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Sample records for chemical oxygen-iodine laser

  1. Scalable chemical oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Adamenkov, A A; Bakshin, V V; Vyskubenko, B A; Efremov, V I; Il'in, S P; Ilyushin, Yurii N; Kolobyanin, Yu V; Kudryashov, E A; Troshkin, M V

    2011-12-31

    The problem of scaling chemical oxygen - iodine lasers (COILs) is discussed. The results of experimental study of a twisted-aerosol singlet oxygen generator meeting the COIL scalability requirements are presented. The energy characteristics of a supersonic COIL with singlet oxygen and iodine mixing in parallel flows are also experimentally studied. The output power of {approx}7.5 kW, corresponding to a specific power of 230 W cm{sup -2}, is achieved. The maximum chemical efficiency of the COIL is {approx}30%.

  2. New singlet oxygen generator for chemical oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Saito, H.; Fujioka, T.; Yamakoshi, H.; Uchiyama, T.

    1986-11-01

    Experiments have been carried out to investigate a new method for generating O2(1Delta) with long-time operation of an efficient chemical oxygen-iodine laser system in mind. An impinging-jet nozzle was utilized to atomize a H2O2-KOH solution so that the alkaline H2O2/Cl2 reaction might occur in droplet-gas phase with high excitation efficiency. Experimental results indicate that the present generator can yield as high as 80 percent of O2(1Delta) with reasonable O2 flow rate.

  3. Repetitively pulsed q-switched chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, G.D.

    1985-10-07

    This invention overcomes the problems of severe flux-induced density gradients in a continuous-wave subsonic cavity of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser by operating the laser in a repetitively pulsed mode through the incorporation therein of a scaleable intracavity gas-phase Q-switch. This abstract discloses a repetitively cavity containing a lasing medium in the form of a flowing mixture of excited oxygen and iodine atoms and an iodine absorption region within the resonant cavity. The iodine absorption region includes a source of iodine atoms and a magnetic field associated therewith. Selectively altering the magnetic field results in changing the absorption characteristics of the iodine atoms and, therefore, effectively pulses the output of the laser.

  4. Applications of the chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, W. Pete; Kendrick, Kip R.; Quillen, Brian

    2000-01-01

    The Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) has been developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory for military applications. For example, the COIL is to be use as the laser device for the ABL. A high power laser is useful for applications that require the delivery of a substantial amount of energy to a very small focused laser spot. The COIL is a member of the class of high power lasers that are also useful for industrial applications, including the materials processing task of high speed cutting and drilling. COIL technology has received considerable interest over the last several years due to its short, fiber- deliverable wavelength, scalability to very high powers, and demonstrated nearly diffraction-limited optical quality. These unique abilities make it an ideal candidate for nuclear reactor decommissioning and nuclear warhead dismantlement. Japanese researchers envision using a COIL for disaster cleanup and survivor rescue. It is also being studied by the oil and gas industry for well drilling. Any commercial or industrial application that requires very rapid, precise, and noninvasive cutting or drilling, could be readily accomplished with a COIL. Because of the substantial power levels available with a COIL, the laser could also be used for broad area applications such as paint stripping. This paper includes a collection of experiments accomplished at the Air Force Research Laboratory Chemical Laser Facility, including metal cutting, hole drilling, high power fiber optic transmission, and rock crushing.

  5. Chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) technology and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, Edward A.; Truesdell, Keith A.

    2004-09-01

    In the late 1960's researchers realized that producing a population inversion in a moving medium could be used to generate high-energy laser beams. The first lasers to scale to the 10 kW size with good beam quality were supersonic flows of N2 - CO2, emitting radiation from the CO2 at 10.6 microns. In the 1970's gas dynamic CO2 lasers were scaled to hundreds of kilowatts and engineered into a KC-135 aircraft. This aircraft (The Airborne Laser Laboratory) was used to shoot down Sidewinder AIM-9B missiles in the early 1980"s. During this same time period (1970-1990) hydrogen fluoride and deuterium fluoride lasers were scaled to the MW scale in ground-based facilities. In 1978, the Iodine laser was invented at the Air Force Research Laboratory and scaled to the 100 kW level by the early 1990"s. Since the 60s, the DOD Chemical Laser development efforts have included CO2, CO, DF, HF, and Iodine. Currently, the DOD is developing DF, HF, and Iodine lasers, since CO2 and CO have wavelengths and diffraction limitations which make them less attractive for high energy weapons applications. The current military vision is to use chemical lasers to prove the principles and field ground and air mounted laser systems while attempting to develop weight efficient solid-state lasers at the high power levels for use in future Strategic and Tactical situations. This paper describes the evolution of Chemical Oxygen Iodine Lasers, their selection for use in the Airborne Laser (ABL), and the Advanced Tactical Laser (ATL). COIL was selected for these early applications because of its power scalability, its short wavelength, its atmospheric transmittance, and its excellent beam quality. The advantages and challenges are described, as well as some of the activities to improve magazine depth and logistics supportability. COIL lasers are also potentially applicable to mobile ground based applications, and future space based applications, but challenges exist. In addition, COIL is being considered for civil commercial applications in the US and overseas.

  6. Development of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser with production of atomic iodine in a chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Censky, M; Spalek, O; Jirasek, V; Kodymova, J; Jakubec, I

    2009-11-30

    The alternative method of atomic iodine generation for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (COIL) in chemical reactions with gaseous reactants is investigated experimentally. The influence of the configuration of iodine atom injection into the laser cavity on the efficiency of the atomic iodine generation and small-signal gain is studied. (lasers)

  7. Singlet oxygen generator for a supersonic chemical oxygen iodine laser: parametric study and recovery of chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalek, Otomar; Kodymova, Jarmila

    1997-04-01

    A jet singlet oxygen generator for a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser was studied including singlet delta oxygen, O2(1(Delta) g), and residual chlorine concentration measurements. The investigation was intended mainly for a water vapor measurement in gas effluent of generator in dependence on properties of liquid jets: a chemical composition and temperature of the input liquid (alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide), a liquid jets diameter and their geometrical arrangement. Effects of these parameters on output power of a small-scale supersonic laser were studied as well. Possible approaches to a chemical fuels management in a chemical oxygen-iodine laser for industrial applications are considered. An 'open loop' cycle with a possible use of sodium hydroxide, and a 'closed loop' cycle with a regeneration of both potassium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide are discussed.

  8. A pulsed oxygen - iodine chemical laser excited by a longitudinal electric discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Vagin, Nikolai P; Yuryshev, Nikolai N

    2002-07-31

    The dependence of the energy parameters of an oxygen - iodine chemical laser with a bulk generation of iodine atoms in a longitudinal electric discharge on the length of the discharge gap is studied for various discharge energies and voltages and various working mixture compositions (at constant oxygen and iodine pressures). Analyses of the results suggests that temperature effects account for a twofold decrease in the specific energy yield for the lasing initiated by a longitudinal electric discharge compared to the photolytic initiation. (lasers)

  9. Semi-gas kinetics model for performance modeling of flowing chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COIL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhi; Hu, Limin; Shen, Yiqing

    2004-05-01

    A semi-gas kinetics (SGK) model for performance analyses of flowing chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is presented. In this model, the oxygen-iodine reaction gas flow is treated as a continuous medium, and the effect of thermal motions of particles of different laser energy levels on the performances of the COIL is included and the velocity distribution function equations are solved by using the double-parameter perturbational method. For a premixed flow, effects of different chemical reaction systems, different gain saturation models and temperature, pressure, yield of excited oxygen, iodine concentration and frequency-shift on the performances of the COIL are computed, and the calculated output power agrees well with the experimental data. The results indicate that the power extraction of the SGK model considering 21 reactions is close to those when only the reversible pumping reaction is considered, while different gain saturation, models and adjustable parameters greatly affect the output power, the optimal threshold gain range, and the length of power extraction.

  10. Unstable resonators of high-power chemical oxygen-iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Savin, A V; Strakhov, S Yu; Druzhinin, S L

    2006-09-30

    Configurations of unstable resonators are considered depending on the basic parameters of a high-power chemical oxygen-iodine laser and the design of an unstable resonator is proposed which provides the compensation of the inhomogeneity of the small-signal gain downstream of the active medium, a high energy efficiency, and stability to intracavity aberrations. The optical scheme of this resonator is presented and its properties are analysed by simulating numerically the kinetics of the active medium and resonator itself in the diffraction approximation. (laser beams and resonators)

  11. Test bed for a high throughput supersonic chemical oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, Gaurav; Mainuddin; Rajesh, R; Varshney, A K; Dohare, R K; Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, V K; Kumar, Ashwani; Verma, Avinash C; Arora, B S; Chaturvedi, M K; Tyagi, R K; Dawar, A L

    2011-05-31

    The paper reports the development of a test bed for a chemical oxygen - iodine laser based on a high throughput jet flow singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). The system provides vertical singlet oxygen extraction followed by horizontal orientation of subsequent subsystems. This design enables the study of flow complexities and engineering aspects of a distributed weight system as an input for mobile and other platform-mounted systems developed for large scale power levels. The system under consideration is modular and consists of twin SOGs, plenum and supersonic nozzle modules, with the active medium produced in the laser cavity. The maximal chlorine flow rate for the laser is {approx}1.5 mole s{sup -1} achieving a typical chemical efficiency of about 18%. (lasers)

  12. Pulsed chemical oxygen - iodine laser initiated by a transverse electric discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Vagin, Nikolai P; Yuryshev, Nikolai N

    2001-02-28

    A pulsed chemical oxygen - iodine laser with a volume production of atomic iodine in a pulsed transverse electric discharge is studied. An increase in the partial oxygen pressure was shown to increase the pulse energy with retention of the pulse duration. At the same time, an increase in the iodide pressure and the discharge energy shortens the pulse duration. Pulses with a duration of 6.5 {mu}s were obtained, which corresponds to a concentration of iodine atoms of 1.8 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. This concentration is close to the maximum concentration attained in studies of both cw and pulsed oxygen-iodine lasers. A specific energy output of 0.9 J litre{sup -1} and a specific power of 75 kW litre{sup -1} were obtained. The ways of increasing these parameters were indicated. It was found that SF{sub 6} is an efficient buffer gas favouring improvements in the energy pulse parameters. (lasers)

  13. Optical resonator with nonuniform magnification for improving beam uniformity of chemical oxygen iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kenan; Sun, Yang; Huai, Ying; Jia, Shuqin; Chen, Xi; Jin, Yuqi

    2015-02-01

    Unstable resonator with nonuniform magnification for improving the beam uniformity of chemical oxygen iodine lasers is explored for the first time. The magnification of the resonator is a function of the radial coordinate of the polar coordinate system on the front mirror surface. A resonator was designed to have a lower magnification at the center of the resonator than at the edge. The resonator consists of two aspherical mirrors. Method for designing the resonator is given. The energy conservation law and the aplanatic condition were used to derive the designing principle of the two aspherical mirrors. The design result was fitted to polynomial form which is suitable for manufacturing. Numerical experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of the resonator. The computation was based on coupled simulation of wave optics model and computational fluid mechanics model. Results proved the effectiveness of the design method. The design tends to enhance the intensity near the center of the output beam and cripple that near the edge. Further analysis revealed that this effect is induced because rays of light are reflected more densely at the center of the pupil than at the edge. Therefore, this design affords for a potential approach for improving the near field uniformity of chemical oxygen iodine lasers.

  14. A pressure recovery system for chemical oxygen-iodine laser based on an active diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov, V. M.; Kiselev, I. A.; Orlov, A. E.; Shatalov, I. V.

    2011-09-01

    An open-type pressure recovery system (PRS) for chemical oxygen-iodine laser was designed and fabricated. As a first stage, an active diffuser was used in which the ejecting gas supply was organized through nozzles disposed around the channel periphery. The second stage was a supersonic ejector. Numerical simulation data for the viscous turbulent flow with heat release through the diffuser gas-dynamic channel, and also data obtained by testing the active diffuser in operation on a model facility equipped with a vacuum chamber, are reported. The obtained data were used to develop a full-scale setup with exhaust of laser gas into the atmosphere; this has allowed us to optimize the performance characteristics of the setup and substantially improve its mass-dimensional characteristics. Special attention was paid to parameter matching and synchronization of laser start with the operation of PRS components.

  15. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser with a cryosorption vacuum pump with different buffer gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingxiu; Fang, Benjie; Sang, Fengting; Geng, Zicai; Li, Yongzhao; JIn, Yuqi

    2015-02-01

    A traditional pressure recovery system is the major obstacle to mobile chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) for its huge volume. A cryosorption vacuum pump was used as the pressure recovery system for different buffer gases. It made COIL become a flexible, quiet and pressure-tight. Experiments were carried out on a verti- COIL, which was designed for N2 and energized by a square-pipe jet singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). The output power with CO2 was 27.3% lower than that with N2, but the zeolite bed showed an adsorption capacity threefold higher for CO2 than for N2 in the continuous operation. The great volume efficiency interested researchers.

  16. A computational fluid dynamics simulation of a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waichman, K.; Rybalkin, V.; Katz, A.; Dahan, Z.; Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2007-05-01

    The dissociation of I II molecules at the optical axis of a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was studied via detailed measurements and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics calculations. Comparing the measurements and the calculations enabled critical examination of previously proposed dissociation mechanisms and suggestion of a mechanism consistent with the experimental and theoretical results. The gain, I II dissociation fraction and temperature at the optical axis, calculated using Heidner's model (R.F. Heidner III et al., J. Phys. Chem. 87, 2348 (1983)), are much lower than those measured experimentally. Agreement with the experimental results was reached by using Heidner's model supplemented by Azyazov-Heaven's model (V.N. Azyazov and M.C. Heaven, AIAA J. 44, 1593 (2006)) where I II(A') and vibrationally excited O II(a1Δ) are significant dissociation intermediates.

