = 19). Samples were analyzed for estrogens by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MSM2) and estrogenic activity was assessed by three bioassays: Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES), T47D-KBluc Assay, MCF-7 Estrogenicity Screen (E-Screen). Samples were collected from 19 streams within small (∼1-30 km2) watersheds in 12 U.S. states representing a range of hydrogeologic conditions, dominated by: dairy (3), grazing beef (3), feedlot cattle (1); swine (5); poultry (3); and 4 areas where no livestock were raised or manure was applied. Water samples were consistently below the United Kingdom proposed Lowest Observable Effect Concentration for 17b-estradiol in fish (10 ng/L) in all watersheds, regardless of land use. Estrogenic activity was often higher in samples during runoff conditions following a period of manure application. Estrone was the most commonly detected estrogen (13 of 38 water samples, mean 1.9, maximum 8.3 ng/L). Because of the T47D-KBluc assay’s sensitivity towards estrone (1.4 times 17β-estradiol) it was the most sensitive method for detecting estrogens, followed by the E-Screen, GC-MS2, and YES. POCIS resulted in more frequent detections of estrogens than discrete water samples across all sites, even when applying the less-sensitive YES bioassay to the POCIS extracts.

  9. Endocrine disrupting chemical, bisphenol-A, induces breast cancer associated gene HOXB9 expression in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Deb, Paromita; Bhan, Arunoday; Hussain, Imran; Ansari, Khairul I; Bobzean, Samara A; Pandita, Tej K; Perrotti, Linda I; Mandal, Subhrangsu S

    2016-09-30

    HOXB9 is a homeobox-containing gene that plays a key role in mammary gland development and is associated with breast and other types of cancer. Here, we demonstrate that HOXB9 expression is transcriptionally regulated by estradiol (E2), in vitro and in vivo. We also demonstrate that the endocrine disrupting chemical bisphenol-A (BPA) induces HOXB9 expression in cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF7) as well as in vivo in the mammary glands of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Luciferase assay showed that estrogen-response-elements (EREs) in the HOXB9 promoter are required for BPA-induced expression. Estrogen-receptors (ERs) and ER-co-regulators such as MLL-histone methylase (MLL3), histone acetylases, CBP/P300, bind to the HOXB9 promoter EREs in the presence of BPA, modify chromatin (histone methylation and acetylation) and lead to gene activation. In summary, our results demonstrate that BPA exposure, like estradiol, increases HOXB9 expression in breast cells both in vitro and in vivo through a mechanism that involves increased recruitment of transcription and chromatin modification factors. PMID:27182052

  10. Chemical constituents of Hericium erinaceum associated with the inhibitory activity against cellular senescence in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hyung Jun; Yang, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Geum Soog; Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, Dae Young; Choi, Je Hun; Kim, Seung Yu; Lee, Eun Suk; Ji, Seung Heon; Kang, Ki Sung; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Hericium erinaceum is an edible and medicinal mushroom widely used in Korea, Japan, and China. On the search for biologically active compounds supporting the medicinal usage, the MeOH extract of the fruiting bodies of H. erinaceum was investigated for its chemical constituents. Six compounds were isolated and identified as hericenone D (1), (22E,24R)-5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (2), erinacerin B (3), hericenone E (4), hericenone F (5) and isohericerin (6) by comparing their spectroscopic data with previously reported values. The inhibitory effects on adriamycin-induced cellular senescence in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of the isolates (1-6) were studied. Among the isolated compounds, ergosterol peroxide (2) reduced senescence associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity increased in HUVECs treated with adriamycin. According to experimental data obtained, the active compound may inspire the development of a new pharmacologically useful substance to be used in the treatment and prevention of age-related diseases. PMID:25676326

  11. Chemical quality of depositional sediments and associated soils in New Orleans and the Louisiana peninsula following Hurricane Katrina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, C.; Witt, E.C.; Wang, Jingyuan; Shaver, D.K.; Summers, D.; Filali-Meknassi, Y.; Shi, H.; Luna, R.; Anderson, N.

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina made landfall on the Louisiana peninsula south of New Orleans on Aug 29, 2005. The resulting storm surge caused numerous levy breaches in the parishes of New Orleans as well as on the Louisiana peninsula. This study was conducted to determine the concentrations of inorganic and organic constituents in sediments and associated soils in New Orleans parishes and the Louisiana peninsula after the floodwaters had been removed and/or receded following Hurricane Katrina. A total of 46 sediment and soil samples were analyzed that were collected throughout New Orleans and the Louisiana peninsula. Approximately 20% of the sediment samples were analyzed, including shallow sediment samples from locations that included the top and beneath automobiles, in residential and commercial areas, and near refineries. Gasoline constituents, pesticides, and leachable heavy metals were analyzed using headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), organic extraction GC/MS, and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry, respectively. A significant number of samples had leachable As and Pb concentrations in excess of drinking water standards. The remaining metals analyzed (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, and V) generally had much lower leachable levels. Of the gasoline constituents, only benzene was observed above the limit of detection (of 5 ??g/kg), with no samples observed as being above the method detection limits of 10 ??g/kg. For the 18 pesticides analyzed, most were in the nondetectable range and all were in trace amounts that were orders of magnitude below regulatory guidelines. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  12. Technique for manufacturing nickel electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamazaki, H.; Yamane, T.; Kumano, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A method of manufacturing nickel electrodes distinctive for its use of a composite material for the electrode made up of nickel compound, electrode material, cobalt in metal form or cobalt in compound form is investigated. The composite is over-discharged (same as reverse charging) in an alkaline solution. After dealkalization, synthetic resin adhesive is added and the electrode is formed. Selection of the cobalt compound is made from a group consisting of cobalt oxide, cobalt hydroxide, cobalt carbonate and cobalt sulfate. The method upgrades plate characteristics by using an active material in a non-sintered type nickel electrode, which is activated by electro-chemical effect.

  13. Neurobehavioral Deficits, Diseases, and Associated Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Bellanger, Martine; Demeneix, Barbara; Grandjean, Philippe; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Context: Epidemiological studies and animal models demonstrate that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to cognitive deficits and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Objective: The objective was to estimate neurodevelopmental disability and associated costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposure in the European Union. Design: An expert panel applied a weight-of-evidence characterization adapted from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Exposure-response relationships and reference levels were evaluated for relevant EDCs, and biomarker data were organized from peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized lifetime economic productivity estimates, lifetime cost estimates for autism spectrum disorder, and annual costs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Setting, Patients and Participants, and Intervention: Cost estimation was carried out from a societal perspective, ie, including direct costs (eg, treatment costs) and indirect costs such as productivity loss. Results: The panel identified a 70–100% probability that polybrominated diphenyl ether and organophosphate exposures contribute to IQ loss in the European population. Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures were associated with 873 000 (sensitivity analysis, 148 000 to 2.02 million) lost IQ points and 3290 (sensitivity analysis, 3290 to 8080) cases of intellectual disability, at costs of €9.59 billion (sensitivity analysis, €1.58 billion to €22.4 billion). Organophosphate exposures were associated with 13.0 million (sensitivity analysis, 4.24 million to 17.1 million) lost IQ points and 59 300 (sensitivity analysis, 16 500 to 84 400) cases of intellectual disability, at costs of €146 billion (sensitivity analysis, €46.8 billion to €194 billion). Autism spectrum disorder causation by multiple EDCs was assigned a 20–39% probability, with 316 (sensitivity analysis, 126–631

  14. Manufacturing with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Lawrence M.; Hauser, Steven G.; Clyne, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated solar radiation is now a viable alternative source for many advanced manufacturing processes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the feasibility of processes such as solar induced surface transformation of materials (SISTM), solar based manufacturing, and solar pumped lasers. Researchers are also using sunlight to decontaminate water and soils polluted with organic compounds; these techniques could provide manufacturers with innovative alternatives to traditional methods of waste management. The solar technology that is now being integrated into today's manufacturing processes offer greater potential for tomorrow, especially as applied to the radiation abundant environment available in space and on the lunar surface.

  15. Manufacturing with the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, L. M.; Hauser, S. G.; Clyne, R. J.

    1992-05-01

    Concentrated solar radiation is now a viable alternative energy source for many advanced manufacturing processes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the feasibility of processes such as solar-induced surface transformation of materials (SISTM), solar-based manufacturing, and solar-pumped lasers. Researchers are also using sunlight to decontaminate water and soils polluted with organic compounds; these techniques could provide manufacturers with innovative alternatives to traditional methods of waste management. The solar technology that is now being integrated into today's manufacturing processes offers even greater potential for tomorrow, especially as applied to the radiation-abundant environment available in space and on the lunar surface.

  16. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  17. Acylinder and freeform optical manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank; DeFisher, Scott; Ross, James

    2015-10-01

    Aspheric cylinders have the ability to improve optical performance over standard cylindrical surfaces. Over the last several years there has also been development into the application and functionality of utilizing freeform surfaces to improve optical performance. Freeforms have the ability to not only improve image quality over a greater field of view, but can open up the design space of an optical system making it more compact. Freeform geometries, much like aspheric cylinders, may not have an axis of rotation to spin the optic about during manufacturing. This leads to costly fabrication processes and custom metrology set ups, which may inhibit their use. Over the last several years, OptiPro Systems has developed and optimized our eSX grinding, UFF and USF polishing, UltraSurf metrology, and ProSurf software programming technologies to make the processing of these complex geometries much easier and deterministic. In this paper we will discuss the challenges associated with manufacturing complex shapes like aspheric cylinders as well as freeform geometries, and how several technologies working together can overcome them. The technologies focus on metrology feedback to a grinding and polishing machine that is controlled through an iterative computer aided manufacturing software system. We will also present examples of these hard to manufacture shapes with results.

  18. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  19. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  20. Manufactured Nanoparticle Behavior and Transformations in Aquatic Systems. Importance of Natural Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Loosli, Frédéric; Omar, Fatehah Mohd; Carnal, Fabrice; Oriekhova, Olena; Clavier, Arnaud; Chai, Zhi; Stoll, Serge

    2014-11-01

    Major concerns to elucidate the fate of nanomaterials and manufactured nanoparticles in aquatic systems are related to the lack of data on nanoparticle transformations under relevant environmental conditions. The present article discusses some of the important physicochemical processes controlling the behavior of manufactured nanoparticles in aqueous systems by focusing on their interaction with natural organic matter, which is expected to play a crucial role when adsorbing at the nanoparticle surface. The precise knowledge and consequences of such adsorption processes are important not only to predict the nanoparticle stability and dispersion state but also to evaluate their chemical reactivity and ecotoxicology. Most importantly, findings indicate that the presence of natural organic matter, at typical environmental concentrations, can induce significant disagglomeration of large nanoparticle agglomerates into small fragments. Such a result constitutes an important outcome with regard to the risk associated with the possible transformation and redispersion of large assemblies containing manufactured nanoparticles. PMID:26508485

  1. Associational resistance of fouled blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) against starfish (Asterias rubens) predation: relative importance of structural and chemical properties of the epibionts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudien, Jürgen; Wahl, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Several epibiotic species reduce starfish (Asterias rubens) preference for the blue mussel Mytilus edulis in the Baltic. The aim of this study was to reveal whether this associational resistance was caused by structural or chemical aspects of the different epibionts. To assess structural epibiont effects, an in situ experiment was conducted with unfouled mussels and mussels equipped with artificial epibionts (`dummies') exposed to natural predation by A. rubens. The chemically inert dummies closely matched the structural properties of the locally common epibionts Balanus improvisus (barnacle), Ceramium strictum (red alga), Halichondria panicea (sponge), and Laomedea flexuosa (hydrozoan). Starfish fed indiscriminately in all treatments. Chemical effects of epibionts on the attractiveness of mussels for A. rubens were investigated by incorporating freeze-dried epibionts or mussel tissue into Phytagel pellets at natural concentrations. Starfish were allowed to choose among these structurally similar but chemically different prey items in an in vitro experiment. The predators exhibited significant preferences among the food pellets, which closely matched their preferences for corresponding natural mussel-epibiont associations. Thus, chemical aspects of epibionts appear to play a larger role in this associational resistance than do structural aspects. Implications of these indirect interactions for benthic communities are discussed.

  2. Concentrations and annual fluxes of sediment-associated chemical constituents from conterminous US coastal rivers using bed sediment data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Elrick, Kent A.; Smith, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal rivers represent a significant pathway for the delivery of natural and anthropogenic sediment-associated chemical constituents to the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the conterminous USA. This study entails an accounting segment using published average annual suspended sediment fluxes with published sediment-associated chemical constituent concentrations for (1) baseline, (2) land-use distributions, (3) population density, and (4) worldwide means to estimate concentrations/annual fluxes for trace/major elements and total phosphorus, total organic and inorganic carbon, total nitrogen, and sulphur, for 131 coastal river basins. In addition, it entails a sampling and subsequent chemical analysis segment that provides a level of ‘ground truth’ for the calculated values, as well as generating baselines for sediment-associated concentrations/fluxes against which future changes can be evaluated. Currently, between 260 and 270 Mt of suspended sediment are discharged annually from the conterminous USA; about 69% is discharged from Gulf rivers (n = 36), about 24% from Pacific rivers (n = 42), and about 7% from Atlantic rivers (n = 54). Elevated sediment-associated chemical concentrations relative to baseline levels occur in the reverse order of sediment discharges:Atlantic rivers (49%)>Pacific rivers (40%)>Gulf rivers (23%). Elevated trace element concentrations (e.g. Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) frequently occur in association with present/former industrial areas and/or urban centres, particularly along the northeast Atlantic coast. Elevated carbon and nutrient concentrations occur along both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts but are dominated by rivers in the urban northeast and by southeastern and Gulf coast (Florida) ‘blackwater’ streams. Elevated Ca, Mg, K, and Na distributions tend to reflect local petrology, whereas elevated Ti, S, Fe, and Al concentrations are ubiquitous, possibly because they have substantial natural as well as anthropogenic sources

  3. Preliminary definition and characterization of a solar industrial process heat technology and manufacturing plant for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Prythero, T.; Meyer, R. T.

