Sample records for chemical oxygen demand

  1. Chemical Oxygen Demand. Training Module 5.107.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with standard method procedures for determining the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of a wastewater sample. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts, and transparency masters. This module considers analytical procedures,…

  2. Estimation of biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand for combined sewer systems using synchronous fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Lee, Bo-Mi; Lee, Tae-Hwan; Park, Dae-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Real-time monitoring of water quality for sewer system is required for efficient sewer network design because it provides information on the precise loading of pollutant to wastewater treatment facilities and the impact of loading on receiving water. In this study, synchronous fluorescence spectra and its first derivatives were investigated using a number of wastewater samples collected in sewer systems in urban and non-urban areas, and the optimum fluorescence feature was explored for the estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of sewer samples. The temporal variations in BOD and COD showed a regular pattern for urban areas whereas they were relatively irregular for non-urban areas. Irrespective of the sewer pipes and the types of the areas, two distinct peaks were identified from the synchronous fluorescence spectra, which correspond to protein-like fluorescence (PLF) and humic-like fluorescence (HLF), respectively. HLF in sewer samples appears to be associated with fluorescent whitening agents. Five fluorescence characteristics were selected from the synchronous spectra and the first-derivatives. Among the selected fluorescence indices, a peak in the PLF region (i.e., Index I) showed the highest correlation coefficient with both BOD and COD. A multiple regression approach based on suspended solid (SS) and Index I used to compensate for the contribution of SS to BOD and COD revealed an improvement in the estimation capability, showing good correlation coefficients of 0.92 and 0.94 for BOD and COD, respectively. PMID:22319257

  3. Typha angustifolia stress tolerance to wastewater with different levels of chemical oxygen demand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingtao Xu; Cong Li; Fang Yang; Zhong Dong; Jian Zhang; Yingcan Zhao; Pengyu Qi; Zhen Hu

    2011-01-01

    The stress tolerance of wetland plants is important to their potential use in wastewater treatment. In the present study, we investigated the physiological response of Typha angustifolia (T. angustifolia) to wastewater with different chemical oxygen demands (CODs) by bucket experiments. Activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. The content of total

  4. The impact of chlorine disinfection on biochemical oxygen demand levels in chemically enhanced primary treatment effluent.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ji; Jiang, Feng; Shang, Chii; Chau, Kwok-ming; Tse, Yuet-kar; Lee, Chi-fai; Chen, Guang-Hao; Fang, Jingyun; Zhai, Liming

    2013-01-01

    The response trends of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and organic strength after the chlorination/dechlorination process were explored through a 2-year, 5-month chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) effluent onsite monitoring program and a 2-month laboratory-scale study. The monitoring results showed that better instantaneous mixing at the chlorine injection point reduced the effect of chlorination/dechlorination on the 5-day BOD levels. The laboratory study results demonstrated that chlorination did not change the particle size distribution, dissolved organic carbon, or chemical oxygen demand of the organic content of the effluent. Nevertheless, chlorination/dechlorination strongly affected the BOD measurement when nitrification was inhibited by changing bioactivity/biodegradation rates. PMID:23863431

  5. Chemical oxygen demand of seawater determined with a microwave heating method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Liu; Hongwei Ji; Ying Liu; Huizhen Xin

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates a microwave heating method for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in seawater. The\\u000a influences of microwave-power, heating time and standard substances on the results are studied. Using the proposed method,\\u000a we analyzed the glucose standard solution, the coefficient of variation being less than 2%. Compared with the traditional\\u000a electric stove heating method, the results of

  6. A nano-copper electrochemical sensor for sensitive detection of chemical oxygen demand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinquan Yang; Jianwei Chen; Yikai Zhou; Kangbing Wu

    2011-01-01

    Copper nanoparticle (nano-Cu) was electrodeposited on the surface of Cu disk electrode under ?1V for 60s, and then used to construct an electrochemical sensor for chemical oxygen demand (COD). The electrochemical oxidation behavior of glycine, a standard compound for evaluating the COD, was investigated. The potential shifts negatively, and the current increases greatly at the surface of nano-Cu, indicating remarkable

  7. Replacing dichromate with hydrogen peroxide in the chemical oxygen demand (COD) test.

    PubMed

    Carbajal-Palacios, Patricia; Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Ibanez, Jorge G; Roa-Morales, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    The widely used standard method for chemical oxygen demand (COD) involves hazardous chromium species, and its two-hour heating protocol entails a substantial amount of energy expenditure. In the present work we report a proof of concept for a major modification of this method in the range 10-800 mgCOD/L, whereby H2O2 is proposed as a replacement oxidizer. This modification not only reduces the use of unsafe chromium species but also allows for the use of milder conditions that decrease the total energy outlay. The results are comparable with those obtained either with the standard method or with a commercial Hach® kit. PMID:22797236

  8. Rapid Determination of the Chemical Oxygen Demand in Water with the Use of High-Temperature Solid-Electrolyte Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Zuev; A. A. Korotkov; V. G. Filonenko; A. N. Mashkovtsev; V. P. Zvolinskii

    2004-01-01

    A new procedure is proposed for the determination of the oxidazibility of organic and inorganic matter in water (an analogue of the chemical oxygen demand (COD)). The procedure is based on high-temperature oxidation in a controlled binary oxygen–inert gas mixture and the determination of the amount of oxygen consumed for oxidation in a solid-electrolyte cell. A new design for the

  9. Photoelectro-synergistic catalysis combined with a FIA system application on determination of chemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaqing; Zheng, Lei; Li, Luoping; Shi, Guoyue; Xian, Yuezhong; Jin, Litong

    2007-07-31

    In this paper, photoelectro-synergistic catalysis oxidation of organics in the water on Ti/TiO(2)/PbO(2) electrode was investigated. The prepared TiO(2) film was investigated with Atomic force micrograph (AFM). Furthermore, the results were compared with those obtained from electrocatalysis (EC) and electro-assisted photocatalysis (PC). The method proposed employed photoelectro-synergistic catalysis (PEC), together with flow injection analysis, to determine the chemical oxygen demand (COD) values. It was shown that the method of photoelectro-synergistic catalysis had lower detection limit (15.0mg l(-1)) and wider linear range (30.0-2500.0mg l(-1)) than the methods of electro-assisted photocatalysis and electrocatalysis. The results obtained by the proposed method and conventional one were compared by carrying out the experiment on 20 wastewater samples and also agreed well by high correlation (R=0.9912). PMID:19071828

  10. High-sulfate, high-chemical oxygen demand wastewater treatment using aerated methanogenic fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Zitomer, D.H.; Shrout, J.D.

    2000-02-01

    Many industrial wastewaters have both high organic pollution and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}) concentrations. Although biological conversion of organics to methane may be an economical chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal option, significant inhibition of methane production results from reduction of SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is inhibitory to methanogenic microorganisms. Therefore, sulfate-containing wastewater is often not amenable to conventional anaerobic treatment. Recently, limited aeration of recycle flow to hybrid and baffled reactors has been used to treat this wastewater and has been shown to reduce aqueous H{sub 2}S concentrations by causing production of uninhibitory sulfur (S{degree}) and thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup {minus}2}) as well as gas stripping volatile H{sub 2}S. In this study, directly aerated methanogenic fluidized bed reactors (FBRs) achieved increased methane production compared to strictly anaerobic FBRs treating high-sulfate wastewater. Oxygen transfer satisfying up to 28% of the COD load resulted in maximum specific oxygen utilization rates of 0.20 mg oxygen/g volatile solids{center{underscore}dot}min, with significant, concomitant methane production. Under typically inhibitory SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} loading, higher aeration caused increased effluent SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, increased H{sub 2}S mass in the offgas, and lower reactor H{sub 2}S concentration. As a result, COD removal increased from 25% for a strictly anaerobic FBR to 87% for an aerated FBR. In addition, aerated systems required significantly less alkalinity supplementation to maintain a pH value of 7, ostensibly because of stripping of acidic carbon dioxide. The potential pH increase associated with aeration also shifts sulfide speciation to less toxic disulfide. Direct, limited aeration of methanogenic FBRs is described as a method for increased COD removal when treating high-COD, high-sulfate wastewater.

  11. Pecan shell-based granular activated carbon for treatment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in municipal wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Bansode; J. N. Losso; W. E. Marshall; R. M. Rao; R. J. Portier

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to compare the adsorption efficiency of pecan shell-based granular activated carbon with the adsorption efficiency of the commercial carbon Filtrasorb 200 with respect to uptake of the organic components responsible for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of municipal wastewater. Adsorption efficiencies for these two sets of carbons (experimental and commercial) were analyzed by the Freundlich

  12. WO3/W Nanopores Sensor for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) Determination under Visible Light

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuejin; Bai, Jing; Liu, Qiang; Li, Jianyong; Zhou, Baoxue

    2014-01-01

    A sensor of a WO3 nanopores electrode combined with a thin layer reactor was proposed to develop a Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) determination method and solve the problem that the COD values are inaccurately determined by the standard method. The visible spectrum, e.g., 420 nm, could be used as light source in the sensor we developed, which represents a breakthrough by limiting of UV light source in the photoelectrocatalysis process. The operation conditions were optimized in this work, and the results showed that taking NaNO3 solution at the concentration of 2.5 mol·L?1 as electrolyte under the light intensity of 214 ?W·cm?2 and applied bias of 2.5 V, the proposed method is accurate and well reproducible, even in a wide range of pH values. Furthermore, the COD values obtained by the WO3 sensor were fitted well with the theoretical COD value in the range of 3–60 mg·L?1 with a limit value of 1 mg·L?1, which reveals that the proposed sensor may be a practical device for monitoring and controlling surface water quality as well as slightly polluted water. PMID:24940868

  13. Modelling of chemical oxygen demand by using ANNs, ANFIS and k-means clustering techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ay, Murat; Kisi, Ozgur

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes integration of k-means clustering and multi-layer perceptron (k-means-MLP) methods in modelling chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration. This proposed method was tested by using daily measured water suspended solids, pH, temperature, discharge and COD concentration data of upstream of the municipal wastewater treatment plant system in Adapazari province of Turkey. Performance of the k-means-MLP method was compared with multi-linear regression, multi-layer perceptron, radial-based neural network, generalized regression neural network, and two different adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system techniques (subtractive clustering and grid partition). Root mean square error, mean absolute error, mean absolute relative error and determination coefficient statistics were employed for the evaluation accuracy of each model. It was found that the k-means-MLP performed better than the other techniques in estimating COD. Moreover, the k-means clustering combined with the MLP could be used as a tool in modelling daily COD concentration.

  14. Rapid Determination of the Chemical Oxygen Demand of Water Using a Thermal Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Na; Wang, Jinqi; Zhou, Yikai

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a thermal biosensor with a flow injection analysis system for the determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water samples. Glucose solutions of different concentrations and actual water samples were tested, and their COD values were determined by measuring the heat generated when the samples passed through a column containing periodic acid. The biosensor exhibited a large linear range (5 to 3000 mg/L) and a low detection limit (1.84 mg/L). It could tolerate the presence of chloride ions in concentrations of 0.015 M without requiring a masking agent. The sensor was successfully used for detecting the COD values of actual samples. The COD values of water samples from various sources were correlated with those obtained by the standard dichromate method; the linear regression coefficient was found to be 0.996. The sensor is environmentally friendly, economical, and highly stable, and exhibits good reproducibility and accuracy. In addition, its response time is short, and there is no danger of hazardous emissions or external contamination. Finally, the samples to be tested do not have to be pretreated. These results suggest that the biosensor is suitable for the continuous monitoring of the COD values of actual wastewater samples. PMID:24915178

  15. Rapid determination of the chemical oxygen demand of water using a thermal biosensor.

    PubMed

    Yao, Na; Wang, Jinqi; Zhou, Yikai

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a thermal biosensor with a flow injection analysis system for the determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of water samples. Glucose solutions of different concentrations and actual water samples were tested, and their COD values were determined by measuring the heat generated when the samples passed through a column containing periodic acid. The biosensor exhibited a large linear range (5 to 3000 mg/L) and a low detection limit (1.84 mg/L). It could tolerate the presence of chloride ions in concentrations of 0.015 M without requiring a masking agent. The sensor was successfully used for detecting the COD values of actual samples. The COD values of water samples from various sources were correlated with those obtained by the standard dichromate method; the linear regression coefficient was found to be 0.996. The sensor is environmentally friendly, economical, and highly stable, and exhibits good reproducibility and accuracy. In addition, its response time is short, and there is no danger of hazardous emissions or external contamination. Finally, the samples to be tested do not have to be pretreated. These results suggest that the biosensor is suitable for the continuous monitoring of the COD values of actual wastewater samples. PMID:24915178

  16. Electrochemical nanocomposite-derived sensor for the analysis of chemical oxygen demand in urban wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Capitán, Manuel; Baldi, Antoni; Gómez, Raquel; García, Virginia; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Fernández-Sánchez, César

    2015-02-17

    This work reports on the fabrication and comparative analytical assessment of electrochemical sensors applied to the rapid analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in urban waste waters. These devices incorporate a carbon nanotube-polystyrene composite, containing different inorganic electrocatalysts, namely, Ni, NiCu alloy, CoO, and CuO/AgO nanoparticles. The sensor responses were initially evaluated using glucose as standard analyte and then by analyzing a set of real samples from urban wastewater treatment plants. The estimated COD values in the samples were compared with those provided by an accredited laboratory using the standard dichromate method. The sensor prepared with the CuO/AgO-based nanocomposite showed the best analytical performance. The recorded COD values of both the sensor and the standard method were overlapped, considering the 95% confidence intervals. In order to show the feasible application of this approach for the detection of COD online and in continuous mode, the CuO/AgO-based nanocomposite sensor was integrated in a compact flow system and applied to the detection of wastewater samples, showing again a good agreement with the values provided by the dichromate method. PMID:25594378

  17. Chemical oxygen demand reduction in coffee wastewater through chemical flocculation and advanced oxidation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa ZAYAS Péerez; Gunther GEISSLER; Fernando HERNANDEZ

    2007-01-01

    The removal of the natural organic matter present in coffee processing wastewater through chemical coagulation-flocculation and advanced oxidation processes (AOP) had been studied. The effectiveness of the removal of natural organic matter using commercial flocculants and UV\\/H2O2,UV\\/O3 and UV\\/H2O2\\/O3 processes was determined under acidic conditions. For each of these processes, different operational conditions were explored to optimize the treatment efficiency

  18. [Research on chemical oxygen demand optical detection method based on the combination of multi-source spectral characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Qing; Bi, Wei-Hong

    2014-11-01

    A novel method based on multi-source spectral characteristics of the combination is proposed for chemical oxygen demand detection. First, the ultraviolet and near infrared spectrum of the actual water samples are collected respectively. After pretreatment of the spectrum data, the features of the spectrum are extracted by the nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm for training after normalization. Particle swarm and least squares support vector machines algorithm are applied to predicting chemical oxygen demand of the validation set of water samples. The effect of spectrum's base number on the predicted results is discussed. The experimental results show that the best base number of the ultraviolet spectrum is 5, the best base number of the near infrared spectrum is 2; The validation set correlation coefficient of the prediction model is 0.999 8, and the root mean square error of prediction is 3.26 mg x L(-1). Experimental results demonstrate that the nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm is more suitable for feature extraction of spectral data, and the least squares support vector machines algorithm as a quantitative model correction method of the actual water samples can get good prediction accuracy with different feature extraction methods (principal component analysis, independent component analysis), spectroscopic methods (ultraviolet spectrum method, near infrared spectrum method) and different combination pattern (data direct combination, combining data first, then feature extraction) respectively. PMID:25752060

  19. Nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand removal from septic tank wastewater in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: substrate (cation exchange capacity) effects.

    PubMed

    Collison, Robert S; Grismer, Mark E

    2014-04-01

    The current article focuses on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal performance from synthetic human wastewater as affected by different substrate rocks having a range of porosities and cation exchange capacities (CECs). The aggregates included lava rock, lightweight expanded shale, meta-basalt (control), and zeolite. The first three had CECs of 1 to 4 mequiv/100 gm, whereas the zeolite CEC was much greater (-80 mequiv/100 gm). Synthetic wastewater was gravity fed to each constructed wetland system, resulting in a 4-day retention time. Effluent samples were collected, and COD and nitrogen species concentrations measured regularly during four time periods from November 2008 through June 2009. Chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen removal fractions were not significantly different between the field and laboratory constructed wetland systems when corrected for temperature. Similarly, overall COD and nitrogen removal fractions were practically the same for the aggregate substrates. The important difference between aggregate effects was the zeolite's ammonia removal process, which was primarily by adsorption. The resulting single-stage nitrogen removal process may be an alternative to nitrification and denitrification that may realize significant cost savings in practice. PMID:24851327

  20. Chemical oxygen demand and color removal from textile wastewater by UV/H2O2 using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Yonar, T; Kilic, M Yalili

    2014-11-01

    The photooxidation of pollutants, especially chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color, in textile industrial wastewater was performed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), using 256 nm UV light (15 W), to model the discoloration and COD elimination processes and characterize the influence of process variables. Within this study, data were obtained through a NeuroSolutions 5.06 model and successfully tested. Each sample was characterized by three independent variables (i.e., pH, H2O2 concentration, and time of operation) and two dependent variables (i.e., color and COD). The results indicated that pH was the predominant variable, and the reaction mean time and H2O2 volume were the less influential variables. The neural model obtained presented coefficients of correlation of 99% for COD and 97% for color, indicating the prediction power of the model and its character of generalization. PMID:25509520

  1. Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donata Dubber; Nicholas F. Gray

    2010-01-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is widely used for wastewater monitoring, design, modeling and plant operational analysis. However this method results in the production of hazardous wastes including mercury and hexavalent chromium. The study examined the replacement of COD with total organic carbon (TOC) for general performance monitoring by comparing their relationship with influent and effluent samples from 11 wastewater treatment

  2. Trivalent manganese as an environmentally friendly oxidizing reagent for microwave- and ultrasound-assisted chemical oxygen demand determination.

    PubMed

    Domini, Claudia E; Vidal, Lorena; Canals, Antonio

    2009-06-01

    In the present work manganese(III) has been used as oxidant and microwave radiation and ultrasound energy have been assessed to speed up and to improve the efficiency of digestion step for the determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD). Microwave (MW) and ultrasound-assisted COD determination methods have been optimized by means of experimental design and the optimum conditions are: 40psi pressure, 855W power and 1min irradiation time; and 90% of maximum nominal power (180W), 0.9s (s(-1)) cycles and 1min irradiation time for microwaves and ultrasound, respectively. Chloride ion interference is removed as hydrochloric acid gas from acidified sample solutions at 150 degrees C in a closed reaction tube and captured by bismuth-based adsorbent suspended above the heated solution. Under optimum conditions, the evaluated assisted digestion methods have been successfully applied, with the exception of pyridine, to several pure organic compounds and two reference materials. COD recoveries obtained with MW and ultrasound-assisted digestion for five real wastewater samples were ranged between 86-97% and 68-91%, respectively, of the values obtained with the classical method (open reflux) used as reference, with relative standard deviation lower than 4% in most cases. Thus, the Mn(III) microwave-assisted digestion method seems to be an interesting and promising alternative to conventional COD digestion methods since it is faster and more environmentally friendly than the ones used for the same purpose. PMID:19250852

  3. Performance of on-site pilot static granular bed reactor (SGBR) for treating dairy processing wastewater and chemical oxygen demand balance modeling under different operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jin Hwan; Park, Jaeyoung; Ellis, Timothy G

    2015-02-01

    The performance and operational stability of a pilot-scale static granular bed reactor (SGBR) for the treatment of dairy processing wastewater were investigated under a wide range of organic and hydraulic loading rates and temperature conditions. The SGBR achieved average chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total suspended solids (TSS)-removal efficiencies higher than 90% even at high loading rates up to 7.3 kg COD/m(3)/day, with an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9 h, and at low temperatures of 11 °C. The average methane yield of 0.26 L CH4/g COD(removed) was possibly affected by a high fraction of particulate COD and operation at low temperatures. The COD mass balance indicated that soluble COD was responsible for most of the methane production. The reactor showed the capacity of the methanogens to maintain their activity and withstand organic and hydraulic shock loads. PMID:25164570

  4. Capacity of a newly isolated fungus Pleurotus eryngii from Tunceli, Ovacik for chemical oxygen demand reduction and biodecolorization of Azo-Dye Congo Red.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, N; Gonen, U

    2015-01-01

    Biodecolorization of Congo red dye in both agar—plate and agitated liquid culture mediums by newly isolated white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii has been studied. This fungus isolated from Tunceli—Ovacik province of Turkey. We have also examined the chemical oxygen demand reduction after decolorization under agitated liquid culture medium. For agar plate screening the decolorization capacity of P. eryngii, growth and decolorization halos were determined on saboroud dextrose agar (SDA) plates containing 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/l of Congo red. P. eryngii showed certain decolorization capacities and was able to decolorize all studied concentrations of Congo red, but not to the same extent. Our results indicated that the new isolate P. eryngii had maximum decolorization (87% at 100 mg/l initial dye concentration) and chemical oxygen demand reduction (82% at 25 mg/l initial dye concentration) activities after 7 days under agitated submerged culture conditions. This new isolate could be an effective bioremediation tool for treatment of Congo red containing textile wastewater. PMID:26068912

  5. Improving the simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand and terephthalic acid in a cross-flow aerobic sludge reactor by using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dong-Xue; Tian, Yu; Chen, Zhao-Bo; Ge, Hui; Cui, Yu-Bo; Ran, Chun-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM) were implemented to optimize the operational parameters for a cross-flow aerobic sludge reactor (CFASR) in remedying mixed printing and dyeing wastewater (MPDW). The individual and interactive effects of three variables, hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH and sludge loading rate (SLR), on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and terephthalic acid (TA) removal rates were evaluated. For HRT of 15.3-19.8 hours, pH of 7.2-8.1 and SLR of 0.4-0.6 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) per kg mixed liquor suspended solids per day, COD and TA removal rates of the CFASR exceeded 85% and 90%, respectively. The check experiment revealed that the effluent from the optimized CFASR was stable below the limitation of 100 mg COD/L and the TA concentration decreased by 6.0% compared to the usual CFASR. The results verified that the RSM was useful for optimizing the operation parameters of the CFASR in remedying MPDW. PMID:26067502

  6. Oxygen in demand: How oxygen has shaped vertebrate physiology.

    PubMed

    Dzal, Yvonne A; Jenkin, Sarah E M; Lague, Sabine L; Reichert, Michelle N; York, Julia M; Pamenter, Matthew E

    2015-08-01

    In response to varying environmental and physiological challenges, vertebrates have evolved complex and often overlapping systems. These systems detect changes in environmental oxygen availability and respond by increasing oxygen supply to the tissues and/or by decreasing oxygen demand at the cellular level. This suite of responses is termed the oxygen transport cascade and is comprised of several components. These components include 1) chemosensory detectors that sense changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH in the blood, and initiate changes in 2) ventilation and 3) cardiac work, thereby altering the rate of oxygen delivery to, and carbon dioxide clearance from, the tissues. In addition, changes in 4) cellular and systemic metabolism alters tissue-level metabolic demand. Thus the need for oxygen can be managed locally when increasing oxygen supply is not sufficient or possible. Together, these mechanisms provide a spectrum of responses that facilitate the maintenance of systemic oxygen homeostasis in the face of environmental hypoxia or physiological oxygen depletion (i.e. due to exercise or disease). Bill Milsom has dedicated his career to the study of these responses across phylogenies, repeatedly demonstrating the power of applying the comparative approach to physiological questions. The focus of this review is to discuss the anatomy, signalling pathways, and mechanics of each step of the oxygen transport cascade from the perspective of a Milsomite. That is, by taking into account the developmental, physiological, and evolutionary components of questions related to oxygen transport. We also highlight examples of some of the remarkable species that have captured Bill's attention through their unique adaptations in multiple components of the oxygen transport cascade, which allow them to achieve astounding physiological feats. Bill's research examining the oxygen transport cascade has provided important insight and leadership to the study of the diverse suite of adaptations that maintain cellular oxygen content across vertebrate taxa, which underscores the value of the comparative approach to the study of physiological systems. PMID:25698654

  7. Ozonation of sludge-press liquors: Determination of carbonyl compounds by the PFBOA method and the effect on the chemical oxygen demand

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, L.L.; McCullough, N.H. [Univ. Chemical Lab., Kent (United Kingdom); Poppelen, P. van [Southern Water Services Limited, Kent (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The European Community Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive, May 1991, requires water service companies to provide sufficient wastewater treatment to meet a new limit set for the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in final effluent and new legislation has placed limits on the levels of COD that can be discharged from wastewater treatment works using secondary treatment processes. The current permitted upper level for COD in the final effluent is 125 mg per litre. Ozone is a strong oxidant and disinfectant and in contrast to chlorine, does not produce chlorinated by-products from its reaction with natural organic matter in water. In spite of the successful use of ozone for the treatment of potable waters since the early part of the century very few studies have been undertaken into possible chemical by-products which might arise from ozonation. Since the amount of ozone applied is always lower than that required to oxidize all the organic matter to carbon dioxide and water, a number of semi-oxidation products such as aromatic, phenolic and aliphatic carboxylic acids, aldehydes and ketones can be expected to be formed. The ozonation of sludge-press liquors and the resultant effect on COD was investigated. The concentration of carbonyl compounds was analyzed using O-(pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBOA) as a derivatising agent in Gas Chromatographic (GC) determination.

  8. ENHANCED COD (CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND) REMOVAL FROM PHARMACEUTICAL WASTEWATER USING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON ADDITION TO AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater generated by the pharmaceutical manufacturing point source Sub-categories A (Fermentation Products) and C (Chemical Synthesis Products) are characterized by high COD concentrations (10,000 mg/l and higher). Plants in these subcategories typically employ secondary treat...

  9. Achieving low effluent NO3-N and TN concentrations in low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio without using external carbon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jiashun; Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Xue, Zhaoxia; Otache, Y. Martins; Feng, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Two mathematical models were used to optimize the performance of a full-scale biological nutrient removal (BNR) activated treatment plant, a plug-flow bioreactors operated in a 3-stage phoredox process configuration, anaerobic anoxic oxic (A2 /O). The ASM2d implemented on the platform of WEST2011 software and the BioWin activated sludge/anaerobic digestion (AS/AD) models were used in this study with the aim of consistently achieving the designed effluent criteria at a low operational cost. Four ASM2d parameters (the reduction factor for denitrification (? _{NO_3 ,H} ), the maximum growth rate of heterotrophs (µH), the rate constant for stored polyphosphates in PAOs (q pp), and the hydrolysis rate constant (k h)) were adjusted. Whereas three BioWin parameters (aerobic decay rate (b H), heterotrophic dissolved oxygen (DO) half saturation (K OA), and Y P/acetic) were adjusted. Calibration of the two models was successful; both models have average relative deviations (ARD) less than 10% for all the output variables. Low effluent concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were achieved in a full-scale BNR treatment plant having low influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) ratio (COD/TKN). The effluent total nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations were improved by 50% and energy consumption was reduced by approximately 25%, which was accomplished by converting the two-pass aerobic compartment of the plug-flow bioreactor to anoxic reactors and being operated in an alternating mode. Findings in this work are helpful in improving the operation of wastewater treatment plant while eliminating the cost of external carbon source and reducing energy consumption.

  10. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater.

    PubMed

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants. PMID:23863442

  11. Recalcitrant organic compounds (chemical oxygen demand sources) in biologically treated pulp and paper mill effluents: Their fate and environmental impact in receiving waters

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, F.; Roy-Arcand, L.; Methot, M.; Valeanu, L.

    1998-11-01

    Most North American pulp and paper mills now biologically treat (biotreat) their liquid effluent. However, treated water still contains effluent-derived recalcitrant organic material (EROM), measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), for which emission limits exist in Europe and are being considered in the US. Production of microbially resistant, dissolved natural organic material (NOM) typically found in Canadian stream and lake waters occurs slowly under gentle conditions, while mill EROM is generated from lignocellulosics by faster and harsher processes. Similarity of the environmental effects of NOM and pulp and paper mill EROM are examined. Changes occurring over 4 months in biologically treated effluent from two modern Canadian mills and lake NOM when sealed in gas- and light-permeable bags and placed in a pristine Quebec lake are reported. Addition of microbial co-metabolites significantly improved the dark mineralization of organochlorines surviving mill biological treatment. Mill EROM was light sensitive, nonacutely toxic in the Microtox assay, and similar to NOM in the surrounding lake in most bulk properties. There was no evidence to suggest that placing specific limits on mill EROM (COD) emissions would be environmentally beneficial.

  12. Simultaneous efficient removal of high-strength ammonia nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand from landfill leachate by using an extremely high ammonia nitrogen-resistant strain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dahai; Yang, Jiyu; Fang, Xuexun; Ren, Hejun

    2015-05-01

    Bioaugmentation is a promising technology for pollutant elimination from stressed environments, and it would provide an efficient way to solve challenges in traditional biotreatment of wastewater with high strength of ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+) -N). A high NH4 (+) -N-resistant bacteria strain, identified as Bacillus cereus (Jlu BC), was domesticated and isolated from the bacteria consortium in landfill leachate. Jlu BC could survive in 100 g/L NH4 (+) -N environment, which indicated its extremely high NH4 (+) -N tolerance than the stains found before. Jlu BC was employed in the bioaugmented system to remove high strength of NH4 (+) -N from landfill leachate, and to increase the removal efficiency, response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimizing bioaugmentation degradation conditions. At the optimum condition (initial pH 7.33, 4.14 days, initial chemical oxygen demand [COD] concentration [18,000 mg/L], 3.5 mL inoculated domesticated bacteria strain, 0.3 mg/mL phosphorus supplement, 30 °C, and 170 rpm), 94.74 ± 3.8% removal rate of NH4 (+) -N was obtained, and the experiment data corresponded well with the predicted removal rate of the RSM models (95.50%). Furthermore, COD removal rate of 81.94 ± 1.4% was obtained simultaneously. The results presented are promising, and the screened strain would be of great practical importance in mature landfill leachate and other NH4 (+) -N enrichment wastewater pollution control. PMID:25196098

  13. FLUX OF REDUCED CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS (FE(2+), MN(2+), NH4(1+) AND CH4) AND SEDIMENT OXYGEN DEMAND IN LAKE ERIE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment pore water concentrations of Fe(2+), Mn(2+), NH4(+), and CH4 were analyzed from both diver-collected cores and an in situ equilibration device (peeper) in Lake Erie's central basin. Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) was measured at the same station with a hemispheric chamber ...

  14. Organic-coated nanoparticulate zero valent iron for remediation of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved metals from tropical landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Wijesekara, S S R M D H R; Basnayake, B F A; Vithanage, Meththika

    2014-01-01

    The use of nanoparticulate zero valent iron (NZVI) in the treatment of inorganic contaminants in landfill leachate and polluted plumes has been the subject of many studies, especially in temperate, developed countries. However, NZVI's potential for reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and treatment of metal ion mixtures has not been explored in detail. We investigated the efficiency of NZVI synthesized in the presence of starch, mercaptoacetic, mercaptosuccinic, or mercaptopropenoic acid for the reduction of COD, nutrients, and metal ions from landfill leachate in tropical Sri Lanka. Synthesized NZVI were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. Of the samples tested, Starch-NZVI (S-NZVI) and mercaptoacetic-NZVI (MA-NZVI) performed well for treatment both COD and metal mixture. The removal percentages for COD, nitrate-nitrogen, and phosphate from S-NZVI were 50, 88, and 99 %, respectively. Heavy metal removal was higher in S-NZVI (>95 %) than others. MA-NZVI, its oxidation products, and functional groups of its coating showed the maximum removal amounts for both Cu (56.27 mg g(-1)) and Zn (28.38 mg g(-1)). All mercapto-NZVI showed well-stabilized nature under FTIR and XRD investigations. Therefore, we suggest mercapto acids as better agents to enhance the air stability for NZVI since chemically bonded thiol and carbonyl groups actively participation for stabilization process. PMID:24535668

  15. COMPARISON OF METHODS TO DETERMINE OXYGEN DEMAND FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF A FUEL CONTAMINATED AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four analytical methods were compared for estimating concentrations of fuel contaminants in subsurface core samples. he methods were total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, and a solvent extraction of fuel hydrocarbons combined with a gas chromatographic tec...

  16. COMPARISON OF METHODS TO DETERMINE OXYGEN DEMAND FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF A FUEL CONTAMINATED AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four analytical methods were compared for estimating concentrations of fuel contaminants in subsurface core samples. The methods were total organic carbon, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, and a solvent extraction of fuel hydrocarbons combined with a gas chromatographic te...

  17. Scalable chemical oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Adamenkov, A A; Bakshin, V V; Vyskubenko, B A; Efremov, V I; Il'in, S P; Ilyushin, Yurii N; Kolobyanin, Yu V; Kudryashov, E A; Troshkin, M V [Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-31

    The problem of scaling chemical oxygen - iodine lasers (COILs) is discussed. The results of experimental study of a twisted-aerosol singlet oxygen generator meeting the COIL scalability requirements are presented. The energy characteristics of a supersonic COIL with singlet oxygen and iodine mixing in parallel flows are also experimentally studied. The output power of {approx}7.5 kW, corresponding to a specific power of 230 W cm{sup -2}, is achieved. The maximum chemical efficiency of the COIL is {approx}30%.

  18. Comparison of two sediment oxygen demand measurement techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis D. Truax; A. Sindala; Hunter Sartain

    1995-01-01

    Measuring the sediment oxygen demand rate in deep water can be difficult. Yet this parameter can be a significant component in ecological models of deep water systems. The results of a study to characterize the oxygen demand in the benthos of more than 210 km (130 mi) of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway are presented here. Sampling was performed with a modified

  19. Chapter A7. Section 7.0. Five-Day Biochemical Oxygen Demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delzer, Gregory C.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1999-01-01

    The presence of a sufficient concentration of dissolved oxygen is critical to maintaining the aquatic life and aesthetic quality of streams and lakes. Determinng how organic matter affects the concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in a stream or lake is integral to water-quality management. The decay of organic matter in water is measured as biochemical or chemical oxygen demand. This report describes the field protocols used by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel to determine the five-day test for biochemical oxygen demand.

  20. Modeling In situ sediment oxygen demand in the Arroyo Colorado

    E-print Network

    Kasprzak, Kevin Ray

    2001-01-01

    and are targeted for rehabilitation under the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. In some rivers, sediment oxygen demand (SOD) accounts for as much as 50% of the total oxygen depletion, making SOD a critical element in water quality modeling studies. SOD...

  1. Pollution prevention and biochemical oxygen demand reduction in a squid processing facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene Park; Richard Enander; Stanley M. Barnett; Chong Lee

    2001-01-01

    Fish processing, especially squid, creates high strength biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) wastewater that must be pretreated prior to sewer discharge. This study evaluated (1) new squid processing techniques, (2) advanced biological\\/chemical treatment technologies to meet local wastewater discharge regulations, and (3) recycling opportunities for materials formerly discarded as waste. Low technology modifications such as improved housekeeping\\/management systems were implemented in

  2. Ecosystem Indicators of Water Quality Part II. Oxygen Production and Oxygen Demand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Kepkay; W. Glen Harrison; John B. C. Bugden

    Seasonal transitions from oxygen production to oxygen demand at coastal aquaculture sites in\\u000a southwestern New Brunswick (SWNB) can be defined in terms of the production-respiration (P\\/R) ratio.\\u000a During the summer, when P\\/R is greater than 1, an autotrophic ecosystem is in place, and dissolved\\u000a oxygen (DO) in surface waters remains above thresholds for optimal fish growth. During the fall and

  3. Watershed modeling of dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand using a hydrological simulation Fortran program.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijun; Kieffer, Janna M; Kingery, William L; Huddleston, David H; Hossain, Faisal

    2007-11-01

    Several inland water bodies in the St. Louis Bay watershed have been identified as being potentially impaired due to low level of dissolved oxygen (DO). In order to calculate the total maximum daily loads (TMDL), a standard watershed model supported by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF), was used to simulate water temperature, DO, and bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD). Both point and non-point sources of BOD were included in watershed modeling. The developed model was calibrated at two time periods: 1978 to 1986 and 2000 to 2001 with simulated DO closely matched the observed data and captured the seasonal variations. The model represented the general trend and average condition of observed BOD. Water temperature and BOD decay are the major factors that affect DO simulation, whereas nutrient processes, including nitrification, denitrification, and phytoplankton cycle, have slight impacts. The calibrated water quality model provides a representative linkage between the sources of BOD and in-stream DO\\BOD concentrations. The developed input parameters in this research could be extended to similar coastal watersheds for TMDL determination and Best Management Practice (BMP) evaluation. PMID:17990165

  4. In situ measurement of sediment oxygen demand in catfish ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Berthelson; T. P. Cathcart; J. W. Pote

    1996-01-01

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) was measured in catfish aquaculture ponds using a computer-controlled data acquisition system coupled with in situ respirometers. A total of 86 rate determinations were made in northwest Mississippi. Calculated SOD rates averaged 4·44 g\\/m2 per day at an average temperature of 29°C. These rates exceeded those recorded previously in catfish ponds and may have reflected differences

  5. Microbial biosensors for detection of biological oxygen demand (a Review)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. N. Ponomareva; V. A. Arlyapov; V. A. Alferov; A. N. Reshetilov

    2011-01-01

    The review briefs recent advances in application of biosensors for determining biological oxygen demand (BOD) in water. Special\\u000a attention is focused on the principles of operation of microbial BOD sensors; the information about biorecognition elements\\u000a in such systems and the methods used for immobilization of biological components in film biosensors is summarized. Characteristics\\u000a of some BOD sensor models are considered

  6. Make oxygenated chemicals from methanol

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.L.; Ushiba, K.K.; Whyte, T.E.

    1982-11-01

    The synthesis of fuels and chemicals from CO and H/sub 2/ (syngas) has a long history. After a period of relative dormancy, interest in syngas as a feedstock for both fuels and chemicals has been on the rise in recent years, and for obvious reasons. Petroleum, the traditional source of chemicals, is becoming expensive.

  7. A finite difference model for predicting sediment oxygen demand in streams

    E-print Network

    Charbonnet, Danielle Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) is a significant part of the dissolved oxygen budget in waterways, comprising up to 50% in some systems. It, therefore, has the potential of having a significant impact on the environment. As such, an accurate...

  8. Petroleum industry effluents and other oxygen-demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osuji, Leo C; Uwakwe, Augustine A

    2006-07-01

    In this article, we review the fundamental phenomenon of oxygenation within the overriding context of petroleum-industry effluents and the other oxygen demanding wastes in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Drill cuttings, drilling mud (fluids used to stimulate the production processes), and accidental discharges of crude petroleum constitute serious land and water pollution in the oil-bearing province. Effluents from other industrial establishments such as distilleries, pulp and paper mills, fertilizer plants, and breweries, as well as thermal effluents, plant nutrients (such as nitrates and phosphates), and eroded sediments have also contributed to the pollution of their surrounding environment. Since these wastes are oxygen-demanding in nature, their impact on the recipient environment can be reversed by the direct application of simple chemistry. The wastes can be reduced, particularly in natural bodies of water, by direct oxidation-reduction processes or simple chemical combinations, acid-base reactions, and solubility equilibria; these are pH- and temperature-dependent. A shift in pH and alkalinity affects the solubility equilibria of Na+, Cl-, SO(2-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), and PO4(3-), and other ions and compounds. PMID:17193303

  9. Biochemical oxygen demand measurement by mediator method in flow system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Bai, Lu; Yu, Dengbin; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2015-06-01

    Using mediator as electron acceptor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurement was developed in the last decade (BODMed). However, until now, no BOD(Med) in a flow system has been reported. This work for the first time describes a flow system of BOD(Med) method (BOD(Med)-FS) by using potassium ferricyanide as mediator and carbon fiber felt as substrate material for microbial immobilization. The system can determine the BOD value within 30 min and possesses a wider analytical linear range for measuring glucose-glutamic acid (GGA) standard solution from 2 up to 200 mg L(-1) without the need of dilution. The analytical performance of the BOD(Med)-FS is comparable or better than that of the previously reported BOD(Med) method, especially its superior long-term stability up to 2 months under continuous operation. Moreover, the BOD(Med)-FS has same determination accuracy with the conventional BOD5 method by measuring real samples from a local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). PMID:25863368

  10. A simplified headspace biochemical oxygen demand test protocol based on oxygen measurements using a fiber optic probe.

    PubMed

    Min, Booki; Kohler, David; Logan, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    Batch respirometric tests have many advantages over the conventional biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) method for analysis of wastewaters, including the use of nondiluted samples, a more rapid exertion of oxygen demand, and reduced sample preparation time. The headspace biochemical oxygen demand (HBOD) test can be used to obtain oxygen demands in 2 or 3 days that can predict 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) results. The main disadvantage of the HBOD and other respirometric tests has been the lack of a simple and direct method to measure oxygen concentrations in the gas phase. The recent commercial production of a new type of fiber optic oxygen probe, however, provides a method to eliminate this disadvantage. This fiber optic probe, referred to here as the HBOD probe, was tested to see if it could be used in HBOD tests. Gas-phase oxygen measurements made with the HBOD probe took only a few seconds and were not significantly different from those made using a gas chromatograph (t test: n = 15, R2 = 0.9995, p < 0.001). In field tests using the HBOD probe procedure, the probe greatly reduced sample analysis time compared with previous HBOD and BOD protocols and produced more precise results than the BOD test for wastewater samples from two treatment plants (University Area Joint Authority [UAJA] Wastewater Treatment Plant in University Park, Pennsylvania, and The Pennsylvania State University [PSU] Wastewater Treatment Plant in University Park). Headspace biochemical oxygen demand measurements on UAJA primary clarifier effluent were 59.9 +/- 2.4% after 2 days (HBOD2) and 73.0 +/- 3.1% after 3 days (HBOD) of BOD, values, indicating that BOD5 values could be predicted by multiplying HBOD2 values by 1.67 +/- 0.07 or HBOD3 by 1.37 +/- 0.06. Similarly, tests using PSU wastewater samples could be used to provide BOD5 estimates by multiplying the HBOD2 by 1.24 +/- 0.04 or by multiplying the HBOD3 by 0.97 +/- 0.03. These results indicate that the HBOD fiber optic probe can be used to obtain reliable oxygen demands in batch respirometric tests such as the HBOD test. PMID:15058462

  11. Biochemical oxygen demand. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in sewage, industrial waste treatment, runoff, and limnology. The effects of salinity on BOD, aerobic, and anaerobic waste treatment processes are described. The use of algae and water hyacinths in wastewater treatment is explored, along with the water quality and biological oxygen demand of specific bodies of water. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Determination of Biochemical Oxygen Demand of Area Waters: A Bioassay Procedure for Environmental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riehl, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method for determining the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) for a body of water is described. In this bioassay, students collect a sample of water from a designated site, transport it to the laboratory, and evaluate the amount of oxygen consumed by naturally occurring bacteria during a 5-day incubation period. An accuracy check,…

  13. MODELING SEDIMENT-NUTRIENT FLUX AND SEDIMENT OXYGEN DEMAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Depositional flux of particulate organic matter in bottom sediments affects nutrients cycling at the sediment-water interface and consumes oxygen from the overlying water in streams, lakes, and estuaries. This project deals with analytical modeling of nitrogen and carbon producti...

  14. Modeling In situ sediment oxygen demand in the Arroyo Colorado 

    E-print Network

    Kasprzak, Kevin Ray

    2001-01-01

    failed to meet their use under subsection 303 (b) of the US-Clean Water Act (CWA) due to fecal coliform bacteria and low dissolved oxygen. Sections of the Arroyo Colorado are listed in the 1998 CWA 303(d) report of non-compliant water bodies...

  15. Biofilm reactor based real-time analysis of biochemical oxygen demand.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changyu; Jia, Jianbo; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-04-15

    We reported a biofilm reactor (BFR) based analytical system for real-time biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) monitoring. It does not need a blank solution and other chemical reagents to operate. The initial dissolved oxygen (DO) in sample solution was measured as blank, while DO in the BFR effluent was measured as response. The DO difference obtained before and after the sample solution flowed through the BFR was regarded as an indicator of real-time BOD. The analytical performance of this reagent-free BFR system was equal to the previous BFR system operated using phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and high purity deionized water in reproducibility, accuracy and long-term stability. Besides, this method embraces many notable advantages, such as no secondary pollution. Additionally, the sample solutions are free from temperature controlling and air-saturation before injection. Significantly, this is a real-time BOD analysis method. This method was successfully carried out in a simulated emergency, and the obtained results agreed well with conventional BOD?. These advantages, coupled with simplicity in device, convenience in operation and minimal maintenance, make such a reagent-free BFR analytical system promising for practical BOD real-time warning. PMID:23228491

  16. Ventilatory accommodation of changing oxygen demand in sciurid rodents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Chappell

    1992-01-01

    Ventilation was measured across a range of O2 consumption rates in four sciurid rodents: Tamias minimus (47 g), Spermophilus lateralis (189 g), S. beecheyi (531 g), and Marmota flaviventris juveniles (1054 g) and adults (2989 g). Maximum thermogenic oxygen consumption was measured for all but adult M. flaviventris. Aerobic scopes (maximum\\/minimum O2 consumption rates) were 4.6, 3.8, 5.4, and 4.8

  17. Ventilatory accommodation of changing oxygen demand in sciurid rodents.

    PubMed

    Chappell, M A

    1992-01-01

    Ventilation was measured across a range of O2 consumption rates in four sciurid rodents: Tamias minimus (47 g), Spermophilus lateralis (189 g), S. beecheyi (531 g), and Marmota flaviventris juveniles (1054 g) and adults (2989 g). Maximum thermogenic oxygen consumption was measured for all but adult M. flaviventris. Aerobic scopes (maximum/minimum O2 consumption rates) were 4.6, 3.8, 5.4, and 4.8 in T. minimus, S. lateralis, S. beecheyi, and juvenile M. flaviventris, respectively. Aerobic scope was at least 4.1 in adult M. flaviventris. Ventilatory accommodation of changing O2 consumption rate was qualitatively similar in the four species, with the bulk of accommodation resulting from changes in minute volume. Nevertheless, there were significant differences in the relative importance of frequency, tidal volume, and O2 extraction in accommodation. In all species, frequency and minute volume were strongly correlated to O2 consumption rate. Tidal volume was significantly correlated to O2 consumption rate in T. minimus and S. beecheyi, but not in the other species. Oxygen extraction was not significantly correlated to O2 consumption rate in any species. Analysis of factorial ventilation changes across a standardized 3.8-fold change in O2 consumption rate revealed significant differences among species in frequency and O2 extraction, but not in tidal or minute volume. When compared to a generalized allometry for mammalian resting ventilation, the four sciurid species had consistently lower respiration frequency and higher O2 extraction than predicted, perhaps because the sciurid measurements were made on unrestrained animals. There was no indication that ventilation constrained maximum O2 consumption rate. PMID:1494030

  18. Demand and supply of hydrogen as chemical feedstock in USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. J.; Tang, K.; Kelley, J. H.; Berger, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Projections are made for the demand and supply of hydrogen as chemical feedstock in USA. Industrial sectors considered are petroleum refining, ammonia synthesis, methanol production, isocyanate manufacture, edible oil processing, coal liquefaction, fuel cell electricity generation, and direct iron reduction. Presently, almost all the hydrogen required is produced by reforming of natural gas or petroleum fractions. Specific needs and emphases are recommended for future research and development to produce hydrogen from other sources to meet the requirements of these industrial sectors. The data and the recommendations summarized in this paper are based on the Workshop 'Supply and Demand of Hydrogen as Chemical Feedstock' held at the University of Houston on December 12-14, 1977.

  19. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux

    E-print Network

    Mallin, Michael

    - pended solids, chlorophyll a concentrations, temperature, and dissolved oxygen, and negatively with pH with temperature, chlorophyll a, and total suspended solids, but negatively with dis- solved oxygen. Both forms loads, espe- cially chlorophyll a, while SOF behaved less strongly so. Runoff processes that increase

  20. Biological oxygen demand optode analysis of coral reef-associated microbial communities exposed to algal exudates

    PubMed Central

    Hatay, M; Haas, AF; Robinett, NL; Barott, K; Vermeij, MJA; Marhaver, KL; Meirelles, P; Thompson, F; Rohwer, F

    2013-01-01

    Algae-derived dissolved organic matter has been hypothesized to induce mortality of reef building corals. One proposed killing mechanism is a zone of hypoxia created by rapidly growing microbes. To investigate this hypothesis, biological oxygen demand (BOD) optodes were used to quantify the change in oxygen concentrations of microbial communities following exposure to exudates generated by turf algae and crustose coralline algae (CCA). BOD optodes were embedded with microbial communities cultured from Montastraea annularis and Mussismilia hispida, and respiration was measured during exposure to turf and CCA exudates. The oxygen concentrations along the optodes were visualized with a low-cost Submersible Oxygen Optode Recorder (SOOpR) system. With this system we observed that exposure to exudates derived from turf algae stimulated higher oxygen drawdown by the coral-associated bacteria than CCA exudates or seawater controls. Furthermore, in both turf and CCA exudate treatments, all microbial communities (coral-, algae-associated and pelagic) contributed significantly to the observed oxygen drawdown. This suggests that the driving factor for elevated oxygen consumption rates is the source of exudates rather than the initially introduced microbial community. Our results demonstrate that exudates from turf algae may contribute to hypoxia-induced coral stress in two different coral genera as a result of increased biological oxygen demand of the local microbial community. Additionally, the SOOpR system developed here can be applied to measure the BOD of any culturable microbe or microbial community. PMID:23882444

  1. Simulating unsteady transport of nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and dissolved oxygen in the Chattahoochee River downstream from Atlanta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobson, Harvey E.

    1985-01-01

    As part of an intensive water-quality assessment of the Chattahoochee River, repetitive water-quality measurements were made at 12 sites along a 69-kilometer reach of the river downstream of Atlanta, Georgia. Concentrations of seven constituents (temperature, dissolved oxygen, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), organic nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate) were obtained during two periods of 36 hours, one starting on August 30, 1976, and the other starting on May 31, 1977. The study reach contains one large and several small sewage outfalls and receives the cooling water from two large powerplants. An unsteady water-quality model of the Lagrangian type was calibrated using the 1977 data and verified using the 1976 data. The model provided a good means of interpreting these data even though both the flow and the pollution loading rates were highly unsteady. A kinetic model of the cascade type accurately described the physical and biochemical processes occurring in the river. All rate coefficients, except reaeration coefficients and those describing the resuspension of BOD, were fitted to the 1977 data and verified using the 1976 data. The study showed that, at steady low flow, about 38 percent of the BOD settled without exerting an oxygen demand. At high flow, this settled BOD was resuspended and exerted an immediate oxygen demand. About 70 percent of the ammonia extracted from the water column was converted to nitrite, but the fate of the remaining 30 percent is unknown. Photosynthetic production was not an important factor in the oxygen balance during either run.

  2. Novel BOD (biological oxygen demand) sensor using mediator-less microbial fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Hong Kim; In Seop Chang; Geun Cheol Gil; Hyung Soo Park; Hyung Joo Kim

    2003-01-01

    A microbial fuel cell type of biosensor was used to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater. The biosensor gave a good correlation between the BOD value and the coulomb produced. The BOD sensor has been operated for over 5 years in a stable manner without any servicing. This is much longer that that of previously reported BOD biosensors.

  3. Novel BOD (biological oxygen demand) sensor using mediator-less microbial fuel cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Hong Kim; Seop Chang; Geun Cheol Gil; Hyung Soo Park; Hyung Joo Kim

    2003-01-01

    A microbial fuel cell type of biosensor was used to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewa- ter. The biosensor gave a good correlation between the BOD value and the coulomb produced. The BOD sensor has been operated for over 5 years in a stable manner without any servicing. This is much longer that that of previously reported BOD

  4. Modeling the Effects of Solids Accumulation on Oxygen Demand & Transport in

    E-print Network

    Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) Culture tank Biofilter Clarifier Aeration pH adjustment NaHCO3 CO2 © 1997Modeling the Effects of Solids Accumulation on Oxygen Demand & Transport in Floating-Bead Filters by Louisiana Board of Regents & Louisiana Sea Grant College Program #12;Aquaculture in Closed SystemsAquaculture

  5. Establishing Relationships Among Nutrient Concentrations, Phytoplankton Abundance, and Biochemical Oxygen Demand in Minnesota, USA, Rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Heiskary; Howard Markus

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated significant and predictable relationships among nutrients, algae, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in five medium to large Minnesota, USA, rivers. These rivers were distributed across three ecoregions ranging from the Northern Lakes & Forests (NLF) (low nutrients), to the North Central Hardwood forests (NCHF) (intermediate nutrients), to the Western Corn Belt Plains (WCBP) (high nutrients).