  17. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) for the dismantlement of nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallada, Marc R.; Seiffert, Stephan L.; Walter, Robert F.; Vetrovec, John

    2000-05-01

    The dismantlement of obsolete nuclear facilities is a major challenge for both the US Department of Energy and nuclear power utilities. Recent demonstrations have shown that lasers can be highly effective for size reduction cutting, especially for the efficient storage and recycling of materials. However, the full benefits of lasers can only be realized with high average power beams that can be conveniently delivered, via fiber optics, to remote and/or confined areas. Industrial lasers that can meet these requirements are not available now or for the foreseeable future. However, a military weapon laser, a Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL), which has been demonstrated at over a hundred kilo Watts, could be adapted to meet these needs and enable entirely new industrial applications. An 'industrialized' COIL would enable rapid sectioning of thick and complex structures, such as glove boxes, reactor vessels, and steam generators, accelerating dismantlement schedules and reducing worker hazards. The full advantages of lasers in dismantlement could finally be realized with a portable COIL which is integrated with sophisticated robotics. It could be built and deployed in less than two years, breaking the paradigm of labor-intensive dismantlement operations and cutting processing times and costs dramatically.

  18. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser for decommissioning and dismantlement of nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tei, Kazuyoku; Sugimoto, Daichi; Endo, Masamori; Takeda, Shuzaburo; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2000-01-01

    Conceptual designs of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) facility for decommissioning and dismantlement (DD) of nuclear facility is proposed. The requisite output power and beam quality was determined base don our preliminary experiments of nonmetal material processing. Assuming the laser power of 30kW, it is derived that the beam quality of M2 equals 36 required to cut a biological shield wall of a nuclear power plant at a cutting speed of 10mm/min. Then the requisite specification of an optical fiber to deliver the laser is calculated. It turned to be quite extreme, core diameter of 1.7mm and NA equals 0.018. The mass flow and heat balance of proposed facility is calculated based on our recent COIL studies. With the high-pressure subsonic mode, the vacuum pump size is minimized compared to the supersonic operation. Finally, the size of the facility is estimated assuming tow-hour continuous operation. It is revealed that such a system can be packed in five railway containers.

  19. Optical saturation and extraction from the chemical oxygen-iodine laser medium

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, D.A.; Bauer, A.H. . Rocketdyne Div.)

    1993-09-01

    A rate equation model for the loaded gain of a flowing chemical oxygen-iodine laser is described. The solution of the model is obtained for the loaded gain when the medium is stimulated by a multimode field. It is shown that optical saturation of the COIL medium is governed by three parameters: the ratio of the collision to Doppler linewidth measuring how much of the total linewidth is accessed; a saturation parameter measuring the field strength required to overcome medium quenching; and a cross-relaxation parameter measuring the ability of the velocity and hyper-fine relaxation to restore homogeneity to the transition. Criteria for the saturation character, homogeneous, inhomogeneous, or mixed, are established. This gain model is used to parametrically examine the sensitivity of the loaded gain and optical extraction efficiency to cavity pressure and to the uncertainty in the magnitude of the velocity cross-relaxation rates. It is shown, under single-mode operating conditions, that the extraction efficiency increases as the rate of velocity cross-relaxation increases and that the saturation behavior of the medium can be totally changed by only modes changes in the cavity operating conditions. The implication when interpreting experimental data and scaling from low to high power operation are briefly discussed and it is shown that interpreting test data without consideration of the factors presented here can lead to substantial error in estimating the power available from the flow.

  20. Effects of translational nonequilibrium on the performance of a flowing chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhi; Yan, Hai-Xing; Hu, Li-Min

    2003-11-01

    The effect of the translational nonequilibrium on performance modeling of flowing chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COIL) is emphasized in this paper. The spectral line broadening (SLB) model is a basic factor for predicting the performances of flowing COIL. The Voigt profile function is a well-known SLB model and is usually utilized. In the case of gas pressure in laser cavity less than 5 torr, a low pressure limit expression of the Voigt profile function is used. These two SLB models imply that all lasing particles can interact with monochromatic laser radiation. Basically, the inhomogeneous broadening effects are not considered in these two SLB models and they cannot predict the spectral content. The latter requires consideration of finite translational relaxation rate. Unfortunately, it is rather difficult to solve simultaneously the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations and the conservation equations of the number of lasing particles per unit volume and per unit frequency interval. In the operating condition of flowing COIL, it is possible to obtain a perturbational solution of the conservational equations for lasing particles and deduce a new relation between the gain and the optical intensity, i.e., a new gain-saturation relation. By coupling the gain-saturation relation with other governing equations (such as the NS equations, chemical reaction equations and the optical model of gain-equal-loss), we have numerically calculated the performances of flowing COIL. The present results are compared with those obtained by the common rate-equation (RE) model, in which the Voigt profile function and its low pressure limit expression are used. The difference of different model"s results is great. For instance, in the case of lasing frequency coinciding with the central frequency of line profile and very low gas pressure, the gain saturation relation of the present model is quite different with that of the RE model.

  1. Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser Diluted by CO2/N2 Buffer Gases with a Cryosorption Vacuum Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingxiu; Sang, Fengting; Jin, Yuqi; Fang, Benjie; Chen, Fang; Geng, Zicai; Li, Yongzhao

    2008-11-01

    Experiments were carried out on a verti-chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL), which was designed for N2 and energized by a square-pipe jet singlet oxygen generator (JSOG). A cryosorption vacuum pump was used as the pressure recovery system for CO2 and N2 buffer gases. The output power with CO2 was 27.3% lower than that with N2, but the zeolite bed showed an adsorption capacity threefold higher for CO2 than for N2 in the continuous operation with a Cl2 flow rate of 155 mmol/s and a total flow rate of 430±3 mmol/s.

  2. Data acquisition and control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) for a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijun; Li, Guofu; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Fengting; Kang, Yuanfu; Li, Liucheng; Wang, Yuanhu; Tang, Shukai; Yu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a pulsed chemical oxygen -iodine laser (PCOIL) has been developed. It is implemented by an industrial control computer,a PLC, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the valve and transmitter. The system is capable of handling 200 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, display, safety measures and control of various valves. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a PCOIL. The DACS system has been programmed using software programmable logic controller (PLC). Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

  3. The subsonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser : comparison of a theoretical model to experiments in the 30 W range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churassy, S.; Bouvier, A. J.; Bouvier, A.; Erba, B.; Setra, M.

    1994-10-01

    The performances of a small scale subsonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser have been improved, the output laser power being increased from 5 to 34 W, with the same gas pumping system. At this power range, we have shown that the modeling of the laser must include the temperature effects on the reaction kinetics. Our model shows also that the addition of a buffer gas such as SF6 achieves a significant cooling of the active medium, which in turn allows a better laser power extraction. Les performances d'un laser subsonique iode-oxygne chimique petite chelle ont t amliores, la puissance laser tant augmente de 5 W 34 W avec le mme ensemble de pompage. Nous avons montr que, dans ce domaine de puissance, la modlisation du laser doit inclure les effets de temprature sur les cintiques des ractions. Notre modle montre galement que l'adjonction d'un gaz tampon tel que SF6 conduit un refroidissement important du milieu actif, permettant alors une meilleure extraction de la puissance laser.

  4. Power optimization of small-scale chemical oxygen-iodine laser with jet-type singlet oxygen generator

    SciTech Connect

    Blayvas, I.; Barmashenko, B.D.; Furman, D.; Rosenwaks, S.; Zagidullin, M.V.

    1996-12-01

    Studies of power optimization of a 5-cm gain length chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) energized by a jet-type singlet oxygen generator (JSOG) are presented. For 10 mmol/s of Cl{sub 2} flow rate, output power of 132 W with chemical efficiency of 14.5% was obtained without a water vapor trap. 163 W and 18% were achieved when coholed (173 K) He was introduced downstream of the JSOG; under these conditions, the small-signal gain was estimated to be 0.32% cm{sup {minus}1}. 190 W and 10.5% were obtained for 20 mmol/s of Cl{sub 2} flow rate. Replacing He by N{sub 2} as a buffer gas resulted in a 13% power decrease only. The main key for increasing the chemical efficiency of a COIL without a water vapor trap for a given iodine-oxygen mixing system is found to be high oxygen pressure and low water vapor pressure inside the reaction zone of the JSOG. The last goal was achieved by optimizing the composition and temperature of the basic hydrogen-peroxide solution (BHP). The experimental results are discussed and related to the composition and flow conditions of the gaseous reactants and of the BHP.

  5. Self-initiating volume discharge in iodides used for producing atomic iodine in pulsed chemical oxygen - iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Belevtsev, A A; Kazantsev, S Yu; Saifulin, A V; Firsov, K N

    2003-06-30

    A volume self-sustained discharge (VSD) in iodides (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}I, C{sub 4}H{sub 9}I) and in their mixtures with SF{sub 6}, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} in the presence of small-scale inhomogeneities on the cathode surface is shown to develop in the form of a self-initiating volume discharge (SIVD), i.e., a volume discharge without any preionisation including discharge gaps with a strong edge enhancement of the electric field. Additions of SF{sub 6} or N{sub 2} to the iodides improves the stability and homogeneity of the SIVD, while adding up to 300 % (relative to the partial iodide pressure) of O{sub 2} to these mixtures has only an insignificant effect on the discharge stability. The possibility of SIVD initiation was modelled experimentally in a 1.5-L discharge volume. For the C{sub 4}H{sub 9}I:O{sub 2}:SF{sub 6}=0.083:0.25:0.67 mixture at a pressure of 72 Torr, the specific energy input into the discharge plasma ranged up to 130 J L{sup -1} in this geometry. A conclusion was drawn that the SIVD is promising for the production of atomic iodine in the pulsed and repetitively pulsed operating regimes of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser. (lasers)

  6. Dissociation of I II in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers: experiment, modeling, and pre-dissociation by electrical discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, A.; Waichman, K.; Dahan, Z.; Rybalkin, V.; Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2007-06-01

    The dissociation of I II molecules at the optical axis of a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was studied via detailed measurements and three dimensional computational fluid dynamics calculations. Comparing the measurements and the calculations enabled critical examination of previously proposed dissociation mechanisms and suggestion of a mechanism consistent with the experimental and theoretical results obtained in a supersonic COIL for the gain, temperature and I II dissociation fraction at the optical axis. The suggested mechanism combines the recent scheme of Azyazov and Heaven (AIAA J. 44, 1593 (2006)), where I II(A' 3Π 2u), I II(A 3Π 1u) and O II(a1Δ g, v) are significant dissociation intermediates, with the "standard" chain branching mechanism of Heidner et al. (J. Phys. Chem. 87, 2348 (1983)), involving I(2P 1/2) and I II(X1Σ + g, v). In addition, we examined a new method for enhancement of the gain and power in a COIL by applying DC corona/glow discharge in the transonic section of the secondary flow in the supersonic nozzle, dissociating I II prior to its mixing with O II(1Δ). The loss of O II(1Δ) consumed for dissociation was thus reduced and the consequent dissociation rate downstream of the discharge increased, resulting in up to 80% power enhancement. The implication of this method for COILs operating beyond the specific conditions reported here is assessed.

  7. Toward understanding the dissociation of I2 in chemical oxygen-iodine lasers: Combined experimental and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waichman, K.; Rybalkin, V.; Katz, A.; Dahan, Z.; Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2007-07-01

    The dissociation of I2 molecules at the optical axis of a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) was studied via detailed measurements and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics calculations. The measurements, briefly reported in a recent paper [Rybalkin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021115 (2006)] and reanalyzed in detail here, revealed that the number N of consumed O2(aΔg1) molecules per dissociated I2 molecule depends on the experimental conditions: it is 4.5±0.4 for typical conditions and I2 densities applied for optimal operation of the COIL but increases at lower I2 densities. Comparing the measurements and the calculations enabled critical examination of previously proposed dissociation mechanisms and suggestion of a mechanism consistent with the experimental and theoretical results obtained in a supersonic COIL for the gain, temperature, I2 dissociation fraction, and N at the optical axis. The suggested mechanism combines the recent scheme of Azyazov and Heaven [AIAA J. 44, 1593 (2006)], where I2(A'Π2u3), I2(AΠ1u3), and O2(aΔg1,v) are significant dissociation intermediates, with the "standard" chain branching mechanism of Heidner III et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 87, 2348 (1983)], involving I(P1/22) and I2(XΣg +1,v).

  8. Gain and temperature in a slit nozzle supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser with transonic and supersonic injection of iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenwaks, Salman; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Bruins, Esther; Furman, Dov; Rybalkin, Victor; Katz, Arje

    2002-05-01

    Spatial distributions of the gain and temperament across the flow were studied for transonic and supersonic schemes of the iodine injection in a slit nozzle supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser as a function of the iodine and secondary nitrogen flow rate, jet penetration parameter and gas pumping rate. The mixing efficiency for supersonic injection of iodine is found to be much larger than for transonic injection, the maximum values of the gain being approximately 0.65 percent/cm for both injection schemes. Measurements of the gain distribution as a function of the iodine molar flow rate nI2 were carried out. For transonic injection the optimal value of nI2 at the flow centerline is smaller than that at the off axis location. The temperature is distributed homogeneously across the flow, increasing only in the narrow boundary layers near the walls. Opening a leak downstream of the cavity in order to decease the Mach number results in a decrease of the gain and increase of the temperature. The mixing efficiency in this case is much larger than for closed leak.

  9. Kinetic-fluid dynamics modeling of I{sub 2} dissociation in supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Waichman, K.; Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.