    1980-09-01

    A solar industrial process heat technology and an associated solar systems manufacturing plant for the year 2000 has been projected, defined, and qualitatively characterized. The technology has been defined for process heat applications requiring temperatures of 300/sup 0/C or lower, with emphasis on the 150/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C range. The selected solar collector technology is a parabolic trough collector of the line-focusing class. The design, structure, and material components are based upon existing and anticipated future technological developments in the solar industry. The solar system to be manufactured and assembled within a dedicated manufacturing plant is projected to consist of the collector and the major collector components, including reflector, absorber, parabolic trough structure, support stand, tracking drive mechanism, sun-sensing device and control system, couplings, etc. Major manufacturing processes to be introduced into the year 2000 plant operations are glassmaking, silvering, electroplating and plastic-forming. These operations will generate significant environmental residuals not encountered in present-day solar manufacturing plants. Important residuals include chemical vapors, acids, toxic elements (e.g. arsenic), metallic and chemical sludges, fumes from plastics, etc. The location, design, and operations of these sophisticated solar manufacturing plants will have to provide for the management of the environmental residuals.

  4. Compliance issues in manufacturing of drugs.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Brian; Novack, Gary D

    2003-04-01

    The therapeutic process relies on the assumption that the prescription written by the clinician is what is dispensed to the patient. In this article, we review the many factors involved in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products so that they consistently meet quality standards as approved by regulatory agencies. Industry and government agencies have developed procedures and laws to assure quality in Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls (CMC) for pharmaceuticals, addressing conditions that may be harmful to patient health. This includes procedures for receipt of materials, production, packaging, labeling, quality control, release, storage and distribution, known as current Good Manufacturing Practice. Special control considerations for ophthalmic products include foreign particulate matter control, preservative effectiveness tests, sterility and leaching of chemicals from the packaging into the product. We also describe the "form, fill and seal" manufacture process as used in unit-dose, non-preserved ophthalmic products; product expiration dates; stages of drug development; and financial considerations for pharmaceutical companies. PMID:17075636

  5. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, David E.; Moon, Ji-Won; Armstrong, Beth L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Duty, Chad E.; Gresback, Ryan; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Jellison, Gerald Earle; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Jung, Hyunsung; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Phelps, Tommy

    2015-06-30

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  6. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  7. Manufacturing Education Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umstattd, William D.

    The Manufacturing Education Curriculum Project's feasibility study concerned with industrial arts curriculum development in manufacturing for the senior high school level is described. The need for an industrial arts curriculum which meets and reflects present and future trends is discussed in the introduction, followed by a review of the…

  8. Manufacturing research strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This plan provides an overall strategic roadmap for the DOE-defense programs advanced manufacturing research program which supports the national science based stockpile stewardship program. This plan represents a vision required to develop the knowledge base needed to ensure an enduring national capability to rapidly and effectively manufacture nuclear weapons.

  9. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  10. Dynamic fluid flow and chemical fluxes associated with a seafloor gas hydrate deposit on the northern Gulf of Mexico slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Evan A.; Kastner, Miriam; Jannasch, Hans; Robertson, Gretchen; Weinstein, Yishai

    2008-06-01

    Gas hydrates outcrop on the seafloor at the Bush Hill hydrocarbon seep site in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Four newly designed fluid flux meters/chemical samplers, called the MOSQUITO, were deployed for 430 days at Bush Hill to determine how dynamic subsurface fluid flow influences gas hydrate stability and to quantify the associated methane fluxes into the ocean. Three of the flux meters were deployed adjacent to an outcropping gas hydrate mound, while the fourth monitored background conditions. The flux meter measurements reveal that the subsurface hydrology in the vicinity of the mound is complex and variable with frequent changes from downward to upward flow ranging from - 161 to 273 cm/yr, and with temporal variations in the horizontal component of flow. The continuous record of fluid chemistry indicates that gas hydrate actively formed in the sediments. We propose that long periods of downward flow of seawater adjacent to gas vents (up to 4 months) are driven by local sub-pressure resulting from gas ebullition through faults and fractures due to overpressure at depth. High frequency variations in flow rates (days to weeks) are likely due to temporal changes in sediment permeability and the 3-D fluid flow field as a result of active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate precipitation, as well as the presence of free gas. Gas hydrate formation occurred as a result of long-term emanation of CH4 at focused gas vents followed by a more diffuse intergranular methane flux. The estimated CH4 flux to the water column from focused gas vents across the Bush Hill seep is ~ 5•106 mol/yr. This significant flux suggests that Bush Hill and similar hydrocarbon seeps in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico may be important natural sources of methane to the ocean and possibly the atmosphere.

  11. Chemical and mineralogical characterisation of illite-smectite: Implications for episodic tectonism and associated fluid flow, central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Alexander W.; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Golding, Suzanne D.

    2015-01-01

    The Warburton-Cooper-Eromanga basins of central-eastern Australia contain a number of reactivated fracture-fault networks that relate to a complex and poorly understood thermal and tectonic evolution. Authigenic illite was sampled from two prominent features of the Warburton-Cooper basins: the Gidgealpa-Merrimelia-Innamincka Ridge, composed of anticlinal imbricate thrust fault blocks, and the synclinal Nappamerri Trough. These sample sets were investigated using a combination of clay mineralogical, trace element and stable isotope analyses to deduce the palaeofluid chemistry associated with past tectonothermal perturbations. The Nappamerri Trough hosts the highly radiogenic Big Lake Suite granite and part of one of Australia's larger on-shore oil and gas reserves. Calculated fluid stable isotope values from the trough, in conjunction with calculated palaeotemperatures, indicate an influx of evolved high-latitudinal meteoric waters under an extremely high geothermal gradient (∼100 °C km-1) and high water/rock ratios consistent with an extensional environment. Such high water/rock ratios resulted in intense alteration of the granite during which it underwent substantial enrichment in the heat-producing elements (HPE), particularly Th. This hydrothermal system is interpreted to result from continent-wide transmission of tensional stress originating from episodic rifting of the eastern Australian margin in the mid Cretaceous, as dated by Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar. The Gidgealpa-Merrimelia-Innamincka Ridge, by contrast, is marked by a lower, but still elevated, palaeogeothermal gradient (∼42 °C km-1) and calculated fluid isotopic values compatible with evolved basinal fluids of meteoric origin under low water/rock ratio conditions. Distinct trace element compositions of residue and leachate aliquots further indicate two periods of fluid flow with unique chemical compositions. In light of previous geochronology, these events are interpreted as westward extensions of

  12. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  13. Correlation between 1H NMR chemical shifts of hydroxyl protons in n-hexanol/cyclohexane and molecular association properties investigated using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Mario E.; Shibue, Toshimichi; Sugimura, Natsuhiko; Nishide, Hiroyuki; Moreno-Villoslada, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Association of n-hexanol molecules in cyclohexane forming clusters is studied by DFT and 1H NMR. Geometry optimization, corrected binding energies, charge distributions, charge transfer energies, and 1H NMR chemical shifts have been obtained. The calculated chemical shifts of hydroxyl protons have been correlated to experimental data obtained in the range of n-hexanol molar fraction between 0.002 and 0.2, showing that n-hexanol molecules at a molar fraction around 0.1, where well-structured hydrogen bond networks are observed, tend to form linear pentamers and hexamers. The experimental data are consistent with the continuous linear association thermodynamic model, showing a dimensionless association constant of 284.

  14. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  15. Statistical association between cancer incidence and major-cause mortality, and estimated residential exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kaldor, J.; Harris, J.A.; Glazer, E.; Glaser, S.; Neutra, R.; Mayberry, R.; Nelson, V.; Robinson, L.; Reed, D.

    1984-03-01

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to air emissions produced by the petroleum and chemical industries, and average annual cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates among whites in Contra Costa County, California. Estimates for the exposure to major industrial sources of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were used to subdivide the county by level of exposure to petroleum refinery and chemical plant emissions. Cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates were then calculated for whites in each of the exposure areas. In both males and females, residential exposure to petroleum and chemical air emissions was associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. In males, age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the stomach, lung, prostate and kidney and urinary organs were also associated with petroleum and chemical plant air emission exposures. In both sexes, a strong positive association was found between degree of residential exposure and death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer, and a less strong positive association between exposure and death rates from cerebrovascular disease. There was also a positive association in men for deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. Although these observed associations occurred across areas of similar socioeconomic and broad occupational class, confounding variables and the ecologic fallacy must be considered as possible explanations. In particular, the strong findings in men suggest an occupational explanation of the cancer incidence trends, and the effect observed in cirrhosis mortality suggests that lifestyle variables such as alcohol consumption were not adequately controlled for. 26 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  16. Statistical association between cancer incidence and major-cause mortality, and estimated residential exposure to air emissions from petroleum and chemical plants.

    PubMed Central

    Kaldor, J; Harris, J A; Glazer, E; Glaser, S; Neutra, R; Mayberry, R; Nelson, V; Robinson, L; Reed, D

    1984-01-01

    An ecologic study design was used to investigate the relationship between exposure to air emissions produced by the petroleum and chemical industries, and average annual cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates among whites in Contra Costa County, California. Estimates for the exposure to major industrial sources of sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen were used to subdivide the county by level of exposure to petroleum refinery and chemical plant emissions. Cancer incidence and major cause mortality rates were then calculated for whites in each of the exposure areas. In both males and females, residential exposure to petroleum and chemical air emissions was associated with an increased incidence of cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx. In males, age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the stomach, lung, prostate and kidney and urinary organs were also associated with petroleum and chemical plant air emission exposures. In both sexes, we found a strong positive association between degree of residential exposure and death rates from cardiovascular disease and cancer, and a less strong positive association between exposure and death rates from cerebrovascular disease. There was also a positive association in men for deaths from cirrhosis of the liver. Although these observed associations occurred across areas of similar socioeconomic and broad occupational class, confounding variables and the "ecologic fallacy" must be considered as possible explanations. In particular, the stronger findings in men suggest an occupational explanation of the cancer incidence trends, and the effect observed in cirrhosis mortality suggests that lifestyle variables such as alcohol consumption were not adequately controlled for. While the public health implications of our findings remain unclear, the evidence presented is sufficient to warrant follow-up studies based on individual data in which possible biases can be more readily controlled. PMID:6734567

  17. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  18. A joint modeling approach for uncovering associations between gene expression, bioactivity and chemical structure in early drug discovery to guide lead selection and genomic biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Perualila-Tan, Nolen; Kasim, Adetayo; Talloen, Willem; Verbist, Bie; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H; Shkedy, Ziv

    2016-08-01

    The modern drug discovery process involves multiple sources of high-dimensional data. This imposes the challenge of data integration. A typical example is the integration of chemical structure (fingerprint features), phenotypic bioactivity (bioassay read-outs) data for targets of interest, and transcriptomic (gene expression) data in early drug discovery to better understand the chemical and biological mechanisms of candidate drugs, and to facilitate early detection of safety issues prior to later and expensive phases of drug development cycles. In this paper, we discuss a joint model for the transcriptomic and the phenotypic variables conditioned on the chemical structure. This modeling approach can be used to uncover, for a given set of compounds, the association between gene expression and biological activity taking into account the influence of the chemical structure of the compound on both variables. The model allows to detect genes that are associated with the bioactivity data facilitating the identification of potential genomic biomarkers for compounds efficacy. In addition, the effect of every structural feature on both genes and pIC50 and their associations can be simultaneously investigated. Two oncology projects are used to illustrate the applicability and usefulness of the joint model to integrate multi-source high-dimensional information to aid drug discovery. PMID:27269248

  19. 76 FR 81979 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... 25, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on June 3, 2011, 76 FR 32225, AMPAC Fine Chemicals... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Thebaine (9333) II Poppy Straw Concentrate (9670) II The company is a contract manufacturer. In reference to Poppy Straw Concentrate the company will manufacture...

  20. 75 FR 104 - Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... of Trade Policy Analysis, 202-482-2831. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ITA's Manufacturing and Services... 18, 2009. Matthew Howard, Office of Trade Policy Analysis. BILLING CODE 3510-DR-P ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing & Services' Sustainable Manufacturing Initiative; Update...

  1. Flexible Manufacturing Systems: What's in It for the Manufacturer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, A. R.; Peckman, Donald C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors define the Flexible Manufacturing System and outline its history. They describe what the processing time includes and provide advantages and disadvantages of Flexible Manufacturing Systems compared to conventional manufacturing. (CH)

  2. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  3. 76 FR 10069 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... October 14, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on October 26, 2010, 75 FR 65659, Chemic... to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Cocaine...

  4. 76 FR 81979 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... September 9, 2011, and published in the Federal Register on September 15, 2011, 76 FR 57080, Chemic... to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Cocaine...

  5. 75 FR 1813 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... August 28, 2009, and published in the Federal Register on September 8, 2009, (74 FR 46231), Chemic... to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered as a bulk manufacturer of Cocaine...