  6. Spray generator of singlet oxygen for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Jirásek; J. Hrubý; O. Špalek; M. ?enský; J. Kodymová

    2010-01-01

    A spray type of singlet oxygen generator for driving the Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser was developed. Singlet oxygen, O2(1?g), is generated by a fast reaction of chlorine with basic hydrogen peroxide solution in the form of a dense spray. A mathematical\\u000a model of this reaction system showed that O2(1?g) can be generated in this system with a high yield (0.70–0.80), high

  7. Prediction of Benthic Impact for Salmon Net-Pens Based on the Balance of Benthic Oxygen Supply and Demand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Findlay; Les Watling

    1997-01-01

    The ratio between oxygen supply and oxygen demand was examined as a predictor of benthic response to organic enrichment caused by salmon net-pen aquaculture. Oxygen supply to the benthos was calculated based on Fickian diffusion and near-bottom flow velocities. A strong linear correlation was found between measured carbon sedimentation rates and rates of benthic metabolism. This relationship allowed an estimation

  8. Geostatistical modeling of the spatial distribution of sediment oxygen demand within a Coastal Plain blackwater watershed

    PubMed Central

    Todd, M. Jason; Lowrance, R. Richard; Goovaerts, Pierre; Vellidis, George; Pringle, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    Blackwater streams are found throughout the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States and are characterized by a series of instream floodplain swamps that play a critical role in determining the water quality of these systems. Within the state of Georgia, many of these streams are listed in violation of the state’s dissolved oxygen (DO) standard. Previous work has shown that sediment oxygen demand (SOD) is elevated in instream floodplain swamps and due to these areas of intense oxygen demand, these locations play a major role in determining the oxygen balance of the watershed as a whole. This work also showed SOD rates to be positively correlated with the concentration of total organic carbon. This study builds on previous work by using geostatistics and Sequential Gaussian Simulation to investigate the patchiness and distribution of total organic carbon (TOC) at the reach scale. This was achieved by interpolating TOC observations and simulated SOD rates based on a linear regression. Additionally, this study identifies areas within the stream system prone to high SOD at representative 3rd and 5th order locations. Results show that SOD was spatially correlated with the differences in distribution of TOC at both locations and that these differences in distribution are likely a result of the differing hydrologic regime and watershed position. Mapping of floodplain soils at the watershed scale shows that areas of organic sediment are widespread and become more prevalent in higher order streams. DO dynamics within blackwater systems are a complicated mix of natural and anthropogenic influences, but this paper illustrates the importance of instream swamps in enhancing SOD at the watershed scale. Moreover, our study illustrates the influence of instream swamps on oxygen demand while providing support that many of these systems are naturally low in DO. PMID:20938491

  9. Development and characterization of a novel immobilized microbial membrane for rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand load in industrial waste-waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shikha Rastogi; Anil Kumar; N. K Mehra; S. D Makhijani; A Manoharan; V Gangal; Rita Kumar

    2003-01-01

    The rapid determination of waste-water quality of waste-water treatment plants in terms of pollutional strength, i.e. biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is difficult or even impossible using the chemical determination method. The present study reports the determination of BOD within minutes using microbial BOD sensors, as compared to the 5-day determination using the conventional method. Multiple criteria establish the basis for

  10. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

  11. Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Algae: Fractionation of Phytoplankton and Nonphytoplankton Respiration in a Large River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ronald R. H.

    1990-04-01

    Mass balance equations for dissolved oxygen in streams are formulated to account for, among other variables, algal respiration (R), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The oxygen consumption measured in primary productivity-respiration analyses is not R but is total community oxygen consumption (TCOC), and BOD measurements are complicated by undefined algal components. Ultimate BOD was found to be 0.24 mg of O2 consumed per ?g chlorophyll a and carbonaceous BOD was 0.20 per ?-g chlorophyll a in excess of background BOD. The results were similar for live and dead algae. Phytoplankton respiration was fractionated from nonphytoplankton oxygen consumption (NPOC) by the regression of respiration against chlorophyll a to obtain a y intercept of zero chlorophyll. The intercepts, NPOC, closely matched O2 consumption measured when phytoplankton biomass was very low. Phytoplankton respiration, calculated as the residual of the difference between TCOC and NPOC, ranged from 0.2 to 1.5 (mean = 0.88) mg O2 per mg chlorophyll a per hour, close to the literature value of 1 (in cultures). Depth-integrated (DI) phytoplankton respiration was 1/4 to 1/3 of DI gross primary productivity and 1-3% of maximum primary productivity. The separation of phytoplankton R and NPOC permitted the demonstration that R probably is not a simple function of productivity.

  12. Chemical etching of manganese oxides for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kaixiang; Han, Xiaopeng; Hu, Yuxiang; Liu, Xue; Cong, Liang; Cheng, Fangyi; Chen, Jun

    2015-07-25

    Mixed-valent MnOx (1 < x < 2) was selectively synthesized by chemically etching MnO and Mn2O3 with ceric ammonium nitrate. The obtained MnOx exhibited greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as compared to the corresponding pristine oxides. PMID:26097914

  13. Research on advanced chemical and discharge oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodymová, Jarmila; Jirásek, Vít; Schmiedberger, Josef; Spalek, Otomar; Censký, Miroslav

    2009-02-01

    Generation of singlet oxygen and atomic iodine for operation of the chemical or discharge oxygen-iodine laser (COIL/DOIL) is described, employing novel methods and device configurations proposed in our laboratory. A centrifugal spray generator of singlet oxygen was developed, based on the conventional reaction between chlorine and basic hydrogen peroxide. Recent results of theoretical and experimental investigation of the generator parameters are presented. A new conception of the discharge generator of singlet oxygen was initiated, based on a combined DC arc jet and RF discharge techniques. Principle of the generator currently developed and constructed is described. A new device configuration was designed for the alternative method of atomic iodine generation using a radiofrequency discharge decomposition of iodine compounds like CH3I or CF3I. Some recent experimental results of this research are also presented.

  14. Benthic Oxygen Demand in Three Former Salt Ponds Adjacent to South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Topping, Brent R.; Kuwabara, James S.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Parchaso, Francis; Henderson, Kathleen D.; Piotter, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Sampling trips were coordinated in the second half of 2008 to examine the interstitial water in the sediment and the overlying bottom waters of three shallow (average depth 2 meters). The water column at all deployment sites was monitored with dataloggers for ancillary water-quality parameters (including dissolved oxygen, salinity, specific conductance, temperature, and pH) to facilitate the interpretation of benthic-flux results. Calculated diffusive benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) oxygen was consistently negative (that is, drawn from the water column into the sediment) and ranged between -0.5 x 10-6 and -37 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second (site averages depicted in table 2). Assuming pond areas of 1.0, 1.4, and 2.3 square kilometers for ponds A16, A14, and A3W, respectively, this converts to an oxygen mass flux into the ponds' sediment ranging from -1 to -72 kilograms per day. Diffusive oxygen flux into the benthos (listed as negative) was lowest in pond A14 (-0.5 x 10-6 to -1.8 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second) compared with diffusive flux estimates for ponds A16 and A3W (site averages -26 x 10-6 to -35 x 10-6 and -34 x 10-6 to -37 x 10-6 micromoles per square centimeter per second, respectively). These initial diffusive-flux estimates are of the order of magnitude of those measured in the South Bay using core-incubation experiments (Topping and others, 2004), which include bioturbation and bioirrigation effects. Estimates of benthic oxygen demand reported herein, based on molecular diffusion, serve as conservative estimates of benthic flux because solute transport across the sediment-water interface can be enhanced by multidisciplinary processes including bioturbation, bioirrigation, ground-water advection, and wind resuspension (Kuwabara and others, 2009).

  15. Development of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with production of atomic iodine in a chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Censky, M; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Kodymova, J [Institute of Physics, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Jakubec, I [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Czech Academy of Sciences, Rez (Czech Republic)

    2009-11-30

    The alternative method of atomic iodine generation for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) in chemical reactions with gaseous reactants is investigated experimentally. The influence of the configuration of iodine atom injection into the laser cavity on the efficiency of the atomic iodine generation and small-signal gain is studied. (lasers)

  16. Ethanol Demand in United States Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Hadder, G.R.

    2000-08-16

    Ethanol competes with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to satisfy oxygen, octane, and volume requirements of certain gasolines. However, MTBE has water quality problems that may create significant market opportunities for ethanol. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has used its Refinery Yield Model to estimate ethanol demand in gasolines with restricted use of MTBE. Reduction of the use of MTBE would increase the costs of gasoline production and possibly reduce the gasoline output of U.S. refineries. The potential gasoline supply problems of an MTBE ban could be mitigated by allowing a modest 3 vol percent MTBE in all gasoline. In the U.S. East and Gulf Coast gasoline producing regions, the 3 vol percent MTBE option results in costs that are 40 percent less than an MTBE ban. In the U.S. Midwest gasoline producing region, with already high use of ethanol, an MTBE ban has minimal effect on ethanol demand unless gasoline producers in other regions bid away the local supply of ethanol. The ethanol/MTBE issue gained momentum in March 2000 when the Clinton Administration announced that it would ask Congress to amend the Clean Air Act to provide the authority to significantly reduce or eliminate the use of MTBE; to ensure that air quality gains are not diminished as MTBE use is reduced; and to replace the existing oxygenate requirement in the Clean Air Act with a renewable fuel standard for all gasoline. Premises for the ORNL study are consistent with the Administration announcement, and the ethanol demand curve estimates of this study can be used to evaluate the impact of the Administration principles and related policy initiatives.

  17. Oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion of solid fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurora Rubel; Kunlei Liu; Jim Neathery; Darrell Taulbee

    2009-01-01

    A thermal analyzer–differential scanning calorimeter–mass spectrometer (TG–DSC–MS) was used to study oxygen carriers (OC) for their potential use for the application of chemical looping combustion (CLC) to solid fuels. Reaction rates, changes in reaction rates with repeated oxidation–reductions, exothermic heats during oxidation, and the effect of changing reduction gas compositions were studied. Oxidation rates were greater than reduction rates and

  18. Rapid field estimation of biochemical oxygen demand in a subtropical eutrophic urban lake with chlorophyll a fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Xu, Y Jun

    2015-01-01

    Development of a technique for rapid field estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is necessary for cost-effective monitoring and management of urban lakes. While several studies reported the usefulness of laboratory tryptophan-like fluorescence technique in predicting 5-day BOD (BOD?) of wastewater and leachates, little is known about the predictability of field chlorophyll fluorescence measurements for BOD of urban lake waters that are constantly exposed to the mixture of chemical compounds. This study was conducted to develop a numeric relationship between chlorophyll a fluorescence and BOD for a eutrophic urban lake that is widely representative of lake water conditions in the subtropical southern USA. From October 2012 to September 2013, in situ measurements at the studied lake were made every 2 weeks on chlorophyll a fluorescence and other water quality parameters including water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductivity. Water samples were taken for 5-day BOD and 10-day BOD (BOD??) analysis with and without incubation. The results showed a clear seasonal trend of both BOD measurements being high during the summer and low during the winter. There was a linear, positive relationship between chlorophyll a fluorescence and BOD, and the relationship appeared to be stronger with the 10-day BOD (r(2)?=?0.83) than with the 5-day BOD (r(2)?=?0.76). BOD dropped each day with declining chlorophyll a fluorescence, suggesting that die-off of phytoplankton has been the main consumption of oxygen in the studied lake. Ambient conditions such as rainfall and water temperature may have partially affected BOD variation. PMID:25446719

  19. Comparison of Instream and Laboratory Methods of Measuring Sediment Oxygen Demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Dennis C.; Berkas, Wayne R.

    1988-01-01

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) was determined at three sites in a gravel-bottomed central Missouri stream by: (1) two variations of an instream method, and (2) a laboratory method. SOD generally was greatest by the instream methods, which are considered more accurate, and least by the laboratory method. Disturbing stream sediment did not significantly decrease SOD by the instream method. Temperature ranges of up to 12 degree Celsius had no significant effect on the SOD. In the gravel-bottomed stream, the placement of chambers was critical to obtain reliable measurements. SOD rates were dependent on the method; therefore, care should be taken in comparing SOD data obtained by different methods. There is a need for a carefully researched standardized method for SOD determinations.

  20. Bimetallic Fe-Ni Oxygen Carriers for Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

    2013-11-06

    The relative abundance, low cost, and low toxicity of iron make Fe-based oxygen carriers of great interest for chemical looping combustion (CLC), an emerging technology for clean and efficient combustion of fossil and renewable fuels. However, Fe also shows much lower reactivity than other metals (such as Ni and Cu). Here, we demonstrate strong improvement of Fe-based carriers by alloying the metal phase with Ni. Through a combination of carrier synthesis and characterization with thermogravimetric and fixed-bed reactor studies, we demonstrate that the addition of Ni results in a significant enhancement in activity as well as an increase in selectivity for total oxidation. Furthermore, comparing alumina and ceria as support materials highlights the fact that reducible supports can result in a strong increase in oxygen carrier utilization.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Benthic Oxygen Demand and Nutrient Regeneration in an Anthropogenically Impacted New England Estuary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robinson W. Fulweiler; Scott W. Nixon; Betty A. Buckley

    2010-01-01

    Strong benthic–pelagic coupling is an important characteristic of shallow coastal marine ecosystems. Building upon a rich\\u000a history of benthic metabolism data, we measured oxygen uptake and nutrient fluxes across the sediment–water interface along\\u000a a gradient of water column primary production in Narragansett Bay, RI (USA). Despite the strong gradients seen in water column\\u000a production, sediment oxygen demand (SOD) and benthic

  2. The application of simple models of nutrient loading and oxygen demand to the management of a marine tidal inlet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Strain; D. J. Wildish; P. A. Yeats

    1995-01-01

    Human developments in the Letang, a macrotidal inlet of the Bay of Fundy, include salmon aquaculture, traditional fisheries, fish processing plants, a pulp mill, and a municipal sewage treatment plant. All of these are sources of nutrients and oxygen demand. Inputs from these sources are evaluated, and simple models are used to compare environmental effects as well as to assess

  3. A mediator-type biosensor as a new approach to biochemical oxygen demand estimation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, N; Yano, K; Morita, T; McNiven, S J; Nakamura, H; Karube, I

    2000-12-01

    A novel biosensor for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was developed using potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) [HCF(III)] as a mediator. The sensor element consists of a three-electrode system, with both working and counter electrodes compactly integrated as a disposable using etching and electroplating processes. Pseudomonas fluorescens biovar V (isolated from a wastewater treatment plant) was immobilized on the surface of the working electrode using poly(vinyl alcohol)-quaternized stilbazol (PVA-SbQ) photopolymer gel. Synthetic wastewater described by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) was used as a standard solution instead of glucose-glutamic acid synthetic wastewater. The conditions of amperometric measurement were optimized at +600 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) operating potential, namely 40 mM HCF(III) in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 20 degrees C. The sensor response was linear from 15 up to 200 mg O l-1 BOD. The response time was 15 min at 200 mg O l-1 BOD. To demonstrate the wide metabolic range of activity of the sensor, the sensor response to 14 substances in four categories of organic compounds was investigated. Further, it was shown that the response of this BOD sensor was not influenced in samples with low concentrations of dissolved oxygen under the measuring conditions used. For real wastewaters, the BOD values were determined using the sensor and compared favorably with those determined by the conventional BOD5 method. PMID:11219067

  4. Semi-insulating crystalline silicon formed by oxygen doping during low-temperature chemical vapor deposition

    E-print Network

    silicon films grown by chemical vapor deposition. The films contain oxygen concentrations that exceed as a dopant during low- temperature chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon. It is known that oxygen (both Si:O and pure Si) were grown in a susceptor-free, lamp-heated, chemical vapor deposition system

  5. 20-Kw nitrogen diluent chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tientsai T.; Bhowmik, Anup; Burde, David H.; Clark, Roy; Carroll, S.; Dickerson, Robert A.; Eblen, J.; Gylys, Vytas T.; Hsia, Y. C.; Humphreys, Richard H., Jr.; Moon, L. F.; Hurlock, Steve C.; Tomassian, A.

    2002-09-01

    A new Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) has been developed and demonstrated at chlorine flow rates up to 1 gmol/s. The laser employs a cross flow jet oxygen generator operating with no diluent. The generator product flow enters the laser cavity at Mach 1 and is accelerated by mixing with 5 gmol/s, Mach 5 nitrogen diluent in an ejector nozzle array. The nitrogen also serves as the carrier for iodine. Vortex mixing is achieved through the use of mixing tabs at the nitrogen nozzle exit. Mixing approach design and analysis, including CFD analysis, led to the preferred nozzle configuration. The selected mixing enhancement design was tested in cold flow and the results are in good agreement with the CFD predictions. Good mixing was achieved within the desired cavity flow length of 20 cm and pressure recovery about 90 Torr was measured at the cavity exit. Finally, the design was incorporated into the laser and power extraction as high as 20 kw was measured at the best operating condition of 0.9 gmol/s. Stable resonator mode footprints showed desieable intensity profiles, which none of the sugar scoop profiles characteristic of the conventional COIL designs.

  6. Effects of time pressure and precision demands during computer mouse work on muscle oxygenation and position sense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Heiden; E. Lyskov; M. Djupsjöbacka; F. Hellström; A. G. Crenshaw

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of time pressure and precision demands during computer mouse work on muscle oxygenation and position sense in the upper extremity. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 males and 12 females) performed a 45-min standardized mouse-operated computer task on two occasions. The task consisted of painting rectangles that were presented on the screen. On one occasion, time

  7. Sources and transport of sediment, nutrients, and oxygen-demanding substances in the Minnesota River basin, 1989-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Minnesota River, 10 major tributaries, and 21 springs were sampled to determine the sources and transport of sediment, nutrients, and oxygen- demanding substances. The study was part of a four-year assessment of non-point source pollution in the Minnesota River Basin. Runoff from tributary watersheds was identified as the primary source of suspended sediment and nutrients in the Minnesota River mainstem. Suspended-sediment, phosphorus, and nitrate concentrations were elevated in all major tributaries during runoff, but tributaries in the south-central and eastern part of the basin produce the highest annual loading to the mainstem because of higher annual precipitation and runoff in that part of the basin. Particle-size analyses showed that most of the suspended sediment in transport consisted of silt- and clay-size material. Phosphorus enrichment was indicated throughout the mainstem by total phosphorus concentrations that ranged from 0.04 to 0.48 mg/L with a median value of 0.22 mg/L, and an interquartile range of 0.15 to 0.29 mg/L. Nitrate concentrations periodically exceeded drinking water standards in tributaries draining the south-central and eastern part of the basin. Oxygen demand was most elevated during periods of summer low flow. Correlations between levels of biochemical oxygen demand and levels of algal productivity suggest that algal biomass comprises much of the oxygen-demanding material in the mainstem. Transport of sediment, nutrients, and organic carbon within the mainstem was found to be conservative, with nearly all tributary inputs being transported downstream. Uptake and utilization of nitrate and orthophosphorus was indicated during low flow, but at normal and high flow, inputs of these constituents greatly exceeded biological utilization.

  8. Evaluation of novel ceria-supported materials as oxygen carriers for chemical-

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    Master's Thesis in the Master Degree Program, Innovative and Sustainable Energy Engineering ALI HEDAYATI-supported materials as oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion ALI HEDAYATI Department of Energy;Evaluation of novel ceria-supported materials as oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion Ali Hedayati

  9. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    PubMed

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-03-25

    The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion(®). The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion(®), resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria. PMID:24626398

  10. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 1. Biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen in receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Booth, N.L.; Hall, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft and runway deicers are used during cold weather at many of the world's airports to facilitate safe air travel. Propylene glycol-, ethylene glycol-, and urea-based deicers are known to have very high biochemical oxygen demand. At General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, deicer application, water chemistry, and dissolved oxygen (DO) data were collected for two deicing seasons in order to evaluate and define premanagement water quality parameters prior to the implementation of a glycol management program. Calculations using stream-monitoring data during a controlled release of deicer provided an estimate of 0.8/d for the first-order decay rate constant, substantially higher than published laboratory test results. For eight precipitation events with deicing activities, between 2.4 and 99% of propylene and ethylene glycol applied to aircraft was delivered directly to receiving streams. The percentage of glycol runoff during an event increased with increasing storm-flow volume. Elevated concentrations of glycol and biochemical oxygen demand were measured downstream from the airport. However, the frequency of low DO concentrations in the receiving streams is comparable with that at an upstream reference site. This is possibly due to slowed bacteria metabolism at low water temperatures, short travel times, and dilution from downstream tributaries.

  11. RECENT ADVANCES IN CaSO4 OXYGEN CARRIER FOR CHEMICAL-LOOPING COMBUSTION (CLC) PROCESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qingjie Guo; Jianshe Zhang; Hongjing Tian

    2012-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel combustion technology with inherent separation of the greenhouse gas CO2 and low NOx (NO, NO2, N2O) emissions. In CLC, the solid oxygen carrier supplies the stoichiometric oxygen needed for CO2 and water formation, resulting in a free nitrogen mixture. The performance of oxygen carrier is the key to CLC's application. A good oxygen carrier

  12. Cumulative energy demand (CED) and cumulative CO 2 emissions for products of the organic chemical industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Patel

    2003-01-01

    This paper both presents and discusses the results of calculations on the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) and the related Cumulative CO2 emissions (CCO2) for products of the organic chemical industry. The entire process chain is studied, starting with the extraction of resources and ending with the saleable material (cradle-to-factory gate). The materials studied are chemical intermediates and plastics as produced

  13. Interfacial tension controlled fusion of individual femtoliter droplets and triggering of confined chemical reactions on demand

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, Pat [ORNL; Jung, Seung-Yong [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes stepwise, on-demand generation and fusion of femtoliter aqueous droplets based on interfacial tension. Sub-millisecond mixing times from droplet fusion were demonstrated, as well as a reversible chemical toggle switch based on alternating fusion of droplets containing acidic or basic solution, monitored with the pH-dependent emission of fluorescein.

  14. Chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) technology and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, Edward A.; Truesdell, Keith A.

    2004-09-01

    In the late 1960's researchers realized that producing a population inversion in a moving medium could be used to generate high-energy laser beams. The first lasers to scale to the 10 kW size with good beam quality were supersonic flows of N2 - CO2, emitting radiation from the CO2 at 10.6 microns. In the 1970's gas dynamic CO2 lasers were scaled to hundreds of kilowatts and engineered into a KC-135 aircraft. This aircraft (The Airborne Laser Laboratory) was used to shoot down Sidewinder AIM-9B missiles in the early 1980"s. During this same time period (1970-1990) hydrogen fluoride and deuterium fluoride lasers were scaled to the MW scale in ground-based facilities. In 1978, the Iodine laser was invented at the Air Force Research Laboratory and scaled to the 100 kW level by the early 1990"s. Since the 60s, the DOD Chemical Laser development efforts have included CO2, CO, DF, HF, and Iodine. Currently, the DOD is developing DF, HF, and Iodine lasers, since CO2 and CO have wavelengths and diffraction limitations which make them less attractive for high energy weapons applications. The current military vision is to use chemical lasers to prove the principles and field ground and air mounted laser systems while attempting to develop weight efficient solid-state lasers at the high power levels for use in future Strategic and Tactical situations. This paper describes the evolution of Chemical Oxygen Iodine Lasers, their selection for use in the Airborne Laser (ABL), and the Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL). COIL was selected for these early applications because of its power scalability, its short wavelength, its atmospheric transmittance, and its excellent beam quality. The advantages and challenges are described, as well as some of the activities to improve magazine depth and logistics supportability. COIL lasers are also potentially applicable to mobile ground based applications, and future space based applications, but challenges exist. In addition, COIL is being considered for civil commercial applications in the US and overseas.

  15. The use of ilmenite as an oxygen carrier in chemical-looping combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henrik Leion; Anders Lyngfelt; Marcus Johansson; Erik Jerndal; Tobias Mattisson

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of using ilmenite as oxygen carrier in chemical-looping combustion has been investigated. It was found that ilmenite is an attractive and inexpensive oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion. A laboratory fluidized-bed reactor system, simulating chemical-looping combustion by exposing the sample to alternating reducing and oxidizing conditions, was used to investigate the reactivity. During the reducing phase, 15g of ilmenite

  16. Discriminating between west-side sources of nutrients and organiccarbon contributing to algal growth and oxygen demand in the San JoaquinRiver

    SciTech Connect

    Wstringfellow@lbl.gov

    2002-07-24

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Salt and Mud Slough tributaries as sources of oxygen demanding materials entering the San Joaquin River (SJR). Mud Slough and Salt Slough are the main drainage arteries of the Grasslands Watershed, a 370,000-acre area west of the SJR, covering portions of Merced and Fresno Counties. Although these tributaries of the SJR are typically classified as agricultural, they are also heavily influenced by Federal, State and private wetlands. The majority of the surface water used for both irrigation and wetland management in the Grassland Watershed is imported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta through the Delta-Mendota Canal. In this study, they measured algal biomass (as chlorophyll a), organic carbon, ammonia, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and other measures of water quality in drainage from both agricultural and wetland sources at key points in the Salt Slough and Mud Slough tributaries. This report includes the data collected between June 16th and October 4th, 2001. The objective of the study was to compare agricultural and wetland drainage in the Grasslands Watershed and to determine the relative importance of each return flow source to the concentration and mass loading of oxygen demanding materials entering the SJR. Additionally, they compared the quality of water exiting our study area to water entering our study area. This study has demonstrated that Salt and Mud Sloughs both contribute significant amounts of oxygen demand to the SJR. Together, these tributaries could account for 35% of the oxygen demand observed below their confluence with the SJR. This study has characterized the sources of oxygen demanding materials entering Mud Slough and evaluated the oxygen demand conditions in Salt Slough. Salt Slough was found to be the dominant source of oxygen demand load in the study area, because of the higher flows in this tributary. The origins of oxygen demand in Salt Slough still remain largely uninvestigated and the seasonal oxygen demand loading pattern remains unexplained. An expanded investigation of the Salt Slough watershed is warranted, because of the importance of this watershed to the oxygen demand load entering the SJR.

  17. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Diesel Combustion with Oxygenated Fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H J Curran; E M Fisher; P-A Glaude; N M Marinov; W J Pitz; C K Westbrook; P F Flynn; R P Durrett; A O zur Loye; O C Akinyemi; F L Dryer

    2000-01-01

    Emission standards for diesel engines in vehicles have been steadily reduced in recent years, and a great deal of research and development effort has been focused on reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions. One promising approach to reducing emissions involves the addition of oxygen to the fuel, generally by adding an oxygenated compound to the normal diesel fuel. Miyamoto et

  18. Using electrochemistry - total internal refection imaging ellipsometry to monitor biochemical oxygen demand on the surface tethered polyelectrolyte modified electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Li, Meng; Lv, Bei'er; Chen, YanYan; Ma, Hongwei; Jin, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Our previous work has proposed an electrochemistry - total internal reflection imaging ellipsometry (EC-TIRIE) technique to observe the dissolved oxygen (DO) reduction on Clark electrode since high interface sensitivity makes TIRIE a useful tool to study redox reactions on the electrode surface. To amplify the optical signal noise ratio (OSNR), a surface tethered weak polyelectrolyte, carboxylated poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-random- 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (abbreviated as carboxylated poly(OEGMA-r-HEMA)), has been introduced on the electrode surface. Since Clark electrode is widely used in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) detection, we use this technique to measure BOD in the sample. The dynamic range of the system is from 0 ˜ 25 mg/L. Two samples have been measured. Compared with the conventional method, the deviation of both optical and electrical signals are less than 10%.

  19. MICREDOX--development of a ferricyanide-mediated rapid biochemical oxygen demand method using an immobilised Proteus vulgaris biocomponent.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Neil; Baronian, Keith; Jeffries, Cy; Webber, Judith; Hay, Joanne

    2004-10-15

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is an international regulatory environmental index for monitoring organic pollutants in wastewater and the current legislated standard test for BOD monitoring requires 5 days to complete (BOD5 test). We are developing a rapid microbial technique, MICREDOX, for measuring BOD by eliminating oxygen and, instead, quantifying an equivalent biochemical co-substrate demand, the co-substrate being a redox mediator. Elevated concentrations of Proteus vulgaris, either as free cells or immobilised in Lentikat disks, were incubated with an excess of redox mediator (potassium hexacyanoferrate(III)) and organic substrate for 1h at 37 degrees C without oxygen. The addition of substrate increased the catabolic activity of the microorganisms and the accumulation of reduced mediator, which was subsequently re-oxidised at a working electrode generating a current quantifiable by a coulometric transducer. The recorded currents were converted to their BOD5 equivalent with the only assumption being a fixed conversion of substrate and known stoichiometry. Measurements are reported both for the BOD5 calibration standard solution (150 mg l(-1) glucose, 150 mg l(-1) glutamic acid) and for filtered effluent sampled from a wastewater treatment plant. The inclusion of a highly soluble mediator in place of oxygen facilitated a high ferricyanide concentration in the incubation, which in turn permitted increased concentrations of microorganisms to be used. This substantially reduced the incubation time, from 5 days to 1h, for the biological oxidation of substrates equivalent to those observed using the standard BOD5 test. Stoichiometric conversion efficiencies for the oxidation of the standard substrate by P. vulgaris were typically 60% for free cells and 35-50% for immobilised cells. PMID:15494235

  20. Oxidation kinetics of chemically vapor-deposited silicon carbide in wet oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth J. Opila

    1994-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of chemically vapor-deposited SiC in dry oxygen and wet oxygen at temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 C were monitored using thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that in a clean environment, 10% water vapor enhanced the oxidation kinetics of SiC only very slightly compared to rates found in dry oxygen. Oxidation kinetics were examined in terms of the

  1. Oxygen demand in coastal marine sediments: comparing in situ microelectrodes and laboratory core incubations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Rabouille; L Denis; K Dedieu; G Stora; B Lansard; C Grenz

    2003-01-01

    A study coupling core incubation and a large number of in situ microelectrode measurements (n=18) was performed at a single station in the Golfe de Fos, a semi-enclosed estuarine system in the South of France on the Mediterranean Sea. Total and diffusive oxygen fluxes were determined for two different seasons (October 2000 and May 2001). The average total and diffusive

  2. Chemical treatment makes aromatic polyamide fabric fireproof in oxygen atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardwell, R. O.; Holsten, J. R.; Rives, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Organic fabric is reacted first with vapors of a phosphorus oxychloride, phosphorus oxybromide solution and then with bromine vapor, after neutralization it is flameproof in pure oxygen atmosphere. Soaking the fabric with mixture of ammonium polyphosphates increases flame resistance, but the polyphosphates are leached out during laundering.

  3. In-situ sediment oxygen demand rates in Hammonton Creek, Hammonton, New Jersey, and Crosswicks Creek, near New Egypt, New Jersey, August-October 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Sediment oxygen demand rates were measured in Hammonton Creek, Hammonton, New Jersey, and Crosswicks Creek, near New Egypt, New Jersey, during August through October 2009. These rates were measured as part of an ongoing water-quality monitoring program being conducted in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Oxygen depletion rates were measured using in-situ test chambers and a non-consumptive optical electrode sensing technique for measuring dissolved oxygen concentrations. Sediment oxygen demand rates were calculated on the basis of these field measured oxygen depletion rates and the temperature of the stream water at each site. Hammonton Creek originates at an impoundment, then flows through pine forest and agricultural fields, and receives discharge from a sewage-treatment plant. The streambed is predominantly sand and fine gravel with isolated pockets of organic-rich detritus. Sediment oxygen demand rates were calculated at four sites on Hammonton Creek and were found to range from -0.3 to -5.1 grams per square meter per day (g/m2/d), adjusted to 20 degrees Celsius. When deployed in pairs, the chambers produced similar values, indicating that the method was working as expected and yielding reproducible results. At one site where the chamber was deployed for more than 12 hours, dissolved oxygen was consumed linearly over the entire test period. Crosswicks Creek originates in a marshy woodland area and then flows through woodlots and pastures. The streambed is predominantly silt and clay with some bedrock exposures. Oxygen depletion rates were measured at three sites within the main channel of the creek, and the calculated sediment oxygen demand rates ranged from -0.33 to -2.5 g/m2/d, adjusted to 20 degrees Celsius. At one of these sites sediment oxygen demand was measured in both a center channel flowing area of a pond in the stream and in a stagnant non-flowing area along the shore of the pond where organic-rich bottom sediments had accumulated and lower dissolved oxygen concentration conditions existed in the water column. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in the center channel test chamber showed a constant slow decrease over the entire test period. Oxygen consumption in the test chamber at the near-shore location began rapidly and then slowed over time as oxygen became depleted in the chamber. Depending on the portion of the near-shore dissolved oxygen depletion curve used, calculated sediment oxygen demand rates ranged from as low as -0.03 g/m2/d to as high as -10 g/m2/d. The wide range of sediment oxygen demand rates indicates that care must be taken when extrapolating sediment oxygen demand rates between stream sites that have different bottom sediment types and different flow regimes.

  4. Performance of a high-efficiency 5-cm gain length supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tilghman L. Rittenhouse; Stephen P. Phipps; Charles A. Helms

    1999-01-01

    The Air Force Phillips Laboratory has developed a small-scale supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) test stand (VertiCOIL) to rapidly evaluate emerging potential technology improvements. VertiCOIL was designed to address issues relevant to military and commercial applications such as long run time, high-efficiency operation, and compact design. VertiCOIL demonstrated an overall chemical efficiency of nearly 27%, one of the highest chemical

  5. Limited Influence of Oxygen on the Evolution of Chemical Diversity in Metabolic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Yoshitake, Ikumi

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen is thought to promote species and biomolecule diversity. Previous studies have suggested that oxygen expands metabolic networks by acquiring metabolites with different chemical properties (higher hydrophobicity, for example). However, such conclusions are typically based on biased evaluation, and are therefore non-conclusive. Thus, we re-investigated the effect of oxygen on metabolic evolution using a phylogenetic comparative method and metadata analysis to reduce the bias as much as possible. Notably, we found no difference in metabolic network expansion between aerobes and anaerobes when evaluating phylogenetic relationships. Furthermore, we showed that previous studies have overestimated or underestimated the degrees of differences in the chemical properties (e.g., hydrophobicity) between oxic and anoxic metabolites in metabolic networks of unicellular organisms; however, such overestimation was not observed when considering the metabolic networks of multicellular organisms. These findings indicate that the contribution of oxygen to increased chemical diversity in metabolic networks is lower than previously thought; rather, phylogenetic signals and cell-cell communication result in increased chemical diversity. However, this conclusion does not contradict the effect of oxygen on metabolic evolution; instead, it provides a deeper understanding of how oxygen contributes to metabolic evolution despite several limitations in data analysis methods. PMID:24958261

  6. Air-activated chemical warming devices: effects of oxygen and pressure.

    PubMed

    Raleigh, G; Rivard, R; Fabus, S

    2005-01-01

    Air-activated chemical warming devices use an exothermic chemical reaction of rapidly oxidizing iron to generate heat for therapeutic purposes. Placing these products in a hyperbaric oxygen environment greatly increases the supply of oxidant and thus increases the rate of reaction and maximum temperature. Testing for auto-ignition and maximum temperatures attained by ThermaCare Heat Wraps, Playtex Heat Therapy, and Heat Factory disposable warm packs under ambient conditions and under conditions similar to those encountered during hyperbaric oxygen treatments in monoplace and multiplace hyperbaric chambers (3 atm abs and > 95% oxygen) revealed a maximum temperature of 269 degrees F (132 degrees C) with no spontaneous ignition. The risk of thermal burn injury to adjacent skin may be increased significantly if these devices are used under conditions of hyperbaric oxygen. PMID:16509287

  7. Oxygen Enrichment in the Process and Chemical Industries

    E-print Network

    Milne, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    cal was the di scovery in the early 1900's that air, which contains 21% oxygen by volume, could be liquefied by means of the Joule-Thomson cooling effect which results when a compressed gas is expanded through a restricting orifice. The liquefied... an eleva tion of the adiabatic flame temperature (Figure 3), which leads to improved heat transfer in the combustion zone. This results in a number of potential advantages: i. Fuel Savings At constant output the fuel firing rate may be reduced...

  8. Comparison of iron-, nickel-, copper- and manganese-based oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Cho; Tobias Mattisson; Anders Lyngfelt

    2004-01-01

    For combustion with CO2 capture, chemical-looping combustion (CLC) with inherent separation of CO2 is a promising technology. Two interconnected fluidized beds are used as reactors. In the fuel reactor, a gaseous fuel is oxidized by an oxygen carrier, e.g. metal oxide particles, producing carbon dioxide and water. The reduced oxygen carrier is then transported to the air reactor, where it

  9. Titania-supported iron oxide as oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion of methane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatríz M. Corbella; José María Palacios

    2007-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion is a two-stage process proposed as an alternative for the combustion of carbonaceous materials, such as natural gas or coal gas, for almost complete CO2 capture. In the reduction stage, the structural oxygen contained in the lattice of a reducible inorganic oxide, is used for combustion of the carbonaceous material. In the regeneration stage the oxygen carrier, found

  10. GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND OPTIMIZING CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Carroll

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results from the first known application of the genetic algorithm (GA) technique for optimizing the performance of a laser system (chemical, solid-state, or gaseous). The effects of elitism, single point and uniform crossover, creep mutation, different random number seeds, population size, niching and the number of children per pair of parents on the performance of the GA

  11. Quantum Chemical Design of Doped Ca2MnAlO5+? as Oxygen Storage Media.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chen; Zhang, Ruigang; Jia, Hongfei

    2015-07-01

    Brownmillerite Ca2MnAlO5 has an exceptional capability to robustly adsorb half-molecules of oxygen and form Ca2MnAlO5.5. To utilize this unique property to regulate oxygen-involved reactions, it is crucial to match the oxygen release-intake equilibrium with targeted reaction conditions. Here we perform a comprehensive investigation of the strategy of tuning the oxygen storage property of Ca2MnAlO5 through chemical doping. For undoped Ca2MnAlO5+?, our first-principles calculation predicts that the equilibrium temperature at a pressure of 1 atm of O2 is 848 K, which is in excellent agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, the doping of alkaline earth ions at the Ca site, trivalent ions at the Al site, and 3d transition metal ions at the Mn site is analyzed. By the doping of 12.5% of Ga, V, and Ti, the equilibrium temperature shifts to high values by approximately 110-270 K, while by the doping of 12.5% of Fe, Sr, and Ba, the equilibrium temperature is lowered by approximately 20-210 K. The doping of these elements is thermodynamically stable, and doping other elements including Mg, Sc, Y, Cr, Co, and Ni generates metastable compounds. The doping of a higher content of Fe, however, lowers the oxygen storage capacity. Finally, on the basis of our calculated data, we prove that the formation energetics of nondilute interacting oxygen vacancy in doped Ca2MnAlO5.5 scale linearly with a simple descriptor, the oxygen p-band position relative to the Fermi level. The higher-oxygen p-band position leads to a lower vacancy formation energy and thus a lower oxygen release temperature. Understanding such a relationship between fundamental quantum chemical properties and macroscopic properties paves the road to the design and optimization of novel functional oxides. PMID:26066573

  12. Water and oxygen permeation of silicon nitride films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Wuu; W. C. Lo; C. C. Chiang; H. B. Lin; L. S. Chang; R. H. Horng; C. L. Huang; Y. J. Gao

    2005-01-01

    Silicon nitride (SiNx) films deposited on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have been investigated for water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and oxygen transmission rate (OTR) barrier applications. Details of the NH3\\/SiH4 flow ratio and chamber pressure effects on the SiNx\\/PES properties in terms of chemical bonding, transmittance, refractive index, deposition rate, adhesion, roughness, OTR and

  13. Chemical analysis of surface oxygenated moieties of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jie; Deming, Christopher P.; Song, Yang; Kang, Xiongwu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Shaowei

    2012-01-01

    Water-soluble carbon nanoparticles were prepared by refluxing natural gas soot in concentrated nitric acid. The surface of the resulting nanoparticles was found to be decorated with a variety of oxygenated species, as suggested by spectroscopic measurements. Back potentiometric titration of the nanoparticles was employed to quantify the coverage of carboxylic, lactonic, and phenolic moieties on the particle surface by taking advantage of their vast difference of acidity (pKa). The results were largely consistent with those reported in previous studies with other carbonaceous (nano)materials. Additionally, the presence of ortho- and para-quinone moieties on the nanoparticle surface was confirmed by selective labelling with o-phenylenediamine, as manifested in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electrochemical measurements. The results further supported the arguments that the surface functional moieties that were analogous to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone were responsible for the unique photoluminescence of the nanoparticles and the emission might be regulated by surface charge state, as facilitated by the conjugated graphitic core matrix.

  14. Chemical analysis of surface oxygenated moieties of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jie; Deming, Christopher P; Song, Yang; Kang, Xiongwu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Shaowei

    2012-02-01

    Water-soluble carbon nanoparticles were prepared by refluxing natural gas soot in concentrated nitric acid. The surface of the resulting nanoparticles was found to be decorated with a variety of oxygenated species, as suggested by spectroscopic measurements. Back potentiometric titration of the nanoparticles was employed to quantify the coverage of carboxylic, lactonic, and phenolic moieties on the particle surface by taking advantage of their vast difference of acidity (pK(a)). The results were largely consistent with those reported in previous studies with other carbonaceous (nano)materials. Additionally, the presence of ortho- and para-quinone moieties on the nanoparticle surface was confirmed by selective labelling with o-phenylenediamine, as manifested in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and electrochemical measurements. The results further supported the arguments that the surface functional moieties that were analogous to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone were responsible for the unique photoluminescence of the nanoparticles and the emission might be regulated by surface charge state, as facilitated by the conjugated graphitic core matrix. PMID:22222582

  15. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Growth on Graphene via Chemical Activation with Atomic Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Johns, James E.; Alaboson, Justice M. P.; Patwardhan, Sameer; Ryder, Christopher R.; Schatz, George C.

    2013-01-01

    Chemically interfacing the inert basal plane of graphene with other materials has limited the development of graphene-based catalysts, composite materials, and devices. Here, we overcome this limitation by chemically activating epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) using atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen produces epoxide groups on graphene, which act as reactive nucleation sites for zinc oxide nanoparticle growth using the atomic layer deposition precursor diethyl zinc. In particular, exposure of epoxidized graphene to diethyl zinc abstracts oxygen, creating mobile species which diffuse on the surface to form metal oxide clusters. This mechanism is corroborated with a combination of scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and density functional theory, and can likely be generalized to a wide variety of related surface reactions on graphene. PMID:24206242

  16. Efficient operation of a chemically pumped oxygen iodine laser utilizing dilute hydrogen peroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Yoshida; H. Fujii; T. Sawano; M. Endo; T. Fujioka

    1987-01-01

    A chemically pumped oxygen iodine laser system has been operated employing 35 wt pct H2O2 rather than commonly used 90 wt pct H2O2. Laser power as high as 40 W has been extracted. The maximum overall efficiency of 20.7 percent, which is almost 25 percent higher than the previously reported best data, has been achieved.

  17. Cutting performance of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser on aerospace and industrial materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William P. Latham; Kip R. Kendrick; James A. Rothenflue; Aravinda Kar; David L. Carroll

    2000-01-01

    A chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was used for cutting aluminum, titanium, inconel and copper plates. The laser was operated with a stable resonator having an intracavity aperture to produce a circular COIL beam with very few transverse modes. The multimode focal spot diameter was calculated to be 0.24 mm. The new aluminum cut was of particularly high kerf edge quality.

  18. Chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas using ceria-supported oxygen carriers.

    PubMed

    Huang, H B; Aisyah, L; Ashman, P J; Leung, Y C; Kwong, C W

    2013-07-01

    Cu, Ni and Fe oxides supported on ceria were investigated for their performance as oxygen carriers during the chemical looping combustion of biomass-derived syngas. A complex gas mixture containing CO, H2, CO2, CH4 and other hydrocarbons was used to simulate the complex fuel gas environment derived from biomass gasification. Results show that the transfer of the stored oxygen into oxidants for the supported Cu and Ni oxides at 800°C for the combustion of syngas was effective (>85%). The unsupported Cu oxide showed high oxygen carrying capacity but particle sintering was observed at 800°C. A reaction temperature of 950°C was required for the supported Fe oxides to transfer the stored oxygen into oxidants effectively. Also, for the complex fuel gas environment, the supported Ni oxide was somewhat effective in reforming CH4 and other light hydrocarbons into CO, which may have benefits for the reduction of tar produced during biomass pyrolysis. PMID:23711944

  19. An optical biosensing film for biochemical oxygen demand determination in seawater with an automatic flow sampling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Lingling; Wang, Xudong; Guo, Guangmei; Wang, Xiaoru; Chen, Xi

    2007-09-01

    An on-line roboticized apparatus, including an optical biosensing film with an automatic flow sampling system, has been developed for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) determination of seawater. The sensing film employed in the apparatus consisted of an organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) film embedded with tri(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) perchlorate. Three species of microorganism cultivated from seawater were immobilized in an ORMOSIL-polyvinyl alcohol matrix. Possible factors affecting BOD determination were studied, including sampling frequency, temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration. Based on measurements of the linear fluctuant coefficients and the reproducibility of its response to seawater, the BOD apparatus showed the advantages of high veracity and short response time. Generally, the linear fluctuant coefficient (R2) in the BOD range 0.2-40 mg l-1 was 0.9945 when using a glucose/glutamate (GGA) BOD standard solution. A reproducible response for the BOD sensing film of within ±2.8% could be obtained in the 2 mg l-1 GGA solution. The BOD apparatus was applied to the BOD determination of seawater, and the values estimated by this biosensing apparatus correlated well with those determined by the conventional 5 day BOD (BOD5) test.

  20. Parametric study of an efficient supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser\\/jet generator system operating without buffer gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Furman; B. D. Barmashenko; S. Rosenwaks

    1998-01-01

    A detailed experimental study of an efficient supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser is presented. The laser is energized by a jet-type singlet oxygen generator, operated without primary buffer gas and applies simple nozzle geometry and transonic mixing of iodine and oxygen. Output power of 190 W with chemical efficiency of 18% was obtained in a 5-cm gain length for Cl2 flow

  1. Accurate dispensing of volatile reagents on demand for chemical reactions in EWOD chips

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Huijiang; Sadeghi, Saman; Shah, Gaurav J.; Chen, Supin; Keng, Pei Yuin; Kim, Chang-Jin “CJ”; van Dam, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Digital microfluidic chips provide a new platform for manipulating chemicals for multi-step chemical synthesis or assays at the microscale. The organic solvents and reagents needed for these applications are often volatile, sensitive to contamination, and wetting, i.e. have contact angles of < 90° even on the highly hydrophobic surfaces (e.g., Teflon® or Cytop®) typically used on digital microfluidic chips. Furthermore, often the applications dictate that the processes are performed in a gas environment, not allowing the use of a filler liquid (e.g., oil). These properties pose challenges for delivering controlled volumes of liquid to the chip. An automated, simple, accurate and reliable method of delivering reagents from sealed, off-chip reservoirs is presented here. This platform overcomes the issues of evaporative losses of volatile solvents, cross-contamination, and flooding of the chip by combining a syringe pump, a simple on-chip liquid detector and a robust interface design. The impedance-based liquid detection requires only minimal added hardware to provide a feedback signal to ensure accurate volumes of volatile solvents are introduced to the chip, independent of time delays between dispensing operations. On-demand dispensing of multiple droplets of acetonitrile, a frequently used but difficult to handle solvent due to its wetting properties and volatility, was demonstrated and used to synthesize the positron emission tomography (PET) probe [18F]FDG reliably. PMID:22825699

  2. Oxygen and hydrogen effects on the chemical vapor deposition of aluminum nitride films

    SciTech Connect

    Aspar, B.; Armas, B.; Combescure, C. (IMP/CNRS, Odeillo, Font-Romeu (France)); Figueras, A.; Rodriguez-Clemente, R. (ICMAB/CSIC Campus UAB, Barcelone (Spain)); Mazel, A.; Kihn, Y.; Sevely, J. (CEMES-LOE/CNRS, Toulouse (France))

    1993-06-01

    Aluminum nitride has been obtained by chemical vapor deposition using AlCl[sub 3] and NH[sub 3] as precursors. Progressive introduction of N[sub 2]0 in the gas mixture has shown the possibility of inserting oxygen in the AlN lattice. This involves strong changes of surface morphology of the deposit and the formation of less-crystallized materials. When hydrogen is added to the gas mixture, these effects are reduced, Electron energy loss spectroscopy has shown that, in this case, oxygen is mainly concentrated on the external parts of AlN crystals, the structure of which has been found consistent with the wurtzite structure.

  3. Simultaneous electrochemical removal of copper and chemical oxygen demand using a packed-bed electrode cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuki Kusakabe; Hiroshi Nishida; Shigeharu Morooka; Yasuo Kato

    1986-01-01

    Copper ions and chelating agents in water were treated simultaneously by using a packed-bed electrode cell. The cathode packings were graphite particles or graphite felt; the anode packings were platinum-plated titanium pellets, ß-PbO2 particles or oxidized lead spheres. The catholyte contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), iminodiacetic acid (IDA) or glycine chelate of copper, while the anolyte contained the

  4. Online biochemical oxygen demand monitoring for wastewater process control--full-scale studies at Los Angeles Glendale wastewater plant, California.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, Reza; Zermeno, Miguel

    2008-04-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to determine whether or not it would be feasible to use the measured values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater obtained by an online instrument at the Los Angeles/Glendale Water Reclamation Plant (California) for controlling its activated sludge process. This investigation is part of a project to develop online BOD monitoring for process control in the City of Los Angeles wastewater treatment plants. Tests studied the Siepmann und Teutscher GmbH (ISCO-STIP Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska) BIOX-1010, which uses a bioreactor containing a culture of microbes from the wastewater to measure soluble BOD in 2 minutes. This rapid approximation to the operation of secondary treatment allows anticipation of system response. Calibration measurements allow the operators to find a conversion factor for the instrument's microprocessor to compute values of BOD that agree well with the standard 5-day BOD (BOD5) measurement, despite the differences in the details of the two testing methods. This instrument has recently been used at other wastewater treatment plants, at a number of airports in Europe and the United States to monitor runway runoff, and is also being used on waste streams at an increasing number of food processing plants. A comparison was made between the plant influent BOD values obtained by the BIOX-1010 online monitor from the end of August, 2000, to late January, 2001, and the individual and average values obtained for the same period using the standard BOD5, 20 degrees C test, to determine the effectiveness of the Biox-1010 to identify shock loads and their duration. Individual BOD estimates and averages over periods of overly high biological loads (shock loads) were compared, and the instrument readings were evaluated for their effectiveness in detecting shock loads. The results were highly satisfactory, so the instrument was used to trigger a shock-load warning alarm since late September, 2000. This allowed flow diversion and temporary storage to prevent process upsets. PMID:18536480

  5. Use of synchronous fluorescence spectra to estimate biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of urban rivers affected by treated sewage.

    PubMed

    Hur, J; Kong, D-S

    2008-04-01

    Synchronous fluorescence spectra and the first derivative spectra of urban rivers affected by treated sewage were studied to find the optimum index for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) estimation. In addition, various sample treatment methods as well as the multiple regression method using available monitoring parameters were examined to improve the BOD estimation capability of the indices. From July to November 2006, grab samples were collected from three rivers in the city of Seoul, Korea, which included one receiving effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment facility. The BOD values of the samples ranged from 0.4 to 28.0 mg l(-1). Out of the many fluorescence characteristics observed, the relative fluorescence intensity at 283 nm to 245 nm from the synchronous spectra was selected as the optimum fluorescence estimation index because it had the highest positive correlations with the BOD values (r = 0.910). The filtration process, using GF/F filter prior to the fluorescence measurement, resulted in an enhanced correlation demonstrating that the removal of suspended solids from the samples helps alleviate, to some extent, the interference of light scattering. In contrast, the same correlation was not enhanced by the pH adjustment of the sample to minimize the complexation of organic matter with cations. The multiple regression method, using either light scattering intensity at 633nm or turbidity, greatly enhanced the correlation between measured and predicted BOD values. The correlation was even higher than that obtained for filtered samples, thus suggesting that the multiple regression method based on the original sample is more effective than sample treatment in enhancing BOD estimation. PMID:18619148

  6. Oxidation Kinetics of Chemically Vapor-Deposited Silicon Carbide in Wet Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.