    2009-09-15

    The mechanism of I{sub 2} dissociation in supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine lasers (COILs) is studied applying kinetic-fluid dynamics modeling, where pathways involving the excited species I{sub 2}(X {sup 1}SIGMA{sub g}{sup +},10<=v<25), I{sub 2}(X {sup 1}SIGMA{sub g}{sup +},25<=v<=47), I{sub 2}(A{sup '} {sup 3}PI{sub 2u}), I{sub 2}(A {sup 3}PI{sub 1u}), O{sub 2}(X {sup 3}SIGMA{sub g}{sup -},v), O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}DELTA{sub g},v), O{sub 2}(b {sup 1}SIGMA{sub g}{sup +},v), and I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) as intermediate reactants are included. The gist of the model is adding the first reactant and reducing the contribution of the second as compared to previous models. These changes, recently suggested by Azyazov, et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 104306 (2009)], significantly improve the agreement with the measurements of the gain in a low pressure supersonic COIL for all I{sub 2} flow rates that have been tested in the experiments. In particular, the lack of agreement for high I{sub 2} flow rates, which was encountered in previous models, has been eliminated in the present model. It is suggested that future modeling of the COIL operation should take into account the proposed contribution of the above mentioned reactants.

  10. Deactivation rate of I{sub 2} molecules (X, v {>=} 30) in the medium of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Pichugin, S Yu

    2008-08-31

    The effective deactivation rate constants are calculated for I{sub 2}(X) molecules at vibrational levels with v {>=} 30 colliding with N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} molecules in the medium of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser. The calculated constants (4x10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} and 3x10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}) are less by half plus than the corresponding constants found earlier in the paper of Lawrence et al., where the dissociation of I{sub 2} was neglected in calculations. (lasers, active media)

  11. Frequency-doubled pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser as an efficient pump source for high-power solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, P. G.

    1995-12-01

    Output laser parameters are enhanced significantly by using laser pumping. An excellent example is usage of laser diodes for solid-state laser pumping. Although there are permanent advances towards development of this technique, its application for laser systems of more than 100 J output requires time, significant effort and expense. I propose another pumping source based on a rather simple and inexpensive technique and admitted scaling up to energy values which are beyond the reach now with the diodes. This is a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) with intracavity frequency doubling. The COIL operates on a laser transition of atomic iodine (1.315 micrometer). The upper laser level populates via energy transfer from metastable oxygen molecules (O2(1(Delta) )-singlet oxygen) which formed in a rather simple chemical reaction between an alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide and gaseous chlorine. The COIL is a gas laser of low pressure (not more than several torrs), having high output parameters and efficiency. A peculiar mechanism of inversion formation makes it difficult to realize a pulsed mode operation by conventional techniques. In particular, there is a limitation of energy stored in large volume. This problem has been solved in our laboratory by forming of atomic iodine with external exposure on some iodides. As a result a pulsed COIL system with an external initiation arose. High optical quality of an active medium and rather high intensity permit us to get 100% intracavity frequency doubling. The wavelength (657.5 nm) is suitable for pumping of some efficient laser materials such as Cr:LiSAF, and garnets codoped with Cr3+ and TR3+ ions. The proposed laser system has the following advantages: (1) scaling by merely increasing the size of the laser, (2) regulated pulse duration from 20 microseconds, (3) well-collimated beam, and (4) repetition rate of about tens Hz. There is a possibility to use the proposed laser system to pump large-size laser elements of laser-drivers for ICF. It is especially interesting to use the proposed pumping source for chirped pulse amplification. Energy of 100 - 200 J can be obtained with currently available pulsed COILs. Thereby a real ability opens for generation of ultrashort pulses of petawatt level output power.

  12. Development of the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, David L.; Verdeyen, Joseph T.; King, Darren M.; Palla, Andrew D.; Laystrom, Julia K.; Benavides, Gabriel F.; Zimmerman, Joseph W.; Woodard, Brian S.; Solomon, Wayne C.

    2007-05-01

    In the hybrid electric discharge Oxygen-Iodine laser (ElectricOIL), the desired O II(a1?) is produced using a low-to-medium pressure electric discharge. The discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds higher levels of complexity to the post-discharge kinetics which are not encountered in a classic purely chemical O II(a1?) generation system. Experimental studies over the past six years using electric discharges have demonstrated O II(a) yields greater than 20%, gain, and cw laser power. Several modeling studies have also been performed for ElectricOIL and similar systems. As the development of this type of iodine laser continues, the roles of oxygen atoms and NO/NO II are found to be very significant in both the discharge region and downstream of the discharge region. A series of O II(1?) emission, I* emission, O-atom titrations, gain, and O II(1?) yield, NO II* emission, and laser power measurements have been taken to explore the complex phenomena that are being observed. As the overall system is better understood improvements are being made in laser power and efficiency.

  13. Numerical study of He/CF{sub 3}I pulsed discharge used to produce iodine atom in chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jiao; Wang Yanhui; Wang Dezhen; Duo Liping; Li Guofu

    2013-04-15

    The pulsed discharge for producing iodine atoms from the alkyl and perfluoroalky iodides (CH{sub 3}I, CF{sub 3}I, etc.) is the most efficient method for achieving the pulse operating mode of a chemical oxygen-iodine laser. In this paper, a one-dimensional fluid model is developed to study the characteristics of pulsed discharge in CF{sub 3}I-He mixture. By solving continuity equation, momentum equation, Poisson equation, Boltzmann equation, and an electric circuit equation, the temporal evolution of discharge current density and various discharge products, especially the atomic iodine, are investigated. The dependence of iodine atom density on discharge parameters is also studied. The results show that iodine atom density increases with the pulsed width and pulsed voltage amplitude. The mixture ratio of CF{sub 3}I and helium plays a more significant role in iodine atom production. For a constant voltage amplitude, there exists an optimal mixture ratio under which the maximum iodine atom concentration is achieved. The bigger the applied voltage amplitude is, the higher partial pressure of CF{sub 3}I is needed to obtain the maximum iodine atom concentration.

  14. Excited states in the active media of oxygen - iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Azyazov, V N

    2009-11-30

    A review of investigations of kinetic processes in active media oxygen - iodine lasers (OILs) performed in the last decade is presented. The mechanisms of pumping and quenching of electronically and vibrationally excited O{sub 2} and I{sub 2} molecules are considered, and dissociation mechanisms of I{sub 2} in the active medium of the OIL are analysed. The values of kinetic constants of processes proceeding in the active media of OILs are recommended. (review)

  15. Parameters of an electric-discharge generator of iodine atoms for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Azyazov, V N; Vorob'ev, M V; Voronov, A I; Kupryaev, Nikolai V; Mikheev, P A; Ufimtsev, N I

    2009-01-31

    Laser-induced fluorescence is used for measuring the concentration of iodine molecules at the output of an electric-discharge generator of atomic iodine. Methyl iodide CH{sub 3}I is used as the donor of atomic iodine. The fraction of iodine extracted from CH{sub 3}I in the generator is {approx}50%. The optimal operation regimes are found in which 80%-90% of iodine contained in the output flow of the generator was in the atomic state. This fraction decreased during the iodine transport due to recombination and was 20%-30% at the place where iodine was injected into the oxygen flow. The fraction of the discharge power spent for dissociation was {approx}3%. (elements of laser setups)

  16. Overview of iodine generation for oxygen-iodine lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirsek, Vt.

    2012-01-01

    A review of the methods for generation of iodine for oxygen-iodine lasers (OIL) is presented. The chemical and physical methods for production of both atomic (AI) and molecular (MI) iodine have been searched in order to improve the efficiency and/or technology of OILs. These trials were motivated by the estimations that a substantial part of singlet oxygen (SO) could be saved with these methods and the onset of the laser active medium will be accelerated. Vapour of MI can be generated by the evaporation of solid or pressurized liquid I2, or synthesized in situ by the reaction of Cl2 with either HI or CuI2. The chemical methods of generation of AI are based on the substitution of I atom in a molecule of HI or ICl by another halogen atom produced usually chemically. The discharge methods include the dissociation of various iodine compounds (organic iodides, I2, HI) in the RF, MW, DC-pulsed or DC-vortex stabilized discharge. Combined methods use discharge dissociation of molecules (H2, F2) to gain atoms which subsequently react to replace AI from the iodine compound. The chemical methods were quite successful in producing AI (up to the 100% yield), but the enhancement of the laser performance was not reported. The discharge methods had been subsequently improving and are today able to produce up to 0.4 mmol/s of AI at the RF power of 500 W. A substantial enhancement of the discharge- OIL performance (up to 40%) was reported. In the case of Chemical-OIL, the enhancement was reported only under the conditions of a low I2/O2 ratio, where the "standard" I2 dissociation by SO is slow. The small-signal gain up to 0.3 %/cm was achieved on the supersonic COIL using the HI dissociated in the RF discharge. Due to the complicated kinetics of the RI-I-I2-SO system and a strong coupling with the gas flow and mixing, the theoretical description of the problem is difficult. It, however, seems that we can expect the major improvement of the OIL performance for those systems, where the SO yield is rather low (DOIL) or for the high-pressure COIL, where the quenching processes are important and the shortage of the distance needed for the preparation of active media is essential.

  17. Enhanced performance of an electric oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, D. L.; Benavides, G. F.; Zimmerman, J. W.; Woodard, B. S.; Day, M. T.; Palla, A. D.; Verdeyen, J. T.; Solomon, W. C.

    2010-02-01

    Experiments and modeling have led to continued enhancements in the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system. This continuous wave (cw) laser operating on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine is pumped by the production of O2(a) in a radio-frequency (RF) discharge in an O2/He/NO gas mixture. New discharge geometries have led to improvements in O2(a) production and efficiency. A 95% enhancement in cw laser power was achieved via a 50% increase in gain length, flow rates, and discharge power. A further 87% increase in extracted laser power was obtained using a larger mode volume resonator. The gain has improved by more than 100-fold from the initial demonstration of 0.002% cm-1 to 0.26% cm-1, and similarly the outcoupled laser power has improved more than 500-fold from 0.16 W to 102 W.

  18. Recent electric oxygen-iodine laser experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, David L.; Benavides, Gabriel F.; Zimmerman, Joseph W.; Woodard, Brian S.; Palla, Andrew D.; Day, Michael T.; Verdeyen, Joseph T.; Solomon, Wayne C.

    2011-03-01

    Experiments and modeling have led to a continuing evolution of the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system. A new concentric discharge geometry has led to improvements in O2(a) production and efficiency and permits higher pressure operation of the discharge at high flow rate. A new heat exchanger design reduces the O2(a) loss and thereby increases the O2(a) delivered into the gain region for a negligible change in flow temperature. These changes have led to an increase in laser cavity gain from 0.26% cm-1 to 0.30% cm-1. New modeling with BLAZE-V shows that an iodine pre-dissociator can have a dramatic impact upon gain and laser performance. As understanding of the ElectricOIL system continues to improve, the design of the laser systematically evolves.

  19. Analytic study of the chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides - atomic iodine donors - in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser: 2. Limiting parameters of the branching chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, Tamara L; Kuznetsova, S V; Maslov, Aleksandr I; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2009-08-31

    The final stages in the development of a branching chain decomposition reaction of iodide in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) are analysed. Approximate expressions are derived to calculate the limiting parameters of the chain reaction: the final degree of iodide decomposition, the maximum concentration of excited iodine atoms, the time of its achievement, and concentrations of singlet oxygen and iodide at that moment. The limiting parameters, calculated by using these expressions for a typical composition of the active medium of a pulsed COIL, well coincide with the results of numerical calculations. (active media)

  20. Evolution of the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, David L.; Benavides, Gabriel F.; Zimmerman, Joseph W.; Woodard, Brian S.; Palla, Andrew D.; Day, Michael T.; Verdeyen, Joseph T.; Solomon, Wayne C.

    2010-11-01

    Experiments and modeling have led to a continuing evolution of the Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) system. This continuous wave (cw) laser operating on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine is pumped by the production of O2(a) in a radio-frequency (RF) discharge in an O2/He/NO gas mixture. New discharge geometries have led to improvements in O2(a) production and efficiency. Further, size scaling is presently showing a super-linear growth in performance; a 95% enhancement in cw laser power was achieved via a 50% increase in gain length, flow rates, and discharge power. New gain recovery measurements and modeling downstream of an operating laser cavity are presented in this work for a wider range of flow conditions to help identify previously unidentified kinetic processes. Larger volume resonators that extend further downstream in the flow direction were able to extract more of the excess energy being carried by the O2(a) from the ElectricOIL gain medium; a further 87% increase in extracted laser power was obtained. As understanding of the ElectricOIL system continues to improve, the design of the laser systematically evolves. The gain has improved by more than 100-fold from the initial demonstration of 0.002% cm-1 to 0.26% cm-1, and similarly the outcoupled laser power has increased more than 600-fold from 0.16 W to 109 W.

  1. Oxygen-iodine ejector laser with a centrifugal bubbling singlet-oxygen generator

    SciTech Connect

    Zagidullin, M V; Nikolaev, V D; Svistun, M I; Khvatov, N A

    2005-10-31

    It is shown that if a supersonic oxygen-iodine ejector laser is fed by singlet oxygen from a centrifugal bubbling generator operating at a centrifugal acceleration of {approx}400g, the laser output power achieves a value 1264 W at a chemical efficiency of 24.6% for an alkaline hydrogen peroxide flow rate of 208 cm{sup 3}s{sup -1} and a specific chlorine load of 1.34 mmol s{sup -1} per square centimetre of the bubble layer. (lasers)

  2. Analytic study of the chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides - atomic iodine donors - in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser: 1. Criteria for the development of the branching chain dark decomposition reaction of iodides

    SciTech Connect

    Andreeva, Tamara L; Kuznetsova, S V; Maslov, Aleksandr I; Sorokin, Vadim N

    2009-02-28

    The scheme of chemical processes proceeding in the active medium of a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is analysed. Based on the analysis performed, the complete system of differential equations corresponding to this scheme is replaced by a simplified system of equations describing in dimensionless variables the chain dark decomposition of iodides - atomic iodine donors, in the COIL active medium. The procedure solving this system is described, the basic parameters determining the development of the chain reaction are found and its specific time intervals are determined. The initial stage of the reaction is analysed and criteria for the development of the branching chain decomposition reaction of iodide in the COIL active medium are determined. (active media)

  3. Super-linear enhancement of the electric oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, David L.; Woodard, Brian S.; Benavides, Gabriel F.; Zimmerman, Joseph W.; Palla, Andrew D.; Verdeyen, Joseph T.; Solomon, Wayne C.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing experiments with Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (EOIL) technology have significantly increased laser power output by increasing the product of gain and gain-length, g0L. Increasing the system size by a factor of 3 resulted in a 5-fold increase in laser output on the 1315-nm transition of atomic iodine. The peak output power observed was 538 W.