  6. 76 FR 21917 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... October 8, 2010, and published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2010, (75 FR 64744), Cayman Chemical... (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol. In reference to drug code...

  7. The Manufacturing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Margaret

    1972-01-01

    Article describes management training through playing a game which involves the creation and operation of a business organization devoted to manufacturing and sales. Precise details on setting up the game are given. (Author/PD)

  8. Computers in Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Advances in factory computerization (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) are reviewed, including discussions of robotics, human factors engineering, and the sociological impact of automation. (JN)

  9. Agile manufacturing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Steven L.

    1994-03-01

    The initial conceptualization of agile manufacturing was the result of a 1991 study -- chaired by Lehigh Professor Roger N. Nagel and California-based entrepreneur Rick Dove, President of Paradigm Shifts, International -- of what it would take for U.S. industry to regain global manufacturing competitiveness by the early twenty-first century. This industry-led study, reviewed by senior management at over 100 companies before its release, concluded that incremental improvement of the current system of manufacturing would not be enough to be competitive in today's global marketplace. Computer-based information and production technologies that were becoming available to industry opened up the possibility of an altogether new system of manufacturing, one that would be characterized by a distinctive integration of people and technologies; of management and labor; of customers, producers, suppliers, and society.

  10. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  11. Holonic Manufacturing Paint Shop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Morten; Roulet-Dubonnet, Olivier; Nyen, Per Åge; Gellein, Lars Tore; Lien, Terje; Skavhaug, Amund

    In pursuit of flexibility and agility within discrete manufacturing, the surrounding logistics and handling processes of a paint shop is under construction as a laboratory prototype application. Holonic Manufacturing seems to be a promising strategic paradigm and architecture to use for a system characterised by production logistics and control. This paper describes the physical devices to be used; the desired functionality; and the basic logic control designed. Additionally, the ideas for holonification based on the already designed logic control is presented.

  12. Manufacturing information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. K.; Smith, P. R.; Smart, M. J.

    1983-12-01

    The size and cost of manufacturing equipment has made it extremely difficult to perform realistic modeling and simulation of the manufacturing process in university research laboratories. Likewise the size and cost factors, coupled with many uncontrolled variables of the production situation has even made it difficult to perform adequate manufacturing research in the industrial setting. Only the largest companies can afford manufacturing research laboratories; research results are often held proprietary and seldom find their way into the university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development of miniature prototype equipment suitable for use in an integrated CAD/CAM Laboratory. The equipment being developed is capable of actually performing production operations (e.g. drilling, milling, turning, punching, etc.) on metallic and non-metallic workpieces. The integrated CAD/CAM Mini-Lab is integrating high resolution, computer graphics, parametric design, parametric N/C parts programmings, CNC machine control, automated storage and retrieval, with robotics materials handling. The availability of miniature CAD/CAM laboratory equipment will provide the basis for intensive laboratory research on manufacturing information systems.

  13. X-ray Absorption Measurements on Nickel Cathode of Sodium-beta Alumina batteries: Fe-Ni-CI Chemical Associations

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, Mark E.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Fulton, John L.; Lemmon, John P.; Lu, Xiaochuan; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Heald, Steve M.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Mortensen, Devon R.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2014-02-01

    Sections of Na-Al-NiCl2 cathodes from sodium-beta alumina ZEBRA batteries have been characterized with X-ray fluorescence mapping, and XANES measurements to probe the microstructure, elemental correlation, and chemical speciation after voltage cycling. Cycling was performed under identical load conditions at either 240 or 280 °C operating temperature and subsequently quenched in either the charged or discharged state. X-ray fluorescence mapping and XANES measurements were made adjacent to the current collector and β"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte interfaces to detect possible gradients in chemical properties across the cathode. An FeS additive, introduced during battery synthesis, was found to be present as either Fe metal or an Fe(II) chloride in all cathode samples. X-ray fluorescence mapping reveals an operating temperature and charge-state dependent spatial correlation between Fe, Ni, and Cl concentration. XANES measurements indicate that both Ni and Fe are chemically reactive and shift between metallic and chloride phases in the charged and discharged states, respectively. However the percentage of chemically active Ni and Fe is significantly less in the cell operated at lower temperature. Additionally, the cathode appeared chemically homogeneous at the scale of our X-ray measurements.

  14. X-ray absorption measurements on nickel cathode of sodium-beta alumina batteries: Fe-Ni-Cl chemical associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Mark E.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Fulton, John L.; Lemmon, John P.; Lu, Xiaochuan; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Heald, Steve M.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Mortensen, Devon. R.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2014-02-01

    Sections of Na-Al-NiCl2 cathodes from sodium-beta alumina ZEBRA batteries have been characterized with X-ray fluorescence mapping, and XANES measurements to probe the microstructure, elemental correlation, and chemical speciation after voltage cycling. Cycling was performed under identical load conditions at either 240 or 280 °C operating temperature and subsequently quenched in either the charged or discharged state. X-ray fluorescence mapping and XANES measurements were made adjacent to the current collector and β″-Al2O3 solid electrolyte interfaces to detect possible gradients in chemical properties across the cathode. An FeS additive, introduced during battery synthesis, was found to be present as either Fe metal or an Fe(II) chloride in all cathode samples. X-ray fluorescence mapping reveals an operating temperature and charge-state dependent spatial correlation between Fe, Ni, and Cl concentration. XANES measurements indicate that both Ni and Fe are chemically reactive and shift between metallic and chloride phases in the charged and discharged states, respectively. However the percentage of chemically active Ni and Fe is significantly less in the cell operated at lower temperature. Additionally, the cathode appeared chemically homogeneous at the scale of our X-ray measurements.

  15. Lean Manufacturing Auto Cluster at Chennai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2012-10-01

    Due the presence of lot of automotive Industry, Chennai is known as Detroit of India, that producing over 40 % of the Indian vehicle and components. Lean manufacturing concepts have been widely recognized as an important tool in improving the competitiveness of industries. This is a continuous process involving everyone, starting from management to the shop floor. Automotive Component Industries (ACIs) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai has formed special purpose vehicle (SPV) society namely Ambattur Industrial Estate Manufacturers Association (AIEMA) Technology Centre (ATC) lean manufacturing cluster (ATC-LMC) during July 2010 under lean manufacturing competitiveness scheme, that comes under National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme of Government of India. The Tripartite Agreement is taken place between National Productivity Council, consultants and cluster (ATC-LMC). The objective is to conduct diagnostic study, study on training and application of various lean manufacturing techniques and auditing in ten ACIs. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data/details from ten ACIs. In the first phase, diagnostic study is done and the areas for improvement in each of the cluster member companies are identified. In the second phase, training programs and implementation is done on 5S and other areas. In the third phase auditing is done and found that the lean manufacturing techniques implementation in ATC-LMC is sustainable and successful in every cluster companies, which will not only enhance competitiveness but also decrease cost, time and increase productivity. The technical efficiency of LMC companies also increases significantly.

  16. CHEMICAL CATEGORIES IN EPA'S NEW CHEMICALS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA),any person who intends to manufacture or import a new chemical substance, or mixture containing such a substance, in the United States for commercial purposes must submit a premanufacture notice (PMN) to the Environmental...

  17. High-Throughput Models for Exposure-Based Chemical Prioritization in the ExpoCast Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) must characterize potential risks to human health and the environment associated with manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. High-throughput screening (HTS) for biological activity allows the ToxCast research pr...

  18. Medicinal Plants Recommended by the World Health Organization: DNA Barcode Identification Associated with Chemical Analyses Guarantees Their Quality

    PubMed Central

    Palhares, Rafael Melo; Gonçalves Drummond, Marcela; dos Santos Alves Figueiredo Brasil, Bruno; Pereira Cosenza, Gustavo; das Graças Lins Brandão, Maria; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used throughout the world, and the regulations defining their proper use, such as identification of the correct species and verification of the presence, purity and concentration of the required chemical compounds, are widely recognized. Herbal medicines are made from vegetal drugs, the processed products of medicinal species. These processed materials present a number of challenges in terms of botanical identification, and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of incorrect species is a threat to consumer safety. The samples used in this study consisted of the dried leaves, flowers and roots of 257 samples from 8 distinct species approved by the WHO for the production of medicinal herbs and sold in Brazilian markets. Identification of the samples in this study using DNA barcoding (matK, rbcL and ITS2 regions) revealed that the level of substitutions may be as high as 71%. Using qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses, this study identified situations in which the correct species was being sold, but the chemical compounds were not present. Even more troubling, some samples identified as substitutions using DNA barcoding contained the chemical compounds from the correct species at the minimum required concentration. This last situation may lead to the use of unknown species or species whose safety for human consumption remains unknown. This study concludes that DNA barcoding should be used in a complementary manner for species identification with chemical analyses to detect and quantify the required chemical compounds, thus improving the quality of this class of medicines. PMID:25978064

  19. Medicinal plants recommended by the world health organization: DNA barcode identification associated with chemical analyses guarantees their quality.

    PubMed

    Palhares, Rafael Melo; Gonçalves Drummond, Marcela; Dos Santos Alves Figueiredo Brasil, Bruno; Pereira Cosenza, Gustavo; das Graças Lins Brandão, Maria; Oliveira, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used throughout the world, and the regulations defining their proper use, such as identification of the correct species and verification of the presence, purity and concentration of the required chemical compounds, are widely recognized. Herbal medicines are made from vegetal drugs, the processed products of medicinal species. These processed materials present a number of challenges in terms of botanical identification, and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), the use of incorrect species is a threat to consumer safety. The samples used in this study consisted of the dried leaves, flowers and roots of 257 samples from 8 distinct species approved by the WHO for the production of medicinal herbs and sold in Brazilian markets. Identification of the samples in this study using DNA barcoding (matK, rbcL and ITS2 regions) revealed that the level of substitutions may be as high as 71%. Using qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses, this study identified situations in which the correct species was being sold, but the chemical compounds were not present. Even more troubling, some samples identified as substitutions using DNA barcoding contained the chemical compounds from the correct species at the minimum required concentration. This last situation may lead to the use of unknown species or species whose safety for human consumption remains unknown. This study concludes that DNA barcoding should be used in a complementary manner for species identification with chemical analyses to detect and quantify the required chemical compounds, thus improving the quality of this class of medicines. PMID:25978064

  20. Adhesive materials and processing selection for environmentally conscious manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1995-06-01

    Manufacturers that use certain adhesives and related manufacturing processes must consider the impact they have on worker health, safety, and the environment. Product manufacturers must find alternate replacements for solvent-based adhesives and solvent cements. In addition, processes that use ozone-depleting solvents for hand-wipe cleaning operations as well as vapor degreasing must find suitable alternates in order to be environmentally compliant. Likewise, manufacturers that use etching solutions that contain chrome must find a replacement. This paper identifies some of the specific problems associated with using certain adhesives and manufacturing processes. Environmentally acceptable alternative adhesives and processes are presented.

  1. Manufacturing cost/design system: A CAD/CAM dialogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loshigian, H. H.; Rachowitz, B. I.; Judson, D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the Manufacturing Cost/Design System (MC/DS) will provide the aerospace design engineer a tool with which to perform heretofore impractical design manufacturing cost tradeoffs. The Air Force Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Office has initiated the development and demonstration of an MC/DS which, when fully implemented, will integrate both design and manufacturing data bases to provide real time visibility into the manufacturing costs associated with various design options. The first release of a computerized system will be made before the end of 1981.

  2. 78 FR 22887 - Guidance for Industry on Non-Penicillin Beta-Lactam Drugs: A Current Good Manufacturing Practices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Current Good Manufacturing Practices Framework for Preventing Cross- Contamination; Availability AGENCY... health risks associated with cross-reactivity. Although the existing current good manufacturing practices (CGMP) regulations require separation of manufacturing facilities to avoid cross-contamination, the...

  3. Developing the Manufacturing Process for Hylene MP Curing Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Eastwood, Eric

    2009-02-16

    This report details efforts to scale-up and re-establish the manufacturing process for the curing agent known as Hylene MP. First, small scale reactions were completed with varying conditions to determine key drivers for yielding high quality product. Once the optimum conditions were determined on the small scale, the scaled-up process conditions were determined. New equipment was incorporated into the manufacturing process to create a closed production system and improve chemical exposure controls and improve worker safety. A safe, efficient manufacturing process was developed to manufacture high quality Hylene MP in large quantities.

  4. ERA—European Radiochemists Association: Report on the activities of the Working Party for Nuclear and Radiochemistry of the Federation of European Chemical Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolar, Z. I.; Ware, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    The European Radiochemists Association started almost simultaneously with the appearance of the first issue of the Radiochemistry in Europe newsletter in August 1995. The objective of the European Radiochemists Association (ERA) is to extend and improve communication between radiochemists in Europe through a newsletter. Liaison persons within each country or group exchange details of their activities, set up a diary of relevant international events and exchange details of specialist equipment, facilities and technology. In the year 2000 the Federation of European Chemical Societies decided to form a working party on nuclear and radiochemistry. It is a formalisation of the European Radiochemists Association. Each chemical society is allowed to nominate a member to the Working Party on Nuclear and Radiochemistry. Currently we have 12 nominated members plus two invited and one observer. In addition to the ERA aims and objectives it proposes to put together a syllabus of radiochemistry for undergraduate and post-graduate students—this aspect has been a part of our support of the International Atomic Energy Agency initiative. Also the aim of the working party is to support other working parties and divisions, to press the Federation of the European Chemical Societies for financial structure. To this end an Expression of Interest has been tabled with the Framework 6 Programme for networking within radiochemistry in Europe. The WP will liaise with the International Isotope Society and the International Society on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology to seek to communicate and to consider ways of working together.