    1994-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of chemically vapor-deposited SiC in dry oxygen and wet oxygen (P(sub H2O) = 0.1 atm) at temperatures between 1200 C and 1400 C were monitored using thermogravimetric analysis. It was found that in a clean environment, 10% water vapor enhanced the oxidation kinetics of SiC only very slightly compared to rates found in dry oxygen. Oxidation kinetics were examined in terms of the Deal and Grove model for oxidation of silicon. It was found that in an environment containing even small amounts of impurities, such as high-purity Al2O3 reaction tubes containing 200 ppm Na, water vapor enhanced the transport of these impurities to the oxidation sample. Oxidation rates increased under these conditions presumably because of the formation of less protective sodium alumino-silicate scales.

  7. Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2009-02-25

    Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

  8. LASERS: Efficient chemical oxygen — iodine laser with a high total pressure of the active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagidullin, M. V.; Nikolaev, V. D.; Svistun, M. I.; Khvatov, N. A.; Heiger, G. D.; Madden, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    A new concept of obtaining a high total pressure of the active medium of a chemical oxygen — iodine laser (OIL) is proposed and verified. The nozzle unit of the laser consists of the alternating vertical arrays of cylindrical nozzles to produce high-pressure nitrogen jets, plane slotted nozzles for the flow of O2(1?) oxygen, and vertical arrays of cylindrical nozzles to inject the N2 — I2 mixture between the first two streams. For a molar chlorine flow rate of 39.2 mmol s-1, the output power was 700 W and the chemical efficiency was 19.7 %. The combined use of the ejector nozzle unit proposed to obtain the active medium and a super-sonic diffuser allows a significant simplification of the ejection system for the exhaust active medium of the OIL.

  9. Opto-chemical method for ultra-low oxygen transmission rate measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tscherner; C. Konrad; A. Bizzarri; M. Suppan; M. Cajlakovic; V. Ribitsch; F. Stelzer

    2009-01-01

    A highly sensitive alternative to established methods for measuring oxygen transmission rates of ultra-barrier membranes is presented. The key idea is the employment of an opto-chemical sensor (a luminescent dye immobilized in a matrix) which has vital advantages over electrochemical sensors, such as consumption-less detection and extraordinary sensitivity. The luminescent response to modulated light, which is altered in the presence

  10. Experimental Analysis of the Materials Processing Performance of a Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Carroll; J. A. Rothenflue; W. P. Latham

    1996-01-01

    A chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was used for cutting aluminum and carbon steel, and for depositing a ceramic coating on a substrate. Cut depths of 20 mm were obtained in aluminum and 41 mm in carbon steel using an N2 gas assist and 5-6 kW of power on target. The same laser at the same power level produced a cut

  11. Mode locking of a CW supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen P. Phipps; Charles A. Helms; R. James Copland; Wolfgang Rudolph; Keith A. Truesdell; Gordon D. Hager

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first mode-locking experiments on a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). Mode locking has been achieved using an acoustooptic modulator (AOM) and lasing demonstrated on the TEM00 modes with a small intracavity aperture. A dc magnetic field was used to increase the number of axial modes and a peak power of 2.5 kW has

  12. Impact of hydrogen and oxygen defects on the lattice parameter of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    McCloy, John S.; Wolf, Walter; Wimmer, Erich; Zelinski, Brian

    2013-01-09

    The lattice parameter of cubic chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS with measured oxygen concentrations < 0.6 at.% and hydrogen impurities of < 0.015 at.% have been measured and found to vary between -0.10% and +0.09% relative to the reference lattice parameter (5.4093 Å) of oxygen-free cubic ZnS as reported in the literature. Defects other than substitutional O must be invoked to explain these observed volume changes. The structure and thermodynamic stability of a wide range of native and impurity induced defects in ZnS have been determined by Ab initio calculations. Lattice contraction is caused by S-vacancies, substitutional O on S sites, Zn vacancies, H in S vacancies, peroxy defects, and dissociated water in S-vacancies. The lattice is expanded by interstitial H, H in Zn vacancies, dihydroxy defects, interstitial oxygen, Zn and [ZnHn] complexes (n=1,…,4), interstitial Zn, and S2 dumbbells. Oxygen, though present, likely forms substitutional defects for sulfur resulting in lattice contraction rather than as interstitial oxygen resulting in lattice expansion. It is concluded based on measurement and calculations that excess zinc atoms either at anti-sites (i.e. Zn atoms on S-sites) or possibly as interstitial Zn are responsible for the relative increase of the lattice parameter of commercially produced CVD ZnS.

  13. Impact of hydrogen and oxygen defects on the lattice parameter of chemical vapor deposited zinc sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloy, J. S.; Wolf, W.; Wimmer, E.; Zelinski, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    The lattice parameter of cubic chemical vapor deposited (CVD) ZnS with measured oxygen concentrations <0.6 at. % and hydrogen impurities of <0.015 at. % has been measured and found to vary between -0.10% and +0.09% relative to the reference lattice parameter (5.4093 Å) of oxygen-free cubic ZnS as reported in the literature. Defects other than substitutional O must be invoked to explain these observed volume changes. The structure and thermodynamic stability of a wide range of native and impurity induced defects in ZnS have been determined by ab initio calculations. Lattice contraction is caused by S-vacancies, substitutional O on S sites, Zn vacancies, H in S vacancies, peroxy defects, and dissociated water in S-vacancies. The lattice is expanded by interstitial H, H in Zn vacancies, dihydroxy defects, interstitial oxygen, Zn and [ZnHn] complexes (n = 1,…,4), interstitial Zn, and S2 dumbbells. Oxygen, though present, likely forms substitutional defects for sulfur resulting in lattice contraction rather than as interstitial oxygen resulting in lattice expansion. It is concluded based on measurement and calculations that excess zinc atoms either at anti-sites (i.e., Zn atoms on S-sites) or possibly as interstitial Zn are responsible for the relative increase of the lattice parameter of commercially produced CVD ZnS.

  14. Oxygen contaminants affecting on the electronic structures of the carbon nano tubes grown by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyuwook Ihm; Tai-Hee Kang; Dae Ho Lee; Ki-Jeong Kim; Bongsoo Kim; Ji Hoon Yang; Chong Yun Park

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen-related electronic structures of CNTs (carbon nanotubes) grown by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RT-CVD) have been investigated by using partial electron yield near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (PEY-NEXAFS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). On the CNT surface with increased oxygen resulting from e-beam irradiation under the O2 gas environment, C k-edge NEXAFS spectra showed an increase of the oxygen-related

  15. Oxygen is a key element for biology and the cycling of geochemical elements, and has shaped the chemical

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    change, with resulting impacts on marine ecosystems and global biogeochemical cycles. As oxygen levels the chemical and biological evolution of Earth. The oceans appear to be loosing oxygen due to on-going climate diverse microbial communities, whose impact on the planetary physiology is likely to increase

  16. Reverse Engineering of Oxygen Transport in the Lung: Adaptation to Changing Demands and Resources through Space-Filling Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chen; Gheorghiu, Stefan; Huxley, Virginia H.; Pfeifer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The space-filling fractal network in the human lung creates a remarkable distribution system for gas exchange. Landmark studies have illuminated how the fractal network guarantees minimum energy dissipation, slows air down with minimum hardware, maximizes the gas- exchange surface area, and creates respiratory flexibility between rest and exercise. In this paper, we investigate how the fractal architecture affects oxygen transport and exchange under varying physiological conditions, with respect to performance metrics not previously studied. We present a renormalization treatment of the diffusion-reaction equation which describes how oxygen concentrations drop in the airways as oxygen crosses the alveolar membrane system. The treatment predicts oxygen currents across the lung at different levels of exercise which agree with measured values within a few percent. The results exhibit wide-ranging adaptation to changing process parameters, including maximum oxygen uptake rate at minimum alveolar membrane permeability, the ability to rapidly switch from a low oxygen uptake rate at rest to high rates at exercise, and the ability to maintain a constant oxygen uptake rate in the event of a change in permeability or surface area. We show that alternative, less than space-filling architectures perform sub-optimally and that optimal performance of the space-filling architecture results from a competition between underexploration and overexploration of the surface by oxygen molecules. PMID:20865052

  17. Reverse engineering of oxygen transport in the lung: adaptation to changing demands and resources through space-filling networks.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chen; Gheorghiu, Stefan; Huxley, Virginia H; Pfeifer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The space-filling fractal network in the human lung creates a remarkable distribution system for gas exchange. Landmark studies have illuminated how the fractal network guarantees minimum energy dissipation, slows air down with minimum hardware, maximizes the gas- exchange surface area, and creates respiratory flexibility between rest and exercise. In this paper, we investigate how the fractal architecture affects oxygen transport and exchange under varying physiological conditions, with respect to performance metrics not previously studied.We present a renormalization treatment of the diffusion-reaction equation which describes how oxygen concentrations drop in the airways as oxygen crosses the alveolar membrane system. The treatment predicts oxygen currents across the lung at different levels of exercise which agree with measured values within a few percent. The results exhibit wide-ranging adaptation to changing process parameters, including maximum oxygen uptake rate at minimum alveolar membrane permeability, the ability to rapidly switch from a low oxygen uptake rate at rest to high rates at exercise, and the ability to maintain a constant oxygen uptake rate in the event of a change in permeability or surface area. We show that alternative, less than space-filling architectures perform sub-optimally and that optimal performance of the space-filling architecture results from a competition between underexploration and overexploration of the surface by oxygen molecules. PMID:20865052

  18. High-performance chemical oxygen-iodine laser using nitrogen diluent for commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, D.L.; King, D.M.; Fockler, L.; Stromberg, D.; Solomon, W.C.; Sentman, L.H.; Fisher, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    A chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL), the VertiCOIL device, was transferred from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) and made operational. The performance of the high-power VertiCOIL laser was measured with nitrogen diluent. New nozzle designs were investigated and implemented to optimize nitrogen performance. Nitrogen diluent chemical efficiencies of 23% were achieved; these are the highest reported chemical efficiencies with room-temperature nitrogen diluent. A long duration, high chemical efficiency test was demonstrated with nitrogen diluent; a chemical efficiency of 18.5% at 30 mmol/s of chlorine was maintained for 45 min. The highest performance was obtained with new iodine injector blocks and a larger throat height. The new iodine injector blocks moved the injectors closer to the throat by 0.7 cm and the throat height was increased from 0.897 to 1.151 cm (0.353 to 0.453 in). The performance enhancements were in qualitative agreement with the system design predictions of the Blaze II chemical laser model. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics calculations using the general aerodynamic simulation program code confirmed the principle design change of moving the iodine injectors closer to throat. Several researchers have suggested that COIL has a significant future as an industrial laser and have identified decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of nuclear facilities as an important market for COIL.

  19. Unveiling the Nature of the "Green Pea" Galaxies: Oxygen and Nitrogen Chemical Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorín, R. O.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Vílchez, J. M.

    2011-07-01

    We present recent results on the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances in the extremely compact, low-mass starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.1-0.3 usually referred to as "green pea" galaxies. We show that they are metal-poor galaxies (~1/5 solar) with lower oxygen abundances than star-forming galaxies of similar mass and N/O ratios unusually high for galaxies of the same metallicity. Recent, rapid, and massive inflows of cold gas, possibly coupled with enriched outflows from supernova winds, are used to explain the results. This is consistent with the known "pea" galaxy properties and suggest that these rare objects are experiencing a short and extreme phase in their evolution.

  20. Syngas chemical looping gasification process: oxygen carrier particle selection and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fanxing Li; Hyung Ray Kim; Deepak Sridhar; Fei Wang; Liang Zeng; Joseph Chen; L.-S. Fan [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). William G. Lowrie Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2009-08-15

    The syngas chemical looping (SCL) process coproduces hydrogen and electricity. The process involves reducing metal oxides with syngas followed by regeneration of reduced metal oxides with steam and air in a cyclic manner. Iron oxide is determined to be a desired oxygen carrier for hydrogen production considering overall properties including oxygen carrying capacity, thermodynamic properties, reaction kinetics, physical strength, melting points, and environmental effects. An iron oxide based particle can maintain good reactivity for more than 100 reduction-oxidation (redox) cycles in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The particle exhibits a good crushing strength (>20 MPa) and low attrition rate. Fixed bed experiments are carried out which reaffirm its reactivity. More than 99.75% of syngas is converted during the reduction stage. During the regeneration stage, hydrogen with an average purity of 99.8% is produced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Isotropic chemical shifts and quadrupolar parameters of oxygen-17 using dynamic-angle spinning NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, K.T.; Baltisberger, J.H.; Wooten, E.W.; Pines, A. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1992-08-20

    Several oxygen-17-enriched silicates were studied using dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) NMR spectroscopy at two magnetic field strengths. The DAS method averages second-order quadrupolar interactions by reorienting a sample about a time-dependent axis, thereby yielding high-resolution spectra for half-odd integer spin quadrupolar nuclei such as oxygen-17. A narrow spectral line is observed for each distinct oxygen site in a powdered sample at the sum of the isotropic chemical shift and the field-dependent isotropic second-order quadrupolar shift. Using equations for the total shift observed at two field strengths, the chemical shift is uniquely determined together with a product of the quadrupolar coupling constant (C{sub Q} = e{sup 2}qQ/h) and the quadrupolar asymmetry parameter ({eta}). For one silicate, the authors demonstrate a computer program that uses the isotropic shifts and quadrupolar products as constraints and provides simulations of overlapped magic-angle spinning line shapes. In this way the quadrupolar parameters, C{sub Q} and {eta}, are determined separately for each crystallographic site. The silicates studied include the discrete orthosilicates larnite (Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) and forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), as well as diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), wollastonite (CaSiO{sub 3}), and clinoenstatite (MgSiO{sub 3}), which are minerals composed of chains of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra. 49 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser power generation with an off-axis hybrid resonator.

    PubMed

    Handke, Jürgen; Schall, Wolfgang O; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Grünewald, Karin M

    2006-06-01

    A rectangular negative branch off-axis hybrid resonator was coupled to a 10 kW class chemical oxygen-iodine laser. Resonator setup and alignment turned out to be straightforward. The extracted power was 6.6 kW and reached approximately 70% of the power for an optimized stable resonator. The divergence of the emitted laser beam in the unstable direction was lower than two times the diffraction limit. Experimentally measured margins for mirror misalignment were found in close agreement with numerical calculations. PMID:16724146

  3. On the Oxygen and Nitrogen Chemical Abundances and the Evolution of the "Green Pea" Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorín, Ricardo O.; Pérez-Montero, Enrique; Vílchez, J. M.

    2010-06-01

    We have investigated the oxygen and nitrogen chemical abundances in extremely compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with redshifts between ~0.11 and 0.35, popularly referred to as "green peas." Direct and strong-line methods sensitive to the N/O ratio applied to their Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra reveal that these systems are genuine metal-poor galaxies, with mean oxygen abundances ~20% solar. At a given metallicity these galaxies display systematically large N/O ratios compared to normal galaxies, which can explain the strong difference between our metallicities measurements and previous ones. While their N/O ratios follow the relation with stellar mass of local SFGs in the SDSS, we find that the mass-metallicity relation of the "green peas" is offset gsim0.3 dex to lower metallicities. We argue that recent interaction-induced inflow of gas, possibly coupled with a selective metal-rich gas loss, driven by supernova winds, may explain our findings and the known galaxy properties, namely high specific star formation rates, extreme compactness, and disturbed optical morphologies. The "green pea" galaxy properties seem to be uncommon in the nearby universe, suggesting a short and extreme stage of their evolution. Therefore, these galaxies may allow us to study in great detail many processes, such as starburst activity and chemical enrichment, under physical conditions approaching those in galaxies at higher redshifts.

  4. Electronic structure and chemical nature of oxygen dopant states in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuedan; Adamska, Lyudmyla; Yamaguchi, Hisato; Yalcin, Sibel Ebru; Tretiak, Sergei; Doorn, Stephen K; Htoon, Han

    2014-10-28

    We performed low temperature photoluminescence (PL) studies on individual oxygen-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and correlated our observations to electronic structure simulations. Our experiment reveals multiple sharp asymmetric emission peaks at energies 50-300 meV red-shifted from that of the E11 bright exciton peak. Our simulation suggests an association of these peaks with deep trap states tied to different specific chemical adducts. In addition, oxygen doping is also observed to split the E11 exciton into two or more states with an energy splitting <40 meV. We attribute these states to dark states that are brightened through defect-induced symmetry breaking. While the wave functions of these brightened states are delocalized, those of the deep-trap states are strongly localized and pinned to the dopants. These findings are consistent with our experimental observation of asymmetric broadening of the deep trap emission peaks, which can result from interaction between pinned excitons and one-dimensional phonons. Exciton pinning also increases the sensitivity of the deep traps to the local dielectric environment, leading to a large inhomogeneous broadening. Observations of multiple spectral features on single nanotubes indicate the possibility of different chemical adducts coexisting on a given nanotube. PMID:25265272

  5. How does the character of oxygen demand control the structure of hypoxia on the Texas–Louisiana continental shelf?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Hetland; Steven F. DiMarco

    2008-01-01

    A realistic hydrodynamic model of the Texas–Louisiana shelf is configured with various simple oxygen respiration models to isolate the effects of stratification and circulation on the formation and maintenance of hypoxia. Biological activity is parameterized through various forms of respiration rather than using a complex biogeochemical model. The model domain covers the region that has historically been observed to be

  6. A Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study of the Effects of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons on Soot Emissions from Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Curran, H J

    2005-11-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic modeling approach is used to examine the phenomenon of suppression of sooting in diesel engines by addition of oxygenated hydrocarbon species to the fuel. This suppression, which has been observed experimentally for a few years, is explained kinetically as a reduction in concentrations of soot precursors present in the hot products of a fuel-rich diesel ignition zone when oxygenates are included. Oxygenates decrease the overall equivalence ratio of the igniting mixture, producing higher ignition temperatures and more radical species to consume more soot precursor species, leading to lower soot production. The kinetic model is also used to show how different oxygenates, ester structures in particular, can have different soot-suppression efficiencies due to differences in molecular structure of the oxygenated species.

  7. Inhibition of the centrally induced increases in myocardial oxygen demand in rabbits by chronic treatment with baclofen, a selective GABAB agonist.

    PubMed Central

    Tibiriçà, E.; Catelli, M.; Lessa, M. A.; Roegel, J. C.; Feldman, J.; Monassier, L.; Bousquet, P.

    1995-01-01

    1. A previous study from our group demonstrated that neurones of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) are selectively involved in the central control of the cardiac function. Moreover, in that study, it was shown that baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, is capable of modulating the increases in myocardial contractility and oxygen demand evoked by electrical or pharmacological stimulation of the PVN. Nevertheless, the acute administration of this compound was frequently accompanied by a cardiodepressant effect. 2. In the present study, the effects of a long term treatment (14 days) with baclofen (3 or 10 mg kg-1, i.p.) have been examined on the excitatory haemodynamic responses evoked by central pharmacological stimulation in anaesthetized rabbits. 3. The i.c.v. injection of L-glutamate (3 mg kg-1) induced marked increases in dP/dtmax (32%), mean arterial pressure (39%) and on two indices of myocardial oxygen consumption: the rate-pressure product (34%) and the triple product (78%). 4. Baclofen blunted the positive inotropic response and the increases in myocardial oxygen consumption induced by L-glutamate in a dose-related manner. The higher dose of baclofen (10 mg kg-1, i.p.), reduced by more than 50% these excitatory effects of L-glutamate without eliciting any significant negative effect on basal haemodynamics. The same doses of baclofen were not able to blunt the hypertensive response induced by central stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7582565

  8. Highly Efficient Oxygen-Storage Material with Intrinsic Coke Resistance for Chemical Looping Combustion-Based CO2 Capture.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Qasim; Kurlov, Alexey; Rupp, Jennifer Lilia Marguerite; Müller, Christoph Rüdiger

    2015-06-22

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) are emerging thermochemical CO2 capture cycles that allow the capture of CO2 with a small energy penalty. Here, the development of suitable oxygen carrier materials is a key aspect to transfer these promising concepts to practical installations. CuO is an attractive material for CLC and CLOU because of its high oxygen-storage capacity (20?wt?%), fast reaction kinetics, and high equilibrium partial pressure of oxygen at typical operating temperatures (850-1000?°C). However, despite its promising characteristics, its low Tammann temperature requires the development of new strategies to phase-stabilize CuO-based oxygen carriers. In this work, we report a strategy based on stabilization by co-precipitated ceria (CeO2-x ), which allowed us to increase the oxygen capacity, coke resistance, and redox stability of CuO-based oxygen carriers substantially. The performance of the new oxygen carriers was evaluated in detail and compared to the current state-of-the-art materials, that is, Al2 O3 -stabilized CuO with similar CuO loadings. We also demonstrate that the higher intrinsic oxygen uptake, release, and mobility in CeO2-x -stabilized CuO leads to a three times higher carbon deposition resistance compared to that of Al2 O3 -stabilized CuO. Moreover, we report a high cyclic stability without phase intermixing for CeO2-x -supported CuO. This was accompanied by a lower reduction temperature compared to state-of-the-art Al2 O3 -supported CuO. As a result of its high resistance towards carbon deposition and fast oxygen uncoupling kinetics, CeO2-x -stabilized CuO is identified as a very promising material for CLC- and CLOU-based CO2 capture architectures. PMID:25916240

  9. A computational fluid dynamics simulation of a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waichman, K.; Rybalkin, V.; Katz, A.; Dahan, Z.; Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2007-05-01

    The dissociation of I II molecules at the optical axis of a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was studied via detailed measurements and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics calculations. Comparing the measurements and the calculations enabled critical examination of previously proposed dissociation mechanisms and suggestion of a mechanism consistent with the experimental and theoretical results. The gain, I II dissociation fraction and temperature at the optical axis, calculated using Heidner's model (R.F. Heidner III et al., J. Phys. Chem. 87, 2348 (1983)), are much lower than those measured experimentally. Agreement with the experimental results was reached by using Heidner's model supplemented by Azyazov-Heaven's model (V.N. Azyazov and M.C. Heaven, AIAA J. 44, 1593 (2006)) where I II(A') and vibrationally excited O II(a1?) are significant dissociation intermediates.

  10. Modelling chemical reactions in dc plasma inside oxygen bubbles in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, N.; Ishii, Y.; Yasuoka, K.

    2012-02-01

    Plasmas generated inside oxygen bubbles in water have been developed for water purification. Zero-dimensional numerical simulations were used to investigate the chemical reactions in plasmas driven by dc voltage. The numerical and experimental results of the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and ozone in the solution were compared with a discharge current between 1 and 7 mA. Upon increasing the water vapour concentration inside bubbles, we saw from the numerical results that the concentration of hydrogen peroxide increased with discharge current, whereas the concentration of ozone decreased. This finding agreed with the experimental results. With an increase in the discharge current, the heat flux from the plasma to the solution increased, and a large amount of water was probably vaporized into the bubbles.

  11. Oxygen fugacity regime in the upper mantle as a reflection of the chemical differentiation of planetary materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Kadik

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) in the Earth’s mantle has a bearing on the problems of the chemical differentiation of the Earth’s materials and formation\\u000a of the chemical and phase state of its shells. This paper addresses some problems concerning changes in the redox state of\\u000a the upper mantle over geologic time and through its depth and the possible influence of fO2

  12. Maternal Hypoxia Decreases Capillary Supply and Increases Metabolic Inefficiency Leading to Divergence in Myocardial Oxygen Supply and Demand

    PubMed Central

    Hauton, David; Al-Shammari, Abdullah; Gaffney, Eamonn A.; Egginton, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Maternal hypoxia is associated with a decrease in left ventricular capillary density while cardiac performance is preserved, implying a mismatch between metabolism and diffusive exchange. We hypothesised this requires a switch in substrate metabolism to maximise efficiency of ATP production from limited oxygen availability. Rat pups from pregnant females exposed to hypoxia (FIO2=0.12) at days 10-20 of pregnancy were grown to adulthood and working hearts perfused ex vivo. 14C-labelled glucose and 3H-palmitate were provided as substrates and metabolism quantified from recovery of 14CO2 and 3H2O, respectively. Hearts of male offspring subjected to Maternal Hypoxia showed a 20% decrease in cardiac output (P<0.05), despite recording a 2-fold increase in glucose oxidation (P<0.01) and 2.5-fold increase (P<0.01) in palmitate oxidation. Addition of insulin to Maternal Hypoxic hearts, further increased glucose oxidation (P<0.01) and suppressed palmitate oxidation (P<0.05), suggesting preservation in insulin signalling in the heart. In vitro enzyme activity measurements showed that Maternal Hypoxia increased both total and the active component of cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase (both P<0.01), although pyruvate dehydrogenase sensitivity to insulin was lost (NS), while citrate synthase activity declined by 30% (P<0.001) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was unchanged by Maternal Hypoxia, indicating realignment of the metabolic machinery to optimise oxygen utilisation. Capillary density was quantified and oxygen diffusion characteristics examined, with calculated capillary domain area increased by 30% (P<0.001). Calculated metabolic efficiency decreased 4-fold (P<0.01) for Maternal Hypoxia hearts. Paradoxically, the decline in citrate synthase activity and increased metabolism suggest that the scope of individual mitochondria had declined, rendering the myocardium potentially more sensitive to metabolic stress. However, decreasing citrate synthase may be essential to preserve local PO2, minimising regions of hypoxia and hence maximising the area of myocardium able to preserve cardiac output following maternal hypoxia. PMID:26030353

  13. Maternal hypoxia decreases capillary supply and increases metabolic inefficiency leading to divergence in myocardial oxygen supply and demand.

    PubMed

    Hauton, David; Al-Shammari, Abdullah; Gaffney, Eamonn A; Egginton, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Maternal hypoxia is associated with a decrease in left ventricular capillary density while cardiac performance is preserved, implying a mismatch between metabolism and diffusive exchange. We hypothesised this requires a switch in substrate metabolism to maximise efficiency of ATP production from limited oxygen availability. Rat pups from pregnant females exposed to hypoxia (FIO2=0.12) at days 10-20 of pregnancy were grown to adulthood and working hearts perfused ex vivo. 14C-labelled glucose and 3H-palmitate were provided as substrates and metabolism quantified from recovery of 14CO2 and 3H2O, respectively. Hearts of male offspring subjected to Maternal Hypoxia showed a 20% decrease in cardiac output (P<0.05), despite recording a 2-fold increase in glucose oxidation (P<0.01) and 2.5-fold increase (P<0.01) in palmitate oxidation. Addition of insulin to Maternal Hypoxic hearts, further increased glucose oxidation (P<0.01) and suppressed palmitate oxidation (P<0.05), suggesting preservation in insulin signalling in the heart. In vitro enzyme activity measurements showed that Maternal Hypoxia increased both total and the active component of cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase (both P<0.01), although pyruvate dehydrogenase sensitivity to insulin was lost (NS), while citrate synthase activity declined by 30% (P<0.001) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was unchanged by Maternal Hypoxia, indicating realignment of the metabolic machinery to optimise oxygen utilisation. Capillary density was quantified and oxygen diffusion characteristics examined, with calculated capillary domain area increased by 30% (P<0.001). Calculated metabolic efficiency decreased 4-fold (P<0.01) for Maternal Hypoxia hearts. Paradoxically, the decline in citrate synthase activity and increased metabolism suggest that the scope of individual mitochondria had declined, rendering the myocardium potentially more sensitive to metabolic stress. However, decreasing citrate synthase may be essential to preserve local PO2, minimising regions of hypoxia and hence maximising the area of myocardium able to preserve cardiac output following maternal hypoxia. PMID:26030353

  14. Innovative technology to meet the demands of the white biotechnology revolution of chemical production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Villadsen

    2007-01-01

    The rapid introduction of bio-production methods in areas where production methods based on fossil fuel raw materials have been dominant for half a century is documented in policy papers by large political organizations as well as in the media.The present review seeks to describe the means by which a technological revolution termed “white biotechnology” for production of commodity chemicals has

  15. Chemical-looping combustion of coal with metal oxide oxygen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjani Siriwardane; Hanjing Tian; George Richards; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston [United States Department of Energy, Morgantown, WN (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2009-08-15

    The combustion and reoxidation properties of direct coal chemical-looping combustion (CLC) over CuO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CO{sub 3}O{sub 4}, NiO, and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and bench-scale fixed-bed flow reactor studies. When coal is heated in either nitrogen or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), 50% of weight loss was observed because of partial pyrolysis, consistent with the proximate analysis. Among various metal oxides evaluated, CuO showed the best reaction properties: CuO can initiate the reduction reaction as low as 500{sup o}C and complete the full combustion at 700{sup o}C. In addition, the reduced copper can be fully reoxidized by air at 700{sup o}C. The combustion products formed during the CLC reaction of the coal/metal oxide mixture are CO{sub 2} and water, while no carbon monoxide was observed. Multicycle TGA tests and bench-scale fixed-bed flow reactor tests strongly supported the feasibility of CLC of coal by using CuO as an oxygen carrier. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of solid reaction products indicated some changes in the surface morphology of a CuO-coal sample after reduction/oxidation reactions at 800 {sup o}C. However, significant surface sintering was not observed. The interactions of fly ash with metal oxides were investigated by X-ray diffraction and thermodynamic analysis. Overall, the results indicated that it is feasible to develop CLC with coal by metal oxides as oxygen carriers. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Comparison of CuO and NiO as oxygen carrier in chemical looping combustion of a Victorian brown coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Saha; S. Bhattacharya

    2011-01-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a novel process where an oxygen carrier, preferably oxides of metal, is used to transfer oxygen from the combustion air to the fuel. The outlet gas from the process reactor consists of CO2 and H2O, and concentrated stream of CO2 is obtained for sequestration when water vapour is condensed. Chemical looping has been widely studied

  17. Pressurized chemical-looping combustion of coal with an iron ore-based oxygen carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Rui; Song, Min; Zhang, Shuai; Shen, Laihong [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Song, Qilei [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Lu, Zuoji [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Sipailou No. 2, Nanjing 210096 (China); GCL Engineering Limited, Zhujiang No. 1, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a new combustion technology with inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. Most of the previous investigations on CLC of solid fuels were conducted under atmospheric pressure. A pressurized CLC combined cycle (PCLC-CC) system is proposed as a promising coal combustion technology with potential higher system efficiency, higher fuel conversion, and lower cost for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In this study pressurized CLC of coal with Companhia Valedo Rio Doce (CVRD) iron ore was investigated in a laboratory fixed bed reactor. CVRD iron ore particles were exposed alternately to reduction by 0.4 g of Chinese Xuzhou bituminous coal gasified with 87.2% steam/N{sub 2} mixture and oxidation with 5% O{sub 2} in N{sub 2} at 970 C. The operating pressure was varied between 0.1 MPa and 0.6 MPa. First, control experiments of steam coal gasification over quartz sand were performed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are the major components of the gasification products, and the operating pressure influences the gas composition. Higher concentrations of CO{sub 2} and lower fractions of CO, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} during the reduction process with CVRD iron ore was achieved under higher pressures. The effects of pressure on the coal gasification rate in the presence of the oxygen carrier were different for pyrolysis and char gasification. The pressurized condition suppresses the initial coal pyrolysis process while it also enhances coal char gasification and reduction with iron ore in steam, and thus improves the overall reaction rate of CLC. The oxidation rates and variation of oxygen carrier conversion are higher at elevated pressures reflecting higher reduction level in the previous reduction period. Scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses show that particles become porous after experiments but maintain structure and size after several cycles. Agglomeration was not observed in this study. An EDX analysis demonstrates that there is very little coal ash deposited on the oxygen carrier particles but no appreciable crystalline phases change as verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Overall, the limited pressurized CLC experiments carried out in the present work suggest that PCLC of coal is promising and further investigations are necessary. (author)

  18. Gill morphometrics of the thresher sharks (Genus Alopias): Correlation of gill dimensions with aerobic demand and environmental oxygen.

    PubMed

    Wootton, Thomas P; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Wegner, Nicholas C

    2015-05-01

    Gill morphometrics of the three thresher shark species (genus Alopias) were determined to examine how metabolism and habitat correlate with respiratory specialization for increased gas exchange. Thresher sharks have large gill surface areas, short water-blood barrier distances, and thin lamellae. Their large gill areas are derived from long total filament lengths and large lamellae, a morphometric configuration documented for other active elasmobranchs (i.e., lamnid sharks, Lamnidae) that augments respiratory surface area while limiting increases in branchial resistance to ventilatory flow. The bigeye thresher, Alopias superciliosus, which can experience prolonged exposure to hypoxia during diel vertical migrations, has the largest gill surface area documented for any elasmobranch species studied to date. The pelagic thresher shark, A. pelagicus, a warm-water epi-pelagic species, has a gill surface area comparable to that of the common thresher shark, A. vulpinus, despite the latter's expected higher aerobic requirements associated with regional endothermy. In addition, A. vulpinus has a significantly longer water-blood barrier distance than A. pelagicus and A. superciliosus, which likely reflects its cold, well-oxygenated habitat relative to the two other Alopias species. In fast-swimming fishes (such as A. vulpinus and A. pelagicus) cranial streamlining may impose morphological constraints on gill size. However, such constraints may be relaxed in hypoxia-dwelling species (such as A. superciliosus) that are likely less dependent on streamlining and can therefore accommodate larger branchial chambers and gills. PMID:25703507

  19. [Relation between oxygen uptake rate and biosorption of activated sludge against chemical substance].

    PubMed

    Mihara, Yuichi; Inoue, Tatsuaki; Yokota, Katsushi

    2005-02-01

    In this study, the elucidation of the toxicity mechanism was undertaken regarding the IC(50) of the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) with relevance to the biosorption as a toxicity evaluation of chemical substances for activated sludge (AS). At the IC(50) of<100 mg/l, malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV) were confirmed in the group showing relatively strong OUR inhibition. These dyes were markedly biosorbed by AS in a short time. The biosorption for AS showed a weak tendency in linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS), alkyl ethoxy sulfonate (AES), alpha-olefine sulfonate (AOS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), formaldehyde (FA), benzalkonium chloride (BZaC), benzethonium chloride (BZeC), rhodamine 6G (R-6G) and fuchsine (Fuc) in which the IC(50) belonged to the 100-1000 mg/l group, when it was compared with CV and MG. In ethanol (EtOH), isopropanol (PrOH), nile blue (NB), evans blue (EB), methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), paraquat (PQ), chlorophyllin (Chl) and auramine (Aur), the IC(50) was large, and the biosorption of AS was weak at 0-15%. The biosorption of MG for AS followed the adsorption isotherm equation Y=0.002X(0.511) of Freundrich. The correlation coefficient was gamma=0.998 (n=8), and a very high correlation was obtained. In the qualitative OUR curve by AS pretreated with MG or CV which belonged to the IC(50) small group, the inhibition of remarkable OUR was observed. Therefore, the findings of the present investigation suggest that the inhibition of the OUR for AS by the tested chemical substances was markedly affected by the biosorption. PMID:15684578

  20. Role of N2 molecules in pulse discharge production of I atoms for a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.; Vagin, N. P.; Yuryshev, N. N.

    2011-09-01

    A pulsed electric discharge is the most effective means to turn chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) operation into the pulse mode by fast production of iodine atoms. Experimental studies and numerical simulations are performed on a pulsed COIL initiated by an electric discharge in a mixture CF3I : N2 : O2(3X) : O2(a 1?g) flowing out of a chemical singlet oxygen generator. A transverse pulsed discharge is realized at various iodide pressures. The model comprises a system of kinetic equations for neutral and charged species, the electric circuit equation, the gas thermal balance equation and the photon balance equation. Reaction rate coefficients for processes involving electrons are repeatedly re-calculated by the electron Boltzmann equation solver when the plasma parameters are changed. The processes accounted for in the Boltzmann equation include direct and stepwise excitation and ionization of atoms and molecules, dissociation of molecules, electron attachment processes, electron-ion recombination, electron-electron collisions and second-kind collisions. The last processes are particularly important because of a high singlet oxygen concentration in gas flow from the singlet oxygen chemical generator. A conclusion is drawn about satisfactory agreement between the theory and the experiment.

  1. Densification of chemical vapor deposition silicon dioxide film using oxygen radical oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, Kazumasa; Uehara, Yasushi [Advanced Technology R and D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, 8-1-1 Tsukaguchi-honmachi, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Teramoto, Akinobu; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Hattori, Takeo; Ohmi, Tadahiro [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Umeda, Hiroshi [Process Technology Div., Production and Technology Unit, RENESAS Electronics Corporation, 751 Horiguchi, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) films formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were treated with oxygen radical oxidation using Ar/O{sub 2} plasma excited by microwave. The mass density depth profiles, carrier trap densities, and current-voltage characteristics of the radical-oxidized CVD-SiO{sub 2} films were investigated. The mass density depth profiles were estimated with x ray reflectivity measurement using synchrotron radiation of SPring-8. The carrier trap densities were estimated with x ray photoelectron spectroscopy time-dependent measurement. The mass densities of the radical-oxidized CVD-SiO{sub 2} films were increased near the SiO{sub 2} surface. The densities of the carrier trap centers in these films were decreased. The leakage currents of the metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors fabricated by using these films were reduced. It is probable that the insulation properties of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} film are improved by the increase in the mass density and the decrease in the carrier trap density caused by the restoration of the Si-O network with the radical oxidation.

  2. Effects of Oxygen Concentration on Growth of Bi4Ti3O12 Thin Films by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rusul Muhammet; Takashi Nakamura; Masaru Shimizu; Tadashi Shiosaki

    1994-01-01

    The effects of oxygen concentration on the growth of Bi4Ti3O12 thin films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were investigated, using Bi(C6H5)3 and Ti( i-OC3H7)4 precursors, c-axis-oriented Bi4Ti3O12 thin films were obtained at an oxygen gas flow rate of 200 sccm and a substrate temperature of 600° C on Pt(111)\\/ SiO2\\/Si(100) substrates without Bi2Ti2O7 buffer layers. This film shows remanent

  3. CARBON COATED (CARBONOUS) CATALYST IN EBULLATED BED REACTOR FOR PRODUCTION OF OXYGENATED CHEMICALS FROM SYNGAS/CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Peizheng Zhou

    2000-11-17

    There are a number of exothermic chemical reactions which might benefit from the temperature control and freedom from catalyst fouling provided by the ebullated bed reactor technology. A particularly promising area is production of oxygenated chemicals, such as alcohols and ethers, from synthesis gas, which can be economically produced from coal or biomass. The ebullated bed operation requires that the small-diameter ({approx} 1/32 inch) catalyst particles have enough mechanical strength to avoid loss by attrition. However, all of the State Of The Art (SOTA) catalysts and advanced catalysts for the purpose are low in mechanical strength. The patented carbon-coated catalyst technology developed in our laboratory converts catalyst particles with low mechanical strength to strong catalysts suitable for ebullated bed application. This R&D program is concerned with the modification on the mechanical strength of the SOTA and advanced catalysts so that the ebullated bed technology can be utilized to produce valuable oxygenated chemicals from syngas/CO{sub 2} efficiently and economically. The objective of this R&D program is to study the technical and economic feasibility of selective production of high-value oxygenated chemicals from synthesis gas and CO{sub 2} mixed feed in an ebullated bed reactor using carbon-coated catalyst particles.

  4. Thermal, Mechanical and Chemical Analysis for VELOX -Verification Experiments for Lunar Oxygen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Caroline; Ksenik, Eugen; Braukhane, Andy; Richter, Lutz

    One major aspect for the development of a long-term human presence on the moon will be sustainability and autonomy of any kind of a permanent base. Important resources, such as breathable air and water for the survival of the crew on the lunar surface will have to be extracted in-situ from the lunar regolith, the major resource on the Moon, which covers the first meter of the lunar surface and contains about 45 At the DLR Bremen we are interested in a compact and flexible lab experimenting facility, which shall demonstrate the feasibility of this process by extracting oxygen out of lunar Regolith, respectively soil simulants and certain minerals in the laboratory case. For this purpose, we have investigated important boundary conditions such as temperatures during the process, chemical reaction characteristics and material properties for the buildup of the facility and established basic requirements which shall be analyzed within this paper. These requirements have been used for the concept development and outline of the facility, which is currently under construction and will be subject to initial tests in the near future. This paper will focus mainly on the theoretical aspects of the facility development. Great effort has been put into the thermal and mechanical outline and pre-analysis of components and the system in a whole. Basic aspects that have been investigated are: 1. Selection of suitable materials for the furnace chamber configuration to provide a high-temperature capable operating mode. 2. Theoretical heat transfer analysis of the designed furnace chamber assembly with subsequent validation with the aid of measured values of the constructed demonstration plant. 3. Description of chemical conversion processes for Hydrogen reduction of Lunar Regolith with corresponding analysis of thermal and reaction times under different boundary conditions. 4. Investigation of the high-temperature mechanical behavior of the constructed furnace chamber with regard to thermal stability and especially to the hermetically sealed reactor due to internal Hydrogen atmosphere. In the end, we will give a first glimpse into the development of the test setup and first test results on the way to a superior test set-up and infrastructure with pre-and post-processing units such as feeding and extraction units and analysis of reaction products.

  5. Chemical luminescence measurement of singlet oxygen generated by photodynamic therapy in solutions in real time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shiming; Xing, Da; Zhou, Jing; Qin, Yanfang; Chen, Qun

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer therapy that utilizes optical energy to activate a photosensitizer drug in a target tissue. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as 1O2 and superoxide, are believed to be the major cytotoxic agents involved in PDT. Although current PDT dosimetry mostly involves measurements of light and photosensitizer doses delivered to a patient, the quantification of ROS production during a treatment would be the ultimate dosimetry of PDT. Technically, it is very difficult and expensive to directly measure the fluorescence from 1O2, due to its extreme short lifetime and weak signal strength. In this paper, Photofrin(R) and 635nm laser were used to generate 1O2 and superoxide in a PDT in solution. Compound 3,7- dihydro-6-{4-[2-(N"-(5-fluoresceinyl) thioureido) ethoxy] phenyl}-2- methylimidazo{1,2-a} pyrazin-3-one sodium salt,an Cyp- ridina luciferin analog commonly referred as FCLA, was used as a chemical reporter of ROS. The 532nm chemiluminescence (CL) from the reaction of the FCLA and ROS was detected with a photon multiplier tube (PMT) system operating at single photon counting mode. With the setup, we have made detections of ROS generated by PDT in real time. By varying the amount of conventional PDT dosage (photosensitizer concentration, light irradiation fluence and its delivery rate) and the amount of FCLA, the intensity of CL and its consumption rate were investigated. The results show that the intensity and temporal profile of CL are highly related to the PDT treatment parameters. This suggests that FCLA CL may provide a highly potential alternative for ROS detection during PDT.

  6. OVOC (Oxygenated Volatile Organic Chemicals) in the Global Atmosphere: Atmospheric Budgets, Oceanic Concentrations, and Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.

    2004-01-01

    Airborne measurements of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOC), OH free radicals, and tracers of pollution were performed over the Pacific during Winter/Spring of 2001. Large concentrations of OVOC are present in the global troposphere and are expected to play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Their total abundance (SIGMAOVOC) was nearly twice that of non-methane hydrocarbons (SIGMAC2-C8 NMHC). Throughout the troposphere, the OH reactivity of OVOC is comparable to that of methane and far exceeds that of NHMC. A comparison of these data with western Pacific observations collected some seven years earlier (Feb.-March, 1994) did not reveal significant differences. Analysis of the relative enhancement of selected OVOC with respect to CH3Cl and CO in twelve plumes originating from fires and sampled in the free troposphere (3-11 km) is used to assess their primary and secondary emissions from biomass combustion. The composition of these plumes also indicates a large shift of reactive nitrogen into the PAN reservoir thereby limiting ozone formation. These data are combined with other observations and interpreted with the help of a global 3-D model to assess OVOC global sources and sinks. We further interpret atmospheric observations with the help of an air-sea exchange model io show that oceans can be both net sorces and sinks. An extremely large oceanic reservoir of OVOC, that exceeds the atmospheric reservoir by more than an order of magnitude, can be inferred to be present. We conclude that OVOC sources are extremely large (150-500 TgC y-1) but remain poorly quantified. In many cases, measured concentrations are uncertain and incompatible with our present knowledge of atmospheric chemistry. Results based on observations from several field studies and critical gaps will be discussed.

  7. Oxygenated Organic Chemicals in the Pacific Troposphere: Distribution, Sources and Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, L.; Chatfield, R.; Czech, E.; Fried, A.; Evans, M.; Jacob, D. J.; Blake, D.; Heikes, B.; Talbot, R.

    2003-01-01

    Airborne measurements of a large number of oxygenated organic chemicals (Oxorgs) were carried out in the Pacific troposphere (0.1-12 km) in the Spring of 2001 (Feb. 24-April 10). Specifically these measuremen ts included acetone, methylethyl ketone (MEK), methanol, ethanol, ace taldehyde, propionaldehyde, PANS, and organic nitrates. Complementary measurements of formaldehyde, organic peroxides, and tracers were al so available. Ox-orgs were abundant in the clean troposphere and were greatly enhanced in the outflow regions from Asia. Their mixing ratios were typically highest in the lower troposphere and declined toward s the upper troposphere and the lowermost stratosphere. Their total a bundance (Ox-orgs) significantly exceeded that of NMHC (C2-C8 NMHC). A comparison of these data with observations collected some seven yea rs earlier (Feb.-March, 1994), did not reveal any significant changes . Throughout the troposphere mixing ratios of Ox-orgs were strongly c orrelated with each other as well as with tracers of fossil and bioma sshiof'uel combustion. Analysis of the relative enhancement of selected Oxorgs with respect to CH3Cl and CO in twelve sampled plumes, origi nating from fires, is used to assess their primary and secondary sour ces from biomass combustion. The composition of these plumes also ind icates a large shift of reactive nitrogen into the PAN reservoir ther eby limiting ozone formation. The Harvard 3-D photochemical model, th at uses state of the art chemistry and source information, is used to compare simulated and observed mixing ratios of selected species. A 1 -D model is used to explore the chemistry of aldehydes. These results will be presented.

  8. Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers `95, eds. V.J. Corcoran and T.A. Goldman, STS Press, McLean VA, 1996, pp. 225-231. OPTIMIZING HIGH PRESSURE CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASERS

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Press, McLean VA, 1996, pp. 225-231. OPTIMIZING HIGH PRESSURE CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASERS David L laser model was baselined to existing oxygen-iodine research assessment and device improvement chemical* by N2. I. Introduction The typical chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) utilizes an energy transfer from

  9. Determination of chemical oxygen demand values by a photocatalytic oxidation method using nano-TiO2 film on quartz.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiaqing; Li, Luoping; Zheng, Lei; Xian, Yuezhong; Jin, Litong

    2006-01-15

    A COD measurement by a photocatalytic oxidation method using nano-TiO(2) film was investigated. K(2)Cr(2)O(7) was added into the solution to enhance the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation, and simultaneously K(2)Cr(2)O(7) was reduced to Cr(III) by photogenerated electrons, which were adsorbed on the surface of TiO(2). The measuring principle was based on direct determination of Cr(III) concentration which was proportional to the COD value. Under the optimized experiment condition, the application range was 20-500 mgl(-1), and the detection limit was 20 mgl(-1). The immobilization of photocatalyst on the supports could not only solve the problem of low recovery of the catalyst and hard separation from the solution, but also overcome its shortcoming of poor stability. Applied this method to the determination of real samples, it was found to be rapid and environmentally friendly. Additionally, the method proposed above for determination of COD was in excellent correspondence with values obtained by using the conventional method. PMID:18970388

  10. Quantum chemical study of trimolecular reaction mechanism between nitric oxide and oxygen in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Gadzhiev, Oleg B; Ignatov, Stanislav K; Razuvaev, Alexei G; Masunov, Artëm E

    2009-08-13

    Singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces of the reaction between molecular oxygen and two nitric oxide(II) molecules were studied by quantum chemical methods (coupled cluster, CASSCF, and density functional theory: B3LYP, TPSS, VSXC, BP86, PBE, B2-PLYP, B2K-PLYP). Elementary steps involving various N2O4 isomers (cyclic, cis-cis-, cis-trans-, trans-trans-ONOONO, cis- and trans-ONONO2, O2NNO2) were considered, as well as weakly bound molecular clusters preceding formation of O2NNO2, and Coupe-type quasi-aromatic hexagonal ring intermediate NO2.O2N. We found that activation energy strongly depends on the conformation of ONOONO peroxide, which is formed barrierlessly. The best agreements with experimental values were achieved by the B3LYP functional with aug-pc3 basis set. The lowest transition state (TS) energies correspond to the following reaction channel: 2NO + O2 (0 kJ/mol) --> cis-cis-ONOONO (-45 kJ/mol) --> TS1 --> NO2.O2N (-90 kJ/mol) --> TS2 --> cis-ONONO2 (-133 kJ/mol)--> TS3 --> trans-ONONO2 (-144 kJ/mol) --> TS4 --> O2NNO2 (-193 kJ/mol). A valley ridge inflection (VRI) point is located on the minimum energy path (MEP) connecting NO2.O2N and cis-ONONO2. The energy landscape between NO2.O2N and CC-TS2 can be classified as a downhill valley-pitchfork VRI bifurcation according to a recent classification of bifurcation events [Quapp, W. J. Mol. Struct. 2004, 95, 695-696]. The first and second transition states correspond to barrier heights of 10.6 and 37.0 kJ/mol, respectively. These values lead to the negative temperature dependence of the rate constant. The apparent activation enthalpy of the overall reaction was calculated to be Delta(r)H(0) = -4.5 kJ/mol, in perfect agreement with the experimental value. PMID:19610649

  11. CO 2 capture from coal combustion using chemical-looping combustion - Reactivity investigation of Fe, Ni and Mn based oxygen carriers using syngas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Mattisson; Marcus Johansson; Anders Lyngfelt

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology where an oxygen carrier is used to transfer oxygen from the combustion air to the fuel, thus avoiding direct contact between air and fuel. The system is composed of two reactors, a fuel and an air reactor, where the flue gas from the fuel reactor contains CO 2 and H 2O and the

  12. Oxygen uptake of benthic systems 

    E-print Network

    Priebe, William Franklin

    1972-01-01

    initiated within 24 hours of the sampling time, providing conditions within the bottle which were similar to those actually encountered in the Ship Channel. The sludge was analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) both... before and after test runs ac- cording to the procedure outlined in Standard Methods (44) . A 14 representative sample was tested for heavy metals content using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA), total solids, and volatile solids...

  13. Impacts of increasing dissolved inorganic nitrogen discharged from Changjiang on primary production and seafloor oxygen demand in the East China Sea from 1970 to 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kon-Kee; Yan, Weijin; Lee, Hung-Jen; Chao, Shenn-Yu; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Yeh, Tzu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, benthic hypoxia has been observed in the outflow region of the Changjiang River in the East China Sea. Because the nitrogen input to the Changjiang watershed, mainly from human activities, has increased by 3 fold in the last four decades and the nitrogen load had grown exponentially, it is speculated that anthropogenic nutrients may be responsible for the hypoxia in the East China Sea shelf. We employ a coupled 3-D physical-biogeochemical model of the East China Sea to investigate how the changing Changjiang nutrient loads from 1970 to the end of 2002 may have impacted on primary production in the water column and the seafloor oxygen demand (SOD) on the seafloor. The model predicts an average value of 437 mgC m- 2 d- 1 for primary production and 10.0 mmol O2 m- 2 d- 1 for SOD for the ECS shelf over the entire modeling period. The model results compare reasonably with observations during the period from December 1997 to October 1998. Responding to the increase of the Changjiang DIN loading by a factor of ~ 2.4, the modeled primary production in the East China Sea shelf has increased by 17%, and the modeled SOD by 22%. In the inner shelf, where the impact is the strongest, the SOD increases by 30%. We are able to identify areas of potential hypoxia using two criteria: SOD > 30 mmol O2 m- 2 d- 1 and water depth > 25 m. The maximum area of potential hypoxic region in any month of a year has increased dramatically after 1991; the change appears related to the Changjiang DIN loads from May to July that showed a sudden increase after 1990. The responses in potential hypoxic area are more pronounced than the increases in DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) loads, suggesting strong nonlinear effect in the development of hypoxia, which warrants further investigation. It is cautioned that the SOD calculation was based on the Redfield C/N ratio, but the actual C/N ratio may deviate from it. Direct observations of the sediment oxygen consumption are needed to validate our modeling approach. We also assessed the potential impacts of particulate organic matter from Changjiang by introducing a load of reactive particulate nitrogen (PN), which was assumed proportional to DIN based on estimated yields in the watershed. The modeled impacts on primary productivity and SOD are significant, but more accurate quantification of the monthly PN load and better characterization of its reactivity are required for better assessment.