  4. Mixing effects in postdischarge modeling of electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Andrew D.; Carroll, David L.; Verdeyen, Joseph T.; Solomon, Wayne C.

    2006-07-01

    In an electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser, laser action at 1315nm on the I(P1/22)?I(P3/22) transition of atomic iodine is obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O2(a?1) which is produced using a low-pressure electric discharge. The discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds higher levels of complexity to the postdischarge kinetics which are not encountered in a classic purely chemical O2(a?1) generation system. Mixing effects are also present. In this paper we present postdischarge modeling results obtained using a modified version of the BLAZE-II gas laser code. A 28 species, 105 reaction chemical kinetic reaction set for the postdischarge kinetics is presented. Calculations were performed to ascertain the impact of a two stream mixing mechanism on the numerical model and to study gain as a function of reactant mass flow rates. The calculations were compared with experimental data. Agreement with experimental data was improved with the addition of new kinetics and the mixing mechanism.

  5. Prediction of I2P 1/2-->2P 3/2 transition lineshapes from 3-D, time dependent simulations of chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) flowfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Timothy J.

    2008-02-01

    The lineshape of the I2P 1/2-->2P 3/2 transition provides a means to ascertain a variety of useful information regarding the performance of the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). The value at the center of the lineshape, commonly referred to as the 'line center,' is proportional to the laser amplification on the I2P 1/2-->2P 3/2 transition. The infinite integral of the lineshape is proportional to the number density of the ground and excited states of atomic iodine in the gas, indicating the degree of I II dissociation. And the width of the lineshape indicates the amount of broadening of the transition, both due to collisional and Doppler shift effects. As the Doppler shift is proportional to velocity, the width of the transition can be used to estimate the degree of random molecular motion in the gas, expressed in macroscopic terms as temperature. A Doppler shift to the frequencies in the transition can also occur through the straight-line, bulk motion of the gas, and this can be used to examine the velocity field of the gas. However, the flow may experience rotation through the presence of eddies carried within the gas, and these too may contribute to the Doppler shift of the lineshape frequencies. Given that eddies by virtue of their positive and negative velocity components can induce positive and negative Doppler shift, the widening of the lineshape is similar to thermal motion which also includes positive and negative velocities. Thus, when interpreting transition lineshapes, if some account is not made for both thermal and rotational motion, the effect of either physical process will be over-estimated. The work discussed here is oriented toward examining the interplay between the gas dynamics and the lineshape of the I2P 1/2-->2P 3/2 transition, and in turn determine the ramifications for the use of spectroscopic lineshape based diagnostics and interpretation of their data. These efforts in turn are directly linked to efforts improve the understanding of the physical processes underlying chemical lasers, as excursions outside the traditional operational parameter space become increasingly necessary.

  6. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) beam quality predictions using 3D Navier-Stokes (MINT) and wave optics (OCELOT) codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampson, Alan I.; Plummer, David N.; Erkkila, John H.; Crowell, Peter G.; Helms, Charles A.

    1998-05-01

    This paper describes a series of analyses using the 3-d MINT Navier-Stokes and OCELOT wave optics codes to calculate beam quality in a COIL laser cavity. To make this analysis tractable, the problem was broken into two contributions to the medium quality; that associated with microscale disturbances primarily from the transverse iodine injectors, and that associated with the macroscale including boundary layers and shock-like effects. Results for both microscale and macroscale medium quality are presented for the baseline layer operating point in terms of single pass wavefront error. These results show that the microscale optical path difference effects are 1D in nature and of low spatial order. The COIL medium quality is shown to be dominated by macroscale effects; primarily pressure waves generated from flow/boundary layer interactions on the cavity shrouds.

  7. Discharge-driven electric oxygen-iodine laser superlinear enhancement via increasing g0L.

    PubMed

    Benavides, G F; Zimmerman, J W; Woodard, B S; Day, M T; King, D M; Carroll, D L; Palla, A D; Verdeyen, J T; Solomon, W C

    2012-05-01

    The authors report the development of an electric oxygen-iodine laser with higher output using a larger product of gain and gain length, g0L. A factor of 4.4 increase in laser power output on the 1315 nm atomic iodine transition was achieved with a factor of 3 increase in gain length. I(2P1/2) is pumped using energy transferred from O2(a1?) produced by flowing a gas mixture of O2-He-NO through three coaxial geometry radio-frequency discharges. Continuous wave (CW) average total laser power of 481 W was extracted with g0L=0.042. PMID:22555687

  8. Similarity criteria in calculations of the energy characteristics of a cw oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mezhenin, A V; Azyazov, V N

    2012-12-31

    The calculated and experimental data on the energy efficiency of a cw oxygen - iodine laser (OIL) are analysed based on two similarity criteria, namely, on the ratio of the residence time of the gas mixture in the resonator to the characteristic time of extraction of the energy stored in singlet oxygen td and on the gain-to-loss ratio {Pi}. It is shown that the simplified two-level laser model satisfactorily predicts the output characteristics of OILs with a stable resonator at {tau}{sub d} {<=} 7. Efficient energy extraction from the OIL active medium is achieved in the case of {tau}{sub d} = 5 - 7, {Pi} = 4 - 8. (lasers)

  9. Discharge formation systems for generating atomic iodine in a pulse-periodic oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksinin, V. I.; Antsiferov, S. A.; Velikanov, S. D.; Gerasimov, A. Yu; Gostev, I. V.; Kazantsev, S. Yu; Kalinovskii, V. V.; Konovalov, V. V.; Kononov, I. G.; Mikhalkin, V. N.; Podlesnykh, S. V.; Sevryugin, I. V.; Firsov, K. N.

    2014-01-01

    Generation characteristics of a pulse-periodic oxygen-iodine laser with the electro-discharge production of atomic iodine were compared with inductively stabilised edged or anisotropic- resistive cathodes used for ignition of the volume discharge. The discharge was initiated by the radiation of a barrier discharge from the side of a grid anode. It was found that at equal specific electrical energy depositions to the gas-discharge plasma, the system with the anisotropic-resistive cathode provides a more stable and uniform volume discharge with the possibility of varying the composition and pressure of working mixtures over a wide range and a greater specific extraction of laser energy is observed (up to 2.4 J L-1). At a high pulse repetition rate of laser pulses (50 - 100 Hz) and long duration of the pulse trains (longer than a minute) the surface of anisotropic-resistive cathode became eroded.

  10. Oxygen discharge and post-discharge kinetics experiments and modeling for the electric oxygen-iodine laser system.

    PubMed

    Palla, A D; Zimmerman, J W; Woodard, B S; Carroll, D L; Verdeyen, J T; Lim, T C; Solomon, W C

    2007-07-26

    Laser oscillation at 1315 nm on the I(2P1/2)-->I(2P3/2) transition of atomic iodine has been obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O2(a1Delta) produced using a low-pressure oxygen/helium/nitric oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels of complexity to the singlet oxygen generator (SOG) kinetics which are not encountered in a classic purely chemical O2(a1Delta) generation system. The advanced model BLAZE-IV has been introduced to study the energy-transfer laser system dynamics and kinetics. Levels of singlet oxygen, oxygen atoms, and ozone are measured experimentally and compared with calculations. The new BLAZE-IV model is in reasonable agreement with O3, O atom, and gas temperature measurements but is under-predicting the increase in O2(a1Delta) concentration resulting from the presence of NO in the discharge and under-predicting the O2(b1Sigma) concentrations. A key conclusion is that the removal of oxygen atoms by NOX species leads to a significant increase in O2(a1Delta) concentrations downstream of the discharge in part via a recycling process; however, there are still some important processes related to the NOX discharge kinetics that are missing from the present modeling. Further, the removal of oxygen atoms dramatically inhibits the production of ozone in the downstream kinetics. PMID:17461557

  11. Three-block model of the kinetics of vibrationally excited I{sub 2}(X) molecules in the active media of oxygen - iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pichugin, S Yu

    2012-09-30

    A three-block model of the kinetics of vibrationally excited I{sub 2}(X) molecules in the active media of chemical oxygen - iodine lasers is developed. Instead of the system of equations describing a change in the concentrations of I{sub 2}(X, u) (u=0 - 47) molecules, this model uses equations for the total concentrations of iodine molecules belonging to the blocks of vibrational levels with u {<=} 10, u = 11 - 24, and u {>=} 25. Effective deactivation rate constants of I{sub 2}(X, 11 {<=} u {<=} 24) molecules are found for laser media of different compositions. The results of calculations performed using the proposed model agree with experimental data and are close to the parameters calculated previously by using the total system of equations for populations of individual vibrational levels of I{sub 2}(X, u). (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  12. Kinetics and scaling of gain and lasing in a 1-5 kW microwave discharge oxygen iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawlins, Wilson T.; Lee, Seonkyung; Hicks, Adam J.; Konen, Ian M.; Plumb, Emily P.; Oakes, David B.; Davis, Steven J.

    2010-02-01

    Scaling of Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (EOIL) systems to higher powers requires extension of electric discharge powers into the kW range and beyond, with high efficiency and singlet oxygen yield. This paper describes the implementation of a moderate-power (1 to 5 kW) microwave discharge at 30 to 70 Torr pressure in a supersonic flow reactor designed for systematic investigations of the scaling of gain and lasing with power and flow conditions. The 2450 MHz microwave discharge is confined near the flow axis by a swirl flow. The discharge effluent, containing active species including O2(a1?), O(3P), and O3, passes through a 2-D flow duct equipped with a supersonic nozzle and cavity. I2 is injected upstream of the supersonic nozzle. The apparatus is water-cooled, and is modular to permit a variety of inlet, nozzle, and optical configurations. A comprehensive suite of optical emission and absorption diagnostics monitors the absolute concentrations of O2(a), O(3P), O3, I2, I(2P3/2), I(2P1/2), small-signal gain, and temperature in both the subsonic and supersonic flow streams. The experimental results include numerous observations of positive gain and lasing in supersonic flow, and the scaling of gain with a variety of flow and reaction rate conditions. The results are compared with kinetics modeling predictions to highlight key discrepancies as well as areas of agreement. The observed gains are generally lower than the predicted values, due in part to chemical kinetics effects and also due to mixing limitations specific to the reagent injection design. We discuss in detail the observed effects related to O-atom chemistry, and their import for scaling the gain to higher levels. We also will present initial beam quality measurements.

  13. Catalytic enhancement of singlet oxygen production and optical gain in electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seonkyung; Rawlins, Wilson T.; Hicks, Adam J.; Konen, Ian M.; Plumb, Emily P.; Davis, Steven J.

    2011-03-01

    We are investigating catalytically enhanced production of singlet oxygen, O2(a1▵g), observed by reaction of O2/He discharge effluents over an iodine oxide film surface in a microwave discharge-flow reactor at 320 K. We have previously reported a two-fold increase in the O2(a) yields by this process, and corresponding enhancement of I(2P1/2) excitation and small-signal gain upon injection of I2 and NO2. In this paper we review observed I* excitation behavior and correlations of the catalytically generated O2(a) with atomic oxygen over a large range of discharge-flow conditions to develop a conceptual reaction mechanism for the phenomena. We describe a first-generation catalytic module for the PSI supersonic MIDJet/EOIL reactor, and tests with this module for catalyst coating deposition and enhancement of the small-signal gain observed in the supersonic flow. The results present compelling evidence for catalytic production of vibrationally excited O2(X,v) and its participation in the I* excitation process. The observed catalytic effects could significantly benefit the development of high-power electrically driven oxygen-iodine laser systems.

  14. Gas-Flow Slab RF Discharge as a Source of Singlet Delta Oxygen for Oxygen Iodine Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionin, Andrey A.; Klimachev, Yurii M.; Kochetov, Igor V.; Napartovich, Anatoly P.; Rulev, Oleg A.; Seleznev, Leonid V.; Sinitsyn, Dmitry V.

    2010-10-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical study of singlet delta oxygen (SDO) production in transverse gas flow RF slab discharge for an electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser are presented. The electric discharge facility operating in both pulse-periodic and CW mode was manufactured: gas flow duct including multi-path cryogenic heat exchanger, dielectric slab channel, and slab electrode system incorporated in the channel for RF discharge ignition. Experiments on SDO production in transverse gas flow RF discharge were carried out. SDO production depending on gas mixture content and pressure, gas flow velocity, low-frequency modulation of RF power and RF discharge power was experimentally studied. It was shown that SDO yield increased with gas pressure decrease, gas flow deceleration and helium dilution of oxygen at the same input power. CW RF discharge was demonstrated to be the most efficient for SDO production at the same averaged input power of RF discharge. SDO yield was demonstrated to be not less than 10%.

  15. Electrode system for electric-discharge generation of atomic iodine in a repetitively pulsed oxygen - iodine laser with a large active volume

    SciTech Connect

    Kazantsev, S Yu; Kononov, I G; Podlesnykh, S V; Firsov, K N

    2010-08-03

    Possibilities for increasing the active medium volume of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (CCOIL) with a pulsed electric-discharge generation of atomic iodine are studied. The reasons are analysed of the low stability of the transverse self-sustained volume discharge in electrode systems with metal cathodes under the conditions of the electric energy input into gas-discharge plasma that are typical for CCOILs: low pressure of mixtures containing a strongly electronegative component, low voltage of discharge burning, low specific energy depositions, and long duration of the current pulse. An efficient electrode system is elaborated with the cathode based on an anisotropically-resistive material, which resulted in a stable discharge in the mixtures of iodide (CH{sub 3}I, n-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}I, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}I) with oxygen and nitrogen at the specific energy depositions of {approx}5 J L{sup -1}, pressures of 10 - 25 Torr, and mixture volume of 2.5 L. (lasers)

  16. 2D gasdynamic simulation of the kinetics of an oxygen-iodine laser with electric-discharge generation of singlet oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Chukalovsky, A. A.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Klopovsky, K. S.; Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Proshina, O. V.