  5. Advances in solid dosage form manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin P

    2007-12-15

    Currently, the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries are moving through a period of unparalleled change. Major multinational pharmaceutical companies are restructuring, consolidating, merging and more importantly critically assessing their competitiveness to ensure constant growth in an ever-more demanding market where the cost of developing novel products is continuously increasing. The pharmaceutical manufacturing processes currently in existence for the production of solid oral dosage forms are associated with significant disadvantages and in many instances provide many processing problems. Therefore, it is well accepted that there is an increasing need for alternative processes to dramatically improve powder processing, and more importantly to ensure that acceptable, reproducible solid dosage forms can be manufactured. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to invest in innovative processes capable of producing solid dosage forms that better meet the needs of the patient while providing efficient manufacturing operations. This article discusses two emerging solid dosage form manufacturing technologies, namely hot-melt extrusion and fluidized hot-melt granulation. PMID:17855217

  6. Associating Changes in Endogenous Metabolite Profiles of Field-Deployed Fish with Chemical Contaminants and Other Stressors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing risk from contaminant exposure in the aquatic environment typically begins (and often ends) with identification of “listed” chemicals in water samples. While providing useful information about potential exposures, this approach to monitoring – in the absence of site-spe...

  7. Chemicals associated with site-specific neoplasia in 1394 long-term carcinogenesis experiments in laboratory rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J; Cirvello, J; Haseman, J; Bucher, J

    1991-01-01

    The carcinogenicity data base used for this paper originated in the late 1960s by the National Cancer Institute and since 1978 has been continued and made more comprehensive by the National Toxicology Program. The extensive files contain among other sets of information detailed pathology data on more than 400 long-term (most often 24 month) chemical carcinogenesis studies, comprised of nearly 1600 individual experiments having at least 10 million tissue sections that have been evaluated for toxicity and carcinogenicity. Using the current data set of 379 studies made up of 1394 experiments, we have compiled listings of chemicals having like carcinogenic target sites for each of the 34 organs or systems for which histopathology diagnoses have been recorded routinely. The most common tumor site is the liver (15% of all experiments), followed in rank order by: lung, hematopoietic system and kidneys, mammary glands, forestomach, thyroid glands, Zymbal glands, urinary bladder, skin and uterus/cervix, and circulatory system and adrenal glands. These compilations are most useful for maintaining a historic perspective when evaluating the carcinogenicity of contemporary experiments. Equally important, the chemical-tumor-organ connection permits an evaluation of how well chemically induced cancers in a particular organ in one sex or species will predict or correlate with the other sex or species. Using liver cancers as an example, the overall interspecies concordance is 80%. Likewise target site predictions can be made for chemicals selected for study that may be similar to those already evaluated; thereby experimental protocols could be adjusted to allow, for example, more extensive pathology on preselected target organs (i.e., serial sections of the kidney). Further from these observations, one could decide to use two strains of mice to evaluate a short-chain chlorinated aliphatic compound or to study a human carcinogen in a sex-species known to develop chemically induced

  8. National Center for Manufacturing Sciences: Environmentally conscious manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinton, Clare

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to share the results and some of the thinking of the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing - Strategic Initiative Group (ECM-SIG) at the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS). NCMS is a consortium of more than 185 North American Manufacturing organizations comprised of about 75 percent for profit manufacturing companies and about 25 percent nonprofit organizations that support manufacturing activities. NCMS conducts collaborative R&D programs designed to improve global competitiveness of its members and other North American manufacturers to address common issues that are important to manufacturing industries. NCMS is an industry driven organization whose agenda is established by industry with input from appropriate government agencies.

  9. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  10. USCAR LEP ESST Advanced Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarus, L.J.

    2000-09-25

    The objective of this task was to provide processing information data summaries on powder metallurgy (PM) alloys that meet the partner requirements for the production of low mass, highly accurate, near-net-shape powertrain components. This required modification to existing ISO machinability test procedures and development of a new drilling test procedure. These summaries could then be presented in a web page format. When combined with information generated from the USCAR CRADA this would allow chemical, metallurgical, and machining data on PM alloys to be available to all engineering and manufacturing personnel that have access to in-house networks. The web page format also allows for the additions of other wrought materials, making this a valuable tool to the technical staffs.

  11. 78 FR 28586 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ...The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires any person who intends to manufacture (defined by statute to include import) a new chemical (i.e., a chemical not on the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory (TSCA Inventory)) to notify EPA and comply with the statutory provisions pertaining to the manufacture of new chemicals. In addition under TSCA, EPA is required to publish in the Federal......

  12. 77 FR 21769 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... intends to manufacture (defined by statute to include import) a new chemical (i.e., a chemical not on the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory (TSCA Inventory)) to notify EPA and comply with the statutory... manufacture a new chemical that the Agency has received under TSCA section 5 during this time period....

  13. 77 FR 5100 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... intends to manufacture (defined by statute to include import) a new chemical (i.e., a chemical not on the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory (TSCA Inventory)) to notify EPA and comply with the statutory... the NOC to manufacture a new chemical that the Agency has received under TSCA section 5 during...

  14. 77 FR 48976 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... intends to manufacture (defined by statute to include import) a new chemical (i.e., a chemical not on the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory (TSCA Inventory)) to notify EPA and comply with the statutory... manufacture a new chemical that the Agency has received under TSCA section 5 during this time period....

  15. 77 FR 74473 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ...The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires any person who intends to manufacture (defined by statute to include import) a new chemical (i.e., a chemical not on the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory (TSCA Inventory)) to notify EPA and comply with the statutory provisions pertaining to the manufacture of new chemicals. In addition under TSCA, EPA is required to publish in the Federal......

  16. 78 FR 35904 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ...The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires any person who intends to manufacture (defined by statute to include import) a new chemical (i.e., a chemical not on the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory (TSCA Inventory)) to notify EPA and comply with the statutory provisions pertaining to the manufacture of new chemicals. In addition under TSCA, EPA is required to publish in the Federal......

  17. 77 FR 56639 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ...The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires any person who intends to manufacture (defined by statute to include import) a new chemical (i.e., a chemical not on the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory (TSCA Inventory)) to notify EPA and comply with the statutory provisions pertaining to the manufacture of new chemicals. In addition under TSCA, EPA is required to publish in the Federal......

  18. 77 FR 61600 - Certain New Chemicals; Receipt and Status Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ...The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires any person who intends to manufacture (defined by statute to include import) a new chemical (i.e., a chemical not on the TSCA Chemical Substances Inventory (TSCA Inventory)) to notify EPA and comply with the statutory provisions pertaining to the manufacture of new chemicals. In addition under TSCA, EPA is required to publish in the Federal......

  19. Bioassay of estrogenicity and chemical analysis of estrogens in streams across the United States associated with livestock operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manures, used as a nitrogen source for crop production, are often associated with negative impacts on nutrient levels in surface water. The concentration of estrogens in streams from these wastes is of concern due to potential endocrine disruption in aquatic species. Streams associated with...

  20. 78 FR 67117 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Opportunity to Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council.... manufacturing industry to fill five vacant positions on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of...

  1. Challenges and future directions to evaluating the association between prenatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and childhood obesity

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Megan E.; Savitz, David A.; Braun, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing public health threat worldwide. However, there has been insufficient research addressing the obesogenic potential of prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals, largely due to complexities in the design, analysis, and interpretation of such studies. This review describes relevant biological mechanisms, addresses current challenges for investigators, presents potential strategies for overcoming them, and identifies areas where further development is required to improve future research. Special considerations for exposure assessment, outcome heterogeneity, and complex confounding structures are described. PMID:25328860

  2. ATS materials/manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.

    1997-11-01

    The Materials/Manufacturing Technology subelement is a part of the base technology portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. The projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization, and technology information exchange. This paper presents highlights of the activities during the past year. 12 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Energy consumption in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    Energy sources, in the form of coal, oil, natural gas, solar or nuclear power, are global commodities, and as demand is projected to rise in the coming decades, so will costs. As such, an understanding of the energy needs of manufacturing processes and the ability to reduce the energy and carbon footprints are essential for sustainability reasons. Energy source effects are quantified in a number of measures. Models of energy needs by manufacturing processes are then examined, along with models incorporating the use of ancillary equipment such as pumps, filters, blowers, lighting, etc. Finally, the successful application of the tribological principles to influence energy consumption is discussed.

  4. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easoz, J. R.; Herlocher, R. H.

    1991-12-01

    This report examines the cost-effective manufacture of dendritic-web-based photovoltaic modules. It explains how process changes can increase production and reduce manufacturing costs. Long-range benefits of these improved processes are also discussed. Problems are identified that could impede increasing production and reducing costs; approaches to solve these problems are presented. These approaches involve web growth throughput, cell efficiency, process yield, silicon use, process control, automation, and module efficiency. Also discussed are the benefits of bifacial module design, unique to the dendritic web process.

  5. Manufacturing and producibility technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, J. D.; Dreshfield, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Activities of the manufacturing/producibility working group within the Advanced High-Pressure O2/H2 Technology Program are summarized. The objectives of the M/P working group are: to develop and evaluate process and manufacturing techniques for advanced propulsion hardware design and selected materials; and to optimize the producibility of (SSME) components and assemblies by improved performance, increased life, greater reliability, and/or reduced cost. The technologies being developed include: plasma arc, laser, and inertia welding; combustion chamber and turbine blade coatings; coating processes; high performance alloy electroforming; and process control technology.

  6. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Whitehouse, D.; Wiedeman, S.; Catalano, A.W.; Oswald, R. )

    1991-12-01

    This report identifies steps leading to manufacturing large volumes of low-cost, large-area photovoltaic (PV) modules. Both crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon technologies were studied. Cost reductions for each step were estimated and compared to Solarex Corporation's manufacturing costs. A cost model, a simple version of the SAMICS methodology developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), projected PV selling prices. Actual costs of materials, labor, product yield, etc., were used in the cost model. The JPL cost model compared potential ways of lowering costs. Solarex identified the most difficult technical challenges that, if overcome, would reduce costs. Preliminary research plans were developed to solve the technical problems. 13 refs.

  7. Association of chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particulate air pollution and biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis: A panel study among young adults in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Yang, Di; Wei, Hongying; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jing; Li, Hongyu; Shima, Masayuki; Deng, Furong; Guo, Xinbiao

    2015-09-01

    Ambient particulate air pollution has been associated with increased oxidative stress and atherosclerosis, but the chemical constituents and pollution sources behind the association are unclear. We investigated the associations of various chemical constituents and pollution sources of ambient fine particles (PM2.5) with biomarkers of oxidative stress in a panel of 40 healthy university students. Study participants underwent repeated blood collections for 12 times before and after relocating from a suburban campus to an urban campus with high air pollution levels in Beijing, China. Air pollution data were obtained from central air-monitoring stations, and plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and soluble CD36 (sCD36) were determined in the laboratory (n=464). Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the changes in biomarkers in association with exposure variables. PM2.5 iron and nickel were positively associated with Ox-LDL (p<0.05). For each interquartile range increase in iron (1-day, 0.51 μg/m(3)) and nickel (2-day, 2.5 ng/m(3)), there were a 1.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2%, 3.7%] increase and a 1.8% (95% CI: 0.2%, 3.4%) increase in Ox-LDL, respectively. We also found that each interquartile range increase in calcium (1-day, 0.7 μg/m(3)) was associated with a 4.8% (95% CI: 0.7%, 9.1%) increase in sCD36. Among the pollution sources, PM2.5 from traffic emissions and coal combustion were suggestively and positively associated with Ox-LDL. Our findings suggest that a subset of metals in airborne particles may be the major air pollution components that contribute to the increased oxidative stress associated with atherosclerosis. PMID:25981523

  8. Expert Systems Application In Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Pradip; Chitturi, Ramesh; Babu, A. J. G.

    1987-05-01

    Expert system, a special branch of Artificial Intelligence finds its way in the domain of manufacturing. This paper presents the basic ideas and features of the expert systems, problems in manufacturing and application of expert systems in manufacturing. As the process planning is an important phase in manufacturing, the suitability of expert systems for process planning area has been highlighted. Several expert systems, developed to solve manufacturing problems are also discussed in the paper.

  9. Electricity and the geographical deconcentration of manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Barkenbus, J.N.

    1984-09-01

    Geographical deconcentration of manufacturing is occurring in this country in parallel with the dispersion of the general population. Access to relatively inexpensive energy, regardless of the location, has made deconcentration possible. Though the mobility of energy, and particularly electricity, is largely taken for granted today, its significance in permitting regionalization and decentralization should not be overlooked. The construction of a truly national energy system has taken place as manufacturers have gradually been moving away from the classical American manufacturing belt. Data are marshaled to document the movement of manufacturers away from the urban core of metropolitan areas and, a more recent trend, the movement from the larger metropolitan area itself and into the countryside. Based upon limited data, there appears to be a positive association between greater nonmetropolitan manufacturing employment and increasing electricity use. The deconcentration momentum has not stalled in the face of the energy shocks witnessed during the 1970s. Electrification and manufacturing deconcentration are likely to advance together in the future.

  10. MEGARA optical manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E.; Páez, G.; Granados, F.; Percino, E.; Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Avilés, J. L.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Gil de Paz, A.; Gallego, J.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Cedazo, R.