  14. Defining nutrient and biochemical oxygen demand baselines for tropical rivers and streams in São Paulo State (Brazil): a comparison between reference and impacted sites.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Davi G F; Dodds, Walter K; Carmo Calijuri, Maria do

    2011-11-01

    Determining reference concentrations in rivers and streams is an important tool for environmental management. Reference conditions for eutrophication-related water variables are unavailable for Brazilian freshwaters. We aimed to establish reference baselines for São Paulo State tropical rivers and streams for total phosphorus (TP) and nitrogen (TN), nitrogen-ammonia (NH(4) (+)) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) through the best professional judgment and the trisection methods. Data from 319 sites monitored by the São Paulo State Environmental Company (2005 to 2009) and from the 22 Water Resources Management Units in São Paulo State were assessed (N = 27,131). We verified that data from different management units dominated by similar land cover could be analyzed together (Analysis of Variance, P = 0.504). Cumulative frequency diagrams showed that industrialized management units were characterized by the worst water quality (e.g. average TP of 0.51 mg/L), followed by agricultural watersheds. TN and NH(4) (+) were associated with urban percentages and population density (Spearman Rank Correlation Test, P < 0.05). Best professional judgment and trisection (median of lower third of all sites) methods for determining reference concentrations showed agreement: 0.03 & 0.04 mg/L (TP), 0.31 & 0.34 mg/L (TN), 0.06 & 0.10 mg-N/L (NH(4) (+)) and 2 & 2 mg/L (BOD), respectively. Our reference concentrations were similar to TP and TN reference values proposed for temperate water bodies. These baselines can help with water management in São Paulo State, as well as providing some of the first such information for tropical ecosystems. PMID:21858554

  15. Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.

    2014-08-19

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about 725.degree. C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

  16. Mechanism of pulse discharge production of iodine atoms from CF3I molecules for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.; Vagin, N. P.; Yuryshev, N. N.

    2009-03-01

    The pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) development is aimed at many new applications. Pulsed electric discharge is most effective in turning COIL operation into the pulse mode by instant production of iodine atoms. A numerical model is developed for simulations of the pulsed COIL initiated by an electric discharge. The model comprises a system of kinetic equations for neutral and charged species, electric circuit equation, gas thermal balance equation and the photon balance equation. Reaction rate coefficients for processes involving electrons are found by solving the electron Boltzmann equation, which is re-calculated in a course of computations when plasma parameters changed. The processes accounted for in the Boltzmann equation include excitation and ionization of atoms and molecules, dissociation of molecules, electron attachment processes, electron-ion recombination, electron-electron collisions, second-kind collisions and stepwise excitation of molecules. The last processes are particularly important because of a high singlet oxygen concentration in gas flow from the singlet oxygen chemical generator. Results of numerical simulations are compared with experimental laser pulse waveforms. It is concluded that there is satisfactory agreement between theory and the experiment. The prevailing mechanism of iodine atom formation from the CF3I donor in a very complex kinetic system of the COIL medium under pulse discharge conditions, based on their detailed numerical modelling and by comparing these results both with experimental results of other authors and their own experiments, is established. The dominant iodine atom production mechanism for conditions under study is the electron-impact dissociation of CF3I molecules. It was proved that in the conditions of the experiment the secondary chemical reactions with O atoms play an insignificant role.

  17. The Effects of Oxygen Plasma on the Chemical Composition and Morphology of the Ru Capping Layer of the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Mask Blanks

    SciTech Connect

    Belau, Leonid; Park, Jeong Y.; Liang, Ted; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2008-06-07

    Contamination removal from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask surfaces is one of the most important aspects to improve reliability for the next generation of EUV lithography. We report chemical and morphological changes of the ruthenium (Ru) mask surface after oxygen plasma treatment using surface sensitive analytical methods: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Chemical analysis of the EUV masks shows an increase in the subsurface oxygen concentration, Ru oxidation and surface roughness. XPS spectra at various photoelectron takeoff angles suggest that the EUV mask surface was covered with chemisorbed oxygen after oxygen plasma treatment. It is proposed that the Kirkendall effect is the most plausible mechanism that explains the Ru surface oxidation. The etching rate of the Ru capping layer by oxygen plasma was estimated to be 1.5 {+-} 0.2 {angstrom}/min, based on TEM cross sectional analysis.

  18. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 134, 224707 (2011) Oxygen adsorption on Pt/Ru(0001) layers

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    of an incoming homo- nuclear diatomic molecule. In this study, the adsorption of O2 on various epitaxially grown and annealing leads to dissociation of O2, thereby approaching the behavior for oxygen adsorption on genuine Pt monolayer islands is identified. This state is readily populated which precludes an activation barrier

  19. Energy barriers and chemical properties in the coadsorption of carbon monoxide and oxygen on Ru,,0001...

    E-print Network

    - oxide and oxygen on ruthenium. The coadsorption of these species on transition metal surfaces dipole moments or wave function overlap, or via ``through- substrate'' interactions mediated limited. Adparticles on metal surfaces can in- teract with each other directly, e.g., through induced

  20. Influence of Chemisorbed Oxygen on the Growth of Graphene on Cu(100) by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Eng Wen; Mowll, Tyler R.; Tyagi, Parul; Ventrice, Carl A., Jr.; Robinson, Zachary R.; Gaskill, D. Kurt; Geisler, Heike

    2014-03-01

    The growth of graphene by catalytic decomposition of ethylene in a UHV chamber on both a clean Cu(100) surface and a Cu(100) surface predosed with a layer of chemisorbed oxygen has been studied. The crystal structure of the graphene films was characterized with in-situ LEED. By heating the clean Cu(100) substrate from room temperature to the growth temperature in ethylene, epitaxial graphene films were formed. The crystal quality was found to depend strongly on the growth temperature. At 900 °C, well-ordered two-domain graphene films were formed. Predosing the Cu(100) surface with a chemisorbed layer of oxygen before graphene growth was found to adversely affect the crystal quality of the graphene overlayer by inducing a much higher degree of rotational disorder of the graphene grains with respect to the Cu(100) substrate. The growth morphology of the graphene islands during the initial stages of nucleation was monitored with ex-situ SEM. The nucleation rate of the graphene islands was observed to drop by an order of magnitude by predosing the Cu(100) surface with a chemisorbed oxygen layer before growth. Therefore, the presence of oxygen during graphene growth affects both the relative orientation and average size of grains within the films grown on Cu(100) substrates. This research was supported by NSF (DMR-1006411).

  1. CARBON COATED (CARBONOUS) CATALYST IN EBULLATED BED REACTOR FOR PRODUCTION OF OXYGENATED CHEMICALS FROM SYNGAS/CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Peizheng Zhou

    2002-12-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under DOE's Support of Advanced Fuel Research program, Contract No. DE-FG26-99FT40681. The contract period was October 2000 through September 2002. This R&D program investigated the modification of the mechanical strength of catalyst extrudates using Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. (HTI) carbon-coated catalyst technology so that the ebullated bed technology can be utilized to produce valuable oxygenated chemicals from syngas/CO{sub 2} efficiently and economically. Exothermic chemical reactions benefit from the temperature control and freedom from catalyst fouling provided by the ebullated bed reactor technology. The carbon-coated extrudates prepared using these procedures had sufficient attrition resistance and surface area for use in ebullated bed operation. The low cost of carbon coating makes the carbon-coated catalysts highly competitive in the market of catalyst extrudates.

  2. Nitrogen and Oxygen Abundance Variations in the Outer Ejecta of Eta Carinae: Evidence for Recent Chemical Enrichment

    E-print Network

    Nathan Smith; Jon A. Morse

    2004-02-20

    We present optical spectra of the ionized `Outer Ejecta' of Eta Carinae that reveal differences in chemical composition at various positions. In particular, young condensations just outside the dusty Homunculus Nebula show strong nitrogen lines and little or no oxygen -- but farther away, nitrogen lines weaken and oxygen lines become stronger. The observed variations in the apparent N/O ratio may signify either that the various blobs were ejected with different abundances, or more likely, that the more distant condensations are interacting with normal-composition material. The second hypothesis is supported by various other clues involving kinematics and X-ray emission, and would suggest that Eta Car is enveloped in a ``cocoon'' deposited by previous stellar-wind mass loss. In particular, all emission features where we detect strong oxygen lines are coincident with or outside the soft X-ray shell. In either case, the observed abundance variations suggest that Eta Car's ejection of nitrogen-rich material is a recent phenomenon -- taking place in just the last few thousand years. Thus, Eta Carinae may be at a critical stage of evolution when ashes of the CNO cycle have just appeared at its surface. Finally, these spectra reveal some extremely fast nitrogen-rich material, with Doppler velocities up to 3200 km/s, and actual space velocities that may be much higher. This is the fastest material yet seen in Eta Car's nebula, but with unknown projection angles its age is uncertain.

  3. Reactions of dimethyl ether with atomic oxygen: A matrix isolation and a quantum chemical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Wrobel; Wolfram Sander; Elfi Kraka; Dieter Cremer

    1999-01-01

    The reaction of dimethyl ether (1) with atomic oxygen generated by photolysis of ozone or NâO was examined in low-temperature matrices. The major reaction products are two conformers of methoxymethanol (5). IR absorptions of the products were assigned by isotopic labeling (¹⁸O and D) and DFT calculations at the B3LYP\\/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The mechanism of the formation of 5,

  4. Chemical Constraints on the Water and Total Oxygen Abundances in the Deep Atmosphere of Saturn

    E-print Network

    Channon Visscher; Bruce Fegley Jr

    2005-01-07

    Thermochemical equilibrium and kinetic calculations for the trace gases CO, PH3, and SiH4 give three independent constraints on the water and total oxygen abundances of Saturn's deep atmosphere. A lower limit to the water abundance of H2O/H2 > 1.7 x 10^-3 is given by CO chemistry while an upper limit of H2O/H2 Saturn of 1.9 to 6.1 times the solar system abundance (H2O/H2 = 8.96 x 10^-4). The total oxygen abundance must be at least 1.7 times the solar system abundance (O/H2 = 1.16 x 10^-3) in order for the SiH4 to remain below a detection limit of SiH4/H2 Saturn is 3.2 to 6.4 times the solar system abundance. Our results indicate that oxygen on Saturn is less enriched than other heavy elements (such as C and P) relative to a solar system composition. This work was supported by NASA NAG5-11958.

  5. Progress in an oxygen-carrier reaction kinetics experiment for rotary-bed chemical looping combustion

    E-print Network

    Jester-Weinstein, Jack (Jack L.)

    2013-01-01

    The design process for an experimental platform measuring reaction kinetics in a chemical looping combustion (CLC) process is documented and justified. To enable an experiment designed to characterize the reaction kinetics ...

  6. Chemical Kinetics of Reaction Systems Carbon Monoxide + Hydroxy Radical and Methyl Radical + Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ching-Len

    Experimental and modeling studies were carried out on kinetics and mechanism of two key reactions of natural gas combustion. Five mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide diluted in argon were studied behind reflected -shock waves in the temperature range from 1420 to 2640 K. The production of CO molecules and OH radicals was measured in-situ by laser absorption. The rate coefficient of reaction CO + OH --> CO_2 + H was derived by detailed kinetic modeling, expressed as 4.76 times 10 ^7T^{1.228}{rm e} ^{-35/T}{rm cm}^3 {rm mol}^{-1}{rm s}^{-1}. Theoretical analysis of the CO + OH reaction was performed by using Rice-Ramsperger -Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory and the master equation approach by fitting the experimental rate coefficient. The resulting entrance and exit barrier heights, relative to the CO + OH energy level, are 0.92 and 0.72 kcal/mol, respectively. Oxidation of methyl radicals by molecular oxygen were studied by using four shock-heated fuel-lean methane -oxygen-argon mixtures at temperatures from 1550 to 2200 K. The reaction progress was monitored by laser absorption of OH radicals and CO molecules. The rate coefficients of the CH_3+O_2 reactions were determined via kinetic modeling and the RRKM-master equation approach: 2.87 times 10^ {13}{rm e}^{-15340/T } for reaction CH_3+O _2 --> CH_3O + O and 1.85 times 10^{12 }{rm e}^{-10224/T} for reaction CH_3+O_2 --> CH_2O + OH, in the units of cm^3mol^ {-1}s^{-1}. The former was found to be in agreement with that computed based on the canonical variational transition state theory. The derived reaction model was shown to be consistent with essentially all available experimental data. The discrepancy among literature studies results from data interpretation and experimental design.

  7. Chemical reaction of atomic oxygen with evaporated films of copper, part 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T.; Williams, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Evaporated copper films were exposed to an atomic oxygen flux of 1.4 x 10(exp 17) atoms/sq cm per sec at temperatures in the range 285 to 375 F (140 to 191 C) for time intervals between 2 and 50 minutes. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) was used to determine the thickness of the oxide layers formed and the ratio of the number of copper to oxygen atoms in the layers. Oxide film thicknesses ranged from 50 to 3000 A (0.005 to 0.3 microns, or equivalently, 5 x 10(exp -9) to 3 x 10(exp -7); it was determined that the primary oxide phase was Cu2O. The growth law was found to be parabolic (L(t) varies as t(exp 1/2)), in which the oxide thickness L(t) increases as the square root of the exposure time t. The analysis of the data is consistent with either of the two parabolic growth laws. (The thin-film parabolic growth law is based on the assumption that the process is diffusion controlled, with the space charge within the growing oxide layer being negligible. The thick-film parabolic growth law is also based on a diffusion controlled process, but space-charge neutrality prevails locally within very thick oxides.) In the absence of a voltage measurement across the growing oxide, a distinction between the two mechanisms cannot be made, nor can growth by the diffusion of neutral atomic oxygen be entirely ruled out. The activation energy for the reaction is on the order of 1.1 eV (1.76 x 10(exp -19) joule, or equivalently, 25.3 kcal/mole).

  8. Mapping of the range of operational conditions for Cu, Fe, and Ni-based oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Abad; Juan Adánez; Francisco García-Labiano; Luis F. de Diego; Pilar Gayán; Javier Celaya

    2007-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a two-step combustion process that produces a pure CO2 stream, ready for compression and sequestration. A CLC system is composed by two reactors, an air and a fuel reactor, and an oxygen carrier (OC) circulating between the reactors, which transfers the oxygen necessary for the fuel combustion from the air to the fuel. This system can

  9. Modeling of the chemical-looping combustion of methane using a Cu-based oxygen-carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Abad, Alberto; Adanez, Juan; Garcia-Labiano, Francisco; de Diego, Luis F.; Gayan, Pilar [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Department of Energy and Environment, Miguel Luesma Castan 4, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    A mathematical model for a bubbling fluidized bed has been developed to simulate the performance of the fuel-reactor in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) systems. This model considers both the fluid dynamic of the fluidized bed and freeboard and the kinetics of reduction of the oxygen-carrier, here CuO impregnated on alumina. The main outputs of the model are the conversion of the carrier and the gas composition at the reactor exit, the axial profiles of gas concentrations and the fluid dynamical structure of the reactor. The model was validated using measurements when burning CH{sub 4} in a 10 kW{sub th} prototype using a Cu-based oxygen-carrier. The influence of the circulation rate of solids, the load of fuel gas, the reactor temperature and size of the oxygen-carrier particles were analyzed. Combustion efficiencies predicted by the model showed a good agreement with measurements. Having validated the model, the implications for designing and optimizing a fuel-reactor were as follows. The inventory of solids for a high conversion of the fuel was sensitive to the reactor's temperature, the solids' circulation rate and the extent to which the solids entering to the reactor had been regenerated. The optimal ratio of oxygen-carrier to fuel was found to be 1.7-4 for the Cu-based oxygen-carrier used here. In this range, the inventory of solids to obtain a combustion efficiency of 99.9% at 1073 K was less than 130 kg/MW{sub th}. In addition, the model's results were very sensitive to the resistance to gas diffusing between the emulsion and bubble phases in the bed, to the decay of solids' concentration in the freeboard and to the efficiency contact between gas and solids in the freeboard. Thus, a simplified model, ignoring any restriction to gas and solids contacting each other, will under-predict the inventory of solids by a factor of 2-10. (author)

  10. TRPV4 inhibition counteracts edema and inflammation and improves pulmonary function and oxygen saturation in chemically induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Song, Weifeng; Achanta, Satyanarayana; Doran, Stephen F; Liu, Boyi; Kaelberer, Melanie M; Yu, Zhihong; Sui, Aiwei; Cheung, Mui; Leishman, Emma; Eidam, Hilary S; Ye, Guosen; Willette, Robert N; Thorneloe, Kevin S; Bradshaw, Heather B; Matalon, Sadis; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2014-07-15

    The treatment of acute lung injury caused by exposure to reactive chemicals remains challenging because of the lack of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Recent studies have shown that transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), an ion channel expressed in pulmonary tissues, is a crucial mediator of pressure-induced damage associated with ventilator-induced lung injury, heart failure, and infarction. Here, we examined the effects of two novel TRPV4 inhibitors in mice exposed to hydrochloric acid, mimicking acid exposure and acid aspiration injury, and to chlorine gas, a severe chemical threat with frequent exposures in domestic and occupational environments and in transportation accidents. Postexposure treatment with a TRPV4 inhibitor suppressed acid-induced pulmonary inflammation by diminishing neutrophils, macrophages, and associated chemokines and cytokines, while improving tissue pathology. These effects were recapitulated in TRPV4-deficient mice. TRPV4 inhibitors had similar anti-inflammatory effects in chlorine-exposed mice and inhibited vascular leakage, airway hyperreactivity, and increase in elastance, while improving blood oxygen saturation. In both models of lung injury we detected increased concentrations of N-acylamides, a class of endogenous TRP channel agonists. Taken together, we demonstrate that TRPV4 inhibitors are potent and efficacious countermeasures against severe chemical exposures, acting against exaggerated inflammatory responses, and protecting tissue barriers and cardiovascular function. PMID:24838754

  11. Galactic chemical evolution and the oxygen isotopic composition of the solar system Larry R. NITTLER1*

    E-print Network

    Nittler, Larry R.

    . NITTLER1* and Eric GAIDOS2 1 Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington of both 17 O and 18 O are related to the metallicity of progenitor stars, 17 O is most likely produced of supernova ejecta into the protosolar cloud. ``Cosmic chemical memory'' models in which interstellar dust

  12. Review of the simple model for metal cutting with the chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William P. Latham; Aravinda Kar

    2000-01-01

    The COIL has drawn considerable attention owing to its short, fiber-deliverable wavelength, scalability to very high powers, and nearly diffraction-limited optical quality. These unique abilities make it an ideal candidate for rapid cutting of thick metals and other laser materials processing applications. Cutting experiments have been conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory Chemical Laser Facility for a number of

  13. Evaluated Chemical Kinetic Data for the Reactions of Atomic Oxygen O(3P) with Sulfur Containing Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, D. L.; Cvetanovi?, R. J.

    1988-10-01

    Chemical kinetic data for reactions of O(3P) atoms with sulfur containing compounds are compiled and critically evaluated. Specifically, the reactions considered include the interactions of the ground electronic state of oxygen atoms, O(3P), with S2, SF2, SF5, SOF, S2O, SO, SO2, SO3, SH, H2S, D2S, H2SO4, CS, CS2, COS, CH3SH, C2H5SH, C4H9SH, C5H11SH, CH3SCH3, cy-CH2SCH2, cy-CHCHSCHCH, CH3SSCH3, SCF2, SCCl2, and cy-CF2SCF2S. With one exception, the liquid phase reaction O(3P)+H2SO4?products, all the data considered were for gas phase reactions. Where possible, ``Recommended'' values of the rate parameters have been assessed and conservative uncertainty limits assigned to them.

  14. How many O2(1?) molecules are consumed per dissociated I2 in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybalkin, V.; Katz, A.; Waichman, K.; Vingurt, D.; Dahan, Z.; Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2006-07-01

    Direct measurements of the dissociation of I2 molecules at the optical axis of a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) as a function of I2 flow rate were carried out. This enabled us to determine the number of consumed O2(?1) molecules per dissociated I2 molecule. The number depends on the experimental conditions: it is 4.2±0.4 for typical conditions and I2 densities applied for the operation of the COIL, but increases at lower I2 densities. Possible dissociation mechanisms consistent with our results are discussed and the importance of dissociating I2 prior to its mixing with O2(?1) is stressed.

  15. Analytical chemical kinetic investigation of the effects of oxygen, hydrogen, and hydroxyl radicals on hydrogen-air combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, G. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Quantitative values were computed which show the effects of the presence of small amounts of oxygen, hydrogen, and hydroxyl radicals on the finite-rate chemical kinetics of premixed hydrogen-air mixtures undergoing isobaric autoignition and combustion. The free radicals were considered to be initially present in hydrogen-air mixtures at equivalence ratios of 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, and 1.2. Initial mixture temperatures were 1100 K, 1200 K, and 1500 K, and pressures were 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 atm. Of the radicals investigated, atomic oxygen was found to be the most effective for reducing induction time, defined as the time to 5 percent of the total combustion temperature rise. The reaction time, the time between 5 percent and 95 percent of the temperature rise, is not decreased by the presence of free radicals in the initial hydrogen-air mixture. Fuel additives which yield free radicals might be used to effect a compact supersonic combustor design for efficient operation in an otherwise reaction-limited combustion regime.

  16. Chemical reactivity of hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms at temperatures below 100 k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, H. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The synthesis of unusual compounds by techniques employing cryogenic cooling to retard their very extreme reactivity was investigated. Examples of such species that were studied are diimide (N2H2), cyclobutadiene (C4H4), cyclopropanone (C3H4O), oxirene (C2H2O), and many others. Special purpose cryogenically cooled inlet arrangements were designed such that the analyses incurred no warm-up of the cold, and frequently explosively unstable, compounds. Controlled energy electron impact techniques were used to measure critical potentials and to develop the molecular energetics and thermodynamics of these molecules and to gain some insight into their kinetic characteristics as well. Three and four carbon strained ring molecules were studied. Several reactions of oxygen and hydrogen atoms with simple molecules of H, N, C, and O in hard quench configurations were studied. And the quench stabilization of BH3 was explored as a model system in cryochemistry.

  17. Electrochemical and Structural Study of a Chemically Dealloyed PtCu Oxygen Reduction Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Indrajit; Carpenter, Michael K; Balogh, Michael P; Ziegelbauer, Joseph M; Moylan, Thomas E; Atwan, Mohammed H; Irish, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    A carbon-supported, dealloyed platinum-copper (Pt-Cu) oxygen reduction catalyst was prepared using a multi-step synthetic procedure. Material produced at each step was characterized using high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) mapping, x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and cyclic voltammetry (CV), and its oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was measured by a thin-film rotating disk electrode (TF-RDE) technique. The initial synthetic step, a co-reduction of metal salts, produced a range of poorly crystalline Pt, Cu, and Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles that nevertheless exhibited good ORR activity. Annealing this material alloyed the metals and increased particle size and crystallinity. TEM shows the annealed catalyst to include particles of various sizes, large (>25 nm), medium (12–25 nm), and small (<12 nm). Most of the small and medium-sized particles exhibited a partial or complete coreshell (Cu-rich core and Pt shell) structure with the smaller particles typically having more complete shells. The appearance of Pt shells after annealing indicates that they are formed by a thermal diffusion mechanism. Although the specific activity of the catalyst material was more than doubled by annealing, the concomitant decrease in Pt surface area resulted in a drop in its mass activity. Subsequent dealloying of the catalyst by acid treatment to partially remove the copper increased the Pt surface area by changing the morphology of the large and some medium particles to a “Swiss cheese” type structure having many voids. The smaller particles retained their core-shell structure. The specific activity of the catalyst material was little reduced by dealloying, but its mass activity was more than doubled due to the increase in surface area. The possible origins of these results are discussed in this report. PMID:23807900

  18. Chemical-looping combustion of coal with metal oxide oxygen carriers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjani Siriwardane; Hanjing Tian; George Richards; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston

    2009-01-01

    The combustion and reoxidation properties of direct coal chemical-looping combustion (CLC) over CuO, FeO, COO, NiO, and MnO were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and bench-scale fixed-bed flow reactor studies. When coal is heated in either nitrogen or carbon dioxide (CO), 50% of weight loss was observed because of partial pyrolysis, consistent with the proximate analysis. Among various metal oxides

  19. Municipal waste treatment by supracell flotation, chemical oxidation and STAR (sludge thickening and alum recovery) system. Technical research report 1985-86

    SciTech Connect

    Krofta, M.; Wang, L.K.

    1986-10-22

    This report documents effectiveness of a Krofta Supracell Type 4 Clarifier installed at the Bangor, Maine, Pollution Abatement Facility for the treatment of primary effluent. It includes detailed theory, principles, and test results on the permanganate oxidation-reduction system and the sludge thickening and alum recovery system. Reductions of total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, and 5-day biological oxygen demand are presented.

  20. The K(C) channel in the cbb3-type respiratory oxygen reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus is required for both chemical and pumped protons.

    PubMed

    Y?ld?z, Gülgez Gökçe; Gennis, Robert B; Daldal, Fevzi; Öztürk, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The heme-copper superfamily of proton-pumping respiratory oxygen reductases are classified into three families (A, B, and C families) based on structural and phylogenetic analyses. Most studies have focused on the A family, which includes the eukaryotic mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase as well as many bacterial homologues. Members of the C family, also called the cbb3-type oxygen reductases, are found only in prokaryotes and are of particular interest because of their presence in a number of human pathogens. All of the heme-copper oxygen reductases require proton-conducting channels to convey chemical protons to the active site for water formation and to convey pumped protons across the membrane. Previous work indicated that there is only one proton-conducting input channel (the K(C) channel) present in the cbb3-type oxygen reductases, which, if correct, must be utilized by both chemical protons and pumped protons. In this work, the effects of mutations in the K(C) channel of the cbb3-type oxygen reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus were investigated by expressing the mutants in a strain lacking other respiratory oxygen reductases. Proton pumping was evaluated by using intact cells, and catalytic oxygen reductase activity was measured in isolated membranes. Two mutations, N346M and Y374F, severely reduced catalytic activity, presumably by blocking the chemical protons required at the active site. One mutation, T272A, resulted in a substantially lower proton-pumping stoichiometry but did not inhibit oxygen reductase activity. These are the first experimental data in support of the postulate that pumped protons are taken up from the bacterial cytoplasm through the K(C) channel. PMID:24563037

  1. Effect of temperature on reduction of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in chemical-looping combustion of simulated coal gas in a fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Q.L.; Xiao, R.; Deng, Z.Y.; Shen, L.H.; Xiao, J.; Zhang, M.Y. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2008-12-15

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a promising combustion technology for gaseous and solid fuel with efficient use of energy and inherent separation of CO{sub 2}. The concept of a coal-fueled CLC system using, calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) as oxygen carrier is proposed in this study. Reduction tests of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier with simulated coal gas were performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor in the temperature range of 890-950{degree}C. A high concentration of CO{sub 2} was obtained at the initial reduction period. CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier exhibited high reactivity initially and decreased gradually at the late period of reduction. The sulfur release during the reduction of CaSO{sub 4} as oxygen carrier was also observed and analyzed. H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} conversions were greatly influenced by reduction temperature. The oxygen carrier conversion and mass-based reaction rates during the reduction at typical temperatures were compared. Higher temperatures would enhance reaction rates and result in high conversion of oxygen carrier. An XRD patterns study indicated that CaS was the dominant product of reduction and the variation of relative intensity with temperature is in agreement with the solid conversion. ESEM analysis indicated that the surface structure of oxygen carrier particles changed significantly from impervious to porous after reduction. EDS analysis also demonstrated the transfer of oxygen from the oxygen carrier to the fuel gas and a certain amount of sulfur loss and CaO formation on the surface at higher temperatures. The reduction kinetics of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier was explored with the shrinking unreacted-core model. The apparent kinetic parameters were obtained, and the kinetic equation well predicted the experimental data. Finally, some basic considerations on the use of CaSO{sub 4} oxygen carrier in a CLC system for solid fuels were discussed.

  2. Chemical compatibility of a TiAl-Nb melt with oxygen-free crucible ceramics made of aluminum nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartavykh, A. V.; Cherdyntsev, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    The problem of uncontrolled oxygen contamination of intermetallic TiAl ingots is considered for the application of crucibles and molds based on traditional oxide ceramics. A synthesized Ti-45.9Al-8Nb (at %) alloy is solidified in alternative oxygen-free crucibles made of high-purity aluminum nitride (99.99% AlN) upon holding at 1670°C for 5, 12, and 25 min and subsequent quenching in a high-purity argon atmosphere. The initial material and the solidified ingots are studied by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron-probe microanalysis, and gas-content chemical analysis. The key features of the interaction of the TiAl-Nb melt with AlN ceramics are revealed. Partial thermal dissociation of the crucible material according to the reaction AlN ? Al + N and the reaction of atomic nitrogen with the melt lead to the formation of a solid 6.4-?m-thick TiN coating on the ingot surface and provide perfect wettability of the crucible by the melt and easy removal of solidified casting items from the mold. The TiN coating serves as a diffusion barrier that hinders the diffusion of nitrogen and residual oxygen from the pores in the crucible toward the melt. As a result, no oxide particles are detected in the ingots. However, few single microprecipitates of two nitride phases ((Ti,Al) x N y , NbN) are detected in the near-bottom region, 300 ?m thick, in the alloy after holding at 1670°C for 25 min. The total oxygen contamination in a two-phase ?2 + ? ingot does not exceed 1100 wt ppm, which is 1.5-2 times lower than that obtained in the experiments performed with modern advanced oxide crucibles made of yttrium ceramics Y2O3. AlN is shown to be a promising crucible material that can be considered as an alternative to oxide ceramics in the metallurgy of TiAl intermetallics.

  3. Homegrown Demand

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Todd Swarthout

    The professor sells an announced number of M&M packets (or other inexpensive good) through an auction to derive a classroom demand schedule. The resulting demand schedule is displayed as a "curve" and facilitates discussion of consumer demand.

  4. Chemical Hypoxia-Induced Cell Death in Human Glioma Cells: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species, ATP Depletion, Mitochondrial Damage and Ca 2+

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jae Ick Jeong; Young Woo Lee; Yong Keun Kim

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether chemical hypoxia-induced cell injury is a result of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, ATP depletion, mitochondrial permeability transition, and an increase in intracellular Ca2+, in A172 cells, a human glioma cell line. Chemical hypoxia was induced by incubating cells with antimycin A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport, in a glucose-free medium. Exposure

  5. Potential nutritional assessment of dwarf elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Mott) by chemical composition, digestion and net portal flux of oxygen in cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V Kozloski; J Perottoni; M. L. S Ciocca; J. B. T Rocha; A. G Raiser; L. M. B Sanchez

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate changes in chemical composition of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at 30, 40, 50 and 60 days of growth, and its effect on apparent digestibility and particle-phase passage through the gastrointestinal tract (Experiment 1) and on oxygen utilization by the portal-drained viscera of cattle (Experiment 2). The experiments were carried out using four Holstein

  6. Experimental study of cutting thick aluminum and steel with a chemical oxygen-iodine laser using an N2 or O2 gas assist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Carroll; James A. Rothenflue

    1997-01-01

    A chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was used for cutting aluminum and carbon steel. Cut depths of 20 mm were obtained in aluminum and 41 mm in carbon steel using an N2 gas assist and 5 - 6 kW of power on target. The same laser at the same power level produced a cut depth of 65 mm in carbon steel

  7. Contribution of magnetic susceptibility effects to transmembrane chemical shift differences in the /sup 31/P NMR spectra of oxygenated erythrocyte suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, K.; Kuchel, P.W.

    1988-01-05

    Triethyl phosphate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, and the hypophosphite ion all contain the phosphoryl functional group. When added to an oxygenated erythrocyte suspension, the former compound gives rise to a single /sup 31/P NMR resonance, whereas the latter compounds give rise to separate intra- and extracellular /sup 31/P NMR resonances. On the basis of experiments with intact oxygenated cell suspensions (in which the hematocrit was varied) and with oxygenated cell lysates (in which the lysate concentration was varied) it was concluded that the chemical shifts of the intra- and extracellular populations of triethyl phosphate differ as a consequence of the diamagnetic susceptibility of intracellular oxyhemoglobin but that this difference is averaged by the rapid exchange of the compound across the cell membrane. The difference is the magnetic susceptibility of the intra- and extracellular compartments contributes to the observed separation of the intra- and extracellular resonances of dimethyl methylphosphonate and hypophosphite. The magnitude of this contribution is, however, substantially less than that calculated using a simple two-compartment model and varies with the hematocrit of the suspension. Furthermore, it is insufficient to fully account for the transmembrane chemical shift differences observed for dimethyl methylphosphonate and hypophosphite. An additional effect is operating to move the intracellular resonances of these compounds to a lower chemical shift. The effect is mediated by an intracellular component, and the magnitude of the resultant chemical shift variations depends upon the chemical structure of the phosphoryl compound involved.

  8. Chemical Transformation of Market Waste Anaerobic Degradation in Recirculation and Non-recirculation System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheevanuch Tubtong; Sirintornthep Towprayoon; Pawinee Chaiprasert; Annop Nopharatana; Pantip Kayee

    The batch studies of 30 kg. market waste (Cabbage 40%, Chinese cabbage 20%, other vegetable 20% and fruit 20%) anaerobic degradation was conducted in the lab scale units. These studies investigated the chemical transformation of organic degradation under anaerobic condition with and without the application of leachate recirculation. The chemical transformation focused on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total volatile

  9. Toward understanding the dissociation of I2 in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers: Combined experimental and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waichman, K.; Rybalkin, V.; Katz, A.; Dahan, Z.; Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2007-07-01

    The dissociation of I2 molecules at the optical axis of a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was studied via detailed measurements and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics calculations. The measurements, briefly reported in a recent paper [Rybalkin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021115 (2006)] and reanalyzed in detail here, revealed that the number N of consumed O2(a?g1) molecules per dissociated I2 molecule depends on the experimental conditions: it is 4.5±0.4 for typical conditions and I2 densities applied for optimal operation of the COIL but increases at lower I2 densities. Comparing the measurements and the calculations enabled critical examination of previously proposed dissociation mechanisms and suggestion of a mechanism consistent with the experimental and theoretical results obtained in a supersonic COIL for the gain, temperature, I2 dissociation fraction, and N at the optical axis. The suggested mechanism combines the recent scheme of Azyazov and Heaven [AIAA J. 44, 1593 (2006)], where I2(A'?2u3), I2(A?1u3), and O2(a?g1,v) are significant dissociation intermediates, with the "standard" chain branching mechanism of Heidner III et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 87, 2348 (1983)], involving I(P1/22) and I2(X?g +1,v).

  10. Dissociation of I II in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers: experiment, modeling, and pre-dissociation by electrical discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, A.; Waichman, K.; Dahan, Z.; Rybalkin, V.; Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2007-06-01

    The dissociation of I II molecules at the optical axis of a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was studied via detailed measurements and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics calculations. Comparing the measurements and the calculations enabled critical examination of previously proposed dissociation mechanisms and suggestion of a mechanism consistent with the experimental and theoretical results obtained in a supersonic COIL for the gain, temperature and I II dissociation fraction at the optical axis. The suggested mechanism combines the recent scheme of Azyazov and Heaven (AIAA J. 44, 1593 (2006)), where I II(A' 3? 2u), I II(A 3? 1u) and O II(a1? g, v) are significant dissociation intermediates, with the "standard" chain branching mechanism of Heidner et al. (J. Phys. Chem. 87, 2348 (1983)), involving I(2P 1/2) and I II(X1? + g, v). In addition, we examined a new method for enhancement of the gain and power in a COIL by applying DC corona/glow discharge in the transonic section of the secondary flow in the supersonic nozzle, dissociating I II prior to its mixing with O II(1?). The loss of O II(1?) consumed for dissociation was thus reduced and the consequent dissociation rate downstream of the discharge increased, resulting in up to 80% power enhancement. The implication of this method for COILs operating beyond the specific conditions reported here is assessed.

  11. Seasonal and vertical variations in the chemical composition of suspended particulate matter in an oxygen-deficient fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skei, Jens M.; Melsom, Sigurd

    1982-01-01

    Chemical analysis of suspended particulate matter in marine waters gives insight into important geochemical processes. Additionally, fjords offer suitable locations to study these processes. The Bunnefjord in south-east Norway was selected for a 1-year study of the vertical and seasonal variations in the particulate matter chemistry. Analysis of particulate Al, Si, P, Fe and Mn on Nuclepore membrane filters by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry elucidates the distribution of various particulate matter phases in the water column. While particulate Al, Si and P are abundant above the halocline due to the influence of river water (Al), diatoms (Si) and organic matter (P), particulate Fe and Mn phases preferentially occur in the lowoxygenated bottom water. The latter is a result of redox reactions at or near the sediment-water interface. The mobility of Mn is particularly well demonstrated, showing a rapid loss of Mn from the sediments when the oxygen concentration in the bottom water dropped below 1 ml l -1. The flux of Mn from the sediments to the water and the conversion of dissolved Mn to a particulate phase was estimated to a minimum of 0·7 ?g cm -2 day -1.

  12. Gain and temperature in a slit nozzle supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser with transonic and supersonic injection of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenwaks, Salman; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Bruins, Esther; Furman, Dov; Rybalkin, Victor; Katz, Arje

    2002-05-01

    Spatial distributions of the gain and temperament across the flow were studied for transonic and supersonic schemes of the iodine injection in a slit nozzle supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser as a function of the iodine and secondary nitrogen flow rate, jet penetration parameter and gas pumping rate. The mixing efficiency for supersonic injection of iodine is found to be much larger than for transonic injection, the maximum values of the gain being approximately 0.65 percent/cm for both injection schemes. Measurements of the gain distribution as a function of the iodine molar flow rate nI2 were carried out. For transonic injection the optimal value of nI2 at the flow centerline is smaller than that at the off axis location. The temperature is distributed homogeneously across the flow, increasing only in the narrow boundary layers near the walls. Opening a leak downstream of the cavity in order to decease the Mach number results in a decrease of the gain and increase of the temperature. The mixing efficiency in this case is much larger than for closed leak.

  13. Ventilatory accommodation of oxygen demand and respiratory water loss in kangaroos from mesic and arid environments, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus).

    PubMed

    Dawson, T J; Munn, A J; Blaney, C E; Krockenberger, A; Maloney, S K

    2000-01-01

    We studied ventilation in kangaroos from mesic and arid environments, the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) and the red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), respectively, within the range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) from -5 degrees to 45 degrees C. At thermoneutral temperatures (Ta=25 degrees C), there were no differences between the species in respiratory frequency, tidal volume, total ventilation, or oxygen extraction. The ventilatory patterns of the kangaroos were markedly different from those predicted from the allometric equation derived for placentals. The kangaroos had low respiratory frequencies and higher tidal volumes, even when adjustment was made for their lower basal metabolism. At Ta>25 degrees C, ventilation was increased in the kangaroos to facilitate respiratory water loss, with percent oxygen extraction being markedly lowered. Ventilation was via the nares; the mouth was closed. Differences in ventilation between the two species occurred at higher temperatures, and at 45 degrees C were associated with differences in respiratory evaporative heat loss, with that of M. giganteus being higher. Panting in kangaroos occurred as a graded increase in respiratory frequency, during which tidal volume was lowered. When panting, the desert red kangaroo had larger tidal volumes and lower respiratory frequencies at equivalent T(a) than the eastern grey kangaroo, which generally inhabits mesic forests. The inference made from this pattern is that the red kangaroo has the potential to increase respiratory evaporative heat loss to a greater level. PMID:10893178

  14. Sulfur evolution in chemical looping combustion of coal with MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baowen; Gao, Chuchang; Wang, Weishu; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-05-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of coal has gained increasing attention as a novel combustion technology for its advantages in CO2 capture. Sulfur evolution from coal causes great harm from either the CLC operational or environmental perspective. In this research, a combined MnFe2O4 oxygen carrier (OC) was synthesized and its reaction with a typical Chinese high sulfur coal, Liuzhi (LZ) bituminous coal, was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA)-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Evolution of sulfur species during reaction of LZ coal with MnFe2O4 OC was systematically investigated through experimental means combined with thermodynamic simulation. TGA-FTIR analysis of the LZ reaction with MnFe2O4 indicated MnFe2O4 exhibited the desired superior reactivity compared to the single reference oxides Mn3O4 or Fe2O3, and SO2 produced was mainly related to oxidization of H2S by MnFe2O4. Experimental analysis of the LZ coal reaction with MnFe2O4, including X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, verified that the main reduced counterparts of MnFe2O4 were Fe3O4 and MnO, in good agreement with the related thermodynamic simulation. The obtained MnO was beneficial to stabilize the reduced MnFe2O4 and avoid serious sintering, although the oxygen in MnO was not fully utilized. Meanwhile, most sulfur present in LZ coal was converted to solid MnS during LZ reaction with MnFe2O4, which was further oxidized to MnSO4. Finally, the formation of both MnS and such manganese silicates as Mn2SiO4 and MnSiO3 should be addressed to ensure the full regeneration of the reduced MnFe2O4. PMID:25079636

  15. Evaluation and use of a diffusion-controlled sampler for determining chemical and dissolved oxygen gradients at the sediment-water interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.; Kennedy, M.M.; Massoni, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Field and laboratory evaluations were made of a simple, inexpensive diffusion-controlled sampler with ports on two sides at each interval which incorporates 0.2-??m polycarbonate membrane to filter samples in situ. Monovalent and divalent ions reached 90% of equilibrium between sampler contents and the external solution within 3 and 6 hours, respectively. Sediment interstitial water chemical gradients to depths of tens of centimeters were obtained within several days after placement. Gradients were consistent with those determined from interstitial water obtained by centrifugation of adjacent sediment. Ten milliliter sample volumes were collected at 1-cm intervals to determine chemical gradients and dissolved oxygen profiles at depth and at the interface between the sediment and water column. The flux of dissolved species, including oxygen, across the sediment-water interface can be assessed more accurately using this sampler than by using data collected from benthic cores. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  16. Chemical conversion of self-assembled hexadecyl monolayers with active oxygen species generated by vacuum ultraviolet irradiation in an atmospheric environment.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed I A; Ichii, Takashi; Utsunomiya, Toru; Sugimura, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, ? = 172 nm) irradiation of alkyl self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) in the presence of dry air alters their surface properties. In this work, UV photochemically prepared hexadecyl (HD)-SAMs on hydrogen-terminated silicon substrates were irradiated by VUV light in dry air, which generated active oxygen species upon excitation of the atmospheric oxygen molecules. These active oxygen species converted the terminal methyl groups of the SAMs to polar functional groups, which were examined quantitatively by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and chemical labeling. At the first stage of VUV irradiation, the surface of SAMs was functionalized, and the ratios of the generated polar functional groups markedly increased. With the elongation of the irradiation period, the SAMs gradually degraded, and the total polar group percentages gradually decreased. The difference between the oxygenated carbon components derived by the deconvolution of the XPS carbon (C1s) spectrum and the chemical labeling of polar groups revealed enormous quantities of ethereal and ester groups that cannot react with the labeling reagents but are included in the C1s spectral envelope. These modifications were reflected on morphological structures of SAMs, which were gradually distorted until a complete amorphous structure was obtained after the complete elimination of HD-SAMs. PMID:26081720

  17. Experimental study of cutting thick aluminum and steel with a chemical oxygen-iodine laser using an N2 or O2 gas assist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Carroll; James A. Rothenflue

    1997-01-01

    A chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was used for cutting aluminum and carbon steel. Cut depths of 20 mm were obtained in aluminum and 41 mm in carbon steel using an N2 gas assist and 5-6 kW of power on target. The same laser at the same power level produced a cut depth of 65 mm in carbon steel with an

  18. Comparative investigation on chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas containing H2S over supported NiO oxygen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Ksepko, E.; Siriwardane, R.; Tian, H.; Simonyi, T.; Sciazko, M.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of simulated coal-derived synthesis gas was conducted with NiO oxygen carriers supported on SiO2, ZrO2, TiO2, and sepiolite. The effect of H2S on the performance of these samples for the CLC process was also evaluated. Five-cycle thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests at 800 #1;C indicated that all oxygen carriers had a stable performance at 800 #1;C, except NiO/SiO2. Full reduction/oxidation reactions of the oxygen carrier were obtained during the five-cycle test. It was found that support had a significant effect on reaction performance of NiO both in reduction and oxidation rates. The reduction reaction was significantly faster than the oxidation reaction for all oxygen carriers, while the oxidation reaction is fairly slow due to oxygen diffusion on NiO layers. The reaction profile was greatly affected by the presence of H2S, but there was no effect on the capacity due to the presence of H2S in synthesis gas. The presence of H2S decreased reduction reaction rates significantly, but oxidation rates of reduced samples increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of the oxidized samples after a five-cycle test showed stable crystalline phases without any formation of sulfides or sulfites/sulfates. Increase in reaction temperature to 900 #1;C had a positive effect on the performance.

  19. ADVANCED TREATMENT BY CHEMICAL OXIDATION OF PULP AND PAPER EFFLUENT FROM A PLANT MANUFACTURING HARDBOARD FROM WASTE PAPER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Tünay; E. Erdeml; I. Kabda?li; T. Ölmez

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the applicability of chemical oxidation processes to polish biologically treated effluent of a plant manufacturing hardboard from waste paper to comply with the discharge limit of 120 mg l chemical oxygen demand (COD). In the first step, a chemically assisted settling was applied. The optimum results were obtained with alum plus lime with the alum

  20. Identification, design and synthesis of oxygenated hydrocarbon-based carbon dioxide-soluble polymers for chemical and petroleum engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Lei

    Over the past two decades the use of sub/supercritical CO2 has received much attention as a green alternative to organic solvents for chemical processes because of its pressure-tunable physicochemical properties and economic advantages. However the advantages are diminished because of a relative narrow range of CO2-soluble materials. The goal of this work is to identify, design and synthesize oxygenated hydrocarbon-based CO 2-soluble polymers that are able to serve as construction blocks for copolymers, dispersants, surfactants, and thickeners. Without concerning on the cost and the environmental persistence like fluorinated materials, the inexpensive and environmentally benign materials would significantly enhance the viability of sub/supercritical CO2-based technology. Based on both experimental heuristics and ab initio simulation of molecular modeling (performed by Dr. Johnson's group), we proposed specific new polymer structures: poly (3-acetoxy oxetane) (PAO), poly (vinyl methoxymethyl ether) (PVMME), poly (vinyl 1-methoxyethyl ether) (PVMEE), and cellulose triacetate (CTA) oligomers. Phase behavior studies were also performed with novel CO 2-philic compounds containing vinyl acetate, propylene glycol, or multiple tert-butyl groups. PAO, PVMME and PVMME were soluble in CO2, but not as soluble as poly (vinyl acetate). Oligomers of cellulose triacetate with as many as four repeat units solubilized into dense CO2 less than 14 MPa in the concentration range of 1-5 wt%. Phase behaviors of more than twenty compounds in dense CO2 were studied in this project. A new type of phase behavior for solid CO2-philes that melt and dissolve in CO 2 was detailed using a model binary mixture of beta-D-maltose octaacetate and CO2. Copolymers of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and vinyl acetate (VAc) exhibited lower miscibility pressures than either of the homopolymers, probably due to quadradentate binding configurations with CO 2. Phase behavior investigation of poly (propylene glycol) (PPG) monobutyl ether in CO2 demonstrated ether-CO2 interactions should receive as much attention as carbonyl-CO2 interactions when designing CO2-philic functional groups. 1,3,5-tri-tert-butylbenzene and 2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenol were both extraordinarily soluble in CO2, and are excellent candidates for CO2-soluble sand binders. In summary, although a new CO2 thickener was not identified, new non-fluorous CO2-soluble materials were identified, which were, in general, acetate-rich with flexible chains, weak self-interactions, and multidentate interaction between CO2 and solute functional groups.

  1. Investigation of chemical looping combustion by solid fuels. 2. redox reaction kinetics and product characterization with coal, biomass, and solid waste as solid fuels and CuO as an oxygen carrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Cao; Bianca Casenas; Wei-Ping Pan

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two on the investigation of the chemical looping combustion (CLC) of solid fuels. The first paper put forward the concept of the CLC of solid fuels using a circulating fluidized bed as a reactor and Cu-CuO as the oxygen carrier, which was based on an analysis of oxygen transfer capability, reaction

  2. Oxygen potential and the chemical state of the fission products ruthenium, rhodium and palladium in irradiated oxide fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhariah, M. S.

    1985-02-01

    Thermodynamic properties of intermetallic compounds of the type M 3U and M 3Pu where M = Ru, Rh or Pd, are reviewed. The critical oxygen potential of the oxide fuel matrix necessary for their formation is suggested.

  3. Reduction kinetics of Cu-, Ni-, and Fe-based oxygen carriers using syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) for chemical-looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Alberto Abad; Francisco Garcia-Labiano; Luis F. de Diego; Pilar Gayn; Juan Adnez [Instituto de Carboquimica (CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Department of Energy and Environment

    2007-08-15

    The reactivity of three Cu-, Fe-, and Ni-based oxygen carriers to be used in a chemical-looping combustion (CLC) system using syngas as fuel has been analyzed. The oxygen carriers exhibited high reactivity during reduction with fuel gases present in syngas (H{sub 2} and CO), with average values in the range 8-30% min{sup -1}. No effect of the gas products (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}) on the reduction reaction rate was detected. The kinetic parameters of reaction with H{sub 2} and CO have been determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The grain model with spherical or platelike geometry in the grain was used for the kinetic determination, in which the chemical reaction controlled the global reaction rate. The activation energies determined for these reactions were low, with values ranging from 14 to 33 kJ mol{sup -1}. The reaction order depended on the reacting gas, and values from 0.5 to 1 were found. Moreover, the reactivity of the oxygen carriers when both H{sub 2} and CO are simultaneously present in the reacting gases has been analyzed, both at atmospheric and pressurized conditions. For the Cu- and Fe-based oxygen carriers, the reaction rate of the oxygen carrier with syngas corresponded to the addition of the reaction rates for the individual fuel gases, H{sub 2} and CO. For the Ni-based oxygen carrier, the reaction rate was that corresponding to the fuel gas that reacted faster with the oxygen carrier at the reacting conditions (fuel concentration, temperature, and pressure). The consequences of the behavior of the reaction of syngas and the water-gas shift (WGS) equilibrium on the design of the fuel reactor of a CLC system have been analyzed. A preliminary estimation of the solids inventory for the use of syngas in the fuel reactor of a CLC system gave values in the range of 19-34 kg MW{sup -1} when the WGS equilibrium was considered to be instantaneous. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Oxygen safety margins set thermal limits in an insect model system.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S

    2015-06-01

    A mismatch between oxygen availability and metabolic demand may constrain thermal tolerance. While considerable support for this idea has been found in marine organisms, results from insects are equivocal and raise the possibility that mode of gas exchange, oxygen safety margins and the physico-chemical properties of the gas medium influence heat tolerance estimates. Here, we examined critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and aerobic scope under altered oxygen supply and in two life stages that varied in metabolic demand in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae). We also systematically examined the influence of changes in gas properties on CTmax. Larvae have a lower oxygen safety margin (higher critical oxygen partial pressure at which metabolism is suppressed relative to metabolic demand) and significantly higher CTmax under normoxia than pupae (53°C vs 50°C). Larvae, but not pupae, were oxygen limited with hypoxia (2.5?kPa) decreasing CTmax significantly from 53 to 51°C. Humidifying hypoxic air relieved the oxygen limitation effect on CTmax in larvae, whereas variation in other gas properties did not affect CTmax. Our data suggest that oxygen safety margins set thermal limits in air-breathing invertebrates and the magnitude of this effect potentially reconciles differences in oxygen limitation effects on thermal tolerance found among diverse taxa to date. PMID:26041031

  5. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Enhancement of the efficiency and control of emission parameters of an unstable-resonator chemical oxygen—iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreisho, A. S.; Lobachev, V. V.; Savin, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu; Trilis, A. V.