    2011-03-15

    The kinetic processes occurring in an electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser are analyzed with the help of a 2D (r, z) gasdynamic model taking into account transport of excited oxygen, singlet oxygen, and radicals from the electric discharge and their mixing with the iodine-containing gas. The main processes affecting the dynamics of the gas temperature and gain are revealed. The simulation results obtained using the 2D model agree well with the experimental data on the mixture gain. A subsonic oxygen-iodine laser in which singlet oxygen is generated by a 350 W transverse RF discharge excited in an oxygen flow at a pressure P = 10 Torr and the discharge tube wall is covered with mercury oxide is simulated. The simulated mixing system is optimized in terms of the flow rate and the degree of preliminary dissociation of the iodine flow. The optimal regime of continuous operation of a subsonic electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser is found.

  17. Enhancement of electric oxygen-iodine laser performance using larger mode volume resonators.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Brian S; Benavides, Gabriel F; Zimmerman, Joseph W; Carroll, David L; Palla, Andrew D; Day, Michael T; Verdeyen, Joseph T; Solomon, Wayne C

    2010-05-15

    Herein the authors report on the demonstration of an 87% enhancement in cw laser power on the 1315 nm transition of atomic iodine via a 100% increase in the resonator mode volume. O(2)(a1Delta) is produced by a single rf-excited electric discharge sustained in an O(2)-He-NO gas mixture flowing through a rectangular geometry, and I(P2(1/2)) is then pumped using energy transferred from O(2)(a1Delta). A total laser output power of 102.5 W was obtained using a Z-pass resonator configuration. PMID:20479825

  18. Generation of singlet oxygen for an oxygen-iodine laser in a radio-frequency discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Braginskii, O V; Vasil'eva, A N; Klopovskii, K S; Kovalev, A S; Lopaev, D V; Mankelevich, Yu A; Popov, N A; Rakhimov, Aleksandr T; Rakhimova, T V

    2005-01-31

    The generation of singlet oxygen (SO) in a radio-frequency discharge (13.56 MHz) in the gas flow was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The oxygen pressure was varied from 2 to 20 Torr and the energy deposition in gas from 10 to 2000 J mmol{sup -1}. The saturation of the SO concentration with increasing the energy deposition was shown to arise from the three-body process of SO quenching by atomic oxygen. Removing atomic oxygen allowed a 2.5-fold increase in the ultimate SO concentration at the discharge output. For an oxygen pressure of 15 Torr, the SO fraction amounts to 10%. (active media. lasers)

  19. Production of iodine atoms for an oxygen-iodine laser from iodine-containing molecules with the help of atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Shepelenko, A A; Mikheev, P A

    2003-03-31

    A new technique is proposed for the production of atomic iodine for a cw oxygen-iodine laser with the use of reactions between iodine donor molecules and oxygen atoms. The CH{sub 3}I, CF{sub 3}I, or I{sub 2} molecules can be used as donors. Oxygen atoms are injected into the reaction region by admixing the flow of partially dissociated oxygen produced in an electric discharge. The use of atomic iodine instead of molecular iodine excludes the consumption of singlet oxygen O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) for the dissociation of I{sub 2} and quenching of I* by the I{sub 2} molecules. The latter will supposedly allow raising the optimal density of I and accordingly the gain coefficient. Estimates were made of the required degree of dissociation of oxygen employed to obtain iodine atoms at which the above advantages can be realised. (lasers)

  20. Prospects of a visible (green) chemical laser

    SciTech Connect

    Herbelin, J.M.

    1986-07-01

    The experimental conditions for a 1.25-kW visible (green) chemical laser are detailed. In this system, a supersonic oxygen--iodine laser is optically coupled straightforwardly to a nitrogen flouride DFlike supersonic flow. The design conditions presented here are based on previously unpublished experimental and theoretical results that are shown to be in good agreement.

  1. O{sub 2}(a {sup 1}DELTA{sub g}) production in flowing Ar-O{sub 2} surface-wave microwave discharges: Possible use for oxygen-iodine laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, Vasco; Kutasi, Kinga; Sa, Paulo A.

    2010-02-15

    Herein we present the calculations conducted on an Ar-O{sub 2} surface-wave microwave discharge and its afterglow, and show that this system can be effectively used for the oxygen-iodine laser excitation. It is demonstrated that at pressures higher than 10 mbar O{sub 2}(a) yields higher than the threshold yield required for positive gain can be achieved along the afterglow. Additionally, the density of O({sup 3}P) atoms, which can quench the I({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) excited state, can be tuned to the desired level.

  2. Electrochemical regeneration of basic hydrogen peroxide for chemical oxygen iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Hano, Masami; Wakita, Syuhei; Uno, Masaharu; Takeda, Shuzaburo

    2005-03-01

    A 3.6M basic hydrogen peroxide solution is electrochemically regenerated. The apparatus was originally developed for electrolytic H2O2 production, generating dilute (<0.2M) BHP for paper manufacturing. To suppress decomposition by various mechanisms, they are identified and quantified. Both caffeine and peracetic acid are found effective to suppress autodecomposition. Theoretical prediction of the current efficiency is made to find an optimum operational condition. A BHP of 3.614M is regenerated to 3.657M with a current efficiency of 67%.

  3. An experimental research on the mixing process of supersonic oxygen-iodine parallel streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zengqiang; Sang, Fengting; Zhang, Yuelong; Hui, Xiaokang; Xu, Mingxiu; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Weili; Fang, Benjie; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi

    2014-12-01

    The O2(1Δ)/I2 mixing process is one of the most important steps in chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL). Based on the chemical fluorescence method (CFM), a diagnostic system was set up to image electronically excited fluorescent I2(B3П0) by means of a high speed camera. An optimized data analysis approach was proposed to analyze the mixing process of supersonic oxygen-iodine parallel streams, employing a set of qualitative and quantitative parameters and a proper percentage boundary threshold of the fluorescence zone. A slit nozzle bank with supersonic parallel streams and a trip tab set for enhancing the mixing process were designed and fabricated. With the diagnostic system and the data analysis approach, the performance of the trip tab set was examined and is demonstrated in this work. With the mixing enhancement, the fluorescence zone area was enlarged 3.75 times. We have studied the mixing process under different flow conditions and demonstrated the mixing properties with different iodine buffer gases, including N2, Ar, He and CO2. It was found that, among the four tested gases, Ar had the best penetration ability, whilst He showed the best free diffusion ability, and both of them could be well used as the buffer gas in our experiments. These experimental results can be useful for designing and optimizing COIL systems.

  4. Oxygen-iodine active medium with external production of iodine in a DC glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheyev, Pavel A.; Azyazov, Valeriy N.; Mezhenin, Adrew V.; Ufimtsev, Nikolay I.; Shepelenko, Alexander A.; Voronov, Anatoly I.; Kupryaev, Nikolay V.; Pichugin, Sergey Yu.; Vorobyov, Mikhail V.

    2007-05-01

    Experiments with a flow cell apparatus imitating conditions of oxygen-iodine laser, equipped with a chemical jet singlet oxygen generator and an electric discharge iodine generator have been performed. I II and CH 3I in the flow of Ar were used as atomic iodine precursors. The distributions of the electronically excited species along the flow were examined detecting their optical emissions. A straightforward comparison of two methods of oxygen-iodine medium production - conventional, by means of I II dissociation in the singlet oxygen flow and with iodine atoms produced externally in the electric discharge - was performed. It was found that stored electron energy lifetime had been about 30% longer, when iodine was produced from CH 3I in the discharge, compared to the conventional I II dissociation in the singlet oxygen flow. It was observed that maximums of the I(2P 1/2) and I II(B) concentrations had shifted to the nozzle plane, when I II in Ar carrier was subjected to the glow discharge, pointing to a nearly twofold increase in the I II dissociation rate. Contrary to the known results for low iodine and singlet oxygen concentrations, squared dependence of the amplitude of the I II(B) luminescence maximum with I(2P 1/2) concentration was observed in the dissociation region for both methods of iodine production.

  5. Chemical lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablekov, V. K.; Denisov, Iu. N.; Proshkin, V. V.

    1983-08-01

    Recent developments in the theory and application of chemical lasers (CLs) are surveyed in a translation of a book published in Russian in 1980. The laws governing the gas-phase chemical reactions typical of CLs are introduced, the principles of quantum-mechanical description of molecular systems are reviewed, and the kinetics of CL processes are examined. The four general classes of CL are then presented in detail: static-gas, subsonic, supersonic, and detonation CLs. Graphs, diagrams, and drawings of experimental setups are provided.

  6. New concepts of realizing a chemical oxygen laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehisa, K.

    2014-10-01

    New concepts are presented to realize a chemical oxygen laser (COL) based on the transition from O2(1?g) to O2 (3?g). The chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) utilizes the energy transfer from the chemically generated O2(1?g) to iodine I (2P3/2) because the stimulated emission cross section of O2(1?g) is too small to give a direct oscillation. But since extractable laser energy has no relation to the stimulated emission cross section, a COL has a potential to produce a high energy laser output if it has a long enough active medium to give a positive gain. The intrinsically long upper-state life time enables the storage of large energy, which has a potential give a giant pulsed laser. Since the previous report elucidated the problems 1), the proposed concepts are based on the consideration of them. Also a Q switched COL oscillator is simulated with a rate equation. The simulation results show that a giant pulse of ~0.05ms width can be obtained with the extraction efficiency of 10-20%.

  7. Excimer laser chemical problems

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, R.; Peterson, N.

    1982-01-01

    Techniques need to be developed to maintain XeF and XeCl laser performance over long periods of time without degradation resulting from chemical processes occurring within the laser. The dominant chemical issues include optical damage, corrosions of laser materials, gas contamination, and control of halogen concentration. Each of these issues are discussed and summarized. The methods of minimizing or controlling the chemical processes involved are presented.

  8. Singlet oxygen generator for a solar powered chemically pumped iodine laser. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, G.E.

    1984-04-01

    The potential of solid phase endoperoxides as a means to produce single-delta oxygen in the gas phase in concentrations useful to chemical oxygen-iodine lasers was investigated. The 1,4 - endoperoxide of ethyl 3- (4-methyl - 1-naphthyl) propanoate was deposited over an indium-oxide layer on a glass plate. Single-delta oxygen was released from the endoperoxide upon heating the organic film by means of an electrical discharge through the conductive indium oxide coating. The evolution of singlet-delta oxygen was determined by measuring the dimol emission signal at 634 nm. Comparison of the measured signal with an analytic model leads to two main conclusions: virtually all the oxygen being evolved is in the singlet-delta state and in the gas phase, and there is no significant quenching other than energy pooling on the time scale of the experiment (approximately 10 msec). The use of solid phase endoperoxide as a singlet-delta oxygen generator for an oxygen-iodine laser appears promising.

  9. Lasers in chemical processing

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-04-15

    The high cost of laser energy is the crucial issue in any potential laser-processing application. It is expensive relative to other forms of energy and to most bulk chemicals. We show those factors that have previously frustrated attempts to find commercially viable laser-induced processes for the production of materials. Having identified the general criteria to be satisfied by an economically successful laser process and shown how these imply the laser-system requirements, we present a status report on the uranium laser isotope separation (LIS) program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  10. Proposal of a defense application for a chemical oxygen laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehisa, K.

    2015-05-01

    Defense application for a chemical oxygen laser (COL) is explained. Although a COL has not yet been successful in lasing, the oscillator was estimated to produce a giant pulse with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~0.05ms which makes the damage threshold for the mirrors several-order higher than that for a typical solid-state laser with a ~10ns pulse width. Therefore it has a potential to produce MJ class output considering the simple scalability of being a chemical laser. Since within 0.05ms a supersonic aircraft can move only a few centimeters which is roughly equal to the spot size of the focused beam at ~10km away using a large-diameter focusing mirror, a COL has a potential to make a damage to an enemy aircraft by a single shot without beam tracking. But since the extracted beam can propagate up to a few kilometers due to the absorption in the air, it may be suitable to use in space. While a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) can give a pulsed output with a width of ~2 ms using a high-pressure singlet oxygen generator (SOG). Therefore a pulsed COIL may also not require beam tracking if a target aircraft is approaching. Another advantage for these pulsed high-energy lasers (HELs) is that, in case of propagating in cloud or fog, much less energy is required for a laser for aerosol vaporization (LAV) than that of a LAV for a CW HEL. Considerations to use a COL as a directed energy weapon (DEW) in a point defense system are shown.

  11. High-power iodine laser application for remote D and D cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrovec, John; Hindy, Robert N.; Subbaraman, Ganesan; Spiegel, Lyle P.

    1997-04-01

    This paper discusses the use of high-power lasers to remotely process material for decommissioning and dismantlement of nuclear facilities. Process requirements are established and suitable laser systems are compared. The chemical oxygen- iodine laser was identified as the leading candidate for long term dismantlement activities because it offers a high-power, high-brightness beam that can be remotely delivered into radiation containment by optical fibers.

  12. Partial feedback unstable resonator on small scale supersonic large aperture chemical laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Rui; Li, Lei

    2015-05-01

    There is always a challenge on large aperture medium power laser's resonator design, stable resonator would supports significant higher order transverse modes, folded and telescope stable resonator are too complex and not preferred by engineers, unstable resonator need rather large round trip gain to compensate its high geometric out-coupling, which is difficult for this kind of laser since its gain length is limited due to the power level and large aperture. Partial feedback unstable resonator had been proposed to tackle this difficulty since the early days of laser development, however, the debates of its effect never stopped even with those distinguished optical resonator scientists such as Siegman, Anan'ev, and Weber. Recently integrated partial feedback unstable resonator design had been successfully demonstrated on a medium size chemical oxygen iodine laser. In this paper, we carry this resonator configuration on a small scale discharge driven supersonic nozzle array Hydrogen Fluoride chemical laser, a typical large aperture short gain length device. With magnification equals 4/3, we successfully get ten Watts level ring beam output.