    2014-07-01

    MEGARA is the future visible integral-field and multi-object spectrograph for the GTC 10.4-m telescope located in La Palma. INAOE is a member of the MEGARA Consortium and it is in charge of the Optics Manufacturing work package. MEGARA passed the Optics Detailed Design Review in May 2013, and the blanks of the main optics have been already ordered and their manufacturing is in progress. Except for the optical fibers and microlenses, the complete MEGARA optical system will be manufactured in Mexico, shared between the workshops of INAOE and CIO. This includes a field lens, a 5-lenses collimator, a 7-lenses camera and a complete set of volume phase holographic gratings with 36 flat windows and 24 prisms, being all these elements very large and complex. Additionally, the optical tests and the complete assembly of the camera and collimator subsystems will be carried out in Mexico. Here we describe the current status of the optics manufacturing process.

  11. Advanced Computing for Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erisman, Albert M.; Neves, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses ways that supercomputers are being used in the manufacturing industry, including the design and production of airplanes and automobiles. Describes problems that need to be solved in the next few years for supercomputers to assume a major role in industry. (TW)

  12. Manufacturing (Industrial) Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 35 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of manufacturing (industrial) technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  13. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kortovich, C.

    1995-12-31

    The specific goal of this program is to define manufacturing methods that will allow single crystal technology to be applied to complex-cored airfoils components for power generation applications. Tasks addressed include: alloy melt practice to reduce the sulfur content; improvement of casting process; core materials design; and grain orientation control.

  14. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  15. Manufacturing and Merchandising Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Peter J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anyone with a flair for business, product development, or promotion might consider a manufacturing or merchandising occupation. The music industry offers many career opportunities for administrators, salespersons, marketing specialists--the record industry offers positions from promotion manager to rack jobber. Describes instrument company…

  16. Manufacturing Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This guide provides the basic foundation to develop a one-semester course based on the cluster concept, manufacturing technology. One of a set of six guides for an industrial arts curriculum at the junior high school level, it suggests activities that allow students (1) to become familiar with and use some of the tools, materials, and processes…

  17. Illinois Manufacturing Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliffe, Roger; And Others

    This manufacturing technology curriculum involves students in learning problem-solving, communication, team building, quality control, safety, math, science, and technical skills. The document begins with a section on implementation, which gives background information on the purposes and development of the curriculum, explains its rationale,…

  18. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  19. Associations between Long-Term Exposure to Chemical Constituents of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Mortality in Medicare Enrollees in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Coull, Brent A.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    mortality. These results provide new evidence that chemical composition can partly explain the differential toxicity of PM2.5. Citation: Chung Y, Dominici F, Wang Y, Coull BA, Bell ML. 2015. Associations between long-term exposure to chemical constituents of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mortality in Medicare enrollees in the eastern United States. Environ Health Perspect 123:467–474; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307549 PMID:25565179

  20. [CHANGING OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF NON-CONTACT (ELECTROCHEMICAL) ACTIVATED DRINKING WATER IS ASSOCIATED WITH INDUCTION OF GENOMIC INSTABILITY OF CULTIVATED HUMAN BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES].

    PubMed

    Zatsepina, O V; Ingel, F I

    2016-01-01

    In the article there are presented data which are the fragment of large multidisciplinary study of genetic safety of non-contact electrochemically activated water (NAW). The aim of this study was the analysis of the relation of impacts of genomic instability (micronucleus test with cytochalasin B) detected in human blood cells, cultured in medias prepared on the base of these NAWs, with physical and chemical properties of these NaWs. In experiments there were used catholytes and anolytes obtained by activation of osmotic, tap and dining bottled water As a result of such activation, all waters were shown to acquire the ability to induce genomic instability in cellular cultures. Notably in cell cultures on catholytes and anolytes these effects differed between themselves and have been associated with different physical and chemical properties of the NAWs. PMID:27266021

  1. Environmental chemicals impact dog semen quality in vitro and may be associated with a temporal decline in sperm motility and increased cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Lea, Richard G.; Byers, Andrew S.; Sumner, Rebecca N.; Rhind, Stewart M.; Zhang, Zulin; Freeman, Sarah L.; Moxon, Rachel; Richardson, Holly M.; Green, Martin; Craigon, Jim; England, Gary C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse temporal trends in human semen quality and cryptorchidism in infants have been associated with exposure to environmental chemicals (ECs) during development. Here we report that a population of breeding dogs exhibit a 26 year (1988–2014) decline in sperm quality and a concurrent increased incidence of cryptorchidism in male offspring (1995–2014). A decline in the number of males born relative to the number of females was also observed. ECs, including diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and polychlorinated bisphenol 153 (PCB153), were detected in adult dog testes and commercial dog foods at concentrations reported to perturb reproductive function in other species. Testicular concentrations of DEHP and PCB153 perturbed sperm viability, motility and DNA integrity in vitro but did not affect LH stimulated testosterone secretion from adult testis explants. The direct effects of chemicals on sperm may therefore contribute to the decline in canine semen quality that parallels that reported in the human. PMID:27503122

  2. Environmental chemicals impact dog semen quality in vitro and may be associated with a temporal decline in sperm motility and increased cryptorchidism.

    PubMed

    Lea, Richard G; Byers, Andrew S; Sumner, Rebecca N; Rhind, Stewart M; Zhang, Zulin; Freeman, Sarah L; Moxon, Rachel; Richardson, Holly M; Green, Martin; Craigon, Jim; England, Gary C W

    2016-01-01

    Adverse temporal trends in human semen quality and cryptorchidism in infants have been associated with exposure to environmental chemicals (ECs) during development. Here we report that a population of breeding dogs exhibit a 26 year (1988-2014) decline in sperm quality and a concurrent increased incidence of cryptorchidism in male offspring (1995-2014). A decline in the number of males born relative to the number of females was also observed. ECs, including diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and polychlorinated bisphenol 153 (PCB153), were detected in adult dog testes and commercial dog foods at concentrations reported to perturb reproductive function in other species. Testicular concentrations of DEHP and PCB153 perturbed sperm viability, motility and DNA integrity in vitro but did not affect LH stimulated testosterone secretion from adult testis explants. The direct effects of chemicals on sperm may therefore contribute to the decline in canine semen quality that parallels that reported in the human. PMID:27503122

  3. 75 FR 8575 - Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Third Group of Chemicals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 799 RIN 2070-AD16 Testing of Certain High Production Volume Chemicals; Third Group of... manufacturers, importers, and processors of certain high production volume (HPV) chemicals to conduct testing to... reproductive toxicity. The chemical substances are HPV chemicals, i.e., chemical substances with a...

  4. The associations between birth weight and exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its chemical constituents during pregnancy: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiping; Zhao, Chunmei; Zhang, Bo; Tao, Jun; Yang, Zuyao; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Tao

    2016-04-01

    We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the associations of maternal exposure to PM2.5 and its chemical constituents with birth weight and to explore the sources of heterogeneity in regard to the findings of these associations. A total of 32 studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, PUBMED, Embase, China Biological Medicine and Wanfang electronic databases before April 2015. We estimated the statistically significant associations of reduced birth weight (β = -15.9 g, 95% CI: -26.8, -5.0) and LBW (OR = 1.090, 95% CI: 1.032, 1.150) with PM2.5 exposure (per 10 μg/m(3) increment) during the entire pregnancy. Trimester-specific analyses showed negative associations between birth weight and PM2.5 exposure during the second (β = -12.6 g) and third (β = -10.0 g) trimesters. Other subgroup analyses indicated significantly different pooled-effect estimates of PM2.5 exposure on birth weight in studies with different exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings. We further observed large differences in the pooled effect estimates of the PM2.5 chemical constituents for birth weight decrease and LBW. We concluded that PM2.5 exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight, and late pregnancy might be the critical window. Some specific PM2.5 constituents may have larger toxic effects on fetal weight. Exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings might be important sources of the heterogeneity among the included studies. PMID:26736054

  5. Association of Quadriceps Muscle Fat With Isometric Strength Measurements in Healthy Males Using Chemical Shift Encoding-Based Water-Fat Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Thomas; Inhuber, Stephanie; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Cordes, Christian; Ruschke, Stefan; Klupp, Elisabeth; Jungmann, Pia M.; Farlock, Rosanna; Eggers, Holger; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Schwirtz, Ansgar; Kirschke, Jan S.; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Magnetic resonance–based assessment of quadriceps muscle fat has been proposed as surrogate marker in sarcopenia, osteoarthritis, and neuromuscular disorders. We presently investigated the association of quadriceps muscle fat with isometric strength measurements in healthy males using chemical shift encoding-based water-fat magnetic resonance imaging. Intermuscular adipose tissue fraction and intramuscular proton density fat fraction correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with isometric strength (up to r = −0.83 and −0.87, respectively). Reproducibility of intermuscular adipose tissue fraction and intramuscular proton density fat fraction was 1.5% and 5.7%, respectively. PMID:26953765

  6. Bioassay of estrogenicity and chemical analyses of estrogens in streams across the United States associated with livestock operations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal manures, used as a nitrogen source for crop production, are often associated with negative impacts on nutrient levels in surface water. The concentration of estrogens in streams from these manures is of concern due to potential endocrine disruption in aquatic species. S...

  7. Association of allergic rhinitis or asthma with pollen and chemical pollutants in Szeged, Hungary, 1999-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makra, László; Matyasovszky, István; Bálint, Beatrix; Csépe, Zoltán

    2014-07-01

    The effect of biological (pollen) and chemical air pollutants on respiratory hospital admissions for the Szeged region in Southern Hungary is analysed. A 9-year (1999-2007) database includes—besides daily number of respiratory hospital admissions—daily mean concentrations of CO, PM10, NO, NO2, O3 and SO2. Two pollen variables ( Ambrosia and total pollen excluding Ambrosia) are also included. The analysis was performed for patients with chronic respiratory complaints (allergic rhinitis or asthma bronchiale) for two age categories (adults and the elderly) of males and females. Factor analysis was performed to clarify the relative importance of the pollutant variables affecting respiratory complaints. Using selected low and high quantiles corresponding to probability distributions of respiratory hospital admissions, averages of two data sets of each air pollutant variable were evaluated. Elements of these data sets were chosen according to whether actual daily patient numbers were below or above their quantile value. A nonparametric regression technique was applied to discriminate between extreme and non-extreme numbers of respiratory admissions using pollen and chemical pollutants as explanatory variables. The strongest correlations between extreme patient numbers and pollutants can be observed during the pollen season of Ambrosia, while the pollen-free period exhibits the weakest relationships. The elderly group with asthma bronchiale is characterised by lower correlations between extreme patient numbers and pollutants compared to adults and allergic rhinitis, respectively. The ratio of the number of correct decisions on the exceedance of a quantile resulted in similar conclusions as those obtained by using multiple correlations.

  8. Association of allergic rhinitis or asthma with pollen and chemical pollutants in Szeged, Hungary, 1999-2007.

    PubMed

    Makra, László; Matyasovszky, István; Bálint, Beatrix; Csépe, Zoltán

    2014-07-01

    The effect of biological (pollen) and chemical air pollutants on respiratory hospital admissions for the Szeged region in Southern Hungary is analysed. A 9-year (1999-2007) database includes--besides daily number of respiratory hospital admissions--daily mean concentrations of CO, PM10, NO, NO2, O3 and SO2. Two pollen variables (Ambrosia and total pollen excluding Ambrosia) are also included. The analysis was performed for patients with chronic respiratory complaints (allergic rhinitis or asthma bronchiale) for two age categories (adults and the elderly) of males and females. Factor analysis was performed to clarify the relative importance of the pollutant variables affecting respiratory complaints. Using selected low and high quantiles corresponding to probability distributions of respiratory hospital admissions, averages of two data sets of each air pollutant variable were evaluated. Elements of these data sets were chosen according to whether actual daily patient numbers were below or above their quantile value. A nonparametric regression technique was applied to discriminate between extreme and non-extreme numbers of respiratory admissions using pollen and chemical pollutants as explanatory variables. The strongest correlations between extreme patient numbers and pollutants can be observed during the pollen season of Ambrosia, while the pollen-free period exhibits the weakest relationships. The elderly group with asthma bronchiale is characterised by lower correlations between extreme patient numbers and pollutants compared to adults and allergic rhinitis, respectively. The ratio of the number of correct decisions on the exceedance of a quantile resulted in similar conclusions as those obtained by using multiple correlations. PMID:23558448

  9. 40 CFR 721.10531 - Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated cycloalkanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Distillation bottoms from manufacture... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10531 Distillation bottoms from... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as distillation bottoms from manufacture...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10531 - Distillation bottoms from manufacture of brominated cycloalkanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Distillation bottoms from manufacture... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10531 Distillation bottoms from... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as distillation bottoms from manufacture...

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory Building 878 hazards assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.; Thornton, W.; Swihart, A.; Gilman, T.

    1994-07-01

    The introduction of the hazards assessment process is to document the impact of the release of hazards at the Advanced Manufacturing Processes Laboratory (AMPL) that are significant enough to warrant consideration in Sandia National Laboratories` operational emergency management program. This hazards assessment is prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requirement that facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment provides an analysis of the potential airborne release of chemicals associated with the operations and processes at the AMPL. This research and development laboratory develops advanced manufacturing technologies, practices, and unique equipment and provides the fabrication of prototype hardware to meet the needs of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (SNL/NM). The focus of the hazards assessment is the airborne release of materials because this requires the most rapid, coordinated emergency response on the part of the AMPL, SNL/NM, collocated facilities, and surrounding jurisdiction to protect workers, the public, and the environment.