    2007-07-01

    The outlook is considered for the development of a high-power supersonic flowing chemical oxygen—iodine laser operating as an amplifier and controlled by radiation from a master oscillator by using an unstable resonator with a hole-coupled mirror. The influence of the seed radiation intensity, the coupling-hole diameter, the active-medium length, and the magnification factor on the parameters of laser radiation is analysed. It is shown that the use of such resonators is most advisable in medium-power oxygen—iodine lasers for which classical unstable resonators are inefficient because of their low magnification factors. The use of unstable resonators with a hole-coupled mirror and injection provides the control of radiation parameters and a considerable increase in the output power and brightness of laser radiation.

  6. Oxygen Sag and Stream Purification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Larry; Herwig, Roy

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality related to oxygen sag and stream purification, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) self-purification models; (2) oxygen demand; and (3) reaeration and oxygen transfer. A list of 60 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Effect of the chemical oxidation demand to sulfide ratio on sulfide oxidation in microbial fuel cells treating sulfide-rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lehua; Mao, Yanping; Ma, Jingxing; Li, Dongmei; Shi, Haifeng; Liu, Yongdi; Cai, Lankun

    2013-01-01

    This work focused on studying the effect of the chemical oxidation demand to sulfide ratio (COD/S) on power generation and sulfide oxidation in microbial fuel cells treating sulfide-rich wastewater containing organic contaminants. The maximum power density achieved was 20 +/- 1 W m(-3) V(Anode) and the C(oulombic) yield was 20 +/- 2%. The COD/S ofinfluent played an important role in elemental sulfur and sulfate production because of competition between acetate oxidation and element sulfur oxidation to sulfate in the anode. When the COD/S was 12.50/1, more than 74.0% of sulfide was converted into elemental sulfur after 24 hours of operation. The effect of the COD/S on power generation was negligible when the COD/S ranged between 4.85/l and 18.53/l. After 24 hours, the COD removals were 110 +/- 6, 213 +/- 9, 375 +/- 8 and 410 +/- 10 mgl(-1) when the COD/S was 4.85/1, 8.9/1, 12.5/1 and 18.53/1, respectively. The COD removal increased with the increasing COD of the influent, which fitted to the model of first-order reaction kinetics. PMID:23530340

  8. Chemical compatibility of a TiAl-Nb melt with oxygen-free crucible ceramics made of aluminum nitride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Kartavykh; V. V. Cherdyntsev

    2008-01-01

    The problem of uncontrolled oxygen contamination of intermetallic TiAl ingots is considered for the application of crucibles\\u000a and molds based on traditional oxide ceramics. A synthesized Ti-45.9Al-8Nb (at %) alloy is solidified in alternative oxygen-free\\u000a crucibles made of high-purity aluminum nitride (99.99% AlN) upon holding at 1670°C for 5, 12, and 25 min and subsequent quenching\\u000a in a high-purity argon

  9. Chemical bonding in the outer core: high-pressure electronic structures of oxygen and sulfur in metallic iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, David M.

    1991-01-01

    The electronic structures of oxygen and sulfur impurities in metallic iron are investigated to determine if pressure, temperature, and composition-induced changes in bonding might affect phase equilibria along the Fe-FeS and Fe-FeO binaries. -from Authors

  10. Calorimetry and potentiometry of chemical oscillations in Briggs-Rauscher reactions with simultaneous measurements of the produced oxygen volume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuko Fujieda; Hideko Ogata

    1996-01-01

    The Briggs-Rauscher reaction is known as a nonlinear and non-equilibrium chemical oscillation reaction. The reaction solution is composed of malonic acid as organic substrate, hydrogen peroxide and iodate in sulphuric acid as oxidizing agent, and manganese (II) as metal catalyst. The calorimetric behaviour, in terms of the total heat Q and the heat evolving rate q for each chemical oscillation,

  11. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermo-chemical stability of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}}

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, M., E-mail: kuhnm@mit.edu [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Hashimoto, S. [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aoba, Aramaki, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Sato, K.; Yashiro, K.; Mizusaki, J. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The oxygen nonstoichiometry of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} has been the topic of various reports in the literature, but has been exclusively measured at high oxygen partial pressures, pO{sub 2}, and/or elevated temperatures. For applications of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}}, such as solid oxide fuel cell cathodes or oxygen permeation membranes, knowledge of the oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermo-chemical stability over a wide range of pO{sub 2} is crucial, as localized low pO{sub 2} could trigger failure of the material and device. By employing coulometric titration combined with thermogravimetry, the oxygen nonstoichiometry of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} was measured at high and intermediate pO{sub 2} until the material decomposed (at log(pO{sub 2}/bar) Almost-Equal-To -4.5 at 1073 K). For a gradually reduced sample, an offset in oxygen content suggests that La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} forms a 'super-reduced' solid solution before decomposing. When the sample underwent alternate reduction-oxidation, a hysteresis-like pO{sub 2} dependence of the oxygen content in the decomposition pO{sub 2} range was attributed to the reversible formation of ABO{sub 3} and A{sub 2}BO{sub 4} phases. Reduction enthalpy and entropy were determined for the single-phase region and confirmed interpolated values from the literature. - Graphical abstract: Oxygen nonstoichiometry (shown as 3-{delta}) of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of pO{sub 2} at 773-1173 K. The experimental data were obtained by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and coulometric titration (measured either by a simple reduction (CT1) or a 'two-step-forward one-step-back' reduction-oxidation (CT2) procedure). D1 and D2 denote the decomposition pO{sub 2}. The solid lines are the fit to the thermogravimetry and CT1 data. The dashed lines represent the non-equilibrium region where the sample shows a super-reduced state. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen nonstoichiometry of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3-{delta}} at intermediate temperatures and p(O2). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental confirmation of previously interpolated reduction enthalpy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decomposition p(O2) assessed by coulometric titration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hysteresis-like p(O2) dependence of oxygen content at decomposition p(O2).

  12. Nitrate and Nitrite Variability at the Seafloor of an Oxygen Minimum Zone Revealed by a Novel Microfluidic In-Situ Chemical Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Yücel, Mustafa; Beaton, Alexander D.; Dengler, Marcus; Mowlem, Matthew C.; Sohl, Frank; Sommer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidics, or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is a promising technology that allows the development of miniaturized chemical sensors. In contrast to the surging interest in biomedical sciences, the utilization of LOC sensors in aquatic sciences is still in infancy but a wider use of such sensors could mitigate the undersampling problem of ocean biogeochemical processes. Here we describe the first underwater test of a novel LOC sensor to obtain in situ calibrated time-series (up to 40 h) of nitrate+nitrite (?NOx) and nitrite on the seafloor of the Mauritanian oxygen minimum zone, offshore Western Africa. Initial tests showed that the sensor successfully reproduced water column (160 m) nutrient profiles. Lander deployments at 50, 100 and 170 m depth indicated that the biogeochemical variability was high over the Mauritanian shelf: The 50 m site had the lowest ?NOx concentration, with 15.2 to 23.4 ?M (median=18.3 ?M); while at the 100 site ?NOx varied between 21.0 and 30.1 ?M over 40 hours (median = 25.1?M). The 170 m site had the highest median ?NOx level (25.8 ?M) with less variability (22.8 to 27.7 ?M). At the 50 m site, nitrite concentration decreased fivefold from 1 to 0.2 ?M in just 30 hours accompanied by decreasing oxygen and increasing nitrate concentrations. Taken together with the time series of oxygen, temperature, pressure and current velocities, we propose that the episodic intrusion of deeper waters via cross-shelf transport leads to intrusion of nitrate-rich, but oxygen-poor waters to shallower locations, with consequences for benthic nitrogen cycling. This first validation of an LOC sensor at elevated water depths revealed that when deployed for longer periods and as a part of a sensor network, LOC technology has the potential to contribute to the understanding of the benthic biogeochemical dynamics. PMID:26161958

  13. Performance of a stratified sand filter in removal of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids and ammonia nitrogen from high-strength wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Healy; M. Rodgers; J. Mulqueen

    2007-01-01

    A stratified sand filter column, operated in recirculation mode and treating synthetic effluent resembling high-strength dairy wastewaters was studied over a 342-d duration. The aim of this paper was to examine the organic, total suspended solids (TSS) and nutrient removal rates of the sand filter, operated in recirculation mode, under incrementally increasing hydraulic and organic loading rates and to propose

  14. Demanding Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed demands that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…

  15. Atomic Oxygen Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K. R.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, which is the most predominant species in low Earth orbit, is highly reactive and can break chemical bonds on the surface of a wide variety of materials leading to volatilization or surface oxidation which can result in failure of spacecraft materials and components. This presentation will give an overview of how atomic oxygen reacts with spacecraft materials, results of space exposure testing of a variety of materials, and examples of failures caused by atomic oxygen.

  16. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb ... in your home. A different kind of oxygen therapy is called hyperbaric oxygen therapy. It uses oxygen ...

  17. Removal and fate of endocrine disruptors chemicals under lab-scale postreatment stage. Removal assessment using light, oxygen and microalgae.

    PubMed

    Abargues, M R; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of light, oxygen and microalgae on micropollutants removal. The studied micropollutants were 4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)phenol (OP), technical-nonylphenol (t-NP), 4-n-nonylphenol (4-NP), Bisphenol-A (BPA). In order to study the effect of the three variables on the micropollutants removal, a factorial design was developed. The experiments were carried out in four batch reactors which treated the effluent of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used for the measurement of the micropollutants. The results showed that light, oxygen and microalgae affected differently to the degradation ratios of each micropollutant. The results showed that under aerated conditions removal ratios higher than 91% were achieved, whereas for non-aerated conditions the removal ratios were between 50% and 80%, except for 4-NP which achieved removal ratios close to 100%. Besides, mass balance showed that the degradation processes were more important than the sorption processes. PMID:24096281

  18. A comparison of measured radionuclide release rates from Three Mile Island Unit2 core debris for different oxygen chemical potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. F. Baston; K. J. Hofstetter; R. F. Ryan

    1987-01-01

    Chemical and radiochemical analyses of reactor coolant samples taken during defueling of the Three Mile Island Unit-2 (TMI-2) reactor provide relevant data to assist in understanding the solution chemistry of the radionuclides retained within the TMI-2 reactor coolant system. Hydrogen peroxide was added to various plant systems to provide disinfection for microbial contamination and has provided the opportunity to observe

  19. Oxygen isotope and chemical compositions of magnetite and olivine in the anomalous CK3 Watson 002 and ungrouped Asuka-881595 carbonaceous chondrites: Effects of parent body metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Jemma; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Hellebrand, Eric; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2014-08-01

    We report in situ O isotope and chemical compositions of magnetite and olivine in chondrules of the carbonaceous chondrites Watson-002 (anomalous CK3) and Asuka (A)-881595 (ungrouped C3). Magnetite in Watson-002 occurs as inclusion-free subhedral grains and rounded inclusion-bearing porous grains replacing Fe,Ni-metal. In A-881595, magnetite is almost entirely inclusion-free and coexists with Ni-rich sulfide and less abundant Ni-poor metal. Oxygen isotope compositions of chondrule olivine in both meteorites plot along carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line with a slope of approximately 1 and show a range of ?17O values (from approximately -3 to -6‰). One chondrule from each sample was found to contain O isotopically heterogeneous olivine, probably relict grains. Oxygen isotope compositions of magnetite in A-881595 plot along a mass-dependent fractionation line with a slope of 0.5 and show a range of ?17O values from -2.4‰ to -1.1‰. Oxygen isotope compositions of magnetite in Watson-002 cluster near the CCAM line and a ?17O value of -4.0‰ to -2.9‰. These observations indicate that magnetite and chondrule olivine are in O isotope disequilibrium, and, therefore, not cogenetic. We infer that magnetite in CK chondrites formed by the oxidation of pre-existing metal grains by an aqueous fluid during parent body alteration, in agreement with previous studies. The differences in ?17O values of magnetite between Watson-002 and A-881595 can be attributed to their different thermal histories: the former experienced a higher degree of thermal metamorphism that led to the O isotope exchange between magnetite and adjacent silicates.

  20. A detailed chemical analysis of changes to bitumen produced by the in situ combustion process at the oxygen Wolf Lake Project, Alberta. Part 11; Whole oil samples

    SciTech Connect

    Alex, R.F.; Fuhr, B.; Reichert, C. (Alberta Research Council, Oil Sands and Hydrocarbon Recovery, Edmonton, Alberta T6H 5X2 (CA))

    1992-01-01

    The detailed chemical changes in bitumen brought about over a one year period by a in situ combustion process in an oil sands reservoir have been investigated. Relative to a core sample, the fireflood-produced oils exhibited a significant reduction in density and viscosity which began early in the production cycle. This behavior was correlated with a marked increase in material boiling in the naphtha and middle distillate ranges and a concomitant decrease in the residue cut. The sulfur and nitrogen contents in the produced oils decreased relative to the core sample. A reduction in the acid number of the produced oil samples was coupled with an increase in the oxygen content as the fireflood proceeded. In this paper the relationship between these changes and the dynamics of the in situ combustion process are discussed.

  1. Supplemental Oxygen (Oxygen Therapy)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gas and is non-flammable, however, it supports combustion. Materials burn more readily in an oxygen-enriched ... avoid using lotions or creams containing petroleum. The combustion of flammable products containing petroleum can also be ...

  2. Degradation modes of austenitic and ferritic-martensitic stainless steels in He-CO-CO2 and liquid sodium environments of equivalent oxygen and carbon chemical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulsoy, G.; Was, G. S.; Pawel, S. J.; Busby, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this work is to explore possible thermodynamic correlations between the degradation modes of austenitic and ferritic-martensitic alloys observed in high temperature He-CO-CO2 environments with oxygen and carbon chemical potentials equivalent to that in a liquid sodium environment containing 2-5 molppm oxygen and 0.02-0.2 molppm carbon at temperatures 500-700 °C. Two He-CO-CO2 environments (Pco/Pco2 = 1320, Pco = 1980 molppm, and Pco/Pco2 = 9, Pco = 13.5 molppm) were selected to test alloys NF616 and 316L at 700 and 850 °C. Upon exposure to He environments at 850 °C, 316L samples exhibited thick surface Cr2O3 scales and substantial internal oxidation; however at 700 °C no significant internal oxidation was observed. NF616 samples exhibited relatively thinner surface Cr2O3 scales compared to 316L samples at both temperatures. NF616 samples exposed to liquid sodium at 700 °C and He-Pco/Pco2 = 9 at 850 °C showed decarburization. No surface oxide formation was observed on the sample exposed to the Na environment. Results obtained from He exposure experiments provide insight into what may occur during long exposure times in a sodium environment.

  3. Parameters of an electric-discharge generator of iodine atoms for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Azyazov, V N; Vorob'ev, M V; Voronov, A I; Kupryaev, Nikolai V; Mikheev, P A; Ufimtsev, N I [Samara Branch of the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2009-01-31

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used for measuring the concentration of iodine molecules at the output of an electric-discharge generator of atomic iodine. Methyl iodide CH{sub 3}I is used as the donor of atomic iodine. The fraction of iodine extracted from CH{sub 3}I in the generator is {approx}50%. The optimal operation regimes are found in which 80%-90% of iodine contained in the output flow of the generator was in the atomic state. This fraction decreased during the iodine transport due to recombination and was 20%-30% at the place where iodine was injected into the oxygen flow. The fraction of the discharge power spent for dissociation was {approx}3%. (elements of laser setups)

  4. Living Without Oxygen: Oxygen Tolerance in Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sharon Harris

    This activity focuses on chemical processes, such as nitrogen fixation and denitrification, which are carried out by bacteria. Often the efficacy of these processes is determined by the amount of oxygen present in the environment in which the bacteria live. Much of the time, these processes are carried out by facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the suboxic region of lakes, oceans, sediments, and leaf litter. Students will discover whether facultatively anaerobic photoautotrophs share the same tolerance for oxygen, how differences in oxygen tolerance can be tested, and of what significance the tolerance for oxygen is in the nitrogen cycle. They will practice aseptic technique, monitor the growth of bacterial cultures, display their results graphically, and propose environmental problems associated with the oxygen tolerance of nitrogen fixers and denitifiers.

  5. Towards a better understanding of the origins, chemical composition and aging of oxygenated organic aerosols: case study of a Mediterranean industrialized environment, Marseille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Haddad, I.; D'Anna, B.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Nicolas, M.; Boreave, A.; Favez, O.; Voisin, D.; Sciare, J.; George, C.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2013-08-01

    As part of the FORMES summer 2008 experiment, an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (cToF-AMS) was deployed at an urban background site in Marseille to investigate the sources and aging of organic aerosols (OA). France's second largest city and the largest port in the Mediterranean, Marseille, provides a locale that is influenced by significant urban industrialized emissions and an active photochemistry with very high ozone concentrations. Particle mass spectra were analyzed by positive matrix factorization (PMF2) and the results were in very good agreement with previous apportionments obtained using a chemical mass balance (CMB) approach coupled to organic markers and metals (El Haddad et al., 2011a). AMS/PMF2 was able to identify for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the organic aerosol emitted by industrial processes. Even with significant industries in the region, industrial OA was estimated to contribute only ~ 5% of the total OA mass. Both source apportionment techniques suggest that oxygenated OA (OOA) constitutes the major fraction, contributing ~ 80% of OA mass. A novel approach combining AMS/PMF2 data with 14C measurements was applied to identify and quantify the fossil and non-fossil precursors of this fraction and to explicitly assess the related uncertainties. Results show with high statistical confidence that, despite extensive urban and industrial emissions, OOA is overwhelmingly non-fossil, formed via the oxidation of biogenic precursors, including monoterpenes. AMS/PMF2 results strongly suggest that the variability observed in the OOA chemical composition is mainly driven in our case by the aerosol photochemical age. This paper presents the impact of photochemistry on the increase of OOA oxygenation levels, formation of humic-like substances (HULIS) and the evolution of ?-pinene SOA (secondary OA) components.

  6. Retinal oxygenation response and retinopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary L. Trick; Bruce A. Berkowitz

    2005-01-01

    Oxygen supply and demand of the retina, one of the most metabolically active tissues in the body, must be dynamically balanced to insure the health of the tissue. The integrity of such active regulation can be assessed by measuring retinal oxygenation response (ROR) to a hyperoxic provocation. Over the last decade, we have developed an MRI-based technique to measure ROR

  7. Feasibility of physico-chemical treatment and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) as a means of pretreatment of olive mill effluent (OME)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kadir Kestio?lu; Taner Yonar; Nuri Azbar

    2005-01-01

    The efficiency of alternative pretreatment methods for an olive mill effluent (OME) in producing a final effluent conforming to Turkish Water Pollution Standards for discharge into the public sewage was studied. For this purpose, various treatment alternatives such as acid cracking, chemical coagulation, adsorption and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) were studied. A significant amount of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), total

  8. Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers '98, ed. V.J. Corcoran, STS Press, McLean VA, 1999, in press. PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH POWER CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASER

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    . If successful, this will be the first major advance in high power laser cutting technology since and deactivate the large numbers of nuclear reactor power stations now in place world-wide. Figure 1 shows, 1999, in press. PERFORMANCE OF A HIGH POWER CHEMICAL OXYGEN-IODINE LASER USING NITROGEN DILUENT D

  9. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-print Network

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  10. Chemical compositions of stars in the light of non-LTE spectral line formation: the evolution of carbon and oxygen in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbian, D.

    2008-01-01

    Non-LTE effects affect the formation of many spectral features in the spectra of late-type stars. This thesis investigates the effect on carbon and oxygen abundances. The non-LTE calculations have been performed with the code MULTI, using MARCS atmospheric models with 4500chemical evolution. The results are applied to high-quality observation for a sample of 43 turnoff halo stars with -3.24<[Fe/H]<-1.10. At low-metallicity, in particular due to decreasing Si background opacity, the non-LTE corrections affecting the 777 nm oxygen triplet are found to be more significant than those affecting the C I lines. The presence of a [C/O] upturn at low [Fe/H], here for the first time based on a solid non-LTE analysis, is confirmed, pointing to significant C yields from early generations of stars. This could be tracing the products of so-far elusive earlier Population III stars, or may signal rotationally-aided nucleosynthesis in more normal Population II stars.

  11. Growth patterns, chemical composition and oxygen consumption in early juvenile Hyas araneus (Decapoda: Majidae) reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anger, K.; Harms, J.; Christiansen, M. E.; Süsens, U.; Wilmes, B.

    1992-03-01

    Early (instar I and II) juveniles of the spider crab Hyas araneus were reared under constant conditions (12 °C, 32‰S) in the laboratory, and their growth, biochemical composition, and respiration were studied. Every second day, dry weight (W), ash-free dry weight (AFW), and contents of ash, organic and inorganic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), protein, chitin, lipid, and carbohydrates were measured, as well as oxygen consumption. Changes in the absolute amounts of W. AFW, and C, N, and H during the moulting cycle are described with various regression equations as functions of age within a given instar. These patterns of growth differ in part from those that have been observed during previous studies in larval stages of the same and some other decapod species, possibly indicating different growth strategies in larvae and juveniles. There were clear periodic changes in ash (% of W) and inorganic C (as % of total C), with initially very low and then steeply increasing values in postmoult, a maximum in intermoult, and decreasing figures during the premoult phase of each moulting cycle. Similar patterns were observed in the chitin fraction, reaching a maximum of 16% of W (31% of AFW). Ash, inorganic C, and chitin represent the major components of the exoskeleton and hence, changes in their amounts are associated with the formation and loss of cuticle material. Consequently, a high percentage of mineral matter was lost with the exuvia (76% of the late premoult [LPM] ash content, 74% of inorganic C), but relatively small fractions of LPM organic matter (15% of AFW, 11% of organic C, 5 6% of N and H). These cyclic changes in the cuticle caused an inverse pattern of variation in the percentage values (% of W) of AFW, organic C, N, H, and biochemical constituents other than chitin. When these measures of living biomass were related to, exclusively, the organic body fraction (AFM), much less variation was found during individual moulting cycles, with values of about 43 52% in organic C, 9 10% in N, 6 9% H, 31 49% of AFW in protein, 3 10% in lipid, and <1% in carbohydrates. All these constituents showed, on the average, a decreasing tendency during the first two crab instars, whereas N remained fairly constant. It cannot be explained at present, what other elements and biochemical compounds, respectively, might replace these decreasing components of AFW. Decreasing tendencies during juvenile growth were observed also in the organic C/N and in the lipid/protein weight ratios, both indicating that the proportion of lipid decreased at a higher rate than that of protein. Changes were observed also in the composition of inorganic matter, with significantly lower inorganic C in early postmoult (2 4% of ash) than in later stages of the moult cycle (about 9%). This reflected probably an increase in the degree of calcification, i.e. in the calcium carbonate content of the exoskeleton. As a fraction of total C, inorganic C reached maximum values of 17 and 20% in the crab I and II instars, respectively. The energy content of juvenile spider crabs was estimated independently from organic C and biochemical constituents, with a significant correlation between these values. However, the former estimates of energy were, on the average, significantly lower than the latter (slope of the regression ?1). Since organic C should be a reliable integrator of organic substances, but the sum of protein, lipid, chitin, and carbohydrates amounted to only 60 91% of AFW, it is concluded that the observed discrepancy between these two estimates of energy was caused by energy from biochemical constituents that had not been determined in our analyses. Thus, energy values obtained from these biochemical fractions alone may underestimate the actual amount of organic matter and energy. Respiration per individual in juvenile spider crabs was higher than that in larval stages of the same species (previous studies), but their W-specific values of oxygen consumption (QO2) were lower than in conspecific larvae (0.6 2?g O2·[mg W]-1). QO2 showed a consiste

  12. Chemical and Structural Dependences of the Fractionation of Oxygen and Silicon Isotopes Between Rock-forming Minerals: a First-Principles Density Functional Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meheut, M.; Schauble, E. A.

    2008-12-01

    Ab initio methods based on density functional theory have proven to be successful in reproducing the physical and chemical properties of complex systems. Within this framework, we have recently developed a methodology to predict equilibrium fractionation factors as a function of temperature (1). We use PBE functionals, combined with the use of pseudopotentials and planewave basis sets. Our previous work focused on the effect of the polymerization of the silicate network on Si-isotope fractionation (2), which had previously been predicted to be a determining factor. Our work does not confirm this assumption. In particular, a large fractionation was estimated between kaolinite and lizardite, despite identical polymerization structures. To investigate the origin of this fractionation, we studied minerals with structures closely related to lizardite and kaolinite, such as talc, pyrophyllite, muscovite and phlogopite. In terms of Si-isotope fractionation, muscovite is very similar to kaolinite (with ? qtz-musc = 0.18 ‰ at 700°C) whereas talc and pyrophyllite appear significantly heavier than lizardite and kaolinite, respectively, despite their similar structures and cation contents (? qtz-talc = 0.35 ‰, ? qtz-pyro = 0.08 ‰ at 700°C). In terms of O-isotopes fractionation, calculated quartz-muscovite and muscovite-water fractionations agree well with existing estimates at high temperature, based on experimental and empirical data. Interestingly, talc is calculated to be very similar to muscovite, whereas pyrophyllite will be significantly heavier (? qtz-pyro = 3.3 ‰ at 200°C ). Those similarities and differences will be discussed in terms of structures and cation contents. In previous studies, oxygen fractionation systematics have been related to the nature of the first neighbors of oxygen atoms (bond-type models), or to more precise structural features, through the modified increment method for example (3). We will critically analyze these concepts to help understand how oxygen and silicon isotope systematics are affected by structural features. References: 1. Meheut et al 2007, GCA, v. 71, p. 3170. 2. Meheut et al, 2008, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2008.06.051. 3. Zheng, 1993, GCA, v. 57, p. 1079.

  13. Chemical and physical characteristics of water in estuaries of Texas, October 1976-September 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents basic data on the chemical and physical characteristics of water in the estuaries of Texas for the period October 1976-September 1978. The properties or constituents that are measured in the field are dissolved oxygen (DO), specific conductance, temperature, pH, and transparency by Secchi disk. Analyses conducted in the laboratory include the principal inorganic ions, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total organic carbon (TOC), ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and total phosphate. (USGS)

  14. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  15. Oxygen scavengers - The chemistry of sulfite under hydrothermal conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    Control of oxygen corrosion is critical to the reliability of steam generator systems. Mechanical deaeration and chemical oxygen scavenging effectively reduce oxygen levels in boiler feedwater systems. This paper reviews the use of sulfites to reduce oxygen and provide corrosion control throughout the boiler feedwater circuit as well as mechanical and operational oxygen reduction methods. The mechanism of oxygen pitting,

  16. Effect of oxygen plasma on field emission characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avshish; Parveen, Shama; Husain, Samina; Ali, Javid; Zulfequar, Mohammad; Harsh; Husain, Mushahid

    2014-02-01

    Field emission properties of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) grown on iron catalyst film by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition system were studied in diode configuration. The results were analysed in the framework of Fowler-Nordheim theory. The grown SWCNTs were found to be excellent field emitters, having emission current density higher than 20 mA/cm2 at a turn-on field of 1.3 V/?m. The as grown SWCNTs were further treated with Oxygen (O2) plasma for 5 min and again field emission characteristics were measured. The O2 plasma treated SWCNTs have shown dramatic improvement in their field emission properties with emission current density of 111 mA/cm2 at a much lower turn on field of 0.8 V/?m. The as grown as well as plasma treated SWCNTs were also characterized by various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy before and after O2 plasma treatment and the findings are being reported in this paper.

  17. Chemical composition, aroma evaluation, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of volatile oil extracted from Brassica rapa cv. "yukina" used in Japanese traditional food.

    PubMed

    Usami, Atsushi; Motooka, Ryota; Takagi, Ayumi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Miyazawa, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile oil extracted from the aerial parts of Brassica rapa cv. "yukina" was analyzed using GC-MS, GC-PFPD, and GC-O. A total of 50 compounds were identified. The most prominent constituents were (E)-1,5-heptadiene (40.27%), 3-methyl-3-butenenitrile (25.97%) and 3-phenylpropanenitrile (12.41%). With regard to aroma compounds, 12 compounds were identified by GC-O analysis. The main aroma-active compounds were dimethyl tetrasulfide (sulphury-cabbage, FD = 64), 3-phenylpropanenitrile (nutty, FD = 64), 3-methylindole (pungent, FD = 64), and methional (potato, FD = 32). The antioxidant activity of the aroma-active compounds of the oil was determined using an oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay using fluorescein as the fluorescent probe. The ORAC values were found to be 785 ± 67 trolox equivalents (?mol TE/g) for B. rapa cv. "yukina" oil. The results obtained showed that the volatile oil extracted from the aerial parts is a good dietary source of antioxidants. PMID:24919480

  18. Numerical study of He/CF{sub 3}I pulsed discharge used to produce iodine atom in chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jiao; Wang Yanhui; Wang Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Duo Liping; Li Guofu [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-04-15

    The pulsed discharge for producing iodine atoms from the alkyl and perfluoroalky iodides (CH{sub 3}I, CF{sub 3}I, etc.) is the most efficient method for achieving the pulse operating mode of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model is developed to study the characteristics of pulsed discharge in CF{sub 3}I-He mixture. By solving continuity equation, momentum equation, Poisson equation, Boltzmann equation, and an electric circuit equation, the temporal evolution of discharge current density and various discharge products, especially the atomic iodine, are investigated. The dependence of iodine atom density on discharge parameters is also studied. The results show that iodine atom density increases with the pulsed width and pulsed voltage amplitude. The mixture ratio of CF{sub 3}I and helium plays a more significant role in iodine atom production. For a constant voltage amplitude, there exists an optimal mixture ratio under which the maximum iodine atom concentration is achieved. The bigger the applied voltage amplitude is, the higher partial pressure of CF{sub 3}I is needed to obtain the maximum iodine atom concentration.

  19. Numerical study of He/CF3I pulsed discharge used to produce iodine atom in chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Yanhui; Duo, Liping; Li, Guofu; Wang, Dezhen

    2013-04-01

    The pulsed discharge for producing iodine atoms from the alkyl and perfluoroalky iodides (CH3I, CF3I, etc.) is the most efficient method for achieving the pulse operating mode of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model is developed to study the characteristics of pulsed discharge in CF3I-He mixture. By solving continuity equation, momentum equation, Poisson equation, Boltzmann equation, and an electric circuit equation, the temporal evolution of discharge current density and various discharge products, especially the atomic iodine, are investigated. The dependence of iodine atom density on discharge parameters is also studied. The results show that iodine atom density increases with the pulsed width and pulsed voltage amplitude. The mixture ratio of CF3I and helium plays a more significant role in iodine atom production. For a constant voltage amplitude, there exists an optimal mixture ratio under which the maximum iodine atom concentration is achieved. The bigger the applied voltage amplitude is, the higher partial pressure of CF3I is needed to obtain the maximum iodine atom concentration.

  20. Work function variation of MoS2 atomic layers grown with chemical vapor deposition: The effects of thickness and the adsorption of water/oxygen molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Jinhwan; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Hwang, C. C.; Lee, Changgu; Park, Jeong Young

    2015-06-01

    The electrical properties of two-dimensional atomic sheets exhibit remarkable dependences on layer thickness and surface chemistry. Here, we investigated the variation of the work function properties of MoS2 films prepared with chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on SiO2 substrates with the number of film layers. Wafer-scale CVD MoS2 films with 2, 4, and 12 layers were fabricated on SiO2, and their properties were evaluated by using Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies. In accordance with our X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, our Kelvin probe force microscopy investigation found that the surface potential of the MoS2 films increases by ˜0.15 eV when the number of layers is increased from 2 to 12. Photoemission spectroscopy (PES) with in-situ annealing under ultra high vacuum conditions was used to directly demonstrate that this work function shift is associated with the screening effects of oxygen or water molecules adsorbed on the film surface. After annealing, it was found with PES that the surface potential decreases by ˜0.2 eV upon the removal of the adsorbed layers, which confirms that adsorbed species have a role in the variation in the work function.

  1. Application of high resolution Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-ToFMS) to study SOA composition: focus on formation of oxygenated species via aqueous phase processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljawhary, D.; Lee, A. K. Y.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2013-07-01

    This paper demonstrates the capabilities of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) composition with a high resolution (HR) time-of-flight mass analyzer (aerosol-CI-ToFMS). In particular, by studying aqueous oxidation of Water Soluble Organic Compounds (WSOC) extracted from ?-pinene ozonolysis SOA, we assess the capabilities of three common CIMS reagent ions: (a) protonated water clusters (H2O)nH+, (b) acetate CH3C(O)O- and (c) iodide water clusters I(H2O)n- to monitor SOA composition. As well, we report the relative sensitivity of these reagent ions to a wide range of common organic aerosol constituents. We find that (H2O)nH+ is more selective to the detection of less oxidized species, so that the range of O/C and OSC (carbon oxidation state) in the SOA spectra is considerably lower than those measured using CH3C(O)O- and I(H2O)n-. Specifically, (H2O)nH+ ionizes organic compounds with OSC ? 1.3, whereas CH3C(O)O- and I(H2O)n- both ionize highly oxygenated organics with OSC up to 4 with I(H2O)n- being more selective towards multi-functional organic compounds. In the bulk O/C and H/C space, i.e. in a Van Krevelen plot, there is a remarkable agreement in both absolute magnitude and oxidation trajectory between CI-ToFMS data and those from a high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). This indicates that the CI-ToFMS data captures much of the chemical change occurring in the particle and that gas phase species, which are not detected by the HR-AMS, do not dominate the overall ion signal. Finally, the data illustrate the capability of aerosol-CI-ToFMS to monitor specific chemical change, including the fragmentation and functionalization reactions that occur during organic oxidation, and the oxidative conversion of dimeric SOA species into monomers. Overall, aerosol-CI-ToFMS is a valuable, selective complement to some common SOA characterization methods, such as AMS and spectroscopic techniques. Both laboratory and ambient SOA samples can be analyzed using the techniques illustrated in the paper.

  2. A quantum-chemical study of transition structures for enolization and oxygenation steps catalyzed by rubisco: on the role of magnesium and carbamylated Lys201 in opening oxygen capture channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Tapia; Mónica Oliva; Vicent S. Safont; Juan Andrés

    2000-01-01

    Enolization and subsequent oxygenation transition structures are calculated as saddle points for a minimal model, isolated and with a magnesium coordination sphere. Only the magnesium-embedded enolization transition structure has a substrate dihedral O2–C2–C3–O3 of around ?58°. This conformation is enforced by the carbamylated-lysine via H-bonding to O3 thereby creating a necessary condition to produce spin scramble during oxygen fixation. The

  3. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  4. Controlled release of singlet oxygen using diphenylanthracene functionalized polymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Martins, S; Farinha, J P S; Baleizão, C; Berberan-Santos, M N

    2014-03-28

    Functionalized polymer nanoparticles react and store molecular oxygen for several weeks in the form of endoperoxides. On-demand controlled release of singlet oxygen by the particles is achieved by thermolysis. PMID:24531381

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy ameliorates stress-impaired dermal wound healing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Praveen K. Gajendrareddy; Chandan K. Sen; Michael P. Horan; Phillip T. Marucha

    2005-01-01

    Psychological stress has been shown to dysregulate healing in both humans and animals. Studies indicate the possibility for decreased oxygen supply, and increased oxygen demand, in the wounds of the stressed animals. Oxygen is an important mediator of wound healing, and its availability can limit healing rate. Hence, in a mouse model of stress-impaired healing, the hypothesis that hyperbaric oxygen

  6. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  7. Electrochemical oxygen concentrator as an oxygen compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) oxygen compressor is described which generates pressures of 3000 psi. The SPE is a cation exchange membrane with chemical compatibility, and has the capability of withstanding 5000 psi. Other features of the compressor described include: gasketless sealing, porus plate cell supports, and conductive cooling. Results are presented of a computer program which defines the power of the system as a function of density, temperature, pressure, membrane thickness, and water content.

  8. Biomass effects on oxygen transfer in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Germain, E; Nelles, F; Drews, A; Pearce, P; Kraume, M; Reid, E; Judd, S J; Stephenson, T

    2007-03-01

    Ten biomass samples from both municipal and industrial pilot and full scale submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with mixed liquor suspended solids concentrations (MLSS) ranging from 7.2 to 30.2g L(-1) were studied at six air-flow rates (0.7, 1.3, 2.3, 3, 4.4 and 6m(3)m(-3)h(-1)). Statistical analyses were applied to identify the relative impacts of the various bulk biomass characteristics on oxygen transfer. Of the biomass characteristics studied, only solids concentration (correlated with viscosity), the carbohydrate fraction of the EPS (EPS(c)) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration of the SMP (SMP(COD)) were found to affect the oxygen transfer parameters k(L)a(20) (the oxygen transfer coefficient) and alpha-factor. The relative influence on k(L)a(20) was MLSS>aeration>EPS(c)>SMP(COD) and on alpha-factor was MLSS>SMP(COD)>EPS(c)>aeration. Both k(L)a(20) and alpha-factor increased with increasing aeration and EPS(c) and decreased with increasing MLSS and SMP(COD). MLSS was found to be the main parameter controlling the oxygen transfer. PMID:17217981

  9. Analysis of the Atmospheric Distribution, Sources, and Sinks of Oxygenated Volatile Organic Chemicals Based on Measurements over the Pacific during TRACE-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Salas, L. J.; Chatfield, r. B.; Czech, E.; Fried, A.; Walega, J.; Evans, M. J.; Field, B. D.; Jacob, D. J.; Blake, D.; Heikes, B.; Talbot, R.; Sachse, G.; Crawford, J. H.; Avery, M. A.; Sandholm, S.; Fuelberg, H.

    2004-01-01

    Airborne measurements of a large number of oxygenated volatile organic chemicals (OVOC) were carried out in the Pacific troposphere (0.1-12 km) in winter/spring of 2001 (24 February to 10 April). Specifically, these measurements included acetone (CH3COCH3), methylethyl ketone (CH3COC2H5, MEK), methanol (CH3OH), ethanol (C2H5OH), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), propionaldehyde (C2H5CHO), peroxyacylnitrates (PANs) (C(sub n)H(sub 2n+1)COO2NO2), and organic nitrates (C(sub n)H(sub 2n+1)ONO2). Complementary measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO), methyl hydroperoxide (CH3OOH), and selected tracers were also available. OVOC were abundant in the clean troposphere and were greatly enhanced in the outflow regions from Asia. Background mixing ratios were typically highest in the lower troposphere and declined toward the upper troposphere and the lowermost stratosphere. Their total abundance (Summation of OVOC) was nearly twice that of nonmethane hydrocarbons (Summation of C2-C8 NMHC). Throughout the troposphere, the OH reactivity of OVOC is comparable to that of methane and far exceeds that of NMHC. A comparison of these data with western Pacific observations collected some 7 years earlier (February-March 1994) did not reveal significant differences. Mixing ratios of OVOC were strongly correlated with each other as well as with tracers of fossil and biomass/biofuel combustion. Analysis of the relative enhancement of selected OVOC with respect to CH3Cl and CO in 12 plumes originating from fires and sampled in the free troposphere (3-11 km) is used to assess their primary and secondary emissions from biomass combustion. The composition of these plumes also indicates a large shift of reactive nitrogen into the PAN reservoir thereby limiting ozone formation. A three-dimensional global model that uses state of the art chemistry and source information is used to compare measured and simulated mixing ratios of selected OVOC. While there is reasonable agreement in many cases, measured aldehyde concentrations are significantly larger than predicted. At their observed levels, acetaldehyde mixing ratios are shown to be an important source of HCHO (and HO x ) and PAN in the troposphere. On the basis of presently known chemistry, measured mixing ratios of aldehydes and PANs are mutually incompatible. We provide rough estimates of the global sources of several OVOC and conclude that collectively these are extremely large (150-500 Tg C / yr) but remain poorly quantified.

  10. Surface morphology and chemical composition of lamb’s lettuce ( Valerianella locusta) after exposure to a low-pressure oxygen plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franziska Grzegorzewski; Sascha Rohn; Lothar W. Kroh; Martin Geyer; Oliver Schlüter

    2010-01-01

    The influence of a low-pressure oxygen glow discharge plasma on secondary metabolites of lamb’s lettuce was examined. After extraction and hydrolysis the compounds were analysed by means of RP-HPLC. Whereas pure compounds showed a time-dependent degradation (flavonoids) or remained unchanged (phenolic acids), the exposure of lamb’s lettuce to the oxygen plasma led to a significant increase of protocatechuic acid, luteolin,

  11. A method for the statistical prediction of hydrological and chemical fields, exemplified by computation of the oxygen content in the Sea of Azov surface layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Vasechkina; I. E. Timchenko; V. D. Yarin

    1996-01-01

    To predict the concentration of oxygen in the Sea of Azov, the paper relies on the decomposition of this parameter by a system\\u000a of empirical orthogonal functions and on the prediction of decomposition coefficients via a grouped consideration of arguments.\\u000a This method is applied to construct an optimal model for predicting the spatial distribution of oxygen in various seasons\\u000a of

  12. LDEF atomic oxygen fluence update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Roger J.; Gillis, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The definition of LDEF atomic oxygen exposure involves theoretical prediction of fluxes, modeling of shielding and scattering effects, and comparison of predicted with observed atomic oxygen effects on LDEF experiments. Work is proceeding as follows: atomic oxygen fluxes and fluences have been recalculated using a more detailed orbit prediction program; a micro-environments program is being developed to account for the effects of experiment geometry on atomic oxygen flux; and chemical and physical measurements are being made on copper grounding straps to verify correspondence between predicted exposures and observed surface property variations. These three areas of work are reported briefly.

  13. A quantum-chemical study of transition structures for enolization and oxygenation steps catalyzed by rubisco: on the role of magnesium and carbamylated Lys-201 in opening oxygen capture channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapia, O.; Oliva, Mónica; Safont, Vicent S.; Andrés, Juan

    2000-06-01

    Enolization and subsequent oxygenation transition structures are calculated as saddle points for a minimal model, isolated and with a magnesium coordination sphere. Only the magnesium-embedded enolization transition structure has a substrate dihedral O2-C2-C3-O3 of around -58°. This conformation is enforced by the carbamylated-lysine via H-bonding to O3 thereby creating a necessary condition to produce spin scramble during oxygen fixation. The calculations suggest all bond breaking and making related to intra- molecular hydrogen shuttle processes are homolytic. This would explain the electronic activation of the C2-center to carry on either O 2 or CO 2 fixation depending upon which species is in the neighborhood.

  14. Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response

    E-print Network

    LBNL-3047E Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers G like to thank Bill Tschudi for his data center energy-efficiency expertise and for assistance thereof or The Regents of the University of California. Please cite this report as follows: Ghatikar

  15. Chemical State of Surface Oxygen on Carbon and Its Effects on the Capacity of the Carbon Anode in a Lithium-Ion Battery Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2001-01-01

    In a lithium-ion battery, the lithium-storage capacity of the carbon anode is greatly affected by a surface layer formed during the first half cycle of lithium insertion and release into and out of the carbon anode. The formation of this solid-electrolyte interface, in turn, is affected by the chemistry of the carbon surface. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center examined the cause-and-effect relations. Information obtained from this research could contribute in designing a high-capacity lithium-ion battery and, therefore, small, powerful spacecraft. In one test, three types of surfaces were examined: (1) a surface with low oxygen content (1.5 at.%) and a high concentration of active sites, (2) a surface with 4.5 at.% -OH or -OC type oxygen, and (3) a surface with 6.5 at.% O=C type oxygen. The samples were made from the same precursor and had similar bulk properties. They were tested under a constant current of 10 mA/g in half cells that used lithium metal as the counter electrode and 0.5 M lithium iodide in 50/50 (vol%) ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. For the first cycle of the electrochemical test, the graph describes the voltage of the carbon anode versus the lithium metal as a function of the capacity (amount of lithium insertion or release). From these data, it can be observed that the surface with low oxygen and a high concentration of active sites could result in a high irreversible capacity. Such a high irreversible capacity could be prevented if the active sites were allowed to react with oxygen in air, producing -OH or -OC type oxygen. The O=C type oxygen, on the other hand, could greatly reduce the capacity of lithium intercalation and, therefore, needs to be avoided during battery fabrication.

  16. Screening of physical–chemical methods for removal of organic material, nitrogen and toxicity from low strength landfill leachates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K Marttinen; R. H Kettunen; K. M Sormunen; R. M Soimasuo; J. A Rintala

    2002-01-01

    Physical–chemical methods have been suggested for the treatment of low strength municipal landfill leachates. Therefore, applicability of nanofiltration and air stripping were screened in laboratory-scale for the removal of organic matter, ammonia, and toxicity from low strength leachates (NH4-N 74–220 mg\\/l, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 190–920 mg O2\\/l, EC50=2–17% for Raphidocelis subcapitata). Ozonation was studied as well, but with the

  17. Lunar Oxygen as Monopropellant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Donald G.

    2008-04-01

    This paper explores the feasibility of beamed energy propulsion to provide transportation to and from the lunar surface to low lunar orbit using lunar oxygen as propellant. Oxygen, as an Electro-Thermal Propulsion (ETP) monopropellant, has specific impulse comparing favorably with chemical bipropellants, though not as high as cryogenic LO2+LH2. Lunar hydrogen is not available in non-polar regions and costly to transport from earth for use as fuel for lunar operations. However, oxygen is a major component of lunar soil and available given ISRU (In Situ Resource Utilization) infrastructure. Low-gravity and vacuum environment plus low velocity increments are distinct advantages favoring lunar-based beamed energy propulsion. In lunar vacuum and low gravity environment, energy storage devices such as SMES (Superconductor Magnet Energy Storage) and FES (Flywheel Energy Storage) should exhibit improved efficiency. Microwave source design also favors vacuum operation.

  18. Rhenium-Oxygen Interactions at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.; Zhu, Dongming; Humphrey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    The reaction of pure rhenium metal with dilute oxygen/argon mixtures was studied from 600 to 1400 C. Temperature, oxygen pressure, and flow rates were systematically varied to determine the rate-controlling steps. At lower temperatures the oxygen/rhenium chemical reaction is rate limiting; at higher temperatures gas-phase diffusion of oxygen through the static boundary layer is rate limiting. At all temperatures post-reaction microstructures indicate preferential attack along certain crystallographic planes and defects.

  19. Oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition for the low-temperature direct growth of graphitic nanofibers on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Sheng; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we report an oxygen-assisted low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) method for the direct growth of graphitic nanofibers (GNFs) on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate at a low temperature (550 °C). By adding moderate concentrations of oxygen in a gas mixture of argon, ethylene, and hydrogen during LPCVD, an extremely dense GNF forest can be obtained on a nickel-coated FTO glass substrate. Though this process, the graphitic nanofibers are grown homogenously on a large area of FTO glass. It was observed that oxygen-assisted LPCVD leads to the direct growth of high-quality GNFs as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In combination with an N719 dye-sensitized TiO2 working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with a GNF counter electrode showed a power conversion efficiency of 5.51% under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm?2) illumination, which approached that of the DSSC with a Pt counter electrode (5.44%). The results demonstrated that our directly grown GNFs could be promising candidates for counter electrodes to achieve high performance in DSSCs.

  20. Wearable and flexible oxygen sensor for transcutaneous oxygen monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kohji Mitsubayashi; Yoshihiko Wakabayashi; Daisuke Murotomi; Takua Yamada; Tatsuya Kawase; Suketsune Iwagaki; Isao Karube

    2003-01-01

    A wearable and flexible oxygen sensor with membrane structure was constructed by pouching KCl electrolyte solution by both non-permeable (metal weldable) sheet and gas-permeable membrane with Pt- and Ag\\/AgCl-electrode patterned by microfabrication techniques. The electrolyte solution was fastened only by heat-sealing the edges of the weldable membranes without any chemical adhesives.The wearable oxygen sensor (thickness: 84?m) was applied to the

  1. ORNL/TM-2000/165 Ethanol Demand in United States

    E-print Network

    ORNL/TM-2000/165 Ethanol Demand in United States Regional Production of Oxygenate-limited Gasoline FOR ETHANOL CONCENTRATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5. THE DEMAND FOR ETHANOL USED IN U.S. REGIONAL OXYGENATE- LIMITED GASOLINE PRODUCTON IN YEAR 2006

  2. Long-term oxygen therapy for COPD. Improving longevity and quality of life in hypoxemic patients.

    PubMed

    Weg, J G; Haas, C F

    1998-04-01

    Long-term oxygen therapy can increase life expectancy in hypoxemic patients with COPD. Accurate identification of hypoxemia requires arterial blood gas measurements. Pulse oximetry can be used to measure trends in oxygenation, oxygen needs, and oxygen requirements during exercise and sleep. A detailed oxygen prescription indicates: (1) the oxygen dose (L/min), (2) the number of hours per day that oxygen therapy is required, (3) the dose required during exercise, (4) the oxygen supply system: concentrator, compressed gas cylinder, or liquid oxygen reservoir, and (5) the delivery device: nasal cannula, demand-flow device, reservoir cannula, or transtracheal oxygen catheter. PMID:9553593

  3. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    PubMed

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma. PMID:7487813

  4. ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT

    E-print Network

    ....................................................................................1-5 Sectoral Energy Demand Forecast ModelsCALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION ENERGY DEMAND FORECAST METHODS REPORT Companion Report to the California Energy Demand 2006-2016 Staff Energy Demand Forecast Report STAFFREPORT June 2005 CEC-400

  5. Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction

    E-print Network

    Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy...

  6. Production and Consumption of Reactive Oxygen Species by Fullerenes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the most important intermediates in chemical, photochemical, and biological processes. To understand the environmental exposure and toxicity of fullerenes better, the production and consumption of ROS (singlet oxygen, superoxide, hydrogen ...

  7. Chemical and Structural Dependences of the Fractionation of Oxygen and Silicon Isotopes Between Rock-forming Minerals: a First-Principles Density Functional Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Meheut; E. A. Schauble

    2008-01-01

    Ab initio methods based on density functional theory have proven to be successful in reproducing the physical and chemical properties of complex systems. Within this framework, we have recently developed a methodology to predict equilibrium fractionation factors as a function of temperature (1). We use PBE functionals, combined with the use of pseudopotentials and planewave basis sets. Our previous work

  8. Demand analysis system elasticities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. N. Cohen; J. A. Holte; P. J. Werbos

    1985-01-01

    The Demand Analysis System (DAS) provides energy consumption projections for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation sectors to 1995. These projections are developed within an integrated supply\\/demand balance framework known as the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS). Each of the end-use sectors is represented by a detailed structural econometric model within IFFS. These models are fully described in documentation reports,

  9. Supply and Demand

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson from Illuminations allows students to learn about linear equations in a real-world setting. The material applies linear equations to the concept of supply and demand. Students will be able to translate between table, graph and equation representations for supply and demand data. The lesson is intended for grades 9-12 and should require two class periods to complete.

  10. PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN DYNAMICS IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enrichment of estuaries and coastal waters can contribute to hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen) by increasing primary production and biological oxygen demand. Other factors, however, contribute to hypoxia and affect the susceptibility of coastal waters to hypoxia. Hypoxia fo...