  13. Laser Chemical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zare, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews applications of laser methods to analytical problems, selecting examples from multiphoton ionization and fluorescence analysis. Indicates that laser methodologies promise to improve dramatically the detection of trace substances embedded in "real" matrices, giving the analyst a most powerful means for determining the composition of…

  14. Laser Chemical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zare, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews applications of laser methods to analytical problems, selecting examples from multiphoton ionization and fluorescence analysis. Indicates that laser methodologies promise to improve dramatically the detection of trace substances embedded in "real" matrices, giving the analyst a most powerful means for determining the composition of

  15. Development of safe infrared gas lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainuddin; Singhal, Gaurav; Tyagi, R. K.; Maini, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    Infrared gas lasers find application in numerous civil and military areas. Such lasers are therefore being developed at different institutions around the world. However, the development of chemical infrared gas lasers such as chemical oxygen iodine lasers (COIL) involves the use of several hazardous chemicals. In order to exploit full potential of these lasers, one must take diligent care of the safety issues associated with the handling of these chemicals and the involved processes. The present paper discusses the safety aspects to be taken into account in the development of these infrared gas lasers including various detection sensors working in conjunction with a customized data acquisition system loaded with safety interlocks for safe operation. The developed safety schemes may also be implemented for CO2 gas dynamic laser (GDL) and hydrogen fluoride-deuterium fluoride (HF-DF) Laser.

  16. High energy chemical laser system

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.; Pearson, R.K.

    1975-12-23

    A high energy chemical laser system is described wherein explosive gaseous mixtures of a reducing agent providing hydrogen isotopes and interhalogen compounds are uniformly ignited by means of an electrical discharge, flash- photolysis or an electron beam. The resulting chemical explosion pumps a lasing chemical species, hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride which is formed in the chemical reaction. The generated lasing pulse has light frequencies in the 3- micron range. Suitable interhalogen compounds include bromine trifluoride (BrF$sub 3$), bromine pentafluoride (BrF$sub 5$), chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF$sub 3$), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF$sub 5$), iodine pentafluoride (IF$sub 5$), and iodine heptafluoride (IF$sub 7$); and suitable reducing agents include hydrogen (H$sub 2$), hydrocarbons such as methane (CH$sub 4$), deuterium (D$sub 2$), and diborane (B$sub 2$H$sub 6$), as well as combinations of the gaseous compound and/or molecular mixtures of the reducing agent.

  17. Chemically-Assisted Pulsed Laser-Ramjet

    SciTech Connect

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Kaneko, Tomoki; Tamada, Kazunobu

    2010-10-13

    A preliminary study of a chemically-assisted pulsed laser-ramjet was conducted, in which chemical propellant such as a gaseous hydrogen/air mixture was utilized and detonated with a focused laser beam in order to obtain a higher impulse compared to the case only using lasers. CFD analysis of internal conical-nozzle flows and experimental measurements including impulse measurement were conducted to evaluate effects of chemical reaction on thrust performance improvement. From the results, a significant improvement in the thrust performances was confirmed with addition of a small amount of hydrogen to propellant air, or in chemically-augmented operation.

  18. Chemical Laser Interactions With Human Cardiovascular Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, M. P.; Henry, P. D.; Valderrama, G. L.; Menefee, R. F.; Krenek, B. D.; Fredin, L. G.; Berry, M. J.

    1988-06-01

    Continuous wave (cw) and repetitively pulsed (rp) hydrogen fluoride (HF) and deuterium fluoride (DF) chemical laser interactions with human cardiovascular tissues have been studied in order to understand ablation phenomenology, effects, and mechanisms under well characterized laser irradiation conditions. CW HF/DF experiments were performed on normal and atherosclerotic tissues over a broad irradiance range (3-20 kW/cm2) to determine thermal coupling coefficients and effective enthalpies of ablation as a function of laser wavelength and tissue type. Similar experiments were completed using a rp HF chemical laser with a submicrosecond pulse duration. Plume probing experiments were also performed to characterize particle formation (i.e., spallation) generated by rp laser ablation. All of the data are used to consider the physical and chemical processes associated with thermal coupling phenomenology and thermochemical pyrolysis and ablation of cardiovascular tissues irradiated by infrared lasers.

  19. Laser spectroscopy for studying chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfrum, J.

    1988-07-01

    In recent years, various methods have been developed to observe and to influence the course of chemical reactions using laser radiation. By selectively increasing the translational, rotational, and vibrational energies and by controlling the relative orientation of the reaction partners with tunable infrared and UV lasers, direct insight can be gained into the molecular course of the breaking and re-forming of chemical bonds. As exmaples for the application of lasers in chemical synthesis the production of monomers and catalysts is discussed. The application of linear and nonlinear laser spectroscopic methods, such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), infrared-absorption measurements with tunable diode and molecular lasers is described for non-intrusive observation of the interaction of transport processes with chemical reactions used in industrial processes with high temporal, spectral and spatial resolution. Finally the application of a UV laser microbeam apparatus in genetic engineering for laser-induced cell fusion, genetic transformation of plant cells as well as diagnosis of human diseases by laser-microdissection of chromosomes is described.

  20. XeCl laser chemical problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennant, R.

    Problems concerning the development of a long-life, high-energy, and high-pulse-rate XeCl laser are partly related to the occurrence of chemical processes which produce harmful effects on laser components. These effects are related to optical damage, corrosion of laser materials, and gas contamination. A description is presented of a number of approaches designed to minimize or control the deleterious chemical processes. Attention is also given to recommended materials of construction, XeCl gas reprocessing, and an XeCl clean-up system. On the basis of the obtained improvements, it is believed that it will be possible to manufacture reliable systems capable of delivering higher average powers at higher pulse rates for at least 1,000 million pulses.

  1. Laser-based detection of chemical contraband

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmer, Robert G.; Kelly, James F.; Martin, Steven W.; Mong, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    1997-02-01

    The goal of our work is tow fold; 1) develop a portable and rapid laser based air sampler for detection of specific chemical contraband and 2) compile a spectral data base in both the near- and mid-IR of sufficiently high quality to be useful for gas phase spectroscopic identification of chemical contraband. During the synthesis or 'cooking' of many illicit chemical substances, relatively high concentrations of volatile solvents, chemical precursors and byproducts are unavoidably released to the atmosphere. In some instances, the final product may have sufficient vapor pressure to be detectable in the surrounding air. The detection of a single high-value effluent or the simultaneous detection of two or more low-value effluents can be used as reliable indicators of a nearby clandestine cooking operation. The designation of high- versus low-value effluent reflects both the commercial availability and legitimate usage of a specific chemical. This paper will describe PNNL's progress and efforts towards the development of a portable laser based air sampling system for the detection of clandestine manufacturing of methamphetamine. Although our current efforts ar focused on methamphetamine, we see no fundamental limitations on detection of other forms of chemical contraband manufacturing. This also includes the synthesis of certain classes of chemical weapons that have recently been deployed by terrorist groups.

  2. Remote Chemical Detection using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Harper, Warren W.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2006-02-01

    The Infrared Technologies Program at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on the science and technology of remote and in-situ chemical sensors for detecting proliferation and countering terrorism. The program is focusing on the infrared detection of gaseous species including chemical warfare agents and gases associated with the production of chemical and nuclear weapons. Several sensors under development are based on miniature infrared quantum cascade (QC) lasers constructed of semiconductor material. The QC laser is unique in that by simply changing the thickness of the semiconductor layers, the laser's wavelength can be changed to target molecular absorption features of specific chemicals. For remote sensing over long optical paths, QC lasers are applied to remote areas using the differential-absorption LIDAR technique. Using a single laser, this technique can easily monitor large areas that would require a large network of point sensors. The original remote sensing configuration, suitable for laboratory applications, consisted of an optical table, laser, beam expander, telescope, mirror, and various supporting electronic and optical components. Recently, PNNL began development of a ruggedized version to conduct experiments in real-world conditions. To reduce the effects of thermal distortion, the system had to be operated from within a large, well insulated, temperature-controlled trailer. The optical breadboard was attached to 4 shock-mounts to reduce shock and vibrational loads to the optical set-up during transport. A custom jacking system using electromechanical actuators was designed to affix the optical table directly to the ground through penetrations in the trailer floor. The jacking system allows remote sensing at longer ranges (up to 5 km) by eliminating jitter caused by wind or personnel movement within the trailer. A computer-controlled gimbal-mounted mirror was added to allow the laser beam to be accurately pointed in both the vertical and horizontal plane. Mechanical tests and finite element analysis were undertaken to verify that the gimbal drives and mounting hardware had sufficient capacity to handle the inertia of the large 22-inch diameter mirror while maintaining adequate mirror flatness. This paper will provide an overview of the remote chemical detection system and will describe innovative optical mechanical solutions developed to overcome several alignment and stability issues.

  3. Laser Velocimetry of Chemical Vapor Deposition Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Laser velocimetry (LV) is being used to measure the gas flows in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactors. These gas flow measurements can be used to improve industrial processes in semiconductor and optical layer deposition and to validate numerical models. Visible in the center of the picture is the graphite susceptor glowing orange-hot at 600 degrees C. It is inductively heated via the copper cool surrounding the glass reactor.

  4. Intense laser beams; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 23, 24, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Richard C. (editor); Ulrich, Peter B. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    Various papers on intense laser beams are presented. Individual topics addressed include: novel methods of copper vapor laser excitation, UCLA IR FEL, lasing characteristics of a large-bore copper vapor laser (CVL), copper density measurement of a large-bore CVL, high-power XeCl excimer laser, solid state direct-drive circuit for pumping gas lasers, united energy model for FELs, intensity and frequency instabilities in double-mode CO2 lasers, comparison of output power stabilities of CO and CO2 lasers, increasing efficiency of sealed-off CO lasers, thermal effects in singlet delta oxygen generation, optical extraction from the chemical oxygen-iodine laser medium, generation and laser diagnostic analysis of bismuth fluoride. Also discussed are: high-Q resonator design for an HF overtone chemical lasers, improved coatings for HF overtone lasers, scaled atmospheric blooming experiment, simulation on producing conjugate field using deformable mirrors, paraxial theory of amplitude correction, potential capabilities of adaptive optical systems in the atmosphere, power beaming research at NASA, system evaluations of laser power beaming options, performance projections for laser beam power to space, independent assessment of laser power beaming options, removal of atmospheric CFCs by lasers, efficiency of vaporization cutting by CVL.

  5. Long pulse chemical laser. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bardon, R.L.; Breidenthal, R.E.; Buonadonna, V.R.

    1989-02-01

    This report covers the technical effort through February, 1989. This effort was directed towards the technology associated with the development of a large scale, long pulse DF-CO{sub 2} chemical laser. Optics damage studies performed under Task 1 assessed damage thresholds for diamond-turned salt windows. Task 2 is a multi-faceted task involving the use of PHOCL-50 for laser gain measurements, LTI experiments, and detector testing by LANL personnel. To support these latter tests, PHOCL-50 was upgraded with Boeing funding to incorporate a full aperture outcoupler that increased its energy output by over a factor of 3, to a full kilojoule. The PHOCL-50 carbon block calorimeter was also recalibrated and compared with the LANL Scientech meter. Cloud clearing studies under Task 3 initially concentrated on delivering a Boeing built Cloud Simulation Facility to LANL, and currently involves design of a Cold Cloud Simulation Facility. A Boeing IRAD funded theoretical study on cold cloud clearing revealed that ice clouds may be easier to clear then warm clouds. Task 4 involves the theoretical and experimental study of flow system design as related to laser beam quality. Present efforts on this task are concentrating on temperature gradients induced by the gas filling process. General support for the LPCL field effort is listed under Task 5, with heavy emphasis on assuring reliable operation of the Boeing built Large Slide Valve and other device related tests. The modification of the PHOCL-50 system for testing long pulse DF (4{mu}m only) chemical laser operation is being done under Task 6.

  6. Remote Chemical Sensing Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Warren W.; Schultz, John F.

    2003-01-30

    Spectroscopic chemical sensing research at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing advanced sensors for detecting the production of nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons; use of chemical weapons; or the presence of explosives, firearms, narcotics, or other contraband of significance to homeland security in airports, cargo terminals, public buildings, or other sensitive locations. For most of these missions, the signature chemicals are expected to occur in very low concentrations, and in mixture with ambient air or airborne waste streams that contain large numbers of other species that may interfere with spectroscopic detection, or be mistaken for signatures of illicit activity. PNNL’s emphasis is therefore on developing remote and sampling sensors with extreme sensitivity, and resistance to interferents, or selectivity. PNNL’s research activities include: 1. Identification of signature chemicals and quantification of their spectral characteristics, 2. Identification and development of laser and other technologies that enable breakthroughs in sensitivity and selectivity, 3. Development of promising sensing techniques through experimentation and modeling the physical phenomenology and practical engineering limitations affecting their performance, and 4. Development and testing of data collection methods and analysis algorithms. Close coordination of all aspects of the research is important to ensure that all parts are focused on productive avenues of investigation. Close coordination of experimental development and numerical modeling is particularly important because the theoretical component provides understanding and predictive capability, while the experiments validate calculations and ensure that all phenomena and engineering limitations are considered.

  7. Mid-IR semiconductor lasers for chemical sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. J.; Yang, R. Q.

    2003-01-01

    The development of mid-IR semiconductor diode lasers based on type-II interband cascade structures is presented. How these diode lasers can be developed to meet the requirements in chemical sensing applications is discussed.