  12. Computers in manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-02-01

    CAD/CAM advances and applications for enhancing productivity in industry are explored. Wide-spread use of CAD/CAM devices are projected to occur by the time period 1992-1997, resulting in a higher percentage of technicians in the manufacturing process, while the cost of computers and software will continue to fall and become more widely available. Computer aided design is becoming a commercially viable system for design and geometric modeling, engineering analysis, kinematics, and drafting, and efforts to bridge the gap between CAD and CAM are indicated, with particular attention given to layering, wherein individual monitoring of different parts of the manufacturing process can be effected without crossover of unnecessary information. The potentials and barriers to the use of robotics are described, with the added optimism that displaced workers to date have moved up to jobs of higher skill and interest.

  13. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  14. Technology for Manufacturing Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Ground Processing Scheduling System (GPSS) was developed by Ames Research Center, Kennedy Space Center and divisions of the Lockheed Company to maintain the scheduling for preparing a Space Shuttle Orbiter for a mission. Red Pepper Software Company, now part of PeopleSoft, Inc., commercialized the software as their ResponseAgent product line. The software enables users to monitor manufacturing variables, report issues and develop solutions to existing problems.

  15. Advancements in asphere manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fess, Edward; DeFisher, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Aspheric optics can pose as a challenge to the manufacturing community due to the surface shape and level of quality required. The aspheric surface may have inflection points that limit the usable tool size during manufacturing, or there may be a stringent tolerance on the slope for mid-spatial frequencies that may be problematic for sub-aperture finishing techniques to achieve. As aspheres become more commonplace in the optics community, requests for more complex aspheres have risen. OptiPro Systems has been developing technologies to create a robust aspheric manufacturing process. Contour deterministic microgrinding is performed on a Pro80 or eSX platform. These platforms utilize software and the latest advancements in machine motion to accurately contour the aspheric shape. Then the optics are finished using UltraForm Finishing (UFF), which is a sub-aperture polishing process. This process has the capability to adjust the diameter and compliance of the polishing lap to allow for finishing over a wide range of shapes and conditions. Finally, the aspheric surfaces are qualified using an OptiTrace contact profilometer, or an UltraSurf non-contact 3D surface scanner. The OptiTrace uses a stylus to scan across the surface of the part, and the UltraSurf utilizes several different optical pens to scan the surface and generate a topographical map of the surface under test. This presentation will focus on the challenges for asphere manufacturing, how OptiPro has implemented its technologies to combat these challenges, and provide surface data for analysis.

  16. Electrohydrodynamic Printing and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Saville, Dudley A. (Inventor); Poon, Hak Fei (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-hua (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An stable electrohydrodynamic filament is obtained by causing a straight electrohydrodynamic filament formed from a liquid to emerge from a Taylor cone, the filament having a diameter of from 10 nm to 100.mu.m. Such filaments are useful in electrohydrodynamic printing and manufacturing techniques and their application in liquid drop/particle and fiber production, colloidal deployment and assembly, and composite materials processing.

  17. Chemical affinities between the solvent extractable and the bulk organic matter of fossil resin associated with an extinct podocarpaceae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimalt, J.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses by GC-MS and GC-IR of resin associated to Dacridiumites mawsonii deposits, an extinct species of Podocarpaceae occurring on the South Island of New Zealand during the Bortonian (Middle Eocene), have revealed that dehydroabietic acid is the predominant component of the solvent soluble fraction. Accordingly, this diterpenoid has been selected as the principal component material for spectroscopic comparison with the bulk resin using IR and CP/MAS 13C NMR. ?? 1989.

  18. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  19. Manufactured Homes Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-03-09

    The MH Tool software is designed to evaluate existing and new manufactured homes for structural adequacy in high winds. Users define design elements of a manufactured home and then select the hazard(s) for analysis. MH Tool then calculates and reports structural analysis results for the specified design and hazard Method of Solution: Design engineers input information (geometries, materials, etc.) describing the structure of a manufactured home, from which the software automatically creates a mathematical model.more » Windows, doors, and interior walls can be added to the initial design. HUD Code loads (wind, snow loads, interior live loads, etc.) are automatically applied. A finite element analysis is automatically performed using a third party solver to find forces and stresses throughout the structure. The designer may then employ components of strength (and cost) most appropriate for the loads that must be carried at each location, and then re-run the analysis for verification. If forces and stresses are still within tolerable limits (such as the HUD requirements), construction costs would be reduced without sacrificing quality.« less

  20. Manufactured Homes Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-09

    The MH Tool software is designed to evaluate existing and new manufactured homes for structural adequacy in high winds. Users define design elements of a manufactured home and then select the hazard(s) for analysis. MH Tool then calculates and reports structural analysis results for the specified design and hazard Method of Solution: Design engineers input information (geometries, materials, etc.) describing the structure of a manufactured home, from which the software automatically creates a mathematical model. Windows, doors, and interior walls can be added to the initial design. HUD Code loads (wind, snow loads, interior live loads, etc.) are automatically applied. A finite element analysis is automatically performed using a third party solver to find forces and stresses throughout the structure. The designer may then employ components of strength (and cost) most appropriate for the loads that must be carried at each location, and then re-run the analysis for verification. If forces and stresses are still within tolerable limits (such as the HUD requirements), construction costs would be reduced without sacrificing quality.

  1. Centers for manufacturing technology: Industrial Advisory Committee Review

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    An advisory committee, composed of senior managers form industrial- sector companies and major manufacturing trade associations and representatives from appropriate educational institutions, meets semi-annually to review and advise the Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology (ORCMT) on its economic security program. Individual papers have been indexed separately for the database.

  2. 77 FR 66179 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... manufacturing council. SUMMARY: On September 14, 2012, the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 56811) soliciting applications for...

  3. 75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On November 23, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration published a notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 71417) soliciting applications to fill...

  4. 75 FR 30781 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On March 16, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration published a notice in the Federal Register (75 FR 12507) soliciting applications for membership...

  5. 77 FR 69794 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On September 14, 2012, the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration (ITA) published a notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 56811) soliciting applications...

  6. Dermatitis in rubber manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    White, I.R.

    1988-01-01

    This review describes the history of rubber technology and the manufacturing techniques used in rubber manufacturing industries. The important aspects of the acquisition of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis within the industry are presented for the reader.

  7. Manufacturing a Superconductor in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, John

    1989-01-01

    Described is the manufacture of a superconductor from a commercially available kit using equipment usually available in schools or easily obtainable. The construction is described in detail including equipment, materials, safety procedures, tolerances, and manufacture. (Author/CW)

  8. Pollution from drug manufacturing: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, D. G. Joakim

    2014-01-01

    As long ago as the sixteenth century, Paracelsus recognized that ‘the dose makes the poison’. Indeed, environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals excreted by humans are limited, most importantly because a defined dose is given to just a fraction of the population. By contrast, recent studies have identified direct emission from drug manufacturing as a source of much higher environmental discharges that, in some cases, greatly exceed toxic threshold concentrations. Because production is concentrated in specific locations, the risks are not linked to usage patterns. Furthermore, as the drugs are not consumed, metabolism in the human body does not reduce concentrations. The environmental risks associated with manufacturing therefore comprise a different, wider set of pharmaceuticals compared with those associated with risks from excretion. Although pollution from manufacturing is less widespread, discharges that promote the development of drug-resistant microorganisms can still have global consequences. Risk management also differs between production and excretion in terms of accountability, incentive creation, legal opportunities, substitution possibilities and costs. Herein, I review studies about industrial emissions of pharmaceuticals and the effects associated with exposure to such effluents. I contrast environmental pollution due to manufacturing with that due to excretion in terms of their risks and management and highlight some recent initiatives. PMID:25405961

  9. In-situ determination of metallic variation and multi-association in single particles by combining synchrotron microprobe, sequential chemical extraction and multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Min; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Shi-Suo; Wang, Si-Jia; Xia, Yi; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-07-15

    Due to the heterogeneity of metal distribution, it is challenging to identify the speciation, source and fate of metals in solid samples at micro scales. To overcome these challenges single particles of air pollution control residues were detected in situ by synchrotron microprobe after each step of chemical extraction and analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis. Results showed that Pb, Cu and Zn co-existed as acid soluble fractions during chemical extraction, regardless of their individual distribution as chlorides or oxides in the raw particles. Besides the forms of Fe2O3, MnO2 and FeCr2O4, Fe, Mn, Cr and Ni were closely associated with each other, mainly as reducible fractions. In addition, the two groups of metals had interrelations with the Si-containing insoluble matrix. The binding could not be directly detected by micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) and XRD, suggesting their partial existence as amorphous forms or in the solid solution. The combined method on single particles can effectively determine metallic multi-associations and various extraction behaviors that could not be identified by XRD, μ-XRD or X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results are useful for further source identification and migration tracing of heavy metals. PMID:24887126

  10. Detection of cresyl phosphate-modified butyrylcholinesterase in human plasma for chemical exposure associated with aerotoxic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Masson, Patrick; Lamourette, Patricia; Simon, Stéphanie; Lockridge, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Aircrew complain of illness following a fume event in aircraft. A chemical in jet engine oil, the neurotoxicant, tri-o-cresyl phosphate, after metabolic activation to cresyl saligenin phosphate, makes a covalent adduct on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). We developed a mass spectrometry method for detection of the cresyl phosphate adduct on human BChE, as an indicator of exposure. Monoclonal mAb2, whose amino acid sequence is provided, was crosslinked to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B and used to immunopurify plasma BChE treated with cresyl saligenin phosphate. BChE was released with acetic acid, digested with pepsin, and analyzed by LC-MSMS on the 5600 Triple TOF mass spectrometer. Peptide FGES198AGAAS with an added mass of 170 Da from cresyl phosphate on serine 198 was detected as parent ion 966.4 Da. When characteristic daughter ions were monitored in the MSMS spectrum the limit of detection was 0.1% cresyl saligenin phosphate inhibited plasma BChE. This corresponds to 2×10−9 g in 0.5 ml, or 23×10−15 moles of inhibited BChE in 0.5 ml plasma. In conclusion, a sensitive assay for exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate was developed. Laboratories that plan to use this method are cautioned that a positive result gives no proof that tri-o-cresyl phosphate is toxic at low levels. PMID:24892986

  11. Strategies and equipment for sampling suspended sediment and associated toxic chemicals in large rivers - with emphasis on the Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meade, R.H.; Stevens, H.H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A Lagrangian strategy for sampling large rivers, which was developed and tested in the Orinoco and Amazon Rivers of South America during the early 1980s, is now being applied to the study of toxic chemicals in the Mississippi River. A series of 15-20 cross-sections of the Mississippi mainstem and its principal tributaries is sampled by boat in downstream sequence, beginning upriver of St. Louis and concluding downriver of New Orleans 3 weeks later. The timing of the downstream sampling sequence approximates the travel time of the river water. Samples at each cross-section are discharge-weighted to provide concentrations of dissolved and suspended constituents that are converted to fluxes. Water-sediment mixtures are collected from 10-40 equally spaced points across the river width by sequential depth integration at a uniform vertical transit rate. Essential equipment includes (i) a hydraulic winch, for sensitive control of vertical transit rates, and (ii) a collapsible-bag sampler, which allows integrated samples to be collected at all depths in the river. A section is usually sampled in 4-8 h, for a total sample recovery of 100-120 l. Sampled concentrations of suspended silt and clay are reproducible within 3%.

  12. Chemical analyses of coal, coal-associated rocks and coal combustion products collected for the National Coal Quality Inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Bullock, John H., Jr.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the USGS initiated the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) project to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. At the time this project was initiated, the publicly available USGS coal quality data was based on samples primarily collected and analyzed between 1973 and 1985. The primary objective of NaCQI was to create a database containing comprehensive, accurate and accessible chemical information on the quality of mined and prepared United States coals and their combustion byproducts. This objective was to be accomplished through maintaining the existing publicly available coal quality database, expanding the database through the acquisition of new samples from priority areas, and analysis of the samples using updated coal analytical chemistry procedures. Priorities for sampling include those areas where future sources of compliance coal are federally owned. This project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry. Funding support came from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  13. Spatial and temporal changes in microbial community structure associated with recharge-influenced chemical gradients in a contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Fogarty, L.R.; West, T.G.; Alm, E.W.; McGuire, J.T.; Long, D.T.; Hyndman, D.W.; Forney, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    In a contaminated water-table aquifer, we related microbial community structure on aquifer sediments to gradients in 24 geochemical and contaminant variables at five depths, under three recharge conditions. Community amplified ribsosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using universal 16S rDNA primers and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) using bacterial 16S rDNA primers indicated: (i) communities in the anoxic, contaminated central zone were similar regardless of recharge; (ii) after recharge, communities at greatest depth were similar to those in uncontaminated zones; and (iii) after extended lack of recharge, communities at upper and lower aquifer margins differed from communities at the same depths on other dates. General aquifer geochemistry was as important as contaminant or terminal electron accepting process (TEAP) chemistry in discriminant analysis of community groups. The Shannon index of diversity (H) and the evenness index (E), based on DGGE operational taxonomic units (OTUs), were statistically different across community groups and aquifer depths. Archaea or sulphate-reducing bacteria 16S rRNA abundance was not clearly correlated with TEAP chemistry indicative of methanogenesis or sulphate reduction. Eukarya rRNA abundance varied by depth and date from 0 to 13% of the microbial community. This contaminated aquifer is a dynamic ecosystem, with complex interactions between physical, chemical and biotic components, which should be considered in the interpretation of aquifer geochemistry and in the development of conceptual or predictive models for natural attenuation or remediation.