  11. Oxygen transfer in a full-depth biological aerated filter.

    PubMed

    Stenstrom, Michael K; Rosso, Diego; Melcer, Henryk; Appleton, Ron; Occiano, Victor; Langworthy, Alan; Wong, Pete

    2008-07-01

    The City of San Diego, California, evaluated the performance capabilities of biological aerated filters (BAFs) at the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant. The City conducted a 1-year pilot-plant evaluation of BAF technology supplied by two BAF manufacturers. This paper reports on the first independent oxygen-transfer test of BAFs at full depth using the offgas method. The tests showed process-water oxygen-transfer efficiencies of 1.6 to 5.8%/m (0.5 to 1.8%/ft) and 3.9 to 7.9%/m (1.2 to 2.4%/ft) for the two different pilot plants, at their nominal design conditions. Mass balances using chemical oxygen demand and dissolved organic carbon corroborated the transfer rates. Rates are higher than expected from fine-pore diffusers for similar process conditions and depths and clean-water conditions for the same column and are mostly attributed to extended bubble retention time resulting from interactions with the media and biofilm. PMID:18710150

  12. Integrated-Optic Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Lieberman, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Compact optical oxygen sensors with self-calibration capabilities are undergoing development. A sensor of this type features a single-chip, integrated-optic design implemented by photolithographic fabrication of optical waveguides in a photosensitive porous glass. The porosity serves as both a matrix for retention of an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent indicator chemical and a medium for diffusion of oxygen to the chemical from the ambient air to be monitored. Each sensor includes at least one such waveguide exposed to the atmosphere and at least one covered with metal for isolation from the atmosphere. The covered one serves as a reference channel. In operation, the concentration of oxygen is deduced from the intensity and lifetime of the fluorescence in the exposed channel, with the help of calibration data acquired via the reference channel. Because the sensory chemical is placed directly in and throughout the cross section of the light path, approximately 99 percent of the light in the waveguide is available for interaction with the chemical, in contradistinction to only about 1 percent of the light in an optical sensor that utilizes evanescentwave coupling. Hence, a sensor of this type is significantly more sensitive.

  13. Supply and Demand

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a good breastfeeding rhythm with your baby. In reality, the efficient supply-and-demand rhythm of normal ... is one reason it’s a good idea to alternate which breast you use to begin nursing. A ...

  14. Market Demands on Broilers. 

    E-print Network

    Beanblossom, Floyd Z.; Miller, Marshall M.

    1962-01-01

    , Extension Poultry Marketing Specialist MARSHALL M. MILLER, Associate Extension Poultry Marketing Specialist The A&M College of Texas ARKET DEMANDS ON BROILERS make it neces- M sary that they have the following condi- tions: Grade A quality, tender, eye...

  15. Effect of light transmittance and oxygen permeability of various packaging materials on keeping quality of low fat pasteurized milk: chemical and sensorial aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodora Moyssiadi; Anastasia Badeka; Efthymia Kondyli; Theodora Vakirtzi; Ioannis Savvaidis; Michael G Kontominas

    2004-01-01

    Chemical and sensory changes in low fat (15gkg?1) pasteurized milk stored under fluorescent light at 4°C in 500mL bottles made of (a) multilayer pigmented [HDPE (high-density polyethylene)+20gkg?1 TiO2\\/HDPE+40gkg?1 carbon black\\/HDPE+20gkg?1 TiO2], (b) monolayer pigmented [HDPE+20gkg?1 TiO2], (c) clear PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and (d) pigmented [PET+20gkg?1 TiO2] were monitored for a period of 7 days. Milk packaged in coated paperboard cartons

  16. Traditional Housing Demand Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harry J. F. M. Boumeester

    \\u000a This chapter starts with a description of general research into housing preferences. Next, the procedure for the move from\\u000a measuring housing preferences to housing demand research is explained. Furthermore, a state of the art of studies that have\\u000a applied the transverse, or cross-sectional, approach in the analysis of housing demand is provided. In the final section,\\u000a an example of a

  17. The debate on continuous home oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lobato, Salvador; García González, José Luis; Mayoralas Alises, Sagrario

    2015-01-01

    Two studies published in the early 80s, namely the Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial (NOTT) and the Medical Research Council Trial (MRC), laid the foundations for modern home oxygen therapy. Since then, little progress has been made in terms of therapeutic indications, and several prescription-associated problems have come to light. Advances in technology have gone hand in hand with growing disregard for the recommendations in clinical guidelines on oxygen therapy. The introduction of liquid oxygen brought with it a number of technical problems, clinical problems related to selecting candidate patients for portable delivery devices, and economic problems associated with the rising cost of the therapy. Continuous home oxygen therapy has been further complicated by the recent introduction of portable oxygen concentrators and the development in quick succession of a range of delivery devices with different levels of efficiency and performance. Modern oxygen therapy demands that clinicians evaluate the level of mobility of their patients and the mobility permitted by available oxygen sources, correctly match patients with the most appropriate oxygen source and adjust the therapy accordingly. The future of continuous home oxygen therapy lies in developing the ideal delivery device, improving the regulations systems and information channels, raise patient awareness and drive research. PMID:24976235

  18. Power generation capabilities of microbial fuel cells with different oxygen supplies in the cathodic chamber.

    PubMed

    Juang, Der-Fong; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Hsueh, Shu-Chun; Chou, Huei-Yin

    2012-06-01

    Two microbial fuel cells (MFCs) inoculated with activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant were constructed. Oxygen was provided by mechanical aeration in the cathodic chamber of one MFC, whereas it was obtained by the photosynthesis of algae in the other. Electrogenic capabilities of both MFCs were compared under the same operational conditions. Results showed that the MFC with mechanical aeration in the cathodic chamber displayed higher power output than the one with photosynthesis of algae. Good linear relationship between power density and chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate was obtained only on the MFC with mechanical aeration. Furthermore, the relationships between power density and effluent COD and between Coulombic efficiency and COD loading rate can only be expressed as binary quadratic equations for the MFC with mechanical aeration and not for the one with photosynthesis of algae. PMID:22588734

  19. OXYGEN TRANSPORT IN THE MICROCIRCULATION AND ITS REGULATION

    PubMed Central

    Pittman, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    Cells require energy to carry out their functions and they typically use oxidative phosphorylation to generate the needed ATP. Thus, cells have a continuous need for oxygen which they receive by diffusion from the blood through the interstitial fluid. The circulatory system pumps oxygen-rich blood through a network of increasingly minute vessels, the microcirculation. The structure of the microcirculation is such that all cells have at least one nearby capillary for diffusive exchange of oxygen and red blood cells release the oxygen bound to hemoglobin as they traverse capillaries. This review focuses first on the historical development of techniques to measure oxygen at various sites in the microcirculation, including the blood, interstitium and cells. Next, approaches are described as to how these techniques have been employed to make discoveries about different aspects of oxygen transport. Finally, ways in which oxygen might participate in the regulation of blood flow toward matching oxygen supply to oxygen demand is discussed. Overall, the transport of oxygen to the cells of the body is one of the most critical functions of the cardiovascular system and it is in the microcirculation where the final local determinants of oxygen supply, oxygen demand and their regulation are decided. PMID:23025284

  20. Electrical Demand Control 

    E-print Network

    Eppelheimer, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    ting demand would be to let all equipment in the building operate until 323 pulses are counted. If the elapsed time is 15 minutes or. more, no action is required. If the elapsed time is less than 15 minutes, all equipment must be turned off... given time. This situation can be compounded by night setback time clocks. The cost of applying demand 1 imi ting to a 1 arger number of units can be signif i- can tly reduced by grouping compressors. These compressor groups should be establ ished...

  1. The oxygen paradox of neurovascular coupling

    PubMed Central

    Leithner, Christoph; Royl, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The coupling of cerebral blood flow (CBF) to neuronal activity is well preserved during evolution. Upon changes in the neuronal activity, an incompletely understood coupling mechanism regulates diameter changes of supplying blood vessels, which adjust CBF within seconds. The physiologic brain tissue oxygen content would sustain unimpeded brain function for only 1?second if continuous oxygen supply would suddenly stop. This suggests that the CBF response has evolved to balance oxygen supply and demand. Surprisingly, CBF increases surpass the accompanying increases of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2). However, a disproportionate CBF increase may be required to increase the concentration gradient from capillary to tissue that drives oxygen delivery. However, the brain tissue oxygen content is not zero, and tissue pO2 decreases could serve to increase oxygen delivery without a CBF increase. Experimental evidence suggests that CMRO2 can increase with constant CBF within limits and decreases of baseline CBF were observed with constant CMRO2. This conflicting evidence may be viewed as an oxygen paradox of neurovascular coupling. As a possible solution for this paradox, we hypothesize that the CBF response has evolved to safeguard brain function in situations of moderate pathophysiological interference with oxygen supply. PMID:24149931

  2. Oxygen requirements of the earliest animals.

    PubMed

    Mills, Daniel B; Ward, Lewis M; Jones, Carriayne; Sweeten, Brittany; Forth, Michael; Treusch, Alexander H; Canfield, Donald E

    2014-03-18

    A rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans is one of the most popular explanations for the relatively late and abrupt appearance of animal life on Earth. In this scenario, Earth's surface environment failed to meet the high oxygen requirements of animals up until the middle to late Neoproterozoic Era (850-542 million years ago), when oxygen concentrations sufficiently rose to permit the existence of animal life for the first time. Although multiple lines of geochemical evidence support an oxygenation of the Ediacaran oceans (635-542 million years ago), roughly corresponding with the first appearance of metazoans in the fossil record, the oxygen requirements of basal animals remain unclear. Here we show that modern demosponges, serving as analogs for early animals, can survive under low-oxygen conditions of 0.5-4.0% present atmospheric levels. Because the last common ancestor of metazoans likely exhibited a physiology and morphology similar to that of a modern sponge, its oxygen demands may have been met well before the enhanced oxygenation of the Ediacaran Period. Therefore, the origin of animals may not have been triggered by a contemporaneous rise in the oxygen content of the atmosphere and oceans. Instead, other ecological and developmental processes are needed to adequately explain the origin and earliest evolution of animal life on Earth. PMID:24550467

  3. The Maillard reaction of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate: chemical changes and inhibiting effects of reactive oxygen species in human HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zha, Fengchao; Wei, Binbin; Chen, Shengjun; Dong, Shiyuan; Zeng, Mingyong; Liu, Zunying

    2015-06-10

    Recently, much attention has been given to improving the antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates via the Maillard reaction, but little is known about the cellular antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from protein hydrolysates. We first investigated chemical characterization and the cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs in a shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by-product protein hydrolysate (SBH)-glucose system at 110 °C for up to 10 h of heating. Solutions of SBH and glucose were also heated alone as controls. The Maillard reaction greatly resulted in the increase of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and browning intensity, high molecular weight fraction, and reduction of the total amino acid in SBH with the heating time, which correlated well with the free radical scavenging activity of MRPs. MRPs had stronger inhibiting effects on oxidative stress of human HepG2 cells than the original SBH, and its cellular antioxidant activity strongly correlated with free radical scavenging activity, but less affected by the browning intensity and HMF level. The caramelization of glucose partially affected the HMF level and free radical scavenging activity of MRPs, but it was not related to the cellular antioxidant activity. The cellular antioxidant activity of MRPs for 5 h of heating time appeared to reach a maximum level, which was mainly due to carbonyl ammonia condensation reaction. In conclusion, the Maillard reaction is a potential method to increase the cellular antioxidant activity of a shrimp by-product protein hydrolysate, but the higher HMF levels and the lower amino acid content in MRPs should also be considered. PMID:25965854

  4. Energy Demand to 2015

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John FitzGerald

    2000-01-01

    This working paper outlines a set of forecasts for the likely development of energy demand in Ireland over the next 15 years. The Central Forecast, based on the ESRI Medium-Term Review: 1999-2006, published last year, represents the scenario that we consider to be the most likely. However, because of the wide range of uncertainty involved in such an exercise, we

  5. Demanding Divestment from Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Bowing to student demands to "stop supporting genocide," the University of California regents voted earlier this year to divest millions of dollars from companies working in the war-torn African nation of Sudan, the first major public university in the nation to take such action. Since student protests on the subject began at Harvard University in…

  6. Electrical Demand Management

    E-print Network

    Fetters, J. L.; Teets, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    imp 1emented by the authors at the Columbus Works of the Western Electric Company, Inc. These measures have been i ncorpor rated into a formal Demand Management Pl an that is an integra1 and important component of the Energy Management Program...

  7. Energy Demand Staff Scientist

    E-print Network

    Eisen, Michael

    #12;Sources: China National Bureau of Statistics; U.S. Energy Information Administration, Annual consumption per ton steel #12;Industrial Energy EfficiencyIndustrial Energy Efficiency Policy AnalysisEnergy Demand in China Lynn Price Staff Scientist February 2, 2010 #12;Founded in 1988 Focused

  8. Market Demands on Broilers. 

    E-print Network

    Beanblossom, Floyd Z.; Miller, Marshall M.

    1958-01-01

    . I 'NO limit on size and number of areas of discoloration and flesh bruises if such areas do not render any part of ti carcass unfit for food. 4 Market Demands on Broilers FLOYD Z. BEANBLOSSOM, Extension Poultry Marketing Specialist MARSHALL M...

  9. Erythrocytes: Oxygen Sensors and Modulators of Vascular Tone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mary L. Ellsworth (Saint Louis University)

    2009-04-01

    Through oxygen-dependent release of the vasodilator ATP, the mobile erythrocyte plays a fundamental role in matching microvascular oxygen supply with local tissue oxygen demand. Signal transduction within the erythrocyte and microvessels as well as feedback mechanisms controlling ATP release have been described. Our understanding of the impact of this novel control mechanism will rely on the integration of in vivo experiments and computational models.

  10. Influence of source characteristics, chemicals, and flocculation on chemically enhanced primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Dilli R; Riffat, Rumana; Murthy, Sudhir N; Peric, Marija R; Wilson, Thomas E

    2008-04-01

    The overall objective of this research was to investigate various methods and parameters to increase the efficiency of chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT). The performance of CEPT was evaluated based on its efficiency of removal of nonsettleable solids (NSS). Some of the source characteristics that influenced NSS concentration included influent total suspended solids, influent turbidity, and influent total chemical oxygen demand. A higher concentration of the influent constituents led to a higher NSS concentration, suggesting that NSS represented a somewhat fixed fraction or percent of these influent constituents. The specific particle surface area (SPSA) was found to correlate with percent NSS in the effluent. A higher SPSA is a result of smaller-sized nonsettleable colloidal particles, thus leading to an increase in percent NSS. In summary, there are several parameters that affect NSS, which could be used to control NSS to improve CEPT, as demonstrated by this study. PMID:18536484

  11. Living with Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Oxygen Therapy Oxygen therapy helps many people function better and be ... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Although you may need oxygen therapy continuously or for long periods, it doesn' ...

  12. Comparison of various advanced oxidation processes and chemical treatment methods for COD and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Azbar; T. Yonar; K. Kestioglu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison of various advanced oxidation processes (O3, O3\\/UV, H2O2\\/UV, O3\\/H2O2\\/UV, Fe2+\\/H2O2) and chemical treatment methods using Al2(SO4)3·18H2O, FeCl3 and FeSO4 for the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal from a polyester and acetate fiber dyeing effluent is undertaken. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) showed a superior performance compared to conventional chemical treatment, which maximum achievable color

  13. Design and Testing of a Novel Hypolimnetic Oxygenation System to Improve Water Quality in Lake Bard, California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Debroux; Marc W. Beutel; Craig M. Thompson; Susan Mulligan; Don Kendall

    2012-01-01

    Hypolimnetic oxygenation, the engineered addition of oxygen gas to the bottom of lakes and reservoirs, can improve water quality by repressing the accumulation of nutrients, metals, and toxic compounds in bottom waters. This paper describes the design and testing of an oxygenation system in Lake Bard, CA. Hypolimnetic oxygen demand, a key design parameter, was estimated through the combination of

  14. Distal and proximal ligand interactions in heme proteins: Correlations between C-O and Fe-C vibrational frequencies, oxygen-17 and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts, and oxygen-17 nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in C sup 17 O- and sup 13 CO-labeled species

    SciTech Connect

    Ki Deok Park; Guo, K.; Adebodun, F.; Chiu, M.L.; Sligar, S.G.; Oldfield, E. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States))

    1991-03-05

    The authors have obtained the oxygen-17 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of a variety of C{sup 17}O-labeled heme proteins, including sperm whale (Physeter catodon) myoglobin, two synthetic sperm whale myoglobin mutants (His E7 {yields} Val E7; His E7 {yields} Phe E7), adult human hemoglobin, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) hemoglobin, horseradish (Cochlearia armoracia) peroxidase isoenzymes A and C, and Caldariomyces fumago chloroperoxidase, in some cases as a function of pH, and have determined their isotropic {sup 17}O NMR chemical shifts, {delta}{sub i}, and spin-lattice relaxation times, T{sub 1}. They have also obtained similar results on a picket fence prophyrin. The results show an excellent correlation between the infrared C-O vibrational frequencies, {nu}(C-O), and {delta}{sub i}, between {nu}(C-O) and the {sup 17}O nuclear quadrupole coupling constant, and as expected between e{sup 2}qQ/h and {delta}{sub i}. The results suggest the IR and NMR measurements reflect the same interaction, which is thought to be primarily the degree of {pi}-back-bonding from Fe d to CO {pi}* orbitals, as outlined previously.

  15. Demand surge following earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Anna H.

    2012-01-01

    Demand surge is understood to be a socio-economic phenomenon where repair costs for the same damage are higher after large- versus small-scale natural disasters. It has reportedly increased monetary losses by 20 to 50%. In previous work, a model for the increased costs of reconstruction labor and materials was developed for hurricanes in the Southeast United States. The model showed that labor cost increases, rather than the material component, drove the total repair cost increases, and this finding could be extended to earthquakes. A study of past large-scale disasters suggested that there may be additional explanations for demand surge. Two such explanations specific to earthquakes are the exclusion of insurance coverage for earthquake damage and possible concurrent causation of damage from an earthquake followed by fire or tsunami. Additional research into these aspects might provide a better explanation for increased monetary losses after large- vs. small-scale earthquakes.

  16. Spatially monitoring oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems using optical oxygen sensing beads

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Acosta, Miguel A.; Leach, Jennie B.; Carrier, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    Capability of measuring and monitoring local oxygen concentration at the single cell level (tens of microns scale) is often desirable but difficult to achieve in cell culture. In this study, biocompatible oxygen sensing beads were prepared and tested for their potential for real-time monitoring and mapping of local oxygen concentration in 3D micro-patterned cell culture systems. Each oxygen sensing bead is composed of a silica core loaded with both an oxygen sensitive Ru(Ph2phen3)Cl2 dye and oxygen insensitive Nile blue reference dye, and a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) shell rendering biocompatibility. Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were cultivated on a series of PDMS and type I collagen based substrates patterned with micro-well arrays for 3 or 7 days, and then brought into contact with oxygen sensing beads. Using an image analysis algorithm to convert florescence intensity of beads to partial oxygen pressure in the culture system, tens of microns-size oxygen sensing beads enabled the spatial measurement of local oxygen concentration in the microfabricated system. Results generally indicated lower oxygen level inside wells than on top of wells, and local oxygen level dependence on structural features of cell culture surfaces. Interestingly, chemical composition of cell culture substrates also appeared to affect oxygen level, with type-I collagen based cell culture systems having lower oxygen concentration compared to PDMS based cell culture systems. In general, results suggest that oxygen sensing beads can be utilized to achieve real-time and local monitoring of micro-environment oxygen level in 3D microfabricated cell culture systems. PMID:23443975

  17. Effects of dissolved oxygen on dye removal by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Sung; Lin, Chiou-Liang; Wei, Ming-Chi; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Li, Heng-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hua; Fang, Yung-Tai; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2010-10-15

    Effects of dissolved oxygen concentrations on dye removal by zero-valent iron (Fe(0)) were investigated. The Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test was employed to evaluate toxicity of decolorized solution. Three dyes, Acid Orange 7 (AO7, monoazo), Reactive Red 120 (RR120, diazo), and Acid Blue 9 (AB9, triphenylmethane), were selected as model dyes. The dye concentration and Fe(0) dose used were 100 mg L(-1) and 30 g L(-1), respectively. Under anoxic condition, the order for dye decolorization was AO7>RR120>AB9. An increase in the dissolved oxygen concentrations enhanced decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of the three dyes. An increase in gas flow rates also improved dye and COD removals by Fe(0). At dissolved oxygen of 6 mg L(-1), more than 99% of each dye was decolorized within 12 min and high COD removals were obtained (97% for AO7, 87% for RR120, and 93% for AB9). The toxicity of decolorized dye solutions was low (I(5)<40%). An increase in DO concentrations obviously reduced the toxicity. When DO above 2 mg L(-1) was applied, low iron ion concentration (13.6 mg L(-1)) was obtained in the decolorized AO7 solution. PMID:20667424

  18. Visualizing chemical reactions and crossover processes in a fuel cell inserted in the ESR resonator: detection by spin trapping of oxygen radicals, nafion-derived fragments, and hydrogen and deuterium atoms.

    PubMed

    Danilczuk, Marek; Coms, Frank D; Schlick, Shulamith

    2009-06-11

    We present experiments in an in situ fuel cell (FC) inserted in the resonator of the ESR spectrometer that offered the ability to observe separately processes at anode and cathode sides and to monitor the formation of HO and HOO radicals, H and D atoms, and radical fragments derived from the Nafion membrane. The presence of the radicals was determined by spin-trapping electron spin resonance (ESR) with 5,5-dimethylpyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap. The in situ FC was operated at 300 K with a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) based on Nafion 117 and Pt as catalyst, at closed and open circuit voltage conditions, CCV and OCV, respectively. Experiments with H(2) or D(2) at the anode and O(2) at the cathode were performed. The DMPO/OH adduct was detected only at the cathode for CCV operation, suggesting generation of hydroxyl radicals from H(2)O(2) formed electrochemically via the two-electron reduction of oxygen. The DMPO/OOH adduct, detected in this study for the first time in a FC, appeared at the cathode and anode for OCV operation, and at the cathode after CCV FC operation of >or=2 h. These results were interpreted in terms of electrochemical generation of HOO at the cathode (HO + H(2)O(2) --> H(2)O + HOO) and its chemical generation at the anode from hydrogen atoms and crossover oxygen (H + O(2) --> HOO). DMPO/H and DMPO/D adducts were detected at the anode and cathode sides, for CCV and OCV operation; H and D are aggressive radicals capable of abstracting fluorine from the tertiary carbon in the polymer membrane chain and of leading to chain fragmentation. Carbon-centered radical (CCR) adducts were detected at the cathode after CCV FC operation; weak CCR signals were also detected at the anode. CCRs can originate only from the Nafion membranes, and their presence indicates membrane fragmentation. Taken together, this study has demonstrated that FC operation involves processes such as gas crossover, reactions at the catalyst surface, and possible attack of the membrane by reactive H or D that do not occur in ex situ experiments in the laboratory, thus implying different mechanistic pathways in the two types of experiments. PMID:19453175

  19. Incorporating demand shifters in the Almost Ideal demand system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian M. Alston; James A. Chalfant; Nicholas E. Piggott

    2001-01-01

    Intercepts of share equations generally include demand shift variables. In the Almost Ideal demand system and related models, this results in estimates that depend on units of measurement. Solutions to this problem are identified and discussed.

  20. Drivers of summer oxygen depletion in the central North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queste, B. Y.; Fernand, L.; Jickells, T. D.; Heywood, K. J.; Hind, A. J.

    2015-06-01

    In stratified shelf seas, oxygen depletion beneath the thermocline is a result of a greater rate of biological oxygen demand than the rate of supply of oxygenated water. Suitably equipped gliders are uniquely placed to observe both the supply through the thermocline and the consumption of oxygen in the bottom layers. A Seaglider was deployed in the shallow (? 100 m) stratified North Sea in a region of known low oxygen during August 2011 to investigate the processes regulating supply and consumption of dissolved oxygen below the pycnocline. The first deployment of such a device in this area, it provided extremely high resolution observations, 316 profiles (every 16 min, vertical resolution of 1 m) of CTD, dissolved oxygen concentrations, backscatter and fluorescence during a three day deployment. The high temporal resolution observations revealed occasional small scale events that supply oxygenated water into the bottom layer at a rate of 2±1 ?mol dm-3 day-1. Benthic and pelagic oxygen sinks, quantified through glider observations and past studies, indicate more gradual background consumption rates of 2.5±1 ?mol dm-3 day-1. This budget revealed that the balance of oxygen supply and demand is in agreement with previous studies of the North Sea. However, the glider data show a net oxygen consumption rate of 2.8±0.3 ?mol dm-3 day-1 indicating a localised or short-lived increase in oxygen consumption rates. This high rate of oxygen consumption is indicative of an unidentified oxygen sink. We propose that this elevated oxygen consumption is linked to localised depocentres and rapid remineralisation of resuspensded organic matter. The glider proved to be an excellent tool for monitoring shelf sea processes despite challenges to glider flight posed by high tidal velocities, shallow bathymetry, and very strong density gradients. The direct observation of these processes allows more up to date rates to be used in the development of ecosystem models.

  1. Assessment of physiological demand in kitesurfing.

    PubMed

    Vercruyssen, F; Blin, N; L'huillier, D; Brisswalter, J

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the physiological demands of kitesurfing, ten elite subjects performed an incremental running test on a 400-m track and a 30-min on-water crossing trial during a light crosswind (LW, 12-15 knots). Oxygen uptake (V(O)(2)) was estimated from the heart rate (HR) recorded during the crossing trial using the individual HR-V(O)(2) relationship determined during the incremental test. Blood lactate concentration [La(b)] was measured at rest and 3 min after the exercise completion. Mean HR and estimated V(O)(2) values represented, respectively 80.6 +/- 7.5% of maximal heart rate and 69.8 +/- 11.7% of maximal oxygen uptake for board speeds ranging from 15 to 17 knots. Low values for [La(b)] were observed at the end of crossing trial (2.1 +/- 1.2 mmol l(-1). This first analysis of kitesurfing suggests that the energy demand is mainly sustained by aerobic metabolism during a LW condition. PMID:18841379

  2. Dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River, Oregon, during winter flow conditions, 1991 and 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the winter period, November through April, wastewater treatment plants in the Tualatin River Basin discharge from 10,000 to 15,000 pounds per day of biochemical oxygen demand to the river. These loads often increase substantially during storms when streamflow is high. During the early winter season, when streamflow is frequently less than the average winter flow, the treatment plants discharge about 2,000 pounds per day of ammonia. This study focused on the capacity of the Tualatin River to assimilat oxygen-demanding loads under winter streamflow conditions during the 1992 water year, with an emphasis on peak-flow conditions in the river, and winter-base-flow conditions during November 1992. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen throughout the main stem of the river during the winter remained generally high relative to the State standard for Oregon of 6 milligrams per liter. The most important factors controlling oxygen consumption during winter-low-flow conditions were carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and input of oxygen-depleted waters from tributaries. During peak-flow conditions, reduced travel time and increased dilution associated with the increased streamflow minimized the effect of increased oxygen-demanding loads. During the base-flow period in November 1992, concentrations of dissolved oxygen were consistently below 6 milligrams per liter. A hydrodynamic water-quality model was used to identify the processes depleting dissolved oxygen, including sediment oxygen demand, nitrification, and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand. Sediment oxygen demand was the most significant factor; nitrification was also important. Hypothetical scenarios were posed to evaluate the effect of different wastewater treatment plant loads during winter-base-flow conditions. Streamflow and temperature were significant factors governing concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the main-stem river.

  3. Thermogravimetric studies of oxygen stoichiometry and oxygen transport kinetics in lanthanum strontium ferrite manganites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kjær; I. G. Krogh Andersen; E. Skou

    1998-01-01

    Oxygen stoichiometry and transport in (La1?xSrx)0.95FeyMn1?yOz (0?x?0.30, 0?y?0.7) was investigated by thermogravimetry at 800–1000°C upon repetitive changes between N2- and N2\\/O2-atmospheres and by chemical analysis. The materials was found to be overstoichiometric with respect to oxygen in air at 1000°C at low substitution levels changing to understoichiometric at the highest substitution levels. The oxygen transport kinetics and the oxygen diffusion

  4. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood. ... Carnay AY. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, an introduction. Crit Care Nurs Q . 2013;36:274-279. Rabinowitz RP, Caplan ES. Hyperbaric oxygen. In: Mandell ...

  5. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

  6. Singlet molecular oxygen generated by biological hydroperoxides.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Sayuri; Martinez, Glaucia R; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The chemistry behind the phenomenon of ultra-weak photon emission has been subject of considerable interest for decades. Great progress has been made on the understanding of the chemical generation of electronically excited states that are involved in these processes. Proposed mechanisms implicated the production of excited carbonyl species and singlet molecular oxygen in the mechanism of generation of chemiluminescence in biological system. In particular, attention has been focused on the potential generation of singlet molecular oxygen in the recombination reaction of peroxyl radicals by the Russell mechanism. In the last ten years, our group has demonstrated the generation of singlet molecular oxygen from reactions involving the decomposition of biologically relevant hydroperoxides, especially from lipid hydroperoxides in the presence of metal ions, peroxynitrite, HOCl and cytochrome c. In this review we will discuss details on the chemical aspects related to the mechanism of singlet molecular oxygen generation from different biological hydroperoxides. PMID:24954800

  7. Dividends with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Goldman, Charles; Sezgen, O.; Pratt, D.

    2003-10-31

    To assist facility managers in assessing whether and to what extent they should participate in demand response programs offered by ISOs, we introduce a systematic process by which a curtailment supply curve can be developed that integrates costs and other program provisions and features. This curtailment supply curve functions as bid curve, which allows the facility manager to incrementally offer load to the market under terms and conditions acceptable to the customer. We applied this load curtailment assessment process to a stylized example of an office building, using programs offered by NYISO to provide detail and realism.

  8. Octacoordinated Dioxo-Molybdenum Complex via Formal Oxidative Addition of Molecular Oxygen. Studies of Chemical Reactions Between M(CO)6 (M = Cr, Mo) and 2,4-Di-tert-butyl-6-(pyridin-2-ylazo)-phenol.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ipsita; Saha Chowdhury, Nabanita; Ghosh, Pradip; Goswami, Sreebrata

    2015-06-01

    Reactions of M(CO)6 (M = Mo, Cr) and 2 mol of 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(pyridin-2-ylazo)-phenol ligand (HL) in air yielded [Mo(VI)O2(L(1)¯)2], 1, and [Cr(III)(L(1)¯)(L(•2)¯)], 2, respectively, in high yields. Formation of the Cr-complex is a substitution reaction, which is associated with electron transfer, while that of Mo is an example of molecular oxygen activation. Isolated monoradical chromium complex 2 is susceptible to oxidation. Accordingly the reaction of 2 with the oxidant, I2 produces a cationic nonradical complex of chemical composition [Cr(III)(L(1)¯)2]I3, [2]I3 in almost quantitative yield. All the isolated complexes are primarily characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and magnetic measurements. While the molybdenum complex is diamagnetic, the two chromium complexes behave as simple paramagnets: ?eff (295 K), 2.81 ?B and 3.79 ?B for 2 and [2]I3, respectively. Single-crystal three-dimensional X-ray structures of 1, 2, [2]I3 are reported. The geometry of the Mo-complex is square antiprism (octacoordination), and that of the Cr-complexes is distorted octahedral. Redox properties of the complexes are studied by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential coulometry. The data are analyzed based on density functional theoretical calculations of molecular orbitals of redox isomers of the Cr complexes. The results indicated that the redox events in the complexes occur at the ligand center. The oxidation state of Cr in 2 is further assessed by XPS measurements and compared with the reported systems. PMID:25978689

  9. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. If coal to chemicals capacity reaches 70 million tonnes and coal-to-liquids capacity reaches 60 million tonnes, coal feedstock requirements would add an additional 450 million tonnes by 2025. Even with more efficient growth among these drivers, China's annual coal demand is expected to reach 3.9 to 4.3 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not reversed China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Substitution is a matter of scale: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth of 200 million tonnes would require 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas (compared to 2007 growth of 13 BCM), 48 GW of nuclear (compared to 2007 growth of 2 GW), or 86 GW of hydropower capacity (compared to 2007 growth of 16 GW). Ongoing dependence on coal reduces China's ability to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions growth. If coal demand remains on a high growth path, carbon dioxide emissions from coal combustion alone would exceed total US energy-related carbon emissions by 2010. Within China's coal-dominated energy system, domestic transportation has emerged as the largest bottleneck for coal industry growth and is likely to remain a constraint to further expansion. China has a low proportion of high-quality reserves, but is producing its best coal first. Declining quality will further strain production and transport capacity. Furthermore, transporting coal to users has overloaded the train system and dramatically increased truck use, raising transportation oil demand. Growing international imports have helped to offset domestic transport bottlenecks. In the long term, import demand is likely to exceed 200 million tonnes by 2025, significantly impacting regional markets.

  10. Oxygen sensing and signaling.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Joost T; Licausi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is an indispensable substrate for many biochemical reactions in plants, including energy metabolism (respiration). Despite its importance, plants lack an active transport mechanism to distribute oxygen to all cells. Therefore, steep oxygen gradients occur within most plant tissues, which can be exacerbated by environmental perturbations that further reduce oxygen availability. Plants possess various responses to cope with spatial and temporal variations in oxygen availability, many of which involve metabolic adaptations to deal with energy crises induced by low oxygen. Responses are induced gradually when oxygen concentrations decrease and are rapidly reversed upon reoxygenation. A direct effect of the oxygen level can be observed in the stability, and thus activity, of various transcription factors that control the expression of hypoxia-induced genes. Additional signaling pathways are activated by the impact of oxygen deficiency on mitochondrial and chloroplast functioning. Here, we describe the molecular components of the oxygen-sensing pathway. PMID:25580837

  11. Demand Response: Load Management Programs

    E-print Network

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs... V. Residential Discussion Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off...

  12. Stress Signaling III: Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikael Brosché; Kirk Overmyer; Michael Wrzaczek; Jaakko Kangasjärvi; Saijaliisa Kangasjärvi

    \\u000a Previously regarded merely as damaging agents, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now understood as important signal molecules\\u000a vital to normal plant growth. This tutorial review covers the emerging view of ROS signaling networks from ROS production\\u000a to specific outputs. The chemical nature of individual reactive oxygen species, their site of the production, control of ROS\\u000a accumulation via scavenging and detoxification,

  13. Frontiers in energy demand modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R S Hartman

    1979-01-01

    The author reviews and assesses several energy demand models, explores the more promising directions being taken, and suggests new frontiers for future model development. Energy demand for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors is modeled in both static and dynamic terms. The implications of behavior decisions are examined as they apply to energy demand and forecasting. The literature reflects a

  14. World transport energy demand modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Wohlgemuth

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the International Energy Agency's (IEA) approach of modelling transport energy demand. Fuel demand, which is not a demand per se, is derived, whenever possible, from the economic activity in the transport sector and not estimated directly, ie using one equation or (simultaneous) equation system. In general, the transport models employ a ‘two-step-approach’: in the first step, transport

  15. Modeling impact of storage zones on stream dissolved oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapra, S.C.; Runkel, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen model is modified to incorporate storage zones. A dimensionless number reflecting enhanced decomposition caused by the increased residence time of the biochemical oxygen demand in the storage zone parameterizes the impact. This result provides a partial explanation for the high decomposition rates observed in shallow streams. An application suggests that the storage zone increases the critical oxygen deficit and moves it closer to the point source. It also indicates that the storage zone should have lower oxygen concentration than the main channel. An analysis of a dimensionless enhancement factor indicates that the biochemical oxygen demand decomposition in small streams could be up to two to three times more than anticipated based on the standard Streeter-Phelps model without storage zones. For larger rivers, enhancements of up to 1.5 could occur.The Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen model is modified to incorporate storage zones. A dimensionless number reflecting enhanced decomposition caused by the increased residence time of the biochemical oxygen demand in the storage zone parameterizes the impact. This result provides a partial explanation for the high decomposition rates observed in shallow streams. An application suggests that the storage zone increases the critical oxygen deficit and moves it closer to the point source. It also indicates that the storage zone should have lower oxygen concentration than the main channel. An analysis of a dimensionless enhancement factor indicates that the biochemical oxygen demand decomposition in small streams could be up to two to three times more than anticipated based on the standard Streeter-Phelps model without storage zones. For larger rivers, enhancements of up to 1.5 could occur.

  16. Transition metal substituted SrTiO3 perovskite oxides as promising functional materials for oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Sunasira

    2012-07-01

    Modern industries employ several gases as process fluids. Leakage of these gases in the operating area could lead to undesirable consequences. Even in chemical industries, which use large quantities of inert gases in confined areas, accidental leakage of these process gases would result in the reduction of oxygen partial pressure in atmospheric air. For instance, large amounts of gaseous nitrogen and argon are used in pharmaceutical industries, gas filling/bottling plants, operating area of Fast Breeder reactors, etc. Fall of concentration of oxygen in air below 17% could lead to life risk (Asphyxiation) of the working personnel that has to be checked well in advance. Further, when the leaking gas is of explosive nature, its damage potential would be very high if its concentration level in air increases beyond its lower explosive limit. Surveillance of the ambient within these industries at the critical areas and also in the environment around them for oxygen therefore becomes highly essential. Sensitive and selective gas sensors made of advanced materials are required to meet this demand of monitoring environmental pollution. The perovskite class of oxides (ABO3) is chemically stable even at high temperatures and can tolerate large levels of dopants without phase transformations. The electronic properties of this parent functional material can be tailored by adding appropriate dopants that exhibit different valence states. Aliovalent transition metal substituted SrTiO3 perovskites are good mixed ionic and electronic conductors and potential candidates for sensing oxygen at percentage level exploiting their oxygen pressure dependent electrical conductivity. This paper presents the preparation, study of electrical conductivity and oxygen-sensing characteristics of iron and cobalt substituted SrTiO3.

  17. Do large predatory fish track ocean oxygenation?

    PubMed

    Dahl, Tais W; Hammarlund, Emma U

    2011-01-01

    The Devonian appearance of 1-10 meter long armored fish (placoderms) coincides with geochemical evidence recording a transition into fully oxygenated oceans.1 A comparison of extant fish shows that the large individuals are less tolerant to hypoxia than their smaller cousins. This leads us to hypothesize that Early Paleozoic O(2) saturation levels were too low to support >1 meter size marine, predatory fish. According to a simple model, both oxygen uptake and oxygen demand scale positively with size, but the demand exceeds supply for the largest fish with an active, predatory life style. Therefore, the largest individuals may lead us to a lower limit on oceanic O(2) concentrations. Our presented model suggests 2-10 meter long predators require >30-50% PAL while smaller fish would survive at <25% PAL. This is consistent with the hypothesis that low atmospheric oxygen pressure acted as an evolutionary barrier for fish to grow much above ?1 meter before the Devonian oxygenation. PMID:21509191

  18. Mars oxygen processor demonstration project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the 1986-87 space system design project was to design and procure the hardware necessary to demonstrate continuous production of oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere. The work was an extension of a design project that was started during the previous academic year. A yttria stabilized, zirconium oxide electrochemical cell was operated in a controlled temperature environment to separate oxygen, which has been dissociated thermally from the primary constituent of the Martian atmosphere-carbon dioxide. This system was perhaps the most primitive chemical processor that could be developed as part of an extraterrestrial chemicals production demonstration project. The course began in January, 1987. Speakers were brought in to discuss the Martian environment, concepts for resource extraction and system requirements for an autonomous chemical processor. The class simultaneously refined its work plans, which were developed as part of the fall semester senior seminar course. Hardware was purchased using funds provided by the Planetary Society. However, the key hardware element was the zirconia cell. Development of that type of cell is beyond the capabilities of undergraduate engineering students. Consequently, the cell was borrowed. The design elements emphasized in this project were as follows: (1) System reliability analysis; (2) Autonomous operation and control; (3) High temperature seal design; (4) Design for minimum thermal stress; (5) Passive shut down environmental control; (6) Integrated instrumentation concepts; (7) Identification of extraterrestrial resources; (8) Evaluation of chemical processor concepts; (9) Integrated hardware design; and (10) Finite element analysis.

  19. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in Lunar Metal Grains: Solar, Lunar or Terrestrial Origin? 22) Isotopic Zoning in the Inner Solar System; 23) Redox Conditions on Small Bodies; 24) Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update; 25) Mantle Redox Evolution and the Rise of Atmospheric O2; 26) Variation of Kd for Fe-Mg Exchange Between Olivine and Melt for Compositions Ranging from Alkaline Basalt to Rhyolite; 27) Determining the Partial Pressure of Oxygen (PO,) in Solutions on Mars; 28) The Influence of Oxygen Environment on Kinetic Properties of Silicate Rocks and Minerals; 29) Redox Evolution of Magmatic Systems; 30) The Constancy of Upper Mantlefo, Through Time Inferred from V/Sc Ratios in Basalts: Implications for the Rise in Atmospheric 0 2; 31) Nitrogen Solubility in Basaltic Melt. Effects of Oxygen Fugacity, Melt Composition and Gas Speciation; 32) Oxygen Isotope Anomalies in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars; 33) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Interdiffusion of Iron and Magnesium in Magnesiowiistite 34) The Calibration of the Pyroxene Eu-Oxybarometer for the Martian Meteorites; 35) The Europium Oxybarometer: Power and Pitfalls; 36) Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle from PigeoniteMelt Partitioning of Samarium, Europium and Gadolinium; 37) Oxidation-Reduction Processes on the Moon: Experimental Verification of Graphite Oxidation in the Apollo 17 Orange Glasses; 38) Oxygen and Core Formation in the Earth; 39) Geologic Record of the Atmospheric Sulfur Chemistry Before the Oxygenation of the Early Earth s Atmosphere; 40) Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V/(CrCAl) Systematics in Chromite as an Indicator of Relative Oxygen Fugacity; 41) How Well do Sulfur Isotopes Constrain Oxygen Abundance in the Ancient Atmospheres? 42) Experimental Constraints on the Oxygen Isotope (O-18/ O-16) Fractionation in the Ice vapor and Adsorbant vapor Systems of CO2 at Conditions Relevant to the Surface of Mars; 43) Micro-XANES Measurements on Experimental Spinels andhe Oxidation State of Vanadium in Spinel-Melt Pairs; 44) Testing the Magma Ocean Hypothesis Using

  20. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  1. The effect of dissolved oxygen on PHB accumulation in activated sludge cultures.

    PubMed

    Third, Katie A; Newland, Mark; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2003-04-20

    Nitrogen removal from wastewater is often limited by the availability of reducing power to perform denitrification, especially when treating wastewaters with a low carbon:nitrogen ratio. In the increasingly popular sequencing batch reactor (SBR), bacteria have the opportunity to preserve reducing power from incoming chemical oxygen demand (COD) as poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). The current study uses laboratory experiments and mathematical modeling in an attempt to generate a better understanding of the effect of oxygen on microbial conversion of COD into PHB. Results from a laboratory SBR with acetate as the organic carbon source showed that the aerobic acetate uptake process was oxygen-dependent, producing higher uptake rates at higher dissolved oxygen (DO) supply rates. However, at the lower DO supply rates (k(L)a 6 to 16 h(-1), 0 mg L(-1) DO), a higher proportion of the substrate was preserved as PHB than at higher DO supply rates (k(L)a 30, 51 h(-1), DO >0.9 mg L(-1)). Up to 77% of the reducing equivalents available from acetate were converted to PHB under oxygen limitation (Y(PHB/Ac) 0.68 Cmol/Cmol), as opposed to only 54% under oxygen-excess conditions (Y(PHB/Ac) 0.48 Cmol/Cmol), where a higher fraction of acetate was used for biomass growth. It was calculated that, by oxygen management during the feast phase, the amount of PHB preserved (1.4 Cmmol L(-1) PHB) accounted for an additional denitrification potential of up to 18 mg L(-1) nitrate-nitrogen. The trends of the effect of oxygen (and hence ATP availability) on PHB accumulation could be reproduced by the simulation model, which was based on biochemical stoichiometry and maximum rates obtained from experiments. Simulated data showed that, at low DO concentrations, the limited availability of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) prevented significant biomass growth and most ATP was used for acetate transport into the cell. In contrast, high DO supply rates provided surplus ATP and hence higher growth rates, resulting in decreased PHB yields. The results suggest that oxygen management is crucial to conserving reducing power during the feast phase of SBR operation, as excessive aeration rates decrease the PHB yield and allow higher biomass growth. PMID:12584766

  2. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  3. Atomic transport of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J.L.; Tomlins, G.W.

    1994-06-15

    Atomic transport of oxygen in nonstoichiometric oxides is an extremely important topic which overlaps science and technology. In many cases the diffusion of oxygen controls sintering, grain growth, and creep. High oxygen diffusivity is critical for efficient operation of many fuel cells. Additionally, oxygen diffusivities are an essential ingredient in any point defect model. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is the most accurate modern technique to measure oxygen tracer diffusion. This paper briefly reviews the principles and applications of SIMS for the measurement of oxygen transport. Case studies are taken from recent work on ZnO and some high-temperature superconductors.

  4. Demand Response Programs, 6. edition

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    The report provides a look at the past, present, and future state of the market for demand/load response based upon market price signals. It is intended to provide significant value to individuals and companies who are considering participating in demand response programs, energy providers and ISOs interested in offering demand response programs, and consultants and analysts looking for detailed information on demand response technology, applications, and participants. The report offers a look at the current Demand Response environment in the energy industry by: defining what demand response programs are; detailing the evolution of program types over the last 30 years; discussing the key drivers of current initiatives; identifying barriers and keys to success for the programs; discussing the argument against subsidization of demand response; describing the different types of programs that exist including:direct load control, interruptible load, curtailable load, time-of-use, real time pricing, and demand bidding/buyback; providing examples of the different types of programs; examining the enablers of demand response programs; and, providing a look at major demand response programs.

  5. Oxygen diffusion: an enzyme-controlled variable parameter.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Wilhelm; Kunke, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Previous oxygen microelectrode studies have shown that the oxygen diffusion coefficient (DO?) increases during extracellular PO? decreases, while intracellular PO? remained unchanged and thus cell function (spike activity of neurons). Oxygen dependency of complex multicellular organisms requires a stable and adequate oxygen supply to the cells, while toxic concentrations have to be avoided. Oxygen brought to the tissue by convection diffuses through the intercellular and cell membranes, which are potential barriers to diffusion. In gerbil brain cortex, PO? and DO? were measured by membrane-covered and by bare gold microelectrodes, as were also spike potentials. Moderate respiratory hypoxia was followed by a primary sharp drop of tissue PO? that recovered to higher values concomitant with an increase of DO?. A drop in intracellular PO? recovered immediately. Studies on the abdominal ganglion of aplysia californica showed similar results.Heterogeneity is a feature of both normal oxygen supply to tissue and supply due to a wide range of disturbances in oxygen supply. Oxygen diffusion through membranes is variable thereby ensuring adequate intracellular PO?. Cell-derived glucosamine oxidase seems to regulate the polymerization/depolymerisation ratio of membrane mucopolysaccharides and thus oxygen diffusion.Variability of oxygen diffusion is a decisive parameter for regulating the supply/demand ratio of oxygen supply to the cell; this occurs in highly developed animals as well as in species of a less sophisticated nature. Autoregulation of oxygen diffusion is as important as the distribution/perfusion ratio of the capillary meshwork and as the oxygen extraction ratio in relation to oxygen consumption of the cell. Oxygen diffusion resistance is the cellular protection against luxury oxygen supply (which can result in toxic oxidative species leading to mutagenesis). PMID:24729212

  6. Guide for Oxygen Component Qualification Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamford, Larry J.; Rucker, Michelle A.; Dobbin, Douglas

    1996-01-01

    Although oxygen is a chemically stable element, it is not shock sensitive, will not decompose, and is not flammable. Oxygen use therefore carries a risk that should never be overlooked, because oxygen is a strong oxidizer that vigorously supports combustion. Safety is of primary concern in oxygen service. To promote safety in oxygen systems, the flammability of materials used in them should be analyzed. At the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), we have performed configurational tests of components specifically engineered for oxygen service. These tests follow a detailed WSTF oxygen hazards analysis. The stated objective of the tests was to provide performance test data for customer use as part of a qualification plan for a particular component in a particular configuration, and under worst-case conditions. In this document - the 'Guide for Oxygen Component Qualification Tests' - we outline recommended test systems, and cleaning, handling, and test procedures that address worst-case conditions. It should be noted that test results apply specifically to: manual valves, remotely operated valves, check valves, relief valves, filters, regulators, flexible hoses, and intensifiers. Component systems are not covered.

  7. Estimating Oxygen Needs for Childhood Pneumonia in Developing Country Health Systems: A New Model for Expecting the Unexpected

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Beverly D.; Howie, Stephen R. C.; Chan, Timothy C. Y.; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Background Planning for the reliable and cost-effective supply of a health service commodity such as medical oxygen requires an understanding of the dynamic need or ‘demand’ for the commodity over time. In developing country health systems, however, collecting longitudinal clinical data for forecasting purposes is very difficult. Furthermore, approaches to estimating demand for supplies based on annual averages can underestimate demand some of the time by missing temporal variability. Methods A discrete event simulation model was developed to estimate variable demand for a health service commodity using the important example of medical oxygen for childhood pneumonia. The model is based on five key factors affecting oxygen demand: annual pneumonia admission rate, hypoxaemia prevalence, degree of seasonality, treatment duration, and oxygen flow rate. These parameters were varied over a wide range of values to generate simulation results for different settings. Total oxygen volume, peak patient load, and hours spent above average-based demand estimates were computed for both low and high seasons. Findings Oxygen demand estimates based on annual average values of demand factors can often severely underestimate actual demand. For scenarios with high hypoxaemia prevalence and degree of seasonality, demand can exceed average levels up to 68% of the time. Even for typical scenarios, demand may exceed three times the average level for several hours per day. Peak patient load is sensitive to hypoxaemia prevalence, whereas time spent at such peak loads is strongly influenced by degree of seasonality. Conclusion A theoretical study is presented whereby a simulation approach to estimating oxygen demand is used to better capture temporal variability compared to standard average-based approaches. This approach provides better grounds for health service planning, including decision-making around technologies for oxygen delivery. Beyond oxygen, this approach is widely applicable to other areas of resource and technology planning in developing country health systems. PMID:24587089

  8. Effect of oxygen and nitrogen interactions on friction of single-crystal silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Friction studies were conducted with single-crystal silicon carbide contacting silicon carbide and titanium after having been exposed to oxygen and nitrogen in various forms. After they had been sputter cleaned, the surfaces were (1) exposed to gaseous oxygen and nitrogen (adsorption), (2) ion bombarded with oxygen and nitrogen, or (3) reacted with oxygen (SiC only). Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the presence of oxygen and nitrogen. The results indicate that the surfaces of silicon carbide with reacted and ion-bombarded oxygen ions give higher coefficients of friction than do argon sputter-cleaned surfaces. The effects of oxygen on friction may be related to the relative chemical, thermodynamic properties of silicon, carbon, and titanium for oxygen. The adsorbed films of oxygen, nitrogen, and mixed gases of oxygen and nitrogen on sputter-cleaned, oxygen-ion bombarded, and oxygen-reacted surfaces generally reduce friction. Adsorption to silicon carbide is relatively weak.

  9. Chemical constraints on new man-made lakes.

    PubMed

    Cunha-Santino, Marcela B; Bitar, Alexandre L; Bianchini, I

    2013-12-01

    The formation of reservoirs often affects water quality strongly, with the changes in the physicochemical properties being ascribed to decomposition of remaining organic matter arising from leaching and (biological and chemical) breakdown processes. In this study, experiments under laboratory conditions were performed to show that the nature of the course particulate organic matter (CPOM; i.e., leaves, branches, barks, and litter) determines the decomposition kinetics in new reservoirs. Effects on the water quality can be of short-, mid-, and long-term duration for all types of CPOM, as indicated in the mathematical modeling of the decomposition kinetics. Leaves and litter displayed the shortest half-life times (51 and 40 days, respectively) and the highest potential of leaching/oxidation of labile compounds (19 and 21%, respectively). On the other hand, decomposition of branches and barks generated the lowest oxygen consumption (74 and 44 mg oxygen/g dry mass (DM), respectively). During formation of the reservoir, the incorporation and decomposition of organic matter prevailed over material exportation. Therefore, in addition to a decrease in oxygen availability the concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrients increased. After the filling stage, there was significant loss of organic matter via oxidation, sedimentation, biological assimilation, and export, thus causing the BOD concentration and the fertility of the water to decrease. PMID:23877574

  10. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-print Network

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    -peak period or from high-price periods to lower price periods. ? Essentially, curtailing load during emergency or high usage periods Demand Response How utility demand response or load management programs work ? Curtailment calls based on high demand... situations ? Calls made during summer peak period ? June 1st ? September 30th ? 1 PM ? 7 PM, weekdays (excluding holidays) ? Calls last 1- 4 hours ? Payments based on average kW curtailed during all calls Commercial Load Management 2011 R&D Project...