  8. Laser-based Sensors for Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2010-05-10

    Stand-off detection of hazardous materials ensures that the responder is located at a safe distance from the suspected source. Remote detection and identification of hazardous materials can be accomplished using a highly sensitive and portable device, at significant distances downwind from the source or the threat. Optical sensing methods, in particular infrared absorption spectroscopy combined with quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), are highly suited for the detection of chemical substances since they enable rapid detection and are amenable for autonomous operation in a compact and rugged package. This talk will discuss the sensor systems developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and will discuss the progress to reduce the size and power while maintaining sensitivity to enable stand-off detection of multiple chemicals.

  9. Laser-induced destination of hazardous chemicals: A preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, P. F.; Wolf, K. A.

    1982-10-01

    Technical methods that might prove effective in destroying dangerous chemicals before they leave the plant environment and become subject to regulation are studied. Laser infrared multiphoton dissociation, for decomposing deleterious chemical gases is evaluated. The chlorinated ethylenes and the chlorinated ethanes are emphasized. A detailed method for decomposing chlorinated chemicals in the workplace using a relatively inexpensive CO2 laser is discussed. Results show that CO2 laser photodegradation of vinyl chloride, a chlorinated ethylene, is promising.

  10. PHYSICAL EFFECTS OCCURRING DURING GENERATION AND AMPLIFICATION OF LASER RADIATION: Efficient solutions for low-temperature singlet-oxygen generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igoshin, Valerii I.; Karyshev, V. D.; Katulin, V. A.; Kirilin, A. V.; Kisletsov, A. V.; Konnov, S. A.; Kupriyanov, N. L.; Medvedev, A. M.; Nadezhina, T. N.

    1989-02-01

    Experimental investigations were made of the physicochemical characteristics of the active solutions for a chemical generator in an oxygen-iodine laser. A strong temperature dependence of the viscosity of the solution was observed. The influence of this factor on the operation of the singlet-oxygen generator and the laser is discussed. The cyclic operation of a laser with efficient neutralization of the reagents and the addition of an alkali is simulated. It is shown that hydrogen peroxide may be 50% utilized when the temperature of the solution is no higher than - 30 C. A method of preparing a solution for an iodine laser with a low freezing point (between - 30 C and - 40 C) is developed. It is shown that an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide with a concentration of 25-40% is suitable.

  11. Remote chemical sensing with quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Warren W.; Strasburg, Jana D.

    2004-10-15

    A trailer based sensor system has been developed for remote chemical sensing applications. The sensor uses quantum cascade lasers (QCL) that operate in the long wave infrared. The QCL is operated continuous wave, and its wavelength is both ramped over a molecular absorption feature and frequency modulated. Lock-in techniques are used to recover weak laser return signals. Field experiments have monitored ambient water vapor and small quantities of nitrous oxide, tetrafluoroethane (R134a), and hydrogen sulfide released as atmospheric plumes. Round trip path lengths up to 10 km were obtained using a retro-reflector. Atmospheric turbulence was found to be the dominating noise source. It causes intensity fluctuations in the received power, which can significantly degrade the sensor performance. Unique properties associated with QCLs enabled single beam normalization techniques to be implemented thus reducing the impact that turbulence has on experimental signal to noise. Weighted data averaging was additionally used to increase the signal to noise of data traces. Absorbance sensitivities as low as {approx}1 x 10{sup -4} could be achieved with 5 seconds of data averaging, even under high turbulence conditions.

  12. Applications of quantum cascade lasers in chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sheng; Deev, Andrei; Tang, Yongchun

    2010-09-01

    We show new results in modulating and modifying Quantum Cascade (QC) lasers to make them more suitable for chemical sensing spectroscopy. Spectroscopy results using QC lasers are demonstrated with whispering gallery mode CaF2 disc/ball, saturated absorption in hollow waveguide and direct chemical analysis in water.

  13. Properties of O2(1?)-I(2P1/2) laser medium with a dc glow discharge iodine atom generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheyev, Pavel A.; Azyazov, Valeriy N.

    2008-12-01

    Experiments were carried out in a flow cell apparatus under conditions corresponding to those of a typical oxygen-iodine laser. The cell was equipped with a chemical jet type singlet oxygen generator and an electric discharge for the production of iodine atoms. The properties of the discharge generator and the active medium were studied using laser-induced fluorescence and emission spectroscopy. I2 or CH3I entrained in a carrier flow of Ar were used as atomic iodine precursors. About 50% of the iodine contained in CH3I molecules was extracted in the generator. 2.6% of the electric power loaded into the discharge was used in CH3I dissociation. Right after the discharge 80%-90% of the iodine flow consisted of atoms. However, due to recombination during transport, only 20%-50% of atoms remained at the point of injection into the oxygen flow. A straightforward comparison of two methods of oxygen-iodine medium productionconventional, by means of I2 dissociation in the singlet oxygen flow and with iodine atoms produced externally in the electric dischargewas performed. It was found that the lifetime for the energy stored in singlet oxygen was about 30% longer, when atomic iodine was produced from CH3I in the discharge, as compared to the conventional chemical dissociation of I2 in the singlet oxygen flow.

  14. Remote Chemical Sensing Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Warren W.; Strasburg, Jana D.; Aker, Pam M.; Schultz, John F.

    2004-01-20

    Research done by the IR sensors team at PNNL is focused on developing advanced spectroscopic methods for detecting signatures of nuclear, chemical, biological and explosives weapons or weapons production. The sensors we develop fall into two categories: remote sensors that can be operated at distances ranging from 150 m to 10 km, and point sensors that are used for in-situ inspection and detection. FY03 has seen an explosion in FM DIAL progress with the net result being solid confirmation that FM DIAL is a technique capable of remote chemical monitoring in a wide variety of venues. For example, FM DIAL was used to detect a small plume of hydrogen sulfide, a candidate CW agent, released in the desert environment of the Hanford 200 Area site. These experiments were conducted over a range of physical conditions including outside temperatures ranging from 70 F to 105 F and turbulence conditions ranging from quiescent to chaotic. We are now rapidly developing the information needed to design prototype FM DIAL systems that are optimized for specific applications that include scenarios such as fixed position stand-off detection and mobile UAV mounted remote monitoring. Just as an example, in FY04 we will use FM DIAL to detect both in-facility and outdoor release of enriched UF6. The rapid progress in FM DIAL research made in FY03 is attributed to several advances. First, final construction of a custom-designed trailer allowed the instrument to be housed in a mobile temperature-controlled environment. This allowed the experiment to be transported to several locations so that data could be collected under a range of physical conditions. This has led to a better understanding of a variety of experimental noise sources. With this knowledge, we have been able to implement several changes in the way the FM DIAL data is collected and processed, with the net result being a drastic improvement in our confidence of analyte concentration measurement and an improvement i n the instrument detection limit. The range of chemicals detectable by FM DIAL has also been extended. Prior to FY03 only water and nitrous oxide (N2O) had been seen. Experiments on extending the tuning range of the quantum cascade laser (QCL) currently used in the experiments demonstrate that many more species are now accessible including H2S, C2F4H2, and CH4. We additionally demonstrated that FM DIAL measurements can be made using short wave infrared (SWIR) telecommunications lasers. While measurements made using these components are noisier because turbulence and particulate matter cause more interference in this spectral region, monitoring in this region enables larger species to be detected simply because these lasers have a greater tuning range. In addition, SWIR monitoring also allows for the detection of second-row hydride species such as HF and HCl, which are important nuclear and CWA proliferation signatures.

  15. Remote chemical sensing by laser optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.G.; Magnotta, F.

    1996-08-01

    We are exploring a new approach to remote chemical identification that promises higher precision than can be achieved by conventional DIAL approaches. This technique also addresses and potentially solves the problem of detecting a target gas in the presence of an interfering gas or gases. This new approach utilizes an eye-safe infrared optical pumping pulse to deplete the population of a specific rotational level(s) and then sends probe pulses at the same or different wavelengths to interrogate the bleaching of the absorption. We have experimentally measured optical saturation fluence level at atmospheric pressure for HCl, and find this level to be {approximately}1 mJ/cm{sup 2}, significantly below eye-safe limits in agreement with calculations. Calculations have been performed on other molecules of interest with similar results. In the laboratory, using time-delay-replicated pulses at a single frequency we have made absorption measurements with precision levels routinely approaching 0.1% after averaging 200 laser pulses. These results as well as those of two other pulse experiments will be presented. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, D.J.

    1992-11-17

    A method is described for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation. 1 figure.

  17. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOEpatents

    Gettemy, Donald J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A method for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation.

  18. Atmospheric propagation properties of various laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz, Greg A.; Glass, Sara; Kamer, Brian; Klennert, Wade L.; Hostutler, David A.

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric propagation properties of various laser systems, including diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) and the Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL), are of importance. However, there appears to be a lack of highly accurate transmission characteristics of these systems associated with their operating conditions. In this study laser propagation of the rubidium-based DPAL and the COIL has been simulated utilizing integrated cavity output spectroscopy. This technique allowed for the simulation of laser propagation approaching distances of 3 kilometers on a test stand only 35 cm long. The spectral output from these simulations was compared to the HITRAN database with excellent agreement. The spectral prole and proximity of the laser line to the atmospheric absorbers is shown. These low pressure spectral proles were then extrapolated to higher pressures using an in-house hyperne model. These models allowed for the comparison of proposed systems and their output spectral prole. The diode pumped rubidium laser at pressures under an atmosphere has been shown to interact with only one water absorption feature, but at pressures approaching 7 atmospheres the D1 transition may interact with more than 6 water lines depending on resonator considerations. Additionally, a low pressure system may have some slight control of the overlap of the output prole with the water line by changing the buer gases.

  19. Chemical and Laser Sciences Division annual report 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, N.

    1990-06-01

    The Chemical and Laser Sciences Division Annual Report includes articles describing representative research and development activities within the Division, as well as major programs to which the Division makes significant contributions.

  20. Mid-infrared laser-spectroscopic sensing of chemical species.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, Markus W

    2015-05-01

    This letter reports on mid-infrared laser-based detection and analysis of chemical species. Emphasis is put on broadly tunable laser sources and sensitive detection schemes. Selected examples from our lab illustrate the performance and potential of such systems in various areas including environmental and medical sensing. PMID:26257952

  1. Mid-infrared laser-spectroscopic sensing of chemical species

    PubMed Central

    Sigrist, Markus W.

    2014-01-01

    This letter reports on mid-infrared laser-based detection and analysis of chemical species. Emphasis is put on broadly tunable laser sources and sensitive detection schemes. Selected examples from our lab illustrate the performance and potential of such systems in various areas including environmental and medical sensing. PMID:26257952

  2. Problems in the development of autonomous mobile laser systems based on a cw chemical DF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, B P; Bashkin, A S; Beznozdrev, V N; Parfen'ev, M V; Pirogov, N A; Semenov, S N

    2003-01-31

    The problems involved in designing autonomous mobile laser systems based on high-power cw chemical DF lasers, whose mass and size parameters would make it possible to install them on various vehicles, are discussed. The need for mobility of such lasers necessitates special attention to be paid to the quest for ways and means of reducing the mass and size of the main laser systems. The optimisation of the parameters of such lasers is studied for various methods of scaling their systems. A complex approach to analysis of the optical scheme of the laser system is developed. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  3. Application of laser Doppler velocimeter to chemical vapor laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartrell, Luther R.; Hunter, William W., Jr.; Lee, Ja H.; Fletcher, Mark T.; Tabibi, Bagher M.

    1993-01-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) system was used to measure iodide vapor flow fields inside two different-sized tubes. Typical velocity profiles across the laser tubes were obtained with an estimated +/-1 percent bias and +/-0.3 to 0.5 percent random uncertainty in the mean values and +/-2.5 percent random uncertainty in the turbulence-intensity values. Centerline velocities and turbulence intensities for various longitudinal locations ranged from 13 to 17.5 m/sec and 6 to 20 percent, respectively. In view of these findings, the effects of turbulence should be considered for flow field modeling. The LDV system provided calibration data for pressure and mass flow systems used routinely to monitor the research laser gas flow velocity.

  4. CW CO2 Laser Induced Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pola, Joseph

    1989-05-01

    CW CO2 laser driven reactions between sulfur hexafluoride and carbon oxide, carbon suboxide, carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide proceed at subatmospheric pressures and yield fluorinated carbon compounds and sulfur tetrafluoride. CW CO2 laser driven reactions of organic compounds in the presence of energy-conveying sulfur hexafluoride show reaction course different from that normally observed due to elimination of reactor hot surface effects. The examples concern the decomposition of polychlorohydrocarbons, 2-nitropropane, tert.-butylamine, allyl chloride, spirohexane, isobornyl acetate and the oxidation of haloolefins. CW CO2 laser induced fragmentation of 1-methyl-l-silacyclobutanes and 4-silaspiro(3.4)octane in the presence of sulfur hexafluoride is an effective way for preparation and deposition of stable organosilicon polymers.

  5. Project LOCOST: Laser or Chemical Hybrid Orbital Space Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, Alan; Kost, Alicia; Lampshire, Gregory; Larsen, Rob; Monahan, Bob; Wright, Geoff

    1990-01-01

    A potential mission in the late 1990s is the servicing of spacecraft assets located in GEO. The Geosynchronous Operations Support Center (GeoShack) will be supported by a space transfer vehicle based at the Space Station (SS). The vehicle will transport cargo between the SS and the GeoShack. A proposed unmanned, laser or chemical hybrid orbital space transfer vehicle (LOCOST) can be used to efficiently transfer cargo between the two orbits. A preliminary design shows that an unmanned, laser/chemical hybrid vehicle results in the fuel savings needed while still providing fast trip times. The LOCOST vehicle receives a 12 MW laser beam from one Earth orbiting, solar pumped, iodide Laser Power Station (LPS). Two Energy Relay Units (ERU) provide laser beam support during periods of line-of-sight blockage by the Earth. The baseline mission specifies a 13 day round trip transfer time. The ship's configuration consist of an optical train, one hydrogen laser engine, two chemical engines, a 18 m by 29 m box truss, a mission-flexible payload module, and propellant tanks. Overall vehicle dry mass is 8,000 kg. Outbound cargo mass is 20,000 kg, and inbound cargo mass is 6,000 kg. The baseline mission needs 93,000 kg of propellants to complete the scenario. Fully fueled, outbound mission mass is 121,000 kg. A regeneratively cooled, single plasma, laser engine design producing a maximum of 768 N of thrust is utilized along with two traditional chemical engines. The payload module is designed to hold 40,000 kg of cargo, though the baseline mission specifies less. A proposed design of a laser/chemical hybrid vehicle provides a trip time and propellant efficient means to transport cargo from the SS to a GeoShack. Its unique, hybrid propulsion system provides safety through redundancy, allows baseline missions to be efficiently executed, while still allowing for the possibility of larger cargo transfers.