  14. Chemical equilibrium and mass balance relationships associated with the Long Valley hydrothermal system, California, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Recent drilling and sampling of hydrothermal fluids from Long Valley permit an accurate characterization of chemical concentrations and equilibrium conditions in the hydrothermal reservoir. Hydrothermal fluids are thermodynamically saturated with secondary quartz, calcite, and pyrite but are in disequilibrium with respect to aqueous sulfide-sulfate speciation. Hydrothermal fluids are enriched in 18O by approximately 1??? relative to recharge waters. 18O and Cl concentrations in well cuttings and core from high-temperature zones of the reservoir are extensively depleted relative to fresh rhyolitic tuff compositions. Approximately 80% of the Li and 50% of the B are retained in the altered reservoir rock. Cl mass balance and open-system 18O fractionation models produce similar water-rock ratios of between 1.0 and 2.5 kg kg-1. These water-rock ratios coupled with estimates of reservoir porosity and density produce a minimum fluid residence time of 1.3 ka. The low fluid Cl concentrations in Long Valley correlate with corresponding low rock concentrations. Mass balance calculations indicate that leaching of these reservoir rocks accounts for Cl losses during hydrothermal activity over the last 40 ka. ?? 1991.

  15. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-09

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  16. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Somberg, H. )

    1991-11-01

    This report describes existing integrated processes for solar cell manufacturing and lists as the primary opportunity for improvement the following areas: low-cost silicon sheets with improved characteristics; improved large-scale and automated solar cell processes that can lead to cell efficiencies in the range of 14% (encapsulated) for direct-cast wafers; improved handling and lamination of large-area modules for the emerging utility market. The proposed solutions can lead to finished module costs on the order of $1.55 per square meter or a selling price of less than $2.00/Watt. The problems that may be considered generic to the industry and that have been addressed in this work are as follows: gettering and passivation of silicon wafers; spray-on passivation layers; dual antireflection coatings; ink-jet printing of metallizations; and automated handling of large-area modules and associated vertical lamination. 14 refs.

  17. A CORBA-based manufacturing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pancerella, C.M.; Whiteside, R.A.; Klevgard, P.A.

    1996-08-01

    A CORBA-based distributed object software system was developed for Sandia`s Agile Manufacturing Testbed (SAMT). This information architecture supports the goals of agile manufacturing: rapid response to changing requirements; small lot machining; reduction in both time and cost of the product realization process; and integration within a heterogeneous, wide-area networked enterprise. Features of the resulting software-controlled manufacturing environment are: (1) Easy plug-and-play of manufacturing devices. (2) Support for both automated and manual operations. (3) Information flow both into and out of manufacturing devices. (4) Dynamic task sequencer. Each of the heterogeneous physical objects (lathe, milling machine, robot arm, etc.) has a corresponding software object that supports a common IDL interface called IDevice. This interface provides operations for material processing, material movement, status monitoring, and other administrative tasks. CORBA objects allow for the encapsulation of a machine tool, its controller, and the network interface to the controller. Both manual and automated operations are supported by the software system. If an IDevice object receives a request for a non-automated operation, it uses an associated Console object to affect the operation by communications with a human machinist. A design goal of the Console object for a machine is to provide an information-intensive environment for the machinist, rather than just the transmittal of instructions to be carried out. In addition to the flow of information into manufacturing devices (e.g., control and NC code), the software architecture supports the easy extraction of data (e.g., sensor data or inspection reports) back out of the machine and into the broader information processing environment The task sequencer object dynamically locates devices, accepts jobs, and dispatches tasks in the manufacturing cell. A job script captures setup operations, material movement, and processing.

  18. Metrology Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotwinski, John A.; Garboczi, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) processes can produce highly complex and customized parts without the need for dedicated tooling and can produce parts directly from the part design information. These types of processes are poised to revolutionize the manufacturing industry, yet several challenges are currently preventing more widespread adoption of AM technologies. Among these challenges are metrology issues associated with the measurement and characterization of the metal powders used for AM systems. This article will describe the technical challenges and needs for characterizing metal AM powders, recent research efforts to address those needs, and current work to standardize characterization methods in ASTM and ISO, such as the recently released ASTM F3049, Standard Guide for Characterizing Properties of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing Processes.

  19. Advanced Blade Manufacturing Project - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    POORE, ROBERT Z.

    1999-08-01

    The original scope of the project was to research improvements to the processes and materials used in the manufacture of wood-epoxy blades, conduct tests to qualify any new material or processes for use in blade design and subsequently build and test six blades using the improved processes and materials. In particular, ABM was interested in reducing blade cost and improving quality. In addition, ABM needed to find a replacement material for the mature Douglas fir used in the manufacturing process. The use of mature Douglas fir is commercially unacceptable because of its limited supply and environmental concerns associated with the use of mature timber. Unfortunately, the bankruptcy of FloWind in June 1997 and a dramatic reduction in AWT sales made it impossible for ABM to complete the full scope of work. However, sufficient research and testing were completed to identify several promising changes in the blade manufacturing process and develop a preliminary design incorporating these changes.

  20. Various uses of ion chromatography in the manufacture of MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Beverly

    1999-08-01

    Ion Chromatography has already shown its value as a process monitoring and troubleshooting tool for the semiconductor and disk drive manufacturers. Similarly, there are many possible uses for this analytical technique in the manufacture of microelectromechanical devices. Some of these uses are: (i) the analysis of corrosive ions in ultrapure water and ultrapure chemicals; (ii) analysis of plating bath constituents and contaminants; (iii) analysis of corrosive ions found on MEMS devices during manufacturing and which can later cause device failure of reliability problems; (iv) the analysis of corrosive ions found on MEMS manufacturing tools, carriers and other materials that come in contact with the final product. This paper will explore the many uses of ion chromatography for the manufacture of MEMS devices. Special techniques, only recently developed for use on very small objects, will also be presented for the analysis of ions at part per trillion levels.

  1. 76 FR 33244 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an Opportunity To Apply for Membership on the Manufacturing Council... Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of the Council is to advise the Secretary of Commerce on...

  2. 77 FR 2275 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an opportunity to apply for membership on the Manufacturing Council... Manufacturing Council (Council). The purpose of the Council is to advise the Secretary of Commerce on...

  3. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  4. Manufacturing Curriculum Grant. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Jule Dee

    A manufacturing curriculum for secondary vocational programs was designed to bridge the gap between grades 9-10 level courses and the community college-level curriculum of the Illinois Plan for Industrial Education. During the project, a literature review of manufacturing curriculum materials was conducted, a manufacturing conceptual framework was…

  5. Decision Guidance for Sustainable Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shao, Guodong

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable manufacturing has significant impacts on a company's business performance and competitiveness in today's world. A growing number of manufacturing industries are initiating efforts to address sustainability issues; however, to achieve a higher level of sustainability, manufacturers need methodologies for formally describing, analyzing,…

  6. Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Peyton A; Karpinski, Clarissa D; Brown, Jessica E; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F

    2016-01-01

    Background Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids. Methods Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary flavours (eg, bubble gum and cotton candy), also analysed were convenience samples of e-cigarette fluids in refill bottles from local ‘vape’ shops and online retailers. Results In many liquids, total flavour chemicals were found to be in the ∼1–4% range (10–40 mg/mL); labelled levels of nicotine were in the range of 0.6–2.4% (6 to 24 mg/mL). A significant number of the flavour chemicals were aldehydes, a compound class recognised as ‘primary irritants’ of mucosal tissue of the respiratory tract. Many of the products contained the same flavour chemicals: vanillin and/or ethyl vanillin was found in 17 of the liquids as one of the top three flavour chemicals, and/or at ≥0.5 mg/mL. Conclusions The concentrations of some flavour chemicals in e-cigarette fluids are sufficiently high for inhalation exposure by vaping to be of toxicological concern. Regulatory limits should be contemplated for levels of some of the more worrisome chemicals as well as for total flavour chemical levels. Ingredient labeling should also be required. PMID:25877377

  7. Light-induced mutagenicity in Salmonella TA102 and genotoxicity/cytotoxicity in human T-cells by 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine: a chemical used in the manufacture of dyes and pigments and in tattoo inks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yan, Jian; Hardy, William; Mosley, Charity; Wang, Shuguang; Yu, Hongtao

    2005-02-28

    DCB, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, is used primarily as an intermediate in the manufacture of diarylide yellow or azo red pigments for printing ink, textile, paint, and plastics. It is also used in tattoo inks. In this article, we investigate light-induced toxicity of DCB in both bacteria and human Jurkat T-cells. DCB itself is not toxic or mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA102, but is photomutagenic at concentrations as low as 2 microM and phototoxic at concentrations >100 microM when bacteria are exposed to DCB and light at the same time (1.2 J/cm2 of UVA and 2.1 J/cm2 of visible light). Furthermore, DCB is both photocytotoxic and photogenotoxic to human Jurkat T-cells. Under a light irradiation dose of 2.3 J/cm2 of UVA and 4.2 J/cm2 of visible light, it causes the Jurkat T-cells to become nonviable in a DCB dose-dependent manner and the nonviable cells reaches 60% at DCB concentrations higher than 50 microM. At the same time, DNA fragmentation is observed for cells exposed to both DCB and light, determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (alkaline comet assay). As much as 5% (average) DNA fragmentation was observed when exposed to 200 microM DCB and light irradiation. This suggests that DCB can penetrate the cell membrane and enter the cell. Upon light activation, DCB in the cells can cause various cellular damages, leading to nonviable Jurkat T-cells. It appears, the nonviable cells are not caused solely by fragmentation of cellular DNA, but by other damages such as to proteins and cell membranes, or DNA alkylation. Therefore, persons exposed to DCB through environmental contamination or through tattoo piercing using DCB-containing inks must not only concern about its toxicity without exposing to light, but also its phototoxicity. PMID:15664269

  8. Chemical and nutritional changes associated with the development of the hard-to-cook defect in common beans.

    PubMed

    Nyakuni, Geoffrey A; Kikafunda, Joyce K; Muyonga, John H; Kyamuhangire, William M; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Ugen, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Four common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties, Kawanda (K)131, K132, NABE4 and NABE11, were evaluated for the relationship between development of the hard-to-cook (HTC) defect and changes in nutritional quality during 6-month storage under ambient conditions. All varieties developed the HTC defect, but the extent was found to vary with variety. Cooking time increased by 113% in K131, 95.3% in K132, 56.4% in NABE4 and 42.93% in NABE11 after 6 months. The development of the HTC defect was found to be associated with a reduction in phytic acid content (r2 = -0.802), in vitro protein digestibility (r2 = -0.872) and in vitro starch digestibility (r2 = -0.729). The susceptibility to the HTC defect during storage could be attributed to a phytic acid interaction with proteins and carbohydrates, and is also associated with small seed size. Breeding for large seed size could therefore help reduce the development of the HTC defect. PMID:19382337

  9. Chemical carcinogens: a review of the science and its associated principles. U.S. Interagency Staff Group on Carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    In order to articulate a view of chemical carcinogenesis that scientists generally hold in common today and to draw upon this understanding to compose guiding principles that can be used as a bases for the efforts of the regulatory agencies to establish guidelines for assessing carcinogenic risk to meet the specific requirements of the legislative acts they are charged to implement, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office, the White House drew on the expertise of a number of regulatory agencies to elucidate present scientific views in critical areas of the major disciplines important to the process of risk assessment. The document is composed of two major sections, Principles and the State-of-the-Science. The latter consists of subsections on the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, short-term and long-term testing, and epidemiology, which are important components in the risk assessment step of hazard identification. These subsections are followed by one on exposure assessment, and a final section which includes analyses of dose-response (hazard) assessment and risk characterization. The principles are derived from considerations in each of the subsections. Because of present gaps in understanding, the principles contain judgmental (science policy) decisions on major unresolved issues as well as statements of what is generally accepted as fact. These judgments are basically assumptions which are responsible for much of the uncertainty in the process of risk assessment. There was an attempt to clearly distinguish policy and fact. The subsections of the State-of-the-Science portion provide the underlying support to the principles articulated, and to read the "Principles" section without a full appreciation of the State-of-the-Science section is to invite oversimplification and misinterpretation. Finally, suggestions are made for future research efforts which will improve the process of risk assessment. PMID:3530737

  10. Identification and Quantification of Volatile Chemical Spoilage Indexes Associated with Bacterial Growth Dynamics in Aerobically Stored Chicken.