  11. Physically-based demand modeling 

    E-print Network

    Calloway, Terry Marshall

    1980-01-01

    PHYSICALLY-BASED DEMAND MODELING A Thesis by TERRY MARSHALL CALLONAY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1980 Major Subject...: Electrical Engineering PHYSICALLY-BASED DEMAND MODELING A Thesis by TERRY MARSHALL CALLOWAY Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee emb Member Hea f Department August 1980 ABSTRACT Physically-Based Demand Modeling (August 1980...

  12. Automatic Electronic Oxygen Supply

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Patricia; Hoodless, D. J.

    1971-01-01

    An automatic electronic oxygen system has been devised to supply an intensive care unit with a “fail-safe” supply of continuous oxygen. All parts of the system are fitted with alarms, as the oxygen powers gas-driven ventilators. Since the system is cheap it can be installed in hospitals where finance is limited. PMID:5278618

  13. Oxygen boost pump study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An oxygen boost pump is described which can be used to charge the high pressure oxygen tank in the extravehicular activity equipment from spacecraft supply. The only interface with the spacecraft is the +06 6.205 Pa supply line. The breadboard study results and oxygen tank survey are summarized and the results of the flight-type prototype design and analysis are presented.

  14. ELECTRICITY DEMAND FORECAST COMPARISON REPORT

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION ELECTRICITY DEMAND FORECAST COMPARISON REPORT STAFFREPORT June 2005 ........................................................................................16 Commercial Sector Energy Forecasts ..................................................................................20 Industrial and Agriculture Sector Energy Forecasts

  15. An integrated communications demand model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubleday, C. F.

    1980-11-01

    A computer model of communications demand is being developed to permit dynamic simulations of the long-term evolution of demand for communications media in the U.K. to be made under alternative assumptions about social, economic and technological trends in British Telecom's business environment. The context and objectives of the project and the potential uses of the model are reviewed, and four key concepts in the demand for communications media, around which the model is being structured are discussed: (1) the generation of communications demand; (2) substitution between media; (3) technological convergence; and (4) competition. Two outline perspectives on the model itself are given.

  16. Oxygen production by pyrolysis of lunar regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senior, Constance L.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen was identified as the most important product of initial lunar materials processing efforts. A source of oxygen on the Moon provides an alternative to the costly transport of propellant to the Moon or to low earth orbit. Pyrolysis, or vapor-phase reduction, involves heating a feedstock to temperatures sufficient to decompose the constituent metal oxides and release oxygen. The process relies on the vaporization of metal oxides in the form of reduced suboxides or atomic species. The reduced species must then be condensed without re-oxidizing, yielding oxygen in the gas phase. The feasibility of obtaining oxygen from common lunar minerals was demonstrated using solar furnace experiments. These results are discussed together with chemical equilibrium models which were extended to include the multicomponent oxides used in experiments. For the first time, both experiments and theoretical models dealt with the complex oxides that make up potential lunar feedstocks. Two major conclusions are drawn from this preliminary work. First, unbeneficiated regolith is a suitable feedstock for pyrolysis. Second, the process can operate at moderate temperatures, circa 2000 K, which could be supplied by direct solar or electrical energy. In addition to these advantages in choice of feedstock and energy source, the pyrolysis process requires no chemicals or reagents, making it an attractive process for lunar oxygen production.

  17. Oxygen measurements via phosphorescence.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Sami; Marzouqi, Farida; Al Mansouri, Aysha; Penefsky, Harvey S; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2010-12-01

    Accurate measurements of dissolved O(2) as a function of time have numerous chemical and biological applications. The Pd (II) complex of meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-tetrabenzoporphyrin (Pd phosphor) was used for this purpose. Detection is based on the principle that the phosphorescence of this oxygen probe is inversely related to dissolved O(2) (O(2) quenches the phosphorescence). Biologic samples containing the Pd phosphor were flashed (10/s) with a peak output of 625nm; emitted light was detected at 800nm. Amplified pulses of phosphorescence were digitized at 1-2MHz using an analog/digital converter (PCI-DAS 4020/12 I/O Board) with outputs ranging from 1 to 20MHz. Assessment revealed a customized program was necessary. Pulses were captured using a developed software at 0.1-4MHz, depending on the speed of the computer. O(2) concentration was calculated by fitting to an exponential the decay of the phosphorescence. Twelve tasks were identified, which allowed full control and customization of the data acquisition, storage and analysis. The program used Microsoft Visual Basic 6 (VB6), Microsoft Access Database 2007, and a Universal Library component that allowed direct reading from the PCI-DAS 4020/12 I/O Board. It involved a relational database design to store experiments, pulses and pulse metadata, including phosphorescence decay rates. The method permitted reliable measurements of cellular O(2) consumption over several hours. PMID:20478639

  18. CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEE, E.R.; WELCH, JOHN L.

    THIS PUBLICATION UPDATES THE "CAREER GUIDE FOR DEMAND OCCUPATIONS" PUBLISHED IN 1959 AND PROVIDES COUNSELORS WITH INFORMATION ABOUT OCCUPATIONS IN DEMAND IN MANY AREAS WHICH REQUIRE PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. IT PRESENTS, IN COLUMN FORM, THE EDUCATION AND OTHER TRAINING USUALLY REQUIRED BY EMPLOYERS, HIGH SCHOOL SUBJECTS OF PARTICULAR PERTINENCE TO…

  19. Energy demand modeling for Uzbekistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bobur Khodjaev

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to energy demand forecasting in Uzbekistan. Studies show that in spite of the abundant reserves of hydrocarbons, low energy efficiency can have an adverse impact on energy security in Uzbekistan in the future. Oil and gas are the main primary energy source and they ensure energy security of Uzbekistan. Energy demand forecasting is essential in order

  20. Energy demand modeling and forecasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. McHugh

    1977-01-01

    Results from an all energy econometric demand model were described and preserved. The model forecasts the demand for electricity, oil, natural gas, and coal for the Pacific Northwest as a whole, for the states of Idaho, Washington, and Oregon separately, and individually for seven distinct economic subregions therein. Individual forecasts were prepared for the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors and

  1. Guidelines for forecasting energy demand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sonnino

    1976-01-01

    Four methodologies for forecasting energy demand are reviewed after considering the role of energy in the economy and the analysis of energy use in different economic sectors. The special case of Israel is considered throughout, and some forecasts for energy demands in the year 2000 are presented. An energy supply mix that may be considered feasible is proposed.

  2. Harnessing the power of demand

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffrin, Anjali; Yoshimura, Henry; LaPlante, David; Neenan, Bernard

    2008-03-15

    Demand response can provide a series of economic services to the market and also provide ''insurance value'' under low-likelihood, but high-impact circumstances in which grid reliablity is enhanced. Here is how ISOs and RTOs are fostering demand response within wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  3. Oxygen pressure measurement using singlet oxygen emission

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Gamal E.; Chang, Alvin; Gouterman, Martin; Callis, James B.; Dalton, Larry R.; Turro, Nicholas J.; Jockusch, Steffen [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2005-05-15

    Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) provides a visualization of two-dimensional pressure distributions on airfoil and model automobile surfaces. One type of PSP utilizes platinum tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine (PtTFPP) dissolved in a fluoro-polymer film. Since the intense 650 nm triplet emission of PtTFPP is quenched by ground state oxygen, it is possible to measure two-dimensional oxygen concentration from the 650 nm emission intensity using a Stern-Volmer-type relationship. This article reports an alternative luminescence method to measure oxygen concentration based on the porphyrin-sensitized 1270 nm singlet oxygen emission, which can be imaged with an InGaAs near infrared camera. This direct measurement of oxygen emission complements and further validates the oxygen measurement based on PtTFPP phosphorescence quenching. Initial success at obtaining a negative correlation between the 650 nm PtTFPP emission and the 1270 nm O{sub 2} emission in solution led us to additional two-dimensional film studies using surfaces coated with PtTFPP, MgTFPP, and H{sub 2}TFPP in polymers in a pressure and temperature controlled chamber.

  4. Apparatus for chemical synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Herring, J. Stephen (Idaho Falls, ID); Grandy, Jon D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  5. Characterization of refractory matters in dyeing wastewater during a full-scale Fenton process following pure-oxygen activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Bae, Wookeun; Won, Hosik; Hwang, Byungho; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Chung, Jinwook; Kwon, Kiwook; Shim, Hojae

    2015-04-28

    Refractory pollutants in raw and treated dyeing wastewaters were characterized using fractional molecular weight cut-off, Ultraviolet-vis spectrophotometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS). Significant organics and color compounds remained after biological (pure-oxygen activated sludge) and chemical (Fenton) treatments at a dyeing wastewater treatment plant (flow rate ?100,000m(3)/d). HPLC-ESI/MS analysis revealed that some organic compounds disappeared after the biological treatment but reappeared after the chemical oxidation process, and some of that were originally absent in the raw dyeing wastewater was formed after the biological or chemical treatment. It appeared that the Fenton process merely impaired the color-imparting bonds in the dye materials instead of completely degrading them. Nevertheless, this process did significantly reduce the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD, 66%) and color (73%) remaining after initial biological treatment which reduced SCOD by 53% and color by 13% in raw wastewater. Biological treatment decreased the degradable compounds substantially, in such a way that the following Fenton process could effectively remove recalcitrant compounds, making the overall hybrid system more economical. In addition, ferric ion inherent to the Fenton reaction effectively coagulated particulate matters not removed via biological and chemical oxidation. PMID:25682369

  6. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  7. Demand Response for Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many demand response resources are technically capable of providing ancillary services. In some cases, they can provide superior response to generators, as the curtailment of load is typically much faster than ramping thermal and hydropower plants. Analysis and quantification of demand response resources providing ancillary services is necessary to understand the resources economic value and impact on the power system. Methodologies used to study grid integration of variable generation can be adapted to the study of demand response. In the present work, we describe and illustrate a methodology to construct detailed temporal and spatial representations of the demand response resource and to examine how to incorporate those resources into power system models. In addition, the paper outlines ways to evaluate barriers to implementation. We demonstrate how the combination of these three analyses can be used to translate the technical potential for demand response providing ancillary services into a realizable potential.

  8. Oxygen Distribution and Consumption within the Retina in Vascularised and Avascular Retinas and in Animal Models of Retinal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dao-Yi Yu; Stephen J. Cringle

    2001-01-01

    Maintenance of an adequate oxygen supply to the retina is critical for retinal function. In species with vascularised retinas, such as man, oxygen is delivered to the retina via a combination of the choroidal vascular bed, which lies immediately behind the retina, and the retinal vasculature, which lies within the inner retina. The high-oxygen demands of the retina, and the

  9. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and thermo-chemical stability of La 0.6Sr 0.4Co 1- y Fe y O 3- ? ( y = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin-ichi Hashimoto; Yasuhiro Fukuda; Melanie Kuhn; Kazuhisa Sato; Keiji Yashiro; Junichiro Mizusaki

    The oxygen nonstoichiometry of La0.6Sr0.4Co1-yFeyO3-? (y=0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) was measured by high temperature gravimetry and coulometric titration. The results of the oxygen nonstoichiometry measurements could be categorized into Co rich compounds (y=0.2, 0.4) and Fe rich compounds (y=0.6, 0.8). The Co rich compounds decomposed into A2BO4 and CoO at relatively high PO2, i.e. ca.10?9bar at 873K, and ca. 10?6bar

  10. The influence of organic carbon on oxygen dynamics and bacterial sulfate reduction in inland shrimp ponds 

    E-print Network

    Suplee, Michael Wayne

    1995-01-01

    Experiments conducted in saline aquaculture ponds demonstrated that organic matter was the primary factor influencing sediment sulfate reduction rates. Changes in sediment oxygen demand (SOD), sulfate reduction rates, and sulfate reducing bacteria...

  11. Triple oxygen isotope composition of photosynthetic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Anne; Kaiser, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The measurement of biological production rates is essential for our understanding how marine ecosystems are sustained and how much CO2 is taken up through aquatic photosynthesis. Traditional techniques to measure marine production are laborious and subject to systematic errors. A biogeochemical approach based on triple oxygen isotope measurements in dissolved oxygen (O2) has been developed over the last few years, which allows the derivation of gross productivity integrated over the depth of the mixed layer and the time-scale of O2 gas exchange (Luz and Barkan, 2000). This approach exploits the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences of dissolved O2 compared to atmospheric O2 to work out the rate of biological production. Two parameters are key for this calculation: the isotopic composition of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with air and the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen. Recently, a controversy has emerged in the literature over these parameters (Kaiser, 2011) and one of the goals of this research is to provide additional data to resolve this controversy. In order to obtain more information on the isotopic signature of biological oxygen, laboratory experiments have been conducted to determine the isotopic composition of oxygen produced by different phytoplankton cultures.

  12. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  13. Efficient and durable oxygen reduction and evolution of a hydrothermally synthesized La(Co0.55Mn0.45)0.99O3-? nanorod/graphene hybrid in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Xiaoming; Goh, F. W. Thomas; Li, Bing; Hor, T. S. Andy; Zhang, Jie; Xiao, Peng; Wang, Xin; Zong, Yun; Liu, Zhaolin

    2015-05-01

    The increasing global energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuels have stimulated intense research on fuel cells and batteries. Oxygen electrocatalysis plays essential roles as the electrocatalytic reduction and evolution of di-oxygen are always the performance-limiting factors of these devices relying on oxygen electrochemistry. A novel perovskite with the formula La(Co0.55Mn0.45)0.99O3-? (LCMO) is designed from molecular orbital principles. The hydrothermally synthesized LCMO nanorods have unique structural and chemical properties and possess high intrinsic activities for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The synergic covalent coupling between LCMO and NrGO enhances the bifunctional ORR and OER activities of the novel LCMO/NrGO hybrid catalyst. The ORR activity of LCMO/NrGO is comparable to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst and its OER activity is competitive to the state-of-the-art Ir/C catalyst. LCMO/NrGO generally outperforms Pt/C and Ir/C with better bifunctional ORR and OER performance and operating durability. LCMO/NrGO represents a new class of low-cost, efficient and durable electrocatalysts for fuel cells, water electrolysers and batteries.The increasing global energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuels have stimulated intense research on fuel cells and batteries. Oxygen electrocatalysis plays essential roles as the electrocatalytic reduction and evolution of di-oxygen are always the performance-limiting factors of these devices relying on oxygen electrochemistry. A novel perovskite with the formula La(Co0.55Mn0.45)0.99O3-? (LCMO) is designed from molecular orbital principles. The hydrothermally synthesized LCMO nanorods have unique structural and chemical properties and possess high intrinsic activities for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The synergic covalent coupling between LCMO and NrGO enhances the bifunctional ORR and OER activities of the novel LCMO/NrGO hybrid catalyst. The ORR activity of LCMO/NrGO is comparable to the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst and its OER activity is competitive to the state-of-the-art Ir/C catalyst. LCMO/NrGO generally outperforms Pt/C and Ir/C with better bifunctional ORR and OER performance and operating durability. LCMO/NrGO represents a new class of low-cost, efficient and durable electrocatalysts for fuel cells, water electrolysers and batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S24, Tables S1-S4. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01272d

  14. Hydrogen-Oxygen Reaction Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CREAM GK-12 Program, Engineering Education Research Center, College of Engineering and Architecture,

    This lab exercise exposes students to a potentially new alternative energy source—hydrogen gas. Student teams are given a hydrogen generator and an oxygen generator. They balance the chemical equation for the combustion of hydrogen gas in the presence of oxygen. Then they analyze what the equation really means. Two hypotheses are given, based on what one might predict upon analyzing the chemical equation. Once students have thought about the process, they are walked through the experiment and shown how to collect the gas in different ratios. By trial and error, students determine the ideal combustion ratio. For both volume of explosion and kick generated by explosion, they qualitatively record results on a 0-4 scale. Then, students evaluate their collected results to see if the hypotheses were correct and how their results match the theoretical equation. Students learn that while hydrogen will most commonly be used for fuel cells (no combustion situation), it has been used in rocket engines (for which a tremendous combustion occurs).

  15. Domiciliary oxygen for children.

    PubMed

    Balfour-Lynn, Ian M

    2009-02-01

    Domiciliary oxygen is used increasingly in pediatric practice, and the largest patient group to receive it is ex-premature babies with chronic neonatal lung disease. Because of a scarcity of good evidence to inform clinicians, there is a lack of consensus over many issues, even those as fundamental as the optimum target oxygen saturation. Nevertheless, many children benefit from receiving supplemental oxygen at home, particularly because it helps to keep them out of the hospital. PMID:19135592

  16. Rockets using Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busemann, Adolf

    1947-01-01

    It is my task to discuss rocket propulsion using liquid oxygen and my treatment must be highly condensed for the ideas and experiments pertaining to this classic type of rocket are so numerous that one could occupy a whole morning with a detailed presentation. First, with regard to oxygen itself as compared with competing oxygen carriers, it is known that the liquid state of oxygen, in spite of the low boiling point, is more advantageous than the gaseous form of oxygen in pressure tanks, therefore only liquid oxygen need be compared with the oxygen carriers. The advantages of liquid oxygen are absolute purity and unlimited availability at relatively small cost in energy. The disadvantages are those arising from the impossibility of absolute isolation from heat; consequently, allowance must always be made for a certain degree of vaporization and only vented vessels can be used for storage and transportation. This necessity alone eliminates many fields of application, for example, at the front lines. In addition, liquid oxygen has a lower specific weight than other oxygen carriers, therefore many accessories become relatively larger and heavier in the case of an oxygen rocket, for example, the supply tanks and the pumps. The advantages thus become effective only in those cases where definitely scheduled operation and a large ground organization are possible and when the flight requires a great concentration of energy relative to weight. With the aim of brevity, a diagram of an oxygen rocket will be presented and the problem of various component parts that receive particularly thorough investigation in this classic case but which are also often applicable to other rocket types will be referred to.

  17. Oxygen therapy for COPD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of disability and death globally, characterised by progressive breathlessness, loss of function and, in its later stages, chronic hypoxaemia. Long-term continuous oxygen therapy increases life expectancy in patients with severe resting hypoxaemia. However, there are few data to support the use of oxygen in patients with only mild hypoxaemia and more research is required to determine any benefits of oxygen supplementation in COPD in such individuals. PMID:25478203

  18. Measuring Oxygen Isotopes with COSIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquette, J. A.; Engrand, C.; Stenzel, O.; Hilchenbach, M.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen isotopes in a variety of solar system solids show non-mass-dependent fractionation, i.e. are fractionated along a slope = 1 line in a three isotope plot, rather than the equilibrium fractionation line whose slope is close to 0.5 (Clayton, 1973). Many models have been put forward to explain this observation, such as galactic chemical evolution (Clayton, 1988), photochemical self-shielding (Thiemens and Jackson, 1987; Clayton, 2002; Yurimoto and Kuramoto, 2004; Lyons and Young, 2005), quantum chemical explanations (Hathorn and Marcus, 1999, 2000; Gao and Marcus, 2002; Marcus, 2004), the processing of solids via nebular lightning (Nuth et al, 2011), and others. Some of the models were invalidated when the Genesis results showed that the oxygen isotopic fractionation of solar wind (and hence of the Sun) was relatively much richer in 16O than such bodies as the Earth or the Moon. Whatever the process that produced non-mass-dependent fractionation in some chondrules and calcium aluminum inclusions, its signature may also be detectable in other solar system solids. If at least some cometary dust was produced in the inner nebula and only later transported outward to be incorporated into comets, then such dust may also show some degree of non-mass-dependent fractionation. The COSIMA instrument on the Rosetta spacecraft (Kissel et al 2009) is a secondary ion mass spectrometer designed to measure the composition of cometary dust. Using calibration data from the COSIMA reference model and flight data if possible, measurement all three isotopes of oxygen will be attempted, and the results compared to other solar system bodies.

  19. Oxygen Poisoning in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fenn, Wallace O.; Henning, Marcia; Philpott, Mary

    1967-01-01

    Fruit flies live longer at the partial pressure of oxygen found in air than at either larger or smaller partial pressures. Flies exposed to 1 atm of oxygen for 8 hr every day do not recover completely in the remaining 16 hr. In general, intermittent exposures to 1 atm of oxygen are better tolerated than continuous exposure to the same average oxygen concentration per day, but exposures to higher pressures of 2–5 atm of oxygen for as little as a half hour every two days markedly shorten the life-span. Older flies consume more oxygen per minute and are more sensitive to oxygen poisoning than young flies, and the rate of dying in 6 atm of O2, or the reciprocal of the survival time, is a linear function of the age. The oxygen pressure-time curve can be well expressed by the general empirical equation (POO2)2 x time = 120 where P is in atmosphere and survival time in hours. The progress of oxygen poisoning appears to be linear with time rather than exponential. PMID:6034764

  20. Measuring tissue oxygenation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  1. CHALLENGES IN BIODEGRADATION OF TRACE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS-GASOLINE OXYGENATES AND SEX HORMONES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in analytical methods have led to the identification of several classes of organic chemicals that are associated with adverse environmental impacts. Two such classes of organic chemicals, gasoline oxygenates and sex hormones, are used to illustrate challenges associated ...

  2. Quantitative Measurement of Oxygen in Microgravity Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or in ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for studying combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as for better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Due to restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, diagnostic methods which have been applied to microgravity combustion studies have generally been limited to capture of flame emissions on film or video, laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated diagnostic methods are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the models. When the demands of space flight are considered, the need for improved diagnostic systems which are rugged, compact, reliable, and operate at low power becomes apparent. The objective of this research is twofold. First, we want to develop a better understanding of the relative roles of diffusion and reaction of oxygen in microgravity combustion. As the primary oxidizer species, oxygen plays a major role in controlling the observed properties of flames, including flame front speed (in solid or liquid flames), extinguishment characteristics, flame size and flame temperature. The second objective is to develop better diagnostics based on diode laser absorption which can be of real value in both microgravity combustion research and as a sensor on-board Spacelab as either an air quality monitor or as part of a fire detection system. In our prior microgravity work, an eight line-of-sight fiber optic system measured water vapor mole fractions in the NASA Lewis 2.2-sec Drop Tower. In that system, the laser and all electronics resided at the top of the drop tower and was connected via a fiber optic cable to the rig, on which a 'pitch and catch' set of fiber collimating lenses were used to transmit the laser beam across a jet diffusion flame. This system required eight independent detection/demodulation units and had poor spatial resolution. This research builds on this earlier work, resulting in an improved capability for quantitative, nonintrusive measurement of major combustion species. A vertical cavity surface-emitting diode laser (VCSEL) and a continuous spatial scanning method permit the measurement of temporal and spatial profiles of the concentrations and temperatures of molecular oxygen. High detection sensitivity is achieved with wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS). One-g experiments are performed using a slot diffusion flame. Microgravity measurements on a solid fuel (cellulose sheet) system are planned for the NASA Lewis 2.2-second Drop Tower Facility.

  3. Community Water Demand in Texas

    E-print Network

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Chang, Chan

    Solutions to Texas water policy and planning problems will be easier to identify once the impact of price upon community water demand is better understood. Several important questions cannot be addressed in the absence of such information...

  4. Marketing Demand-Side Management 

    E-print Network

    O'Neill, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    Demand-Side Management is an organizational tool that has proven successful in various realms of the ever changing business world in the past few years. It combines the multi-faceted desires of the customers with the increasingly important...

  5. Community Water Demand in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Chang, Chan

    1989-01-01

    Solutions to Texas water policy and planning problems will be easier to identify once the impact of price upon community water demand is better understood. Several important questions cannot be addressed in the absence of such information...

  6. Michigan Meets Black Students' Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, N. Scott

    1987-01-01

    After negotiation with Rev. Jesse Jackson, University of Michigan officials have agreed to meet student demands to increase black enrollment, improve services for blacks, and deal more swiftly with incidents of bigotry on campus. (MSE)

  7. Oxygen contribution to wine aroma evolution during bottle aging.

    PubMed

    Ugliano, Maurizio

    2013-07-01

    Wine aroma undergoes major changes during bottle aging, which are deeply influenced by the degree of oxygen exposure in the bottle. This review discusses the involvement of oxygen in the main chemical transformations occurring in wine aroma composition during bottle aging, with particular emphasis on the formation of oxidative aroma compounds and formation/degradation of sulfur-containing volatile compounds. The implications for wine sensory properties are discussed, as well as some practical aspects of oxygen management during bottle aging, including the role of closure oxygen permeability. PMID:23725213

  8. Fire extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, A. F.; Rappaport, M. W.

    1973-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art of fire suppression and extinguishment techniques in oxygen enriched atmosphere is reviewed. Four classes of extinguishment action are considered: cooling, separation of reactants, dilution or removal of fuel, and use of chemically reactive agents. Current practice seems to show preference for very fast acting water spray applications to all interior surfaces of earth-based chambers. In space, reliance has been placed on fire prevention methods through the removal of ignition sources and use of nonflammable materials. Recommendations are made for further work related to fire suppression and extinguishment in oxygen enriched atmospheres, and an extensive bibliography is appended.

  9. Rhenium/Oxygen Interactions at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Myers, Dwight; Zhu, Dong-Ming; Humphrey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation of pure rhenium is examined from 600-1400 C in oxygen/argon mixtures. Linear weight loss kinetics are observed. Gas pressures, flow rates, and temperatures are methodically varied to determine the rate controlling steps. The reaction at 600 and 800 C appears to be controlled by a chemical reaction step at the surface; whereas the higher temperature reactions appear to be controlled by gas phase diffusion of oxygen to the rhenium surface. Attack of the rhenium appears to be along grain boundaries and crystallographic planes.

  10. Separation of metabolic supply and demand: aerobic glycolysis as a normal physiological response to fluctuating energetic demands in the membrane

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer cells, and a variety of normal cells, exhibit aerobic glycolysis, high rates of glucose fermentation in the presence of normal oxygen concentrations, also known as the Warburg effect. This metabolism is considered abnormal because it violates the standard model of cellular energy production that assumes glucose metabolism is predominantly governed by oxygen concentrations and, therefore, fermentative glycolysis is an emergency back-up for periods of hypoxia. Though several hypotheses have been proposed for the origin of aerobic glycolysis, its biological basis in cancer and normal cells is still not well understood. Results We examined changes in glucose metabolism following perturbations in membrane activity in different normal and tumor cell lines and found that inhibition or activation of pumps on the cell membrane led to reduction or increase in glycolysis, respectively, while oxidative phosphorylation remained unchanged. Computational simulations demonstrated that these findings are consistent with a new model of normal physiological cellular metabolism in which efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation supplies chronic energy demand primarily for macromolecule synthesis and glycolysis is necessary to supply rapid energy demands primarily to support membrane pumps. A specific model prediction was that the spatial distribution of ATP-producing enzymes in the glycolytic pathway must be primarily localized adjacent to the cell membrane, while mitochondria should be predominantly peri-nuclear. The predictions were confirmed experimentally. Conclusions Our results show that glycolytic metabolism serves a critical physiological function under normoxic conditions by responding to rapid energetic demand, mainly from membrane transport activities, even in the presence of oxygen. This supports a new model for glucose metabolism in which glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation supply different types of energy demand. Cells use efficient but slow-responding aerobic metabolism to meet baseline, steady energy demand and glycolytic metabolism, which is inefficient but can rapidly increase adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, to meet short-timescale energy demands, mainly from membrane transport activities. In this model, the origin of the Warburg effect in cancer cells and aerobic glycolysis in general represents a normal physiological function due to enhanced energy demand for membrane transporters activity required for cell division, growth, and migration. PMID:24982758

  11. Production of an Accelerated Oxygen-14 Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, James; O'Neil, James P.; Cerny, Joseph

    2002-05-03

    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was Carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 108 ions/sec have been utilized for experiments. Development of Oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 seconds and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of Oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, Oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has been built and is operational, and initial tests of accelerating an Oxygen-14 beam have been performed.

  12. Oxygen sensitive paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whidby, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Paper is impregnated with mixture of methylene blue and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Methylene blue is photo-reduced to leuco-form. Paper is kept isolated from oxygen until ready for use. Paper can be reused by photo-reduction after oxygen exposure.

  13. Oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts using multiple absorption-desorption cycles

    DOEpatents

    Cassano, A.A.

    1985-07-02

    A continuous chemical air separation is performed wherein oxygen is recovered with a molten alkali metal salt oxygen acceptor in a series of absorption zones which are connected to a plurality of desorption zones operated in separate parallel cycles with the absorption zones. A greater recovery of high pressure oxygen is achieved at reduced power requirements and capital costs. 3 figs.

  14. Atomic Oxygen Textured Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hunt, Jason D.; Drobotij, Erin; Cales, Michael R.; Cantrell, Gidget

    1995-01-01

    Atomic oxygen can be used to microscopically alter the surface morphology of polymeric materials in space or in ground laboratory facilities. For polymeric materials whose sole oxidation products are volatile species, directed atomic oxygen reactions produce surfaces of microscopic cones. However, isotropic atomic oxygen exposure results in polymer surfaces covered with lower aspect ratio sharp-edged craters. Isotropic atomic oxygen plasma exposure of polymers typically causes a significant decrease in water contact angle as well as altered coefficient of static friction. Such surface alterations may be of benefit for industrial and biomedical applications. The results of atomic oxygen plasma exposure of thirty-three (33) different polymers are presented, including typical morphology changes, effects on water contact angle, and coefficient of static friction.

  15. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: The use of selective chemical reactions and carbon NMR spectroscopy in the speciation and quantification of oxygen functional groups in coal resids

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.; Cheng, C. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-11-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using phase-transfer methylation reactions for the derivatization of hydroxyl functionalities and single-electron transfer reactions to cleave ether groups in distillation resid materials derived from direct coal liquefaction. {sup 13}C-NMR was used to analyze the reaction products. It was demonstrated that the techniques can be used to speciate and quantify about half of the oxygen in resids. The remaining half of the oxygen is presumed to be present as unreactive ethers, probably dibenzofurans. Hydroxyl concentrations were determined on five resid samples and ether cleavage reactions were conducted on three of those five. Further development of this general analytical strategy as a process development tool is justified based on these results.

  16. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: The use of selective chemical reactions and carbon NMR spectroscopy in the speciation and quantification of oxygen functional groups in coal resids

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.; Cheng, C. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-11-01

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of using phase-transfer methylation reactions for the derivatization of hydroxyl functionalities and single-electron transfer reactions to cleave ether groups in distillation resid materials derived from direct coal liquefaction. [sup 13]C-NMR was used to analyze the reaction products. It was demonstrated that the techniques can be used to speciate and quantify about half of the oxygen in resids. The remaining half of the oxygen is presumed to be present as unreactive ethers, probably dibenzofurans. Hydroxyl concentrations were determined on five resid samples and ether cleavage reactions were conducted on three of those five. Further development of this general analytical strategy as a process development tool is justified based on these results.

  17. Continuous monitoring of dissolved oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barron

    1965-01-01

    Modification of portable oxygen meters allows continuous monitoring of dissolved oxygen in waterflood systems, instead of using spot checks which permit only partial oxygen removal. This is made possible by the addition of an automatic, continuous readout instrument to the common oxygen sensor in use today. The oxygen sensor consists of an electrolytic cell made of a cathode, an anode,

  18. Determining the Source of Water Vapor in a Cerium Oxide Electrochemical Oxygen Separator to Achieve Aviator Grade Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John; Taylor, Dale; Martinez, James

    2014-01-01

    More than a metric ton of water is transported to the International Space Station (ISS) each year to provide breathing oxygen for the astronauts. Water is a safe and compact form of stored oxygen. The water is electrolyzed on ISS and ambient pressure oxygen is delivered to the cabin. A much smaller amount of oxygen is used each year in spacesuits to conduct Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs). Space suits need high pressure (>1000 psia) high purity oxygen (must meet Aviator Breathing Oxygen "ABO" specifications, >99.5% O2). The water / water electrolysis system cannot directly provide high pressure, high purity oxygen, so oxygen for EVAs is transported to ISS in high pressure gas tanks. The tanks are relatively large and heavy, and the majority of the system launch weight is for the tanks and not the oxygen. Extracting high purity oxygen from cabin air and mechanically compressing the oxygen might enable on-board production of EVA grade oxygen using the existing water / water electrolysis system. This capability might also benefit human spaceflight missions, where oxygen for EVAs could be stored in the form of water, and converted into high pressure oxygen on-demand. Cerium oxide solid electrolyte-based ion transport membranes have been shown to separate oxygen from air, and a supported monolithic wafer form of the CeO2 electrolyte membrane has been shown to deliver oxygen at pressures greater than 300 psia. These supported monolithic wafers can withstand high pressure differentials even though the membrane is very thin, because the ion transport membrane is supported on both sides (Fig 1). The monolithic supported wafers have six distinct layers, each with matched coefficients of thermal expansion. The wafers are assembled into a cell stack which allows easy air flow across the wafers, uniform current distribution, and uniform current density (Fig 2). The oxygen separation is reported to be "infinitely selective" to oxygen [1] with reported purity of 99.99% [2]. Combined with a mechanical compressor, a Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Separator (SEOS) should be capable of producing ABO grade oxygen at pressures >2400 psia, on the space station. Feasibility tests using a SEOS integrated with a mechanical compressor identified an unexpected contaminant in the oxygen: water vapour was found in the oxygen product, sometimes at concentrations higher than 40 ppm (the ABO limit for water vapour is 7 ppm). If solid electrolyte membranes are really "infinitely selective" to oxygen as they are reported to be, where did the water come from? If water is getting into the oxygen, what other contaminants might get into the oxygen? Microscopic analyses of wafers, welds, and oxygen delivery tubes were performed in an attempt to find the source of the water vapour contamination. Hot and cold pressure decay tests were performed. Measurements of water vapour as a function of O2 delivery rate, O2 delivery pressure, and process air humidity levels were the most instructive in finding the source of water contamination (Fig 3). Water contamination was directly affected by oxygen delivery rate (doubling the oxygen production rate cut the water level in half). Water was affected by process air humidity levels and delivery pressure in a way that indicates the water was diffusing into the oxygen delivery system.

  19. Measurements of Oxygenated Organic Chemicals In the Pacific Troposphere During TRACE-P: Higher Aldehydes (less than C(sub 1)), Their Sources, and Potential Role In Atmospheric Oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, L.; Herlth, D.; Viezee, W.; Fried, A.; Jackob, D.; Blake, D.; Heikes, B.; Talbot, R.; Sachse, G.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airborne measurements of a large number of oxygenated organics were carried out in the Pacific troposphere (to 12 km) in the Spring of 2001 (Feb. 24-April 10). Specifically these measurements included acetaldehyde, propanaldehyde, acetone, methylethyl ketone, methanol, ethanol, PAM and organic nitrates. Independent measurements of formaldehyde, peroxides, and tracers were also available. Highly polluted as well as pristine air masses were sampled. Oxygenated organics were abundant in the clean In troposphere and were greatly enhanced in the outflow regions from Asia. Extremely high concentrations of aldehydes could be measured in the troposphere. It is not possible to explain the large abundances of aldehydes in the background troposphere without invoking significant oceanic sources. A strong correlation between the observed mixing ratios of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde is present. We infer that higher aldehydes (such as acetaldehyde and propanaldehyde) may provide a large source of formaldehyde and sequester Cox throughout the troposphere. The atmospheric behavior of acetone, methylethyl ketone, and methanol is generally indicative of their common terrestrial sources with a Image contribution from biomass/biofuel burning. A vast body of data has been collected and it is being analyzed both statistically and with the help of models to better understand the role that oxygenated organics play in the atmosphere and to unravel their sources and sinks. These results will be presented.

  20. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...equipment only (gaseous or liquid tanks). (iii) Oxygen generating...delivery of gaseous or liquid oxygen contents; or...delivery of gaseous or liquid oxygen contents after...this section. (e) Volume adjustments....

  1. Autonomous oxygen production for a Mars return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.; Richter, R.; Dowler, W. L.; Hanson, J. A.; Uphoff, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    The way in which a chemical processor that uses the Martian atmosphere as its only feedstock, thereby reducing the mass that must be launched from earth, can help to return a surface sample from Mars from a single Space Shuttle launch is described. Richter's (1981) study on both the theoretical and experimental aspects of oxygen separation using yttria-stabilized zirconia membranes is cited. Here, separation is accomplished by applying a voltage across the membrane which results in the selective conduction of oxygen ions from one side to the other. It is noted that by using thermal dissociation of the carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere to produce oxygen (and carbon monoxide), these zirconia electrolytic cells can be employed to separate oxygen from the atmospheric stream. Descriptions are also given of atmospheric filtration, atmospheric compression, and waste heat recovery, and of the oxygen precooler and oxygen compressor.

  2. Atomic Oxygen Fluence Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation enables a means for actively measuring atomic oxygen fluence (accumulated atoms of atomic oxygen per area) that has impinged upon spacecraft surfaces. Telemetered data from the device provides spacecraft designers, researchers, and mission managers with real-time measurement of atomic oxygen fluence, which is useful for prediction of the durability of spacecraft materials and components. The innovation is a compact fluence measuring device that allows in-space measurement and transmittance of measured atomic oxygen fluence as a function of time based on atomic oxygen erosion yields (the erosion yield of a material is the volume of material that is oxidized per incident oxygen atom) of materials that have been measured in low Earth orbit. It has a linear electrical response to atomic oxygen fluence, and is capable of measuring high atomic oxygen fluences (up to >10(exp 22) atoms/sq cm), which are representative of multi-year low-Earth orbital missions (such as the International Space Station). The durability or remaining structural lifetime of solar arrays that consist of polymer blankets on which the solar cells are attached can be predicted if one knows the atomic oxygen fluence that the solar array blanket has been exposed to. In addition, numerous organizations that launch space experiments into low-Earth orbit want to know the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence that their materials or components have been exposed to. The device is based on the erosion yield of pyrolytic graphite. It uses two 12deg inclined wedges of graphite that are over a grit-blasted fused silica window covering a photodiode. As the wedges erode, a greater area of solar illumination reaches the photodiode. A reference photodiode is also used that receives unobstructed solar illumination and is oriented in the same direction as the pyrolytic graphite covered photodiode. The short-circuit current from the photodiodes is measured and either sent to an onboard data logger, or transmitted to a receiving station on Earth. By comparison of the short-circuit currents from the fluence-measuring photodiode and the reference photodiode, one can compute the accumulated atomic oxygen fluence arriving in the direction that the fluence monitor is pointing. The device produces a signal that is linear with atomic oxygen fluence using a material whose atomic oxygen erosion yield has been measured over a period of several years in low-Earth orbit.

  3. Supply chain planning decisions under demand uncertainty

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yanfeng Anna

    2008-01-01

    Sales and operational planning that incorporates unconstrained demand forecasts has been expected to improve long term corporate profitability. Companies are considering such unconstrained demand forecasts in their decisions ...

  4. Spatio-temporal variability of hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve (GoMMBR), South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, K.; Natesan, Usha; Vishnunath, R.

    2014-11-01

    The intention of this study was to appraise the spatial and temporal variations in the physico-chemical parameters of coastal waters of Rameswaram Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, south India, using multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, factor analysis and principal component analysis. Spatio-temporal variations among the physico-chemical parameters are observed in the coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar, especially during northeast and post monsoon seasons. It is inferred that the high loadings of pH, temperature, suspended particulate matter, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll a, nutrient species of nitrogen and phosphorus strongly determine the discrimination of coastal water quality. Results highlight the important role of monsoonal variations to determine the coastal water quality around Rameswaram Island.

  5. Chorangiosis and placental oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazunao; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kimura, Satoshi; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Yaguchi, Chizuko; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hirai, Kyuya; Takeuchi, Kinya; Sugimura, Motoi; Kanayama, Naohiro

    2009-06-01

    Chorangiosis is a vascular hyperplasia in the terminal chorionic villi, usually diagnosed histologically using the criteria of Altshuler. Its true etiology has not been fully identified, but chorangiosis has been proposed to result from a longstanding, rather low-grade hypoxia in the placental tissue. To clarify a possible association of placental oxygenation status with the development of chorangiosis, we measured placental tissue oxygen index (TOI) values using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) before delivery and retrospectively compared them to the detection of placental chorangiosis, in a total of 47 (46 singleton and one set of dichorionic diamniotic twins) pregnant women. Small for gestational age (SGA) and/or maternal complications were observed in all cases of placental chorangiosis. Placental TOI values were significantly elevated in cases of chorangiosis. This indicates high oxygen saturation in the intervillous spaces because placental TOI values are expected to represent the oxygenation of maternal blood in the placental tissue. A possible preceding low efficiency of oxygen transfer to the fetal circulation in the villi might not only augment the oxygen saturation of maternal blood in intervillous spaces, but also cause rather low oxygenation in the capillaries of the villi and result in chorangiosis. PMID:19489958

  6. Midlatitude oxygen ultraviolet nightglow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, W. H.; Feldman, P. D.; Anderson, R. C.; Fastie, W. G.; Henry, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    A rocket-borne spectrometer measured the weak UV nightglow from 1240 to 1670 A in the altitude range 180-345 km above White Sands, New Mexico. Detection of nightglow emissions at the atomic oxygen lines (1304 and 1356 A) confirmed the existence of a weak midlatitude oxygen nightglow similar to the tropical airglow. Radiative recombination appeared to be the principal cause of the peak observed intensities of the atomic oxygen line emissions, though a maximum 25% contribution from mutual neutralization of O(+) and O(-) could also be contemplated. Partial radiative recombination coefficients are derived from the data.

  7. Chemicals On Demand with Phototriggerable Microcapsules Stefan J. Pastine,

    E-print Network

    Zettl, Alex

    triggered MCs in which the encapsulated liquid contains optothermally active species, such as carbon to ensure that solid-walled and impermeable MCs were obtained. Isolation by filtration afforded free

  8. Simplified thermochemistry of oxygen in lithium and sodium for liquid metal cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, L. K.

    1972-01-01

    Plots of oxygen chemical potential against composition of lithium-oxygen solutions and sodium-oxygen solutions for a range of temperature were constructed. For each liquid metal two such plots were prepared. For one plot ideal solution behavior was assumed. For the other plot, existing solubility limit data for oxygen in the liquid metal were used to determine a first-order term for departure from ideality. The use of the plots in evaluating the oxygen gettering capability of refractory metals in liquid metal cooling systems is illustrated by a simple example involving lithium, oxygen, and hafnium.

  9. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  10. Cerebral Microcirculation and Oxygen Tension in the Human Secondary Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Linninger, A. A.; Gould, I. G.; Marinnan, T.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Chojecki, M.; Alaraj, A.

    2013-01-01

    The three-dimensional spatial arrangement of the cortical microcirculatory system is critical for understanding oxygen exchange between blood vessels and brain cells. A three-dimensional computer model of a 3 × 3 × 3 mm3 subsection of the human secondary cortex was constructed to quantify oxygen advection in the microcirculation, tissue oxygen perfusion, and consumption in the human cortex. This computer model accounts for all arterial, capillary and venous blood vessels of the cerebral microvascular bed as well as brain tissue occupying the extravascular space. Microvessels were assembled with optimization algorithms emulating angiogenic growth; a realistic capillary bed was built with space filling procedures. The extravascular tissue was modeled as a porous medium supplied with oxygen by advection–diffusion to match normal metabolic oxygen demand. The resulting synthetic computer generated network matches prior measured morphometrics and fractal patterns of the cortical microvasculature. This morphologically accurate, physiologically consistent, multi-scale computer network of the cerebral microcirculation predicts the oxygen exchange of cortical blood vessels with the surrounding gray matter. Oxygen tension subject to blood pressure and flow conditions were computed and validated for the blood as well as brain tissue. Oxygen gradients along arterioles, capillaries and veins agreed with in vivo trends observed recently in imaging studies within experimental tolerances and uncertainty. PMID:23842693

  11. Medical Oxygen Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    NFPA Public Education Division • 1 Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169 Your Source for SAFETY Information www.nfpa.org/education FACTS • Oxygen saturates fabric covered furniture, clothing, hair and bedding, making it easier for a fire ...

  12. Oxidation reduction potential as a parameter to regulate micro-oxygen injection into anaerobic digester for reducing hydrogen sulphide concentration in biogas.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Long D; Manassa, Patrick; Dawson, Marcia; Fitzgerald, Shona K

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the use of oxidation reduction potential (ORP) to regulate the injection of a small amount of oxygen into an anaerobic digester for reducing H2S concentration in biogas. The results confirm that micro-oxygen injection can be effective for controlling H2S formation during anaerobic digestion without disturbing the performance of the digester. Biogas production, composition, and the removal of volatile solids (VS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were monitored to assessment the digester's performance. Six days after the start of the micro-oxygen injection, the ORP values increased to between -320 and -270 mV, from the natural baseline value of -485 mV. Over the same period the H2S concentration in the biogas decreased from over 6000 ppm to just 30 ppm. No discernible changes in the VS and COD removal rates, pH and alkalinity of the digestate or in the biogas production or composition were observed. PMID:25306445

  13. Teaching Demands verses Research Productivity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Keith Howard

    2002-05-01

    Faculty in undergraduate institutions are scholars and need to be actively engaged in research. They must also publish and get grants to be promoted and tenured. The strong demand on their time for teaching and college services, however, leaves them littl

  14. Registrariat Demande de documents officiels

    E-print Network

    Leclercq, Remi

    Registrariat Demande de documents officiels IMPORTANT : Veuillez écrire lisiblement en caractères d'imprimerie 2- DOCUMENT(S) DEMANDÉ(S) Relevé de notes (nombre de copie(s) ________ ) Attestation d'obtention de/Année : Autres documents (nombre de copie(s) ________ ) Spécifier : 3- INSTRUCTIONS PARTICULIÈRES D'ENVOI OU DE

  15. Water demand management in Kuwait

    E-print Network

    Milutinovic, Milan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01

    Kuwait is an arid country located in the Middle East, with limited access to water resources. Yet water demand per capita is much higher than in other countries in the world, estimated to be around 450 L/capita/day. There ...

  16. Co-evolution of Eukaryotes and Ocean and Atmosphere Oxygenation in the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic Eras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, T. M.; Daines, S. J.; Mills, B.; Boyle, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The nature, timing and cause(s) of the Earth's second oxygenation event are widely debated. It has been argued that there was a single pronounced rise in atmospheric oxygen toward present levels in the Late Neoproterozoic, which in turn triggered the evolution of animals. Here we suggest a more complex co-evolutionary scenario, with fluctuations in ocean and atmosphere oxygenation in the Late Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic caused partly by the evolution of animals, followed by a pronounced rise of atmospheric oxygen to present levels later in the Paleozoic caused by the rise of land plants. Current geochemical evidence suggests some parts of the deep oceans became oxygenated during the Ediacaran, but there was subsequent de-oxygenation of the ocean during the Cambrian that may have persisted into the Ordovician. Only later in the Paleozoic is there evidence for widespread oxygenation of the deep ocean, together with charcoal indicating atmospheric oxygen had approached present levels. The limited Neoproterozoic oxygenation of the ocean could be explained by the evolution of filter-feeding sponges removing oxygen demand from the water column and encouraging a shift from cyanobacteria to faster-sinking eukaryotic algae, which transferred oxygen demand to greater depths and into sediments. The resulting oxygenation of shelf bottom waters would have increased phosphorus removal from the ocean thus lowering global productivity and oxygen demand in a positive feedback loop encouraging ocean oxygenation [1]. The subsequent Cambrian de-oxygenation of the ocean could be explained by the evolution of bioturbating animals oxygenating the sediments and thus lowering the C/P burial ratio of organic matter, reducing organic carbon burial and lowering atmospheric oxygen [2]. The later rise of land plants, selectively weathering phosphorus from continental rocks and producing recalcitrant high C/P biomass, increased organic carbon burial and atmospheric oxygen, finally producing a persistent, global oxygenation of the deep ocean [3]. Thus, the Earth's protracted second oxygenation event culminated in the Paleozoic not the Neoproterozoic. [1] Lenton et al. (2014) Nature Geoscience 7, 257-265 [2] Boyle et al. (2014) Nature Geoscience 7, 10.1038/NGEO2213 [3] Bergman et al. (2004) Am. J. Sci. 304, 397-437

  17. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more about specific conditions where chemical peels ... skin Sagging skin Wrinkles What is a chemical peel? A chemical peel is a technique used to ...

  18. An Oxygen Scavenging System for Improvement of Dye Stability in Single-Molecule Fluorescence Experiments?

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, Colin Echeverría; Marshall, R. Andrew; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2008-01-01

    The application of single-molecule fluorescence techniques to complex biological systems places demands on the performance of single fluorophores. We present an enzymatic oxygen scavenging system for improved dye stability in single-molecule experiments. We compared the previously described protocatechuic acid/protocatechuate-3,4-dioxygenase system to the currently employed glucose oxidase/catalase system. Under standardized conditions, we observed lower dissolved oxygen concentrations with the protocatechuic acid/protocatechuate-3,4-dioxygenase system. Furthermore, we observed increased initial lifetimes of single Cy3, Cy5, and Alexa488 fluorophores. We further tested the effects of chemical additives in this system. We found that biological reducing agents increase both the frequency and duration of blinking events of Cy5, an effect that scales with reducing potential. We observed increased stability of Cy3 and Alexa488 in the presence of the antioxidants ascorbic acid and n-propyl gallate. This new O2-scavenging system should have wide application for single-molecule fluorescence experiments. PMID:17921203

  19. Nonadaptive Selfish Routing with Online Demands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Harks; László A. Végh

    2007-01-01

    We study the efficiency of selfish routing problems in which traffic demands are revealed online. We go beyond the common Nash equilibrium concept in which possibly all players reroute their flow and form a new equilibrium upon arrival of a new demand. In our model, demands arrive in n sequential games. In each game, the new demands form a Nash

  20. Oxygenates du`jour...MTBE? Ethanol? ETBE?

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.

    1995-12-31

    There are many different liquids that contain oxygen which could be blended into gasoline. The ones that have been tried and make the most sense are in the alcohol (R-OH) and ether (R-O-R) chemical family. The alcohols considered are: methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA). The ethers are: methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE). Of the eight oxygenates listed above, the author describes the five that are still waiting for widespread marketing acceptance (methanol, TBA, TAME, TAEE, and DIPE). He then discusses the two most widely used oxygenates in the US, MTBE and ethanol, along with the up-and-coming ethanol ether, ETBE. Selected physical properties for all of these oxygenates can be found in Table 2 at the end of this paper. A figure shows a simplified alcohol/ether production flow chart for the oxygenates listed above and how they are interrelated.

  1. Cardiac oxygenation by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in exteriorized fetal lambs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Murata; Keiya Fujimori; Edward J. Quilligan; Naoki Nagata; Satoshi Ibara; Takahiro Hirano; Toshiya Kamimura

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of cardiac oxygenation produced by different routes of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in fetal lambs submerged in warm saline solution. STUDY DESIGN: Seven fetal lambs ranging in age from 113 to 133 days of gestation were delivered by cesarean section and oxygenated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. To maintain the patency

  2. Brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast dependent on blood oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, S.; Lee, T.M.; Kay, A.R.; Tank, D.W. (AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin in venous blood is a naturally occurring contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By accentuating the effects of this agent through the use of gradient-echo techniques in high yields, the authors demonstrate in vivo images of brain microvasculature with image contrast reflecting the blood oxygen level. This blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast follows blood oxygen changes induced by anesthetics, by insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and by inhaled gas mixtures that alter metabolic demand or blood flow. The results suggest that BOLD contrast can be used to provide in vivo real-time maps of blood oxygenation in the brain under normal physiological conditions. BOLD contrast adds an additional feature to magnetic resonance imaging and complement other techniques that are attempting to provide position emission tomography-like measurements related to regional neural activity.

  3. Tailoring Ru(II) Pyridine/Triazole Oxygenation Catalysts and Using Photoreactivity to Probe their Electronic Properties.