  6. A simple model of the transverse injection chemical laser nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W.

    1985-07-01

    In the design of chemical laser configurations, certain difficulties have been experienced with the nozzle. One of a number of novel approaches investigated was related to the transverse injection of the fuel into the oxidizer stream. During the initial performance projections for a transverse injection chemical laser, it became apparent that the viscous nozzle analysis, used to determine the initial conditions for the lasing cavity efficiency calculation, was not flexible enough to determine the losses due to the injection of the fuel jet. A simple model of the fluid dynamics of the transverse injection was developed with the aim to alleviate this situation. In the present paper, a model for the transverse injection chemical laser is presented. This model provides an analytic tool for determining the effect of geometry and flow composition on the lasing cavity entrance conditions.

  7. Laser studies of chemical reaction and collision processes

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.

    1993-12-01

    This work has concentrated on several interrelated projects in the area of laser photochemistry and photophysics which impinge on a variety of questions in combustion chemistry and general chemical kinetics. Infrared diode laser probes of the quenching of molecules with {open_quotes}chemically significant{close_quotes} amounts of energy in which the energy transferred to the quencher has, for the first time, been separated into its vibrational, rotational, and translational components. Probes of quantum state distributions and velocity profiles for atomic fragments produced in photodissociation reactions have been explored for iodine chloride.

  8. Laser-Assisted Chemical Polishing of Silicon (112) Wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandekar, Niru; Chivas, Robert; Silverman, Scott; Kou, Xiaolu; Goorsky, Mark

    2012-10-01

    Pulsed laser-assisted chemical etching (PLACE) offers an advanced, novel substrate preparation method for molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of mercury cadmium telluride on silicon (112) wafers. By controlling the laser fluence, the chemical etch process is refined into a final polish step. PLACE offers surface roughness on the order of chemical mechanical polishing standards and has been verified by 488-nm Raman and high-resolution x-ray diffraction as causing no surface or subsurface damage. To the contrary, experiments show that using PLACE not only alters the surface chemically but also removes subsurface damage through recrystallization reaching micron depths. The process occurs in a modular vacuum chamber that could conceivably be transferred between tools so that vacuum is not broken between polishing and MBE deposition. PLACE can achieve ultra-high-purity and fine dimensional control since it is a dry process relying on pyrolytic vapor-phase reactions initiated, and constrained, by a pulsed laser. Since the process is a function of laser fluence and optics, it is imminently scalable to 6-inch wafer sizes and beyond.

  9. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of HMX and TATB Laser Ignition Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C M

    2004-03-02

    Recent laser ignition experiments on octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-terrazocine (HMX) and 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) subjected to laser fluxes ranging from 10 to 800 W/cm{sup 2} produced ignition times from seconds to milliseconds. Global chemical kinetic thermal decomposition models for HMX and TATB have been developed to calculate times to thermal explosion for experiments in the seconds to days time frame. These models are applied to the laser ignition experimental data in this paper. Excellent agreement was obtained for TATB, while the calculated ignition times were longer than experiment for HMX at lower laser fluxes. At the temperatures produced in the laser experiments, HMX melts. Melting generally increases condensed phase reaction rates so faster rates were used for three of the HMX reaction rates. This improved agreement with experiments at the lower laser fluxes but yielded very fast ignition at high fluxes. The calculated times to ignition are in reasonable agreement with the laser ignition experiments, and this justifies the use of these models for estimating reaction times at impact and shock ''hot spot'' temperatures.

  10. Laser spectroscopy of chemically reactive species

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ming; Sears, T.J.

    1993-02-01

    We report the observation of stimulated emission pumping spectra in the NCO radical formed in a supersonic free jet expansion by the reaction between photolytically generated CN radicals and O{sub 2}. The spectra give rotationally resolved information on high lying vibrational levels that are difficult or impossible to detect by conventional single photon spectroscopic techniques. These new data provide detailed insight into the Renner-Teller, spin-orbit and Fermi-resonance coupling in the molecule. They also provide a solid basis for future state-selected chemical and dynamical studies involving this important radical species.

  11. Chemical and structural changes in blood undergoing laser photocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Black, John F; Barton, Jennifer Kehlet

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions (port wine stains etc.) using lasers has been guided by theories based on the "cold" or room-temperature optical properties of the hemoglobin target chromophore. We have recently presented evidence showing that under the influence of laser irradiation, the optical properties of blood in vitro are time and temperature dependent. Such complications are not currently subsumed into the in vivo theory. Here, we study the time-domain optical properties of blood undergoing photocoagulation in vitro using two newly developed time-resolved techniques. We also study the asymptotic effect of laser photocoagulation on the chemical and structural properties of the components of the blood matrix. We present evidence showing that the photocoagulation process involves significant changes in the optical absorption and scattering properties of blood, coupled with photothermally induced chemical and structural changes. We demonstrate the first use of a laser to deliberately generate magnetic resonance imaging contrast in vitro. We show that this technique offers significant potential advantages to in vivo intravenous chemical contrast agent injection. PMID:15339203

  12. Molecular dispersion spectroscopy – new capabilities in laser chemical sensing

    PubMed Central

    Nikodem, Michal; Wysocki, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Laser spectroscopic techniques suitable for molecular dispersion sensing enable new applications and strategies in chemical detection. This paper discusses the current state-of-the art and provides an overview of recently developed chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy (CLaDS) based techniques. CLaDS and its derivatives allow for quantitative spectroscopy of trace-gases and enable new capabilities such as extended dynamic range of concentration measurements, high immunity to photodetected intensity fluctuations, or capability of direct processing of spectroscopic signals in optical domain. Several experimental configurations based on quantum cascade lasers and examples of molecular spectroscopic data are presented to demonstrate capabilities of molecular dispersion spectroscopy in the mid-infrared spectral region. PMID:22809459

  13. Underwater cutting of stainless steel with the laser transmitted through optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okado, Hideki; Sakurai, Takashi; Adachi, Junichi; Miyao, Hidehiko; Hara, Kunio

    2000-01-01

    By using a fiber-transmitted laser beam and high pressure oxygen gas, underwater laser cutting of thick stainless steel was demonstrated. In the field of decommissioning, underwater cutting of nuclear facilities is desirable. For this operation, it is very useful to apply the laser beam transmitted through optical fiber because of flexibility. We used chemical oxygen-iodine laser for fundamental experiments with laser beam power of 1-7kW. And for this experiments, we designed cutting heads with some ideas for nozzles and optics. The nozzles have various nozzle diameters and two kinds of shapes; one is conical, and the other is divergent. The latter was designed to make a supersonic gas flow by using high pressure oxygen gas. And we prepared several focusing optics with different focal lengths, which have influence on both the focal spot diameter and the depth of focus of the laser beam that incidents upon a workpiece. Cutting ability was measured by cutting a tapered workpiece. From this investigation it was clear that the nozzle-to-workpiece distance that was about 10mm had the large tolerance of deviation, and there was a suitable optics according to laser power.

  14. Space-Based Chemical Lasers in strategic defense

    SciTech Connect

    Wildt, D. )

    1992-07-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) has made significant progress in developing Space-Based chemical Laser (SBL) technologies and in studying the SBLs global defense capability. In this mission, a constellation of several orbiting laser platforms provides continuous global defense by intercepting threatening missiles in their boost phase, including short range ballistic missiles (SRBMs). An optional smaller constellation provides defense against launches from the low and midlatitude regions. In addition, SBLs have utility in other important related missions such as surveillance, air defense and discrimination. The hardware necessary to build such a system has been developed to the point where it is mature and ready for demonstration in space. Advances have been made in each of the following major areas of the SBL: laser device; optics/beam control; beam pointing; ATP (acquisition, tracking and pointing); uncooled optics; and laser lethality. Integration of the key laser and beam control technologies is now occurring in the ground-based ALI experiment, and a space demonstration experiment, Star LITE, is in the planning and concept development phase.

  15. Ultrafast X-ray Laser Studies of Chemical Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    First light at the LCLS x-ray free electron laser at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory marked the beginning of hard x-ray laser science 2009. With pulse energies in excess of a milliJoule and pulse durations as short as 5 femtoseconds in duration, the LCLS provides a novel and potentially transformative approach for investigating chemical dynamics in complex systems. Understanding the coupled evolution of electrons and nuclei during chemical transformations remains the central and vexing challenge in the study of chemical reaction dynamics. Ultrafast optical electronic spectroscopy can monitor both the nuclear and the electronic evolution that occurs during a chemical reaction, but this joint sensitivity often impedes the robust interpretation of experimental measurement. The LCLS provides the opportunity to simultaneously measure electronic dynamics with x-ray fluorescence and nuclear dynamics with elastic x-ray scattering, providing a robust means for disentangling the coupled motions of electrons and nuclei during excited state internal conversion and intersystem crossing. These exciting new opportunities will be discussed in the context of recent studies of photo-induced spin crossover dynamics in iron(II) tris-bipyridine. [Fe(bpy)3]^2+.

  16. Distributed feedback quantum cascade laser arrays for chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Benjamin Guocian

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are unipolar semiconductor lasers based on intersubband transitions in heterostructures. The emission wavelengths of mid-infrared QCLs span from 3 to 24 mum and cover the "fingerprint" region of molecular absorption. This makes QCLs particularly interesting for spectroscopic applications. Single-mode emission is required for most spectroscopic applications. To achieve single-mode emission, QCLs can be made as distributed feedback (DFB) lasers or integrated with an external cavity (EC). EC-QCLs are widely tunable but are cumbersome and complex to build; they require high quality anti-reflection coatings, well-aligned external optical components including a grating for tuning, and piezoelectric controllers. DFB-QCLs are very compact and can be readily micro-fabricated, but a single DFB-QCL has limited tunability of ˜ 10 cm-1. In this thesis, I developed arrays of DFB-QCLs as widely-tunable, single-mode laser sources, and I demonstrated their applications to chemical sensing. I demonstrated a DFB-QCL array with 32 single-mode lasers on a single chip, emitting in a range over 85 cm-1 near 9mum wavelength, operated pulsed at room temperature. The DFB-QCL array can be continuously tuned, since the separation in nominal emission frequencies is small enough that we can use temperature tuning to span the frequency gaps between adjacent lasers in the array. To show the applications for chemical sensing, absorption spectroscopy was performed using the DFB-QCL array; the absorption spectra of several fluids were obtained, with results that were comparable to conventional Fourier transform infrared spectrometers. Achieving overlapped beams at extended distances can be important for a number of applications envisioned for DFB-QCL arrays, particularly remote sensing. Using the technique of spectral beam combining, the total angular divergence of the DFB-QCL array was reduced to less than 2 milliradians, which is 40 times better than without beam combining. Using the beam-combined array, absorption spectroscopy was performed at a distance of 6 m from the laser chip. An ultra-broadband DFB-QCL array was developed to further increase the coverage and tuning range. The array emitted in a range over 220 cm -1 near 9 mum wavelength, operated pulsed at room temperature.

  17. Chemical kinetic performance losses for a hydrogen laser thermal thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, T. D.; Dexter, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Projected requirements for efficient, economical, orbit-raising propulsion systems have generated investigations into several potentially high specific impulse, moderate thrust, advanced systems. One of these systems, laser thermal propulsion, utilizes a high temperature plasma as the enthalpy source. The plasma is sustained by a focused laser beam which maintains the plasma temperature at levels near 20,000 K. Since such temperature levels lead to total dissociation and high ionization, the plasma thruster system potentially has a high specific impulse decrement due to recombination losses. The nozzle flow is expected to be sufficiently nonequilibrium to warrant concern over the achievable specific impluse. This investigation was an attempt at evaluation of those losses. The One-Dimensional Kinetics (ODK) option of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) Computer Program was used with a chemical kinetics rate set obtained from available literature to determine the chemical kinetic energy losses for typical plasma thruster conditions. The rates were varied about the nominal accepted values to band the possible losses. Kinetic losses were shown to be highly significant for a laser thermal thruster using hydrogen. A 30 percent reduction in specific impulse is possible simply due to the inability to completely extract the molecular recombination energy.

  18. Physical and Chemical Changes of Polystyrene Nanospheres Irradiated with Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, Mohd Ubaidillah; Juremi, Nor Rashidah Md.; Mohamad, Farizan; Wibawa, Pratama Jujur; Agam, Mohd Arif; Ali, Ahmad Hadi

    2011-05-25

    It has been reported that polymer resist such as PMMA (Poly(methyl methacrylate) which is a well known and commonly used polymer resist for fabrication of electronic devices can show zwitter characteristic due to over exposure to electron beam radiation. Overexposed PMMA tend to changes their molecular structure to either become negative or positive resist corresponded to electron beam irradiation doses. These characteristic was due to crosslinking and scissors of the PMMA molecular structures, but till now the understanding of crosslinking and scissors of the polymer resist molecular structure due to electron beam exposure were still unknown to researchers. Previously we have over exposed polystyrene nanospheres to various radiation sources, such as electron beam, solar radiation and laser, which is another compound that can act as polymer resist. We investigated the physical and chemical structures of the irradiated polystyrene nanospheres with FTIR analysis. It is found that the physical and chemical changes of the irradiated polystyrene were found to be corresponded with the radiation dosages. Later, combining Laser irradiation and Reactive