    PubMed

    Mikš-Krajnik, Marta; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Ukuku, Dike O; Yuk, Hyun-Gyun

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as chemical spoilage indexes (CSIs) of raw chicken breast stored aerobically at 4, 10, and 21 °C were identified and quantified using solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The growth dynamics of total viable count (TVC), psychrotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta and H2 S producing bacteria were characterized based on maximum growth rates (μmax ), maximal microbial concentration (Nmax ) and at the moment of microbial shelf life (Svalues ), calculated from Gompertz-fitted growth curves. Pseudomonas spp. was predominant species, while B. thermosphacta was characterized by the highest μmax . The microbiological and sensory shelf lives were estimated based on TVC, Pseudomonas spp., and B. thermosphacta counts and sensory evaluation, respectively. Among 27 VOCs identified by GC-MS in spoiled chicken samples, ethanol (EtOH), 1-butanol-3-methyl (1But-3M), and acetic acid (C2 ) achieved the highest Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.66, 0.61, and 0.59, respectively, with TVC, regardless of storage temperature. Partial least squares (PLS) regression revealed that the synthesis of 1But-3M and C2 was most likely induced by the metabolic activity of B. thermosphacta and LAB, while EtOH was attributed to Pseudomonas spp. The increase in concentration of selected volatile spoilage markers (EtOH, 1But-3M, and C2 ) in the headspace over spoiled chicken breast was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05) with TVC growth. These findings highlight the possibility of analyzing the combination of 3 selected spoilage markers: EtOH, 1But-3M, and C2 as rapid evaluation for poultry quality testing using SPME-GC-MS. PMID:27332555

  11. Physical and Chemical Properties of Protocluster Clumps and Massive Young Stellar Objects Associated to Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Gonzalez, Laura

    2012-01-01

    The study of high-mass stars is important not only because of the effects they produce in their environment through outflows, expanding HII regions, stellar winds, and eventually supernova shock waves, but also because they play a crucial role in estimating star formation rates in other galaxies. Although we have an accepted evolutionary scenario that explains (isolated) low-mass star formation, the processes that produce massive stars (M_star > 8 M_sol) and star clusters, especially their earliest stages, are not well understood. The newly discovered class of interstellar clouds now termed infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) represent excellent laboratories to study the earliest stages of high-mass star formation given that some of the clumps within them are known to have high masses (~100's M_sol), high densities (n > 10^5 cm^-3), and low temperatures (10-20K) as expected for the birthplaces of high-mass stars. Some questions remain unanswered: Do IRDCs harbor the very early stages of high-mass star formation, i.e., the pre-protocluster phase? If so, how do they compare with low-mass star formation sites? Is there chemical differentiation in IRDC clumps? What is the mass distribution of IRDCs? In this dissertation and for the first time, a catalog of 12529 IRDC candidates at 24 um has been created using archival data from the MIPSGAL/Spitzer survey, as a first step in searching for the massive pre-protocluster clumps. From this catalog, a sample of ~60 clumps has been selected in order to perform single-pointing observations with the IRAM 30m, Effelsberg 100m, and APEX 12m telescopes. One IRDC clump seems to be a promising candidate for being in the pre-protocluster phase. In addition, molecular line mapping observations have been performed on three clumps within IRDCs and a detailed chemical study of 10 molecular lines has been carried out. A larger difference in column densities and abundances has been found between these clumps and high-m! ass protostellar objects

  12. Laser 3D micro-manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqué, Alberto; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Kim, Heungsoo; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Mathews, Scott A.

    2016-06-01

    Laser-based materials processing techniques are gaining widespread use in micro-manufacturing applications. The use of laser microfabrication techniques enables the processing of micro- and nanostructures from a wide range of materials and geometries without the need for masking and etching steps commonly associated with photolithography. This review aims to describe the broad applications space covered by laser-based micro- and nanoprocessing techniques and the benefits offered by the use of lasers in micro-manufacturing processes. Given their non-lithographic nature, these processes are also referred to as laser direct-write and constitute some of the earliest demonstrations of 3D printing or additive manufacturing at the microscale. As this review will show, the use of lasers enables precise control of the various types of processing steps—from subtractive to additive—over a wide range of scales with an extensive materials palette. Overall, laser-based direct-write techniques offer multiple modes of operation including the removal (via ablative processes) and addition (via photopolymerization or printing) of most classes of materials using the same equipment in many cases. The versatility provided by these multi-function, multi-material and multi-scale laser micro-manufacturing processes cannot be matched by photolithography nor with other direct-write microfabrication techniques and offer unique opportunities for current and future 3D micro-manufacturing applications.

  13. Managing the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wastewater-impacted streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2013-01-01

    A revolution in analytical instrumentation circa 1920 greatly improved the ability to characterize chemical substances. This analytical foundation resulted in an unprecedented explosion in the design and production of synthetic chemicals during and post-World War II. What is now often referred to as the 2nd Chemical Revolution has provided substantial societal benefits; with modern chemical design and manufacturing supporting dramatic advances in medicine, increased food production, and expanding gross domestic products at the national and global scales as well as improved health, longevity, and lifestyle convenience at the individual scale. Presently, the chemical industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the United States (U.S.) and the second largest in Europe and Japan, representing approximately 5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in each of these countries. At the turn of the 21st century, the chemical industry was estimated to be worth more than $1.6 trillion and to employ over 10 million people, globally. During the first half of the 20th century, the chemical sector expanded rapidly, the chemical industry enjoyed a generally positive status in society, and chemicals were widely appreciated as fundamental to individual and societal quality of life. Starting in the 1960s, however, the environmental costs associated with the chemical industry increasingly became the focus, due in part to the impact of books like “Silent Spring” and “Our Stolen Future” and to a number of highly publicized environmental disasters. Galvanizing chemical industry disasters included the 1976 dioxin leak north of Milan, Italy, the Love Canal evacuations in Niagara, New York beginning in 1978, and the Union Carbide leak in Bhopal, India in 1984. Understanding the environmental impact of synthetic compounds is essential to any informed assessment of net societal benefit, for the simple reason that any chemical substance that is in commercial production or use will

  14. Managing the impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wastewater-impacted streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Journey, Celeste A.; Bradley, Paul M.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2013-01-01

    A revolution in analytical instrumentation circa 1920 greatly improved the ability to characterize chemical substances [1]. This analytical foundation resulted in an unprecedented explosion in the design and production of synthetic chemicals during and post-World War II. What is now often referred to as the 2nd Chemical Revolution has provided substantial societal benefits; with modern chemical design and manufacturing supporting dramatic advances in medicine, increased food production, and expanding gross domestic products at the national and global scales as well as improved health, longevity, and lifestyle convenience at the individual scale [1, 2]. Presently, the chemical industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the United States (U.S.) and the second largest in Europe and Japan, representing approximately 5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in each of these countries [2]. At the turn of the 21st century, the chemical industry was estimated to be worth more than $1.6 trillion and to employ over 10 million people, globally [2]. During the first half of the 20th century, the chemical sector expanded rapidly, the chemical industry enjoyed a generally positive status in society, and chemicals were widely appreciated as fundamental to individual and societal quality of life. Starting in the 1960s, however, the environmental costs associated with the chemical industry increasingly became the focus, due in part to the impact of books like “Silent Spring” [3] and “Our Stolen Future” [4] and to a number of highly publicized environmental disasters. Galvanizing chemical industry disasters included the 1976 dioxin leak north of Milan, Italy, the Love Canal evacuations in Niagara, New York beginning in 1978, and the Union Carbide leak in Bhopal, India in 1984 [2]. Understanding the environmental impact of synthetic compounds is essential to any informed assessment of net societal benefit, for the simple reason that any chemical substance that is in

  15. Chemical and structural status of copper associated with oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophs and heterotrophs: possible evolutionary consequences.

    PubMed

    Pokrovsky, O S; Pokrovski, G S; Shirokova, L S; Gonzalez, A G; Emnova, E E; Feurtet-Mazel, A

    2012-03-01

    Copper adsorption on the surface and intracellular uptake inside the cells of four representative taxons of soil and aquatic micro-organisms: aerobic rhizospheric heterotrophs (Pseudomonas aureofaciens), anoxygenic (Rhodovulum steppense) and oxygenic (cyanobacteria Gloeocapsa sp. and freshwater diatoms Navicula minima) phototrophs were studied in a wide range of pH, copper concentration, and time of exposure. Chemical status of adsorbed and assimilated Cu was investigated using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In case of adsorbed copper, XANES spectra demonstrated significant fractions of Cu(I) likely in the form of tri-coordinate complexes with O/N and/or S ligands. Upon short-term reversible adsorption at all four studied micro-organisms' cell surface, Cu(II) is coordinated by 4.0 ± 0.5 planar oxygens at an average distance of 1.97 ± 0.02 Å, which is tentatively assigned to the carboxylate groups. The atomic environment of copper incorporated into diatoms and cyanobacteria during long-term growth is similar to that of the adsorbed metal with slightly shorter distances to the first O/N neighbor (1.95 Å). In contrast to the common view of Cu status in phototrophic micro-organisms, XAFS failed to detect sulfur in the nearest atomic environment of Cu assimilated by freshwater plankton (cyanobacteria) and periphyton (diatoms). The appearance of S in Cu 1st coordination shell at 2.27-2.32 Å was revealed only after long-term interaction of Cu with anoxygenic phototrophs (and Cu uptake by soil heterotrophs), suggesting Cu scavenging in the form of sulfhydryl, histidine/carboxyl or a mixture of carboxylate and sulfhydryl complexes. These new structural constraints suggest that adsorbed Cu(II) is partially reduced to Cu(I) already at the cell surface, where as intracellular Cu uptake and storage occur in the form of both Cu(I)-S linked proteins and Cu(II) carboxylates. Obtained results allow to better understand how, in the course of biological evolution, micro

  16. An exploratory study into students' conceptual understanding of acid/base principles associated with chemical buffer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGowan, Catherine Elizabeth

    The overall objective of this research project was to provide an insight into students' conceptual understanding of acid/base principles as it relates to the comprehension and correct application of scientific concepts during a problem-solving activity. The difficulties experienced learning science and in developing appropriate problem-solving strategies most likely are predetermined by students' existing conceptual and procedural knowledge constructs; with the assimilation of newly acquired knowledge hindering or aiding the learning process. Learning chemistry requires a restructuring of content knowledge which will allow the individual to assemble and to integrate his/her own perception of science with instructional knowledge. The epistemology of constructivism, the theoretical grounding for this research project, recognizes the student's role as an active participant in the learning process. The study's design was exploratory in nature and descriptive in design. The problem-solving activity, the preparation of a chemical buffer solution at pH of 9, was selected and modified to reflect and meet the study's objective. Qualitative research methods (i.e., think aloud protocols, retrospective interviews, survey questionnaires such as the Scale of Intellectual Development (SID), and archival data sources) were used in the collection and assessment of data. Given its constructivist grounding, simplicity, and interpretative view of knowledge acquisition and learning of collegiate aged individuals, the Perry Intellectual and Ethical Development Model (1970) was chosen as the applied model for evaluation student cognition. The study's participants were twelve traditional college age students from a small, private liberal arts college. All participants volunteered for the project and had completed or were completing a general college chemistry course at the time of the project. Upon analysis of the data the following observations and results were noted: (1) students

  17. Production waters associated with the Ferron coalbed methane fields, central Utah: Chemical and isotopic composition and volumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the composition of water co-produced with coalbed methane (CBM) from the Upper Cretaceous Ferron Sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale in east-central Utah to better understand coalbed methane reservoirs. The Ferron coalbed methane play currently has more than 600 wells producing an average of 240 bbl/day/well water. Water samples collected from 28 wellheads in three fields (Buzzards Bench, Drunkards Wash, and Helper State) of the northeast-southwest trending play were analyzed for chemical and stable isotopic composition.Water produced from coalbed methane wells is a Na-Cl-HCO3 type. Water from the Drunkards Wash field has the lowest total dissolved solids (TDS) (6300 mg/l) increasing in value to the southeast and northeast. In the Helper State field, about 6 miles northeast, water has the highest total dissolved solids (43,000 mg/l), and major ion abundance indicates the possible influence of evaporite dissolution or mixing with a saline brine. In the southern Buzzards Bench field, water has variable total dissolved solids that are not correlated with depth or spatial distance. Significant differences in the relative compositions are present between the three fields implying varying origins of solutes and/or different water-rock interactions along multiple flow paths.Stable isotopic values of water from the Ferron range from +0.9??? to -11.4??? ?? 18O and -32??? to -90??? ?? 2H and plot below the global meteoric water line (GMWL) on a line near, but above values of present-day meteoric water. Isotopic values of Ferron water are consistent with modification of meteoric water along a flow path by mixing with an evolved seawater brine and/or interaction with carbonate minerals. Analysis of isotopic values versus chloride (conservative element) and total dissolved solids concentrations indicates that recharge water in the Buzzards Bench area is distinct from recharge water in Drunkards Wash and is about 3 ??C warmer. These variations in

  18. Precise Measurement for Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A metrology instrument known as PhaseCam supports a wide range of applications, from testing large optics to controlling factory production processes. This dynamic interferometer system enables precise measurement of three-dimensional surfaces in the manufacturing industry, delivering speed and high-resolution accuracy in even the most challenging environments.Compact and reliable, PhaseCam enables users to make interferometric measurements right on the factory floor. The system can be configured for many different applications, including mirror phasing, vacuum/cryogenic testing, motion/modal analysis, and flow visualization.

  19. Evaporation in space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    'Normal evaporation' equations for predicting the compositional changes with time and temperature have been developed and correlated with actual experimental data. An evaporative congruent temperature is defined and used to explain, predict, or plan space experiments on anomalous constitutional melting (on cooling) or solidification (on heating). Uneven evaporation causes reactive jetting forces capable of initiating new convection currents, nongravitational accelerations, surface vibrations, or other disturbances. Applications of evaporation to space manufacturing are described concerning evaporative purification, surface cooling, specimen selection, particles splitting, freezing data interpretation, material loss and dimensional control, and surface contamination or compositional changes.

  20. Manufactured soil screening test

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to provide a screening test that can be used to evaluate the potential for manufacturing artificial soil using dredged material, cellulose waste materials (e.g., yard waste compost, sawdust, wastepaper), and biosolids (e.g., N-Viro-reconditioned sewage sludge, BIONSOIL-reconstituted cow manure). This procedure will allow the most productive blend of any dredged material (uncontaminated or contaminated), cellulose, and biosolids to be determined and recommended for use in an environmentally productive and beneficial manner.