    PubMed

    Weisser, Fritz; Stevens, Hendrik; Klein, Johannes; van der Meer, Margarethe; Hohloch, Stephan; Sarkar, Biprajit

    2015-06-01

    Tuning of ligand properties is at the heart of influencing chemical reactivity and generating tailor-made catalysts. Herein, three series of complexes [Ru(L)(Cl)(X)]PF6 (X=DMSO, PPh3 , or CD3 CN) with tripodal ligands (L1-L5) containing pyridine and triazole arms are presented. Triazole-for-pyridine substitution and the substituent at the triazole systematically influence the redox behavior and photoreactivity of the complexes. The mechanism of the light-driven ligand exchange of the DMSO complexes in CD3 CN could be elucidated, and two seven-coordinate intermediates were identified. Finally, tuning of the ligand framework was applied to the catalytic oxygenation of alkanes, for which the DMSO complexes were the best catalysts and the yield improved with increasing number of triazole arms. These results thus show how click-derived ligands can be tuned on demand for catalytic processes. PMID:25960319

  4. Effect of thermal pretreatment on the physical and chemical properties of municipal biomass waste.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Gao, Xingbao; Zhou, Yingjun; Shen, Renjie

    2012-02-01

    The effects of thermal pretreatment on the physical and chemical properties of three typical municipal biomass wastes (MBWs), kitchen waste (KW), vegetable/fruit residue (VFR), and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated. The results show that thermal pretreatment at 175 °C/60 min significantly decreases viscosity, improves the MBW dewatering performance, as well as increases soluble chemical oxygen demand, soluble sugar, soluble protein, and especially organic compounds with molecular weights >10 kDa. For KW, VFR and WAS, 59.7%, 58.5% and 25.2% of the organic compounds can be separated in the liquid phase after thermal treatment. WAS achieves a 34.8% methane potential increase and a doubled methane production rate after thermal pretreatment. In contrast, KW and VFR show 7.9% and 11.7% methane decrease because of melanoidin production. PMID:22030278

  5. Emergency Planning for Chemical Spills: Training is Required by Law

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Discusses detection instruments used to measure chemical air contamination and oxygen levels, and handling of chemical containers. Lists specific parts of an emergency response plan, specific procedures for handling emergency response and details levels of skill and knowledge of responders.

  6. Guide to the design of secondary systems and their components to minimize oxygen-induced corrosion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shor, S.W.W.; Hanson, E.E.; Lessley, R.L.; Lindsay, P.B.; Rios, J.

    1982-03-01

    Feedwater, condensate, and steam impurities are the most serious contributors to the corrosion process in the secondary system of pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants. One important contaminant that contributes to the corrosion process is oxygen. This design guide discusses features that should be specified in components and designed into systems to minimize oxygen induced corrosion. Subjects discussed in this design guide are sources of air inleakage and its reduction, oxygen introduction from condensate storage tanks, the use of chemicals to scavenge oxygen and protect surfaces from oxygen induced corrosion, selection of materials resistant to oxygen induced damage, and methods of removing oxygen from condensate under low load conditions.

  7. Band gap effects of hexagonal boron nitride using oxygen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sevak Singh, Ram; Leong Chow, Wai [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yingjie Tay, Roland [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hon Tsang, Siu [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Mallick, Govind [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Tong Teo, Edwin Hang, E-mail: htteo@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-04-21

    Tuning of band gap of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been a challenging problem due to its inherent chemical stability and inertness. In this work, we report the changes in band gaps in a few layers of chemical vapor deposition processed as-grown h-BN using a simple oxygen plasma treatment. Optical absorption spectra show a trend of band gap narrowing monotonically from 6?eV of pristine h-BN to 4.31?eV when exposed to oxygen plasma for 12?s. The narrowing of band gap causes the reduction in electrical resistance by ?100 fold. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of plasma treated hexagonal boron nitride surface show the predominant doping of oxygen for the nitrogen vacancy. Energy sub-band formations inside the band gap of h-BN, due to the incorporation of oxygen dopants, cause a red shift in absorption edge corresponding to the band gap narrowing.

  8. Home oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Donohue, W J

    1996-05-01

    Both the efficacy and the indications for LTOT have been well defined. Most of the studies performed have focused on patients with hypoxemia caused by COPD, and the benefits observed are assumed to apply to all patients with correctable hypoxemia. For Medicare patients, oxygen is reimbursed under a prospective payment system with all delivery systems considered to be cost and therapeutically equal. Because there are, in fact, substantial clinical differences in the medical indications for individual oxygen delivery systems, it is imperative that the prescribing physician be prepared to order the therapy that is most appropriate for each patient. Most home oxygen therapy is now being ordered by primary care physicians, often functioning as gatekeepers in managed care organizations. Education of primary care physicians in this area is often inadequate, and decisions for therapy should not be delegated to the equipment suppliers. If the study of home oxygen therapy conducted by the Office of the Inspector General were repeated today, less misuse of home oxygen would probably be found because of more clearly defined indications and requirements for therapy, but it is likely that the study would find that the level of knowledge of the prescribing physician has not maintained pace with the advances in technology. Continuing education for primary care physicians in this area of respiratory care is essential for appropriate medical management now and in the future. PMID:8637306

  9. Chemical Changes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Jolley

    2005-10-25

    In this activity you will learn what a chemical change is. The first step to understanding chemical changes is to recognize the difference between chemical properties and physical properties. Click here for an example: Chemical and Physical Changes What are the signs of a chemical reaction occuring? Signs of Chemical Change What variables affect a chemical reaction? Variables ...

  10. DataBase on Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar Aparicio, R.; Gomez, D.; Coterillo Coz, I.; Wojcik, D.

    2012-12-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  11. Demand Response and Energy Efficiency 

    E-print Network

    2009-01-01

    Demand Response & Energy Efficiency International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations ESL-IC-09-11-05 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 2 ?Less than 5... for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 3 ? To be sure, part of the problem lies with ongoing inefficient practices and a lack of attention to our energy costs drivers? ? But that?s not the whole story. We still have a gap...

  12. Demand Response and Energy Efficiency

    E-print Network

    Demand Response & Energy Efficiency International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations ESL-IC-09-11-05 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Austin, Texas, November 17 - 19, 2009 2 ?Less than 5... consumption.? - Rocky Mountain Institute ?The average commercial building uses 26% more energy than needed.? - DOE / Energy Star There is still ample room to improve efficiency in this space. ESL-IC-09-11-05 Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference...

  13. A Consumers Demand Model with \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Kratena; Michael Wueger

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: This paper sets up a model of private consumption for selected EU countries with special emphasis on sustainable development. Sustainable consumption,patterns require a ’decoupling’of energy or materials use from satisfaction of consumers’needs and demands. Starting point for the analysis is the observation that the ultimate goal of consumption is utility maximization,and that utility is determined by the consumption,of goods

  14. Automation of energy demand forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Sanzad

    Automation of energy demand forecasting saves time and effort by searching automatically for an appropriate model in a candidate model space without manual intervention. This thesis introduces a search-based approach that improves the performance of the model searching process for econometrics models. Further improvements in the accuracy of the energy demand forecasting are achieved by integrating nonlinear transformations within the models. This thesis introduces machine learning techniques that are capable of modeling such nonlinearity. Algorithms for learning domain knowledge from time series data using the machine learning methods are also presented. The novel search based approach and the machine learning models are tested with synthetic data as well as with natural gas and electricity demand signals. Experimental results show that the model searching technique is capable of finding an appropriate forecasting model. Further experimental results demonstrate an improved forecasting accuracy achieved by using the novel machine learning techniques introduced in this thesis. This thesis presents an analysis of how the machine learning techniques learn domain knowledge. The learned domain knowledge is used to improve the forecast accuracy.

  15. Powering the planet: Chemical challenges in solar energy utilization

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Nathan S.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    Global energy consumption is projected to increase, even in the face of substantial declines in energy intensity, at least 2-fold by midcentury relative to the present because of population and economic growth. This demand could be met, in principle, from fossil energy resources, particularly coal. However, the cumulative nature of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere demands that holding atmospheric CO2 levels to even twice their preanthropogenic values by midcentury will require invention, development, and deployment of schemes for carbon-neutral energy production on a scale commensurate with, or larger than, the entire present-day energy supply from all sources combined. Among renewable energy resources, solar energy is by far the largest exploitable resource, providing more energy in 1 hour to the earth than all of the energy consumed by humans in an entire year. In view of the intermittency of insolation, if solar energy is to be a major primary energy source, it must be stored and dispatched on demand to the end user. An especially attractive approach is to store solar-converted energy in the form of chemical bonds, i.e., in a photosynthetic process at a year-round average efficiency significantly higher than current plants or algae, to reduce land-area requirements. Scientific challenges involved with this process include schemes to capture and convert solar energy and then store the energy in the form of chemical bonds, producing oxygen from water and a reduced fuel such as hydrogen, methane, methanol, or other hydrocarbon species. PMID:17043226

  16. Life with Oxygen

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregg L. Semenza (The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; Vascular Program, Institute for Cell Engineering; Departments of Pediatrics, Medicine, Oncology, Radiation Oncology; and McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine)

    2007-10-05

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis and has essential roles in metazoan development, physiology, and disease pathogenesis. Remarkable progress has been made in delineating the molecular mechanisms whereby changes in cellular oxygenation are transduced to the nucleus as changes in gene transcription through the activity of HIF-1. Pharmacologic agents that activate or inhibit the hypoxia signal transduction pathway may be useful therapies for ischemic and neoplastic disorders, respectively, which are the major causes of mortality in industrialized societies.

  17. FRET excited ratiometric oxygen sensing in living tissue.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Justin M; Zhang, Chunfeng; Xu, Jian; Schiff, Steven J

    2013-03-30

    Dynamic analysis of oxygen (O?) has been limited by the lack of a real-time, quantitative, and biocompatible sensor. To address these demands, we designed a ratiometric optode matrix consisting of the phosphorescence quenching dye platinum (II) octaethylporphine ketone (PtOEPK) and nanocystal quantum dots (NQDs), which when embedded within an inert polymer matrix allows long-term pre-designed excitation through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Depositing this matrix on various glass substrates allowed the development of a series of optical sensors able to measure interstitial oxygen concentration [O?] with several hundred millisecond temporal resolution in varying biological microdomains of active brain tissue. PMID:23333398

  18. A role for haemolymph oxygen capacity in heat tolerance of eurythermal crabs

    PubMed Central

    Giomi, Folco; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2013-01-01

    Heat tolerance in aquatic ectotherms is constrained by a mismatch, occurring at high temperatures, between oxygen delivery and demand which compromises the maintenance of aerobic scope. The present study analyses how the wide thermal tolerance range of an eurythermal model species, the green crab Carcinus maenas is supported and limited by its ability to sustain efficient oxygen transport to tissues. Similar to other eurytherms, C. maenas sustains naturally occurring acute warming events through the integrated response of circulatory and respiratory systems. The response of C. maenas to warming can be characterized by two phases. During initial warming, oxygen consumption and heart rate increase, while stroke volume and haemolymph oxygen partial pressure decrease. During further warming, dissolved oxygen levels in the venous compartment decrease below the threshold of full haemocyanin oxygen saturation. The progressive release of haemocyanin bound oxygen with further warming follows an exponential pattern, thereby saving energy in oxygen transport and causing an associated leveling off of metabolic rate. According to the concept of oxygen and capacity limited thermal tolerance (OCLTT), this indicates that the thermal tolerance window is widened by the increasing contribution of haemocyanin oxygen transport and associated energy savings in cardiocirculation. Haemocyanin bound oxygen sustains cardiac performance to cover the temperature range experienced by C. maenas in the field. To our knowledge this is the first study providing evidence of a relationship between thermal tolerance and blood (haemolymph) oxygen transport in a eurythermal invertebrate. PMID:23720633

  19. Oxygen Permeation of Partly Molten Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousov, Valery V.

    2014-09-01

    The conductivities, oxygen ion transference numbers, and oxygen permeation fluxes of NiO-30, 36, 42, and 48 wt pct Bi2O3, In2O3-30, 36, 42, and 48 wt pct Bi2O3, ZnO-15, 20, 25, and 30 wt pct Bi2O3, ZrV2O7-16, 20, 24, and 28 wt pct V2O5, and BiVO4-5, 7, 10, and 12 wt pct V2O5 partly molten slags have been measured by using the four-probe DC, volumetric measurements of the faradaic efficiency, and gas flow techniques, respectively, under various temperatures and oxygen partial pressure gradients. Results indicate that in the ranges of slag layer thicknesses 1 to 5 mm and temperatures 923 K to 1173 K (650 °C to 900 °C), used in the present study, the overall oxygen permeation kinetics is controlled by both chemical diffusion and surface exchange reactions. The oxygen permeation fluxes (3 × 10-9 to 9 × 10-8 mol/cm2 s) were found to increase with volume fraction of liquid. The oxygen ion transference number was found to be in the range 0.2 to 0.8. The ambipolar conductivity, characteristic thickness, and surface exchange coefficient were estimated to be in the ranges 1.1 × 10-3 to 2.3 × 10-1 S/cm, 2 × 10-2 to 7 × 10-2 cm, and 1.3 × 10-6 to 2.1 × 10-6 cm/s, respectively.

  20. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Chemical peel Chemical peels Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do you wish ... cost of cosmetic treatments. Learn more about chemical peels: Is a chemical peel the right choice for ...

  1. Chemical Mechanical Planarization- Chemical

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website includes an animation which illustrates the chemical action of slurry in the chemical-mechanical planarization process. Objective: Explain the mechanical and chemical steps in the CMP process. This simulation is from Module 068 of the Process & Equipment III Cluster of the MATEC Module Library (MML). Find this animation under the section "Process & Equipment III." To view other clusters or for more information about the MML visit http://matec.org/ps/library3/process_I.shtmlKey Phrase: MATEC Animation

  2. Oxygen scavenger system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Redmore; J. J. Marr

    1971-01-01

    Because of the corrosive nature of oil-field brines, and most particularly aerated oil-field brines, to economically produce oil by waterflooding, it is necessary to prevent or reduce corrosion since corrosion increases the cost by making it necessary to repair and replace such equipment at frequent intervals. A composition suitable as an oxygen scavenger is characterized as a solution of salts

  3. The Oxygen Flask Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses application of Schoniger's method of quantitative organic elemental analysis in teaching of qualitative analysis of the halogens, nitrogen, sulphur, and phosphorus. Indicates that the oxygen flask method is safe and suitable for both high school and college courses because of simple apparatus requirements. (CC)

  4. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN FORSTERITE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. R. Reddy; S. M. Oh; L. D. Major; A. R. Cooper

    1980-01-01

    Oxygen self-diffusion coefficients for forsteritc single crystals were determined in different orientations by the single-spectrum proton activation technique. In the temperature range 1275ø-1625C chdiffusion coefficients in b direction can be represented by D b = 3.5 x 10 '3 exp ((-89 _ 3 kcal\\/mol)\\/RT) cm2\\/s. Int roduct ion

  5. Oxygen radicals and signaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toren Finkel

    1998-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide, function as intracellular second messengers. This review will discuss the progress in understanding the intracellular pathways leading from ligand stimulation to the generation of oxidants, as well as some of the increasing number of cellular processes that appear to be subject to redox regulation.

  6. FUEL OXYGENATES HEALTH ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxygenates (e.g., methyl tertiary butyl ether [MTBE], ethanol) are required in certain areas of the United States by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. MTBE and ethanol have also been used to increase octane ratings in U.S. gasoline since the 1970s. In 1996 alone, 10 billion Kg...

  7. Stellar oxygen abundances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy R. King

    1993-01-01

    We address a variety of issues concerning stellar oxygen abundances. We first investigate the discrepancy in O abundances of halo stars as derived from the 7774 A O I triplet and other lines and propose a resolution to this discrepancy. Next, possible cosmological implications of the hotter Teff scale are discussed along with additional evidence supporting the need for a

  8. Statistical summary of selected physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics, and estimates of constituent loads in urban stormwater, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, T.J.; Fossum, K.D.; Phillips, J.V.; Monical, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stormwater and streamflow in the Phoenix, Arizona, area were monitored to determine the physical, chemical, and microbial characteristics of storm- water from areas having different land uses; to describe the characteristics of streamflow in a river that receives urban stormwater; and to estimate constituent loads in stormwater from unmonitored areas in Maricopa County, Arizona. Land use affects urban stormwater chemistry mostly because the percentage of impervious area controls the suspended-solids concentrations and varies with the type of land use. Urban activities also seem to concentrate cadmium, lead, and zinc in sediments. Urban stormwater had larger concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand, oil and grease, and higher counts of fecal bacteria than streamflow and could degrade the quality of the Salt River. Most regression equations for estimating constituent loads require three explanatory variables (total rainfall, drainage area, and per- centage of impervious area) and had standard errors that were from 65 to 266 percent. Localized areas that appear to contribute a large proportion of the constituent loads typically have 40 percent or more impervious area and are associated with industrial, commercial, and high-density residential land uses. The use of the mean value of the event-mean constituent concentrations measured in stormwater may be the best way of estimating constituent concentrations.

  9. A computational model of oxygen transport in the cerebrocapillary levels for normal and pathologic brain function

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Navid; David, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The oxygen exchange and correlation between the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) in the cortical capillary levels for normal and pathologic brain functions remain the subject of debate. A 3D realistic mesoscale model of the cortical capillary network (non-tree like) is constructed using a random Voronoi tessellation in which each edge represents a capillary segment. The hemodynamics and oxygen transport are numerically simulated in the model, which involves rheological laws in the capillaries, oxygen diffusion, and non-linear binding of oxygen to hemoglobin, respectively. The findings show that the cerebral hypoxia due to a significant decreased perfusion (as can occur in stroke) can be avoided by a moderate reduction in oxygen demand. Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) can be an important indicator for the brain oxygen metabolism under normal perfusion and misery-perfusion syndrome (leading to ischemia). The results demonstrated that a disproportionately large increase in blood supply is required for a small increase in the oxygen demand, which, in turn, is strongly dependent on the resting OEF. The predicted flow-metabolism coupling in the model supports the experimental studies of spatiotemporal stimulations in humans by positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:23921901

  10. Cut Electric Bills by Controlling Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumman, David L.

    1974-01-01

    Electric bills can be reduced by lowering electric consumption and by controlling demand -- the amount of electricity used at a certain point in time. Gives tips to help reduce electric demand at peak power periods. (Author/DN)

  11. Demand Effects in Productivity and Efficiency Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Chia-Yen

    2012-07-16

    Demand fluctuations will bias the measurement of productivity and efficiency. This dissertation described three ways to characterize the effect of demand fluctuations. First, a two-dimensional efficiency decomposition ...

  12. CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2014-2024 PRELIMINARY

    E-print Network

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY DEMAND 2014-2024 PRELIMINARY FORECAST Volume 2 Director #12; i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The demand forecast is the combined product the commercial sector forecast. Mehrzad Soltani Nia helped prepare the industrial forecast. Miguel

  13. Empirical equations for the temperature dependence of calcite-water oxygen isotope fractionation from 10 to 70°C.

    PubMed

    Demény, Attila; Kele, Sándor; Siklósy, Zoltán

    2010-12-30

    Although the temperature dependence of calcite-water oxygen isotope fractionation seems to have been well established by numerous empirical, experimental and theoretical studies, it is still being discussed, especially due to the demand for increased accuracy of paleotemperature calculations. Experimentally determined equations are available and have been verified by theoretical calculations (considered as representative of isotopic equilibrium); however, many natural formations do not seem to follow these relationships implying either that existing fractionation equations should be revised, or that carbonate deposits are seriously affected by kinetic and solution chemistry effects, or late-stage alterations. In order to test if existing fractionation-temperature relationships can be used for natural deposits, we have studied calcite formations precipitated in various environments by means of stable isotope mass spectrometry: travertines (freshwater limestones) precipitating from hot and warm waters in open-air or quasi-closed environments, as well as cave deposits formed in closed systems. Physical and chemical parameters as well as oxygen isotope composition of water were monitored for all the investigated sites. Measuring precipitation temperatures along with oxygen isotope compositions of waters and calcites yielded empirical environment-specific fractionation-temperature equations: [1] 1000?·?ln??=?17599/T - 29.64 [for travertines with a temperature range of 30 to 70°C] and [2] 1000?·?ln??=?17500/T - 29.89 [for cave deposits for the range 10 to 25°C]. Finally, based on the comparison of literature data and our results, the use of distinct calcite-water oxygen isotopic fractionation relationships and application strategies to obtain the most reliable paleoclimate information are evaluated. PMID:21080503

  14. MISSE PEACE Polymers Atomic Oxygen Erosion Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim, K.; Banks, Bruce A.; McCarthy, Catherine E.; Rucker, Rochelle N.; Roberts, Lily M.; Berger, Lauren A.

    2006-01-01

    Forty-one different polymer samples, collectively called the Polymer Erosion and Contamination Experiment (PEACE) Polymers, have been exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly 4 years as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 (MISSE 2). The objective of the PEACE Polymers experiment was to determine the atomic oxygen erosion yield of a wide variety of polymeric materials after long term exposure to the space environment. The polymers range from those commonly used for spacecraft applications, such as Teflon (DuPont) FEP, to more recently developed polymers, such as high temperature polyimide PMR (polymerization of monomer reactants). Additional polymers were included to explore erosion yield dependence upon chemical composition. The MISSE PEACE Polymers experiment was flown in MISSE Passive Experiment Carrier 2 (PEC 2), tray 1, on the exterior of the ISS Quest Airlock and was exposed to atomic oxygen along with solar and charged particle radiation. MISSE 2 was successfully retrieved during a space walk on July 30, 2005, during Discovery s STS-114 Return to Flight mission. Details on the specific polymers flown, flight sample fabrication, pre-flight and post-flight characterization techniques, and atomic oxygen fluence calculations are discussed along with a summary of the atomic oxygen erosion yield results. The MISSE 2 PEACE Polymers experiment is unique because it has the widest variety of polymers flown in LEO for a long duration and provides extremely valuable erosion yield data for spacecraft design purposes.

  15. Ultra-sensitive optical oxygen sensors for characterization of nearly anoxic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, Philipp; Staudinger, Christoph; Borisov, Sergey M.; Klimant, Ingo

    2014-07-01

    Oxygen quantification in trace amounts is essential in many fields of science and technology. Optical oxygen sensors proved invaluable tools for oxygen measurements in a broad concentration range, but until now neither optical nor electrochemical oxygen sensors were able to quantify oxygen in the sub-nanomolar concentration range. Herein we present new optical oxygen-sensing materials with unmatched sensitivity. They rely on the combination of ultra-long decaying (several 100?ms lifetime) phosphorescent boron- and aluminium-chelates, and highly oxygen-permeable and chemically stable perfluorinated polymers. The sensitivity of the new sensors is improved up to 20-fold compared with state-of-the-art analogues. The limits of detection are as low as 5 p.p.b., volume in gas phase under atmospheric pressure or 7?pM in solution. The sensors enable completely new applications for monitoring of oxygen in previously inaccessible concentration ranges.

  16. 40 CFR 180.261 - N-(Mercaptomethyl) phthali-mide S-(O,O-dimethyl phosphoro-dithioate) and its oxygen analog...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and its oxygen analog; tolerances for residues. 180.261 Section 180.261 Protection...AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180...and its oxygen analog; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances...

  17. Atomic oxygen diffusion on and desorption from amorphous silicate surfaces.

    PubMed

    He, Jiao; Jing, Dapeng; Vidali, Gianfranco

    2014-02-28

    Surface reactions involving atomic oxygen have attracted much attention in astrophysics and astrochemistry, but two of the most fundamental surface processes, desorption and diffusion, are not well understood. We studied diffusion and desorption of atomic oxygen on or from amorphous silicate surfaces under simulated interstellar conditions using a radio-frequency dissociated oxygen beam. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments were performed to study the formation of ozone from reaction of atomic and molecular oxygen deposited on the surface of a silicate. It is found that atomic oxygen begins to diffuse significantly between 40 K and 50 K. A rate equation model was used to study the surface kinetics involved in ozone formation experiments. The value of atomic oxygen desorption energy has been determined to be 152 ± 20 meV (1764 ± 232 K). The newly found atomic oxygen desorption energy, which is much higher than the well-accepted value, might explain the discrepancy in abundance of molecular oxygen in space between observations and chemical models. PMID:24434834

  18. Development of Recombinant Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Varnado, Cornelius L.; Mollan, Todd L.; Birukou, Ivan; Smith, Bryan J.Z.; Henderson, Douglas P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The worldwide blood shortage has generated a significant demand for alternatives to whole blood and packed red blood cells for use in transfusion therapy. One such alternative involves the use of acellular recombinant hemoglobin (Hb) as an oxygen carrier. Recent Advances: Large amounts of recombinant human Hb can be expressed and purified from transgenic Escherichia coli. The physiological suitability of this material can be enhanced using protein-engineering strategies to address specific efficacy and toxicity issues. Mutagenesis of Hb can (i) adjust dioxygen affinity over a 100-fold range, (ii) reduce nitric oxide (NO) scavenging over 30-fold without compromising dioxygen binding, (iii) slow the rate of autooxidation, (iv) slow the rate of hemin loss, (v) impede subunit dissociation, and (vi) diminish irreversible subunit denaturation. Recombinant Hb production is potentially unlimited and readily subjected to current good manufacturing practices, but may be restricted by cost. Acellular Hb-based O2 carriers have superior shelf-life compared to red blood cells, are universally compatible, and provide an alternative for patients for whom no other alternative blood products are available or acceptable. Critical Issues: Remaining objectives include increasing Hb stability, mitigating iron-catalyzed and iron-centered oxidative reactivity, lowering the rate of hemin loss, and lowering the costs of expression and purification. Although many mutations and chemical modifications have been proposed to address these issues, the precise ensemble of mutations has not yet been identified. Future Directions: Future studies are aimed at selecting various combinations of mutations that can reduce NO scavenging, autooxidation, oxidative degradation, and denaturation without compromising O2 delivery, and then investigating their suitability and safety in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2314–2328. PMID:23025383

  19. A regional end use energy demand model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WE McAleer

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a long-term energy demand forecasting model for Northern Ireland. The model is of the 'what-if' type for testing possible futures described by the model user and is based on a detailed activity analysis approach. The demand subsystem of the Northern Ireland energy system is divided into seven sectors and the demand for four end use categories for

  20. Water Demand Monitoring in Austin, Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Rothstein

    1992-01-01

    In response to challenges to contractually determined wholesale rates, rising revenue requirements, and demands for rate equity, the Austin (Texas) Water and Wastewater Utility is scheduled to implement wholesale cost-based rates in November 1992. Rate alternatives derived from a comprehensive cost-of service analysis will reflect hourly water demand data currently being collected for the utility's major customer classes. Water demand

  1. The Aggregate Demand Curve: A Reply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Richard B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Responds to claims about the instructional value of the downward-sloping aggregate demand curve in teaching principles of macroeconomics. Examines the effects of interest-rates and the role of money on demand curves. Concludes by arguing against the use of downward-sloping aggregate demand curves in textbooks. (RKM)

  2. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  3. Demand Side Bidding. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spahn, Andrew

    2003-12-31

    This document sets forth the final report for a financial assistance award for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to enhance coordination between the building operators and power system operators in terms of demand-side responses to Location Based Marginal Pricing (LBMP). Potential benefits of this project include improved power system reliability, enhanced environmental quality, mitigation of high locational prices within congested areas, and the reduction of market barriers for demand-side market participants. NARUC, led by its Committee on Energy Resources and the Environment (ERE), actively works to promote the development and use of energy efficiency and clean distributive energy policies within the framework of a dynamic regulatory environment. Electric industry restructuring, energy shortages in California, and energy market transformation intensifies the need for reliable information and strategies regarding electric reliability policy and practice. NARUC promotes clean distributive generation and increased energy efficiency in the context of the energy sector restructuring process. NARUC, through ERE's Subcommittee on Energy Efficiency, strives to improve energy efficiency by creating working markets. Market transformation seeks opportunities where small amounts of investment can create sustainable markets for more efficient products, services, and design practices.

  4. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  5. How Does Oxygen Therapy Work?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Oxygen Therapy Work? Oxygen therapy provides you with ... pass through your nose or mouth like it does with the other delivery systems. A humidifier adds ...

  6. Surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collman, James P.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Zhang, Xumu; Herrmann, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device that responds to oxygen pressure was developed by coating a 158 MHz quartz surface acoustic wave (SAW) device with an oxygen binding agent. Two types of coatings were used. One type was prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer containing the axial ligand. A second type was prepared with an oxygen binding porphyrin solution containing excess axial ligand without a polymer matrix. In the polymer based coatings, the copolymer served to provide the axial ligand to the oxygen binding agent and as a coating matrix on the surface of the SAW device. The oxygen sensing SAW device has been shown to bind oxygen following a Langmuir isotherm and may be used to measure the equilibrium constant of the oxygen binding compound in the coating matrix.

  7. Efficient antibody-catalyzed oxygenation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, L.C.; Stephans, J.C.; Schultz, P.G. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-03-09

    Biological oxygen-transfer reactions are essential for the biosynthesis of steroids and neurotransmitters, the degradation of endogenous substances, and the detoxification of xenobiotics. The monooxygenase enzymes responsible for these transformations require biological cofactors such as flavin, heme and non-heme iron, copper, or pterin and typically utilize NADPH for cofactor regeneration. We now report an antibody-catalyzed sulfide oxygenation reaction mediated by the chemical cofactor sodium periodate, with turnover numbers similar to those of the corresponding enzymatic reactions. Sodium periodate NaIO[sub 4]O was chosen as the oxidant, since sulfoxide formation occurs under mild aqueous conditions with minimal overoxidation to the sulfone. Furthermore, compared to the flavin and heme cofactors required by the monooxygenase enzymes, NaIO[sub 4] is very inexpensive, obviating the need for cofactor recycling. Overall, these results raise the possibility of using antibodies as catalysts for regio- and stereoselective sulfide oxidations. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Oxygen metabolism in human placenta mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, J; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Czerniczyniec, A; Cicerchia, D; Aguilar de Plata, A C; Lores-Arnaiz, S

    2014-12-01

    Due to the high metabolic demands of the placental tissue during gestation, we decide to analyzed the mitochondrial bioenergetic functions in the human term placenta. Different mitochondrial morphological parameters, membrane potential and cardiolipin content were determined by flow cytometry. Oxygen uptake, hydrogen peroxide production and cytochrome P450 content, were also measured. Some apoptotic mitochondrial proteins were also analyzed by western blot. Two isolated mitochondrial fractions were observed: large/heavy and small/light with different functional characteristics. Oxygen uptake showed a respiratory control (RC) of 3.4?±?0.3 for the heavy mitochondria, and 1.1?±?0.4 for light mitochondria, indicating a respiratory dysfunction in the light fraction. Good levels of polarization were detected in the heavy fraction, meanwhile the light population showed a collapsed ??m. Increased levels of cytochrome P450, higher levels of hydrogen peroxide, and low cardiolipin content were described for the light fraction. Three pro-apoptotic proteins p53, Bax, and cytochrome c were found increased in the heavy mitochondrial fraction; and deficient in the light fraction. The heavy mitochondrial fraction showed an improved respiratory function. This mitochondrial fraction, being probably from cytotrophoblast cells showed higher content of proteins able to induce apoptosis, indicating that these cells can effectively execute an apoptotic program in the presence of a death stimulus. Meanwhile the light and small organelles probably from syncytiotrophoblast, with a low oxygen metabolism, low level of ??m, and increased hydrogen peroxide production, may not actively perform an apoptotic process due to their deficient energetic level. This study contributes to the characterization of functional parameters of human placenta mitochondria in order to understand the oxygen metabolism during the physiological process of gestation. PMID:25234730

  9. A Fermentor System for Regulating Oxygen at Low Concentrations in Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Patricia V.; Kwast, Kurt E.; Everts, Frank; Poyton, Robert O.

    1998-01-01

    The growth of yeast cells to high densities at low, but constant, oxygen concentrations is difficult because the cells themselves respire oxygen; hence, as cell mass increases, so does oxygen consumption. To circumvent this problem, we have designed a system consisting of a computer-controlled gas flow train that adjusts oxygen concentration in the gas flow to match cellular demand. It does this by using a proportional-integral-differential algorithm in conjunction with a three-way valve to mix two gases, adjusting their proportions to maintain the desired oxygen concentration. By modeling yeast cell yields at intermediate to low oxygen concentrations, we have found that cellular respiration declines with oxygen concentration, most likely because of a decrease in the expression of genes for respiratory proteins. These lowered rates of oxygen consumption, together with the gas flow system described here, allow the growth of yeast cells to high densities at low oxygen concentrations. This system can also be used to grow cells at any desired oxygen concentration and for regulated shifts between oxygen concentrations. PMID:9501444

  10. Time dependence of singlet oxygen luminescence provides an indication of oxygen concentration during oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Baier, Jürgen; Maisch, Tim; Regensburger, Johannes; Loibl, Maria; Vasold, Rudolf; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Singlet oxygen plays a major role in photodynamic inactivation of tumor cells or bacteria. Its efficacy depends critically on the oxygen concentration [O(2)], which can decrease in case oxygen is consumed caused by oxidative reactions. When detecting singlet oxygen directly by its luminescence at 1270 nm, the course of the luminescence signal is critically affected by [O(2)]. Thus, it should be feasible to monitor oxygen consumption during photo-oxidative processes. Singlet oxygen was generated by exciting a photosensitizer (TMPyP) in aqueous solution (H(2)O or D(2)O) of albumin. Chromatography shows that most of the TMPyP molecules are unbound, and therefore singlet oxygen molecules can diffuse in the solution. A sensor device for oxygen concentration revealed a rapid decrease of [O(2)] (oxygen depletion) in the solution during irradiation. The extent of oxygen depletion in aqueous albumin solution depends on the radiant exposure and the solvent. When detecting the luminescence signal of singlet oxygen, the shape of the luminescence signal significantly changed with irradiation time. Thus, local oxygen consumption could be monitored during photodynamic action by evaluating the course of singlet oxygen luminescence. PMID:18163824

  11. A real-time adaptive oxygen transfer rate estimator for metabolism tracking in Escherichia coli cultures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Pepper, Matthew E; Padmakumar, Ajay; Burg, Timothy C; Harcum, Sarah W; Groff, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Oxygen transfer rate (OTR) is the most significant signal for aerobic bioprocess control, since most microbic metabolic activity relies on oxygen consumption. However, accurate estimation of OTR is challenging due to the difficulty of determining uncertain oxygen transfer parameters and system dynamics. This paper presents an adaptive estimator, which incorporates exhaust gas, stir speed and dissolved oxygen measurements, to predict the real-time OTR. The design of this estimator takes into account the headspace dilution effect, off-gas sensor dynamics and uncertain oxygen transfer parameters. Through simulation the estimated real-time OTR is shown to accurately track quick changes of oxygen demand in the culture. Thus, it can be applied to a variety of controls and estimation purposes, such as determining when the culture is in oxidative or overflow metabolism. PMID:25571411

  12. MIT: Project Oxygen

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MIT's Project Oxygen designs computer systems that are more "human-centered" than current systems that "have required us to interact with them on their terms, speaking their languages and manipulating their keyboards or mice." The project title alludes to the group's goal of "bringing abundant computation and communication, as pervasive and free as air, naturally into people's lives." This means developing a system that is pervasive, embedded, nomadic, adaptable, powerful, yet efficient, intentional, and eternal, according to the website These criteria are met using device, network, software, perceptual, and user technologies, all of which are described on the site. Several possible applications are presented in terms of hypothetical situations where this type of system would come in handy. Demonstration videos allow visitors to view a sampling of some of the technologies being tested by Project Oxygen researchers and their industry partners.

  13. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  14. Labview Based Dissolved Oxygen Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fenghong Chu; Junjie Yang

    2009-01-01

    A dissolved oxygen sensor based on data acquisition card and Labview was studied in this paper. The stimulated light and fluorescence light signal was fed to the data acquisition card of the computer, and by Labview software we calculated the fluorescence lifetime, based on the relationship between fluorescence lifetime and dissolved oxygen concentration we got the dissolved oxygen concentration.

  15. Rational Manipulation of Oxygen Delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thane Blinman; Melinda Maggard

    2000-01-01

    Background. Optimization of oxygen delivery remains the best method to prevent and the only way to treat common intensive care unit syndromes such as sepsis, multiple organ dysfunction, and acute lung injury. This paper reviews the elements of oxygen delivery, describes how clinical interventions work through those elements to alter oxygen delivery, reviews theoretical and empirical data relating to manipulation

  16. Bifunctional oxygen electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Tryk; W. Aldred; Z. Chen; C. Fierro; J. Hashiguchi; M. Hossain; Z. Zhang; F. Zhao

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the research on bifunctional oxygen electrodes for alkaline electrolytes was to improve significantly both the cathodic and anodic polarization as well as the cycle life of such electrodes. The research has focused on finding high-efficiency, long-life electrocatalysts for O2 reduction and generation and achieving an understanding of the mechanisms of the catalysis. Catalyst systems which have been

  17. Tissue Oxygenation in Sepsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Brealey; Mervyn Singer

    1999-01-01

    The effect of sepsis on tissue oxygenation is complex and often confusing. This is in part due to the paucity of data from patients (excluding whole-body studies), and in part to the huge variation in laboratory models which have utilised different species, organs and cell lines, different insults, study durations and methods, fluid resuscitation regimens, and end-points. An organ-variable redistribution

  18. The match demands of international rugby sevens.

    PubMed

    Ross, Alex; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the global match demands of international rugby sevens and to compare the match demands of forwards and backs, and between tournament rounds. To assess the match demands, global positioning system (GPS) and video analysis were collected from 27 international rugby sevens players from the same team across an entire International Rugby Board Sevens World Series season. Differences in running demands and match activities between forwards and backs were mostly trivial and small (ES = 0.05-0.84) while differences in running demands and match activities between Pool and Cup rounds were trivial (ES = 0.001-0.12). Cup round matches showed an increase in long-duration ball-in-play sequences (proportion ratio 0.46). These findings suggest international rugby sevens forwards and backs experience similar match demands while overall match demands remain consistent across tournament rounds. PMID:25555035

  19. Towards a more demand oriented health care: analyzing demand for local primary health care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. de Bakker; M. Zwaanswijk; E. M. Zantinge; P. F. M. Verhaak

    2007-01-01

    One of the goals of the current health care reform in the Netherlands is to strengthen demand orientation. Community based primary health care provision should be tuned to local demand. Information on local demand is missing, however. Research goal is to provide local decision makers (patient organizations, insurers, providers) with a tool to analyse local demand, thus creating a basis

  20. Atmospheric Oxygen Photoabsorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slanger, Tom G.

    1996-01-01

    The work conducted on this grant was devoted to various aspects of the photophysics and photochemistry of the oxygen molecule. Predissociation linewidths were measured for several vibrational levels in the O2(B3 Sigma(sub u)(sup -)) state, providing good agreement with other groups working on this important problem. Extensive measurements were made on the loss kinetics of vibrationally excited oxygen, where levels between v = 5 and v = 22 were investigated. Cavity ring-down spectroscopy was used to measure oscillator strengths in the oxygen Herzberg bands. The great sensitivity of this technique made it possible to extend the known absorption bands to the dissociation limit as well as providing many new absorption lines that seem to be associated with new O2 transitions. The literature concerning the Herzberg band strengths was evaluated in light of our new measurements, and we made recommendations for the appropriate Herzberg continuum cross sections to be used in stratospheric chemistry. The transition probabilities for all three Herzberg band systems were re-evaluated, and we are recommending a new set of values.

  1. Strain effects on oxygen migration in perovskites.

    PubMed

    Mayeshiba, Tam; Morgan, Dane

    2015-01-28

    Fast oxygen transport materials are necessary for a range of technologies, including efficient and cost-effective solid oxide fuel cells, gas separation membranes, oxygen sensors, chemical looping devices, and memristors. Strain is often proposed as a method to enhance the performance of oxygen transport materials, but the magnitude of its effect and its underlying mechanisms are not well-understood, particularly in the widely-used perovskite-structured oxygen conductors. This work reports on an ab initio prediction of strain effects on migration energetics for nine perovskite systems of the form LaBO3, where B = [Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Ga]. Biaxial strain, as might be easily produced in epitaxial systems, is predicted to lead to approximately linear changes in migration energy. We find that tensile biaxial strain reduces the oxygen vacancy migration barrier across the systems studied by an average of 66 meV per percent strain for a single selected hop, with a low of 36 and a high of 89 meV decrease in migration barrier per percent strain across all systems. The estimated range for the change in migration barrier within each system is ±25 meV per percent strain when considering all hops. These results suggest that strain can significantly impact transport in these materials, e.g., a 2% tensile strain can increase the diffusion coefficient by about three orders of magnitude at 300 K (one order of magnitude at 500 °C or 773 K) for one of the most strain-responsive materials calculated here (LaCrO3). We show that a simple elasticity model, which assumes only dilative or compressive strain in a cubic environment and a fixed migration volume, can qualitatively but not quantitatively model the strain dependence of the migration energy, suggesting that factors not captured by continuum elasticity play a significant role in the strain response. PMID:25503536

  2. Gut pH, redox conditions and oxygen levels in an aquatic caterpillar: potential effects on the fate of ingested tannins.

    PubMed

    Gross, Elisabeth M; Brune, Andreas; Walenciak, Oliver

    2008-02-01

    Larvae of the freshwater moth Acentria ephemerella (Pyralidae, Lepidoptera) can fully develop on Myriophyllum spicatum, a submerged macrophyte containing 7-10% of its dry mass as tannins. We investigated the physicochemical gut parameters of larvae fed with M. spicatum or Potamogeton perfoliatus, a food plant lacking tannins, and the chemical fate of ingested polyphenols. Microelectrode studies revealed that larval midguts were slightly alkaline (pH 8) and had a positive redox potential. Whole guts were oxygen sinks owing to the oxygen demand of the gut contents. Oxygen penetrated the midgut up to 100 microm, but the centres of the foregut and midgut were always anoxic. The physicochemical parameters of the guts did not change with the food plant. The major tannin from M. spicatum, tellimagrandin II, was significantly depleted in the midgut and was not detected in faeces. In vitro studies indicated that tellimagrandin II is rapidly depleted mainly through oxidation, and hydrolysis might also occur. Our findings for A. ephemerella are compared with those for terrestrial Lepidoptera, and possible mechanisms for adaptations to tannin-rich food plants are discussed. PMID:18171578

  3. TRIO: Turbulent Response in Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, J. H.; Clemmons, J. H.; Katz, N.; Ben-Ami, M.; Carranza, P. A.; Larsen, M.

    2005-01-01

    This project was designed to build on the results from the successful launch of the Turbulent Oxygen Mixing Experiment (TOMEX) mother-daughter (instrumented and chemical-release) payload (21.126) that was launched in October 2000 from the White Sands Missile Range. The overall science objective was to investigate the evolution of the atmospheric response. at altitudes between 80 and 120 km, to the presence of unstable regions with vertical scales of the order of 1 to 10 km. TRIO was designed to use Na lidar measurements from the MAUUMALT observation on MAUI with a launch of a payload from Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), located on Kauai. During this project, Aerospace participated in a Mission Initiation Conference. put together a science requirements document. performed a site visit to PMRF. prepared a CDR document. and developed a production and calibration procedure for one of the payload instruments. the 3-channel photometer. Unfortunately. NASA decided to terminate the program because of unforeseen (by NASA) range costs. This CDR document represents our view of this project at termination and provides a roadmap to perform this experiment should it be proposed again.

  4. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  5. Energetic Metastable Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharchenko, Vasili

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the energy distributions of the metastable oxygen atoms in the terrestrial thermosphere. Nascent O(lD) atoms play a fundamental role in the energy balance and chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere, because they are produced by photo-chemical reactions in the excited electronic states and carry significant translational energies.

  6. Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Greenbaum; J. W. Lee

    1997-01-01

    An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective.

  7. Electrons, life and the evolution of Earth's oxygen cycle

    E-print Network

    of oxygen led to decreased fixed inorganic nitrogen in the oceans. This feedback, which is supported ultimately spread via endosymbiotic events and massive lateral gene transfer to eukaryotic host cells cycles in which a forward reaction in one biogeo- chemical guild is complemented by a reverse reaction

  8. Intravascular ATP and the regulation of blood flow and oxygen delivery in humans.

    PubMed

    Crecelius, Anne R; Kirby, Brett S; Dinenno, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of vascular tone is a complex response that integrates multiple signals that allow for blood flow and oxygen supply to match oxygen demand appropriately. Here, we discuss the potential role of intravascular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a primary factor in these responses and put forth the hypothesis that deficient ATP release contributes to impairments in vascular control exhibited in aged and diseased populations. PMID:25390296

  9. Hybrid membrane--PSA system for separating oxygen from air

    DOEpatents

    Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, A. Keith (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Blackburg, VA)

    2011-01-25

    A portable, non-cryogenic, oxygen generation system capable of delivering oxygen gas at purities greater than 98% and flow rates of 15 L/min or more is described. The system consists of two major components. The first component is a high efficiency membrane capable of separating argon and a portion of the nitrogen content from air, yielding an oxygen-enriched permeate flow. This is then fed to the second component, a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit utilizing a commercially available, but specifically formulated zeolite compound to remove the remainder of the nitrogen from the flow. The system is a unique gas separation system that can operate at ambient temperatures, for producing high purity oxygen for various applications (medical, refining, chemical production, enhanced combustion, fuel cells, etc . . . ) and represents a significant advance compared to current technologies.

  10. High-strength wastewater treatment in a pure oxygen thermophilic process: 11-year operation and monitoring of different plant configurations.

    PubMed

    Collivignarelli, M C; Bertanza, G; Sordi, M; Pedrazzani, R

    2015-01-01

    This research was carried out on a full-scale pure oxygen thermophilic plant, operated and monitored throughout a period of 11 years. The plant treats 60,000 t y(-1) (year 2013) of high-strength industrial wastewaters deriving mainly from pharmaceuticals and detergents production and landfill leachate. Three different plant configurations were consecutively adopted: (1) biological reactor + final clarifier and sludge recirculation (2002-2005); (2) biological reactor + ultrafiltration: membrane biological reactor (MBR) (2006); and (3) MBR + nanofiltration (since 2007). Progressive plant upgrading yielded a performance improvement chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was enhanced by 17% and 12% after the first and second plant modification, respectively. Moreover, COD abatement efficiency exhibited a greater stability, notwithstanding high variability of the influent load. In addition, the following relevant outcomes appeared from the plant monitoring (present configuration): up to 96% removal of nitrate and nitrite, due to denitrification; low-specific biomass production (0.092 kgVSS kgCODremoved(-1)), and biological treatability of residual COD under mesophilic conditions (BOD5/COD ratio = 0.25-0.50), thus showing the complementarity of the two biological processes. PMID:25746652

  11. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by military ... there are no guarantees of safety during a chemical emergency, you can take actions to protect yourself. You ...

  12. Chemical Looping Combustion Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya

    2009-03-31

    One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated kinetic rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).

  13. Oxygen variance and meridional oxygen supply in the Tropical North East Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, J.; Brandt, P.; Greatbatch, R. J.; Krahmann, G.; Körtzinger, A.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution of the mean oceanic oxygen concentration results from a balance between ventilation and consumption. In the eastern tropical Pacific and Atlantic, this balance creates extended oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) at intermediate depth. Here, we analyze hydrographic and velocity data from shipboard and moored observations, which were taken along the 23°W meridian cutting through the Tropical North East Atlantic (TNEA) OMZ, to study the distribution and generation of oxygen variability. By applying the extended Osborn-Cox model, the respective role of mesoscale stirring and diapycnal mixing in producing enhanced oxygen variability, found at the southern and upper boundary of the OMZ, is quantified. From the well-ventilated equatorial region toward the OMZ core a northward eddy-driven oxygen flux is observed whose divergence corresponds to an oxygen supply of about 2.4 ?mol kg-1 year-1 at the OMZ core depth. Above the OMZ core, mesoscale eddies act to redistribute low- and high-oxygen waters associated with westward and eastward currents, respectively. Here, absolute values of the local oxygen supply >10 ?mol kg-1 year-1 are found, likely balanced by mean zonal advection. Combining our results with recent studies, a refined oxygen budget for the TNEA OMZ is derived. Eddy-driven meridional oxygen supply contributes more than 50 % of the supply required to balance the estimated oxygen consumption. The oxygen tendency in the OMZ, as given by the multidecadal oxygen decline, is maximum slightly above the OMZ core and represents a substantial imbalance of the oxygen budget reaching about 20 % of the magnitude of the eddy-driven oxygen supply.

  14. Derivation of neutral oxygen density under charge exchange in the midlatitude topside ionosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. S. Waldrop; E. Kudeki; S. A. González; M. P. Sulzer; R. Garcia; M. Butala; F. Kamalabadi

    2006-01-01

    We describe a new technique to derive neutral atomic oxygen density, [O], in the upper thermosphere using coincident incoherent scatter radar (ISR) and airglow emission observations from Arecibo Observatory. The technique exploits the nearly resonant charge exchange coupling between neutral and ionized hydrogen and oxygen that serves as the dominant chemical source and sink of protons near and above the

  15. Computational Modeling of Oxygen Isotope Effects on Metal-Mediated O2 Activation at Varying Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Roth, Justine P.

    Vised Manuscript ReceiVed: October 17, 2008 Oxygen equilibrium isotope effects (18 O EIEs) upon the formation Stable isotope fractionation1,2 has become a universal tool for investigating chemical and biological,11 and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).12 An important goal for this research is to use oxygen equilibrium isotope

  16. Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide

    E-print Network

    Zeebe, Richard E.

    Kinetic fractionation of carbon and oxygen isotopes during hydration of carbon dioxide Richard E of the carbon and oxygen kinetic isotope fractionation (KIF) during hydration of CO2. Here I use transition into various geo- chemical processes, including formation of cryogenic car- bonates, non-equilibrium isotope

  17. The oxygen isotopic composition of the oceans, sediments and the seafloor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karlis Muehlenbachs

    1998-01-01

    The oxygen isotope history of seawater remains controversial despite decades of study. Isotopic data from fossils and chemical sediments generally indicate significantly 18O-depleted seas during the Paleozoic and earlier, whereas the isotopic composition of contemporaneous ophiolites imply an ocean indistinguishable from today's. Uncertainty in ?18O of seawater limits the usefulness of oxygen isotope geothermometry as well as challenges current paradigms

  18. ULTRALOW OXYGEN TREATMENT FOR POSTHARVEST INSECT CONTROL ON LETTUCE AND BROCCOLI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere treatment with ultralow oxygen (ultralow oxygen treatment or ULO treatment) was studied to develop an alternative treatment to the current practice of chemical fumigation with methyl bromide. Lettuce aphid, western flower thrips, and leafminer, Liriomyza langei, were tested und...

  19. Oxygen Levels Do Not Determine Radiation Survival of Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chann Lagadec; Carmen Dekmezian; Lucile Bauché; Frank Pajonk

    2012-01-01

    For more than a century oxygen has been known to be one of the most powerful radiosensitizers. However, despite decades of preclinical and clinical research aimed at overcoming tumor hypoxia, little clinical progress has been made so far. Ionizing radiation damages DNA through generation of free radicals. In the presence of oxygen these lesions are chemically modified, and thus harder

  20. Oxygen isotopes in nitrite: Analysis, calibration, and equilibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casciotti, K.L.; Böhlke, J.K.; McIlvin, M.R.; Mroczkowski, S.J.; Hannon, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrite is a central intermediate in the nitrogen cycle and can persist in significant concentrations in ocean waters, sediment pore waters, and terrestrial groundwaters. To fully interpret the effect of microbial processes on nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), and nitrous oxide (N2O) cycling in these systems, the nitrite pool must be accessible to isotopic analysis. Furthermore, because nitrite interferes with most methods of nitrate isotopic analysis, accurate isotopic analysis of nitrite is essential for correct measurement of nitrate isotopes in a sample that contains nitrite. In this study, nitrite salts with varying oxygen isotopic compositions were prepared and calibrated and then used to test the denitrifier method for nitrite oxygen isotopic analysis. The oxygen isotopic fractionation during nitrite reduction to N2O by Pseudomonas aureofaciens was lower than for nitrate conversion to N2O, while oxygen isotopic exchange between nitrite and water during the reaction was similar. These results enable the extension of the denitrifier method to oxygen isotopic analysis of nitrite (in the absence of nitrate) and correction of nitrate isotopes for the presence of nitrite in "mixed" samples. We tested storage conditions for seawater and freshwater samples that contain nitrite and provide recommendations for accurate oxygen isotopic analysis of nitrite by any method. Finally, we report preliminary results on the equilibrium isotope effect between nitrite and water, which can play an important role in determining the oxygen isotopic value of nitrite where equilibration with water is significant. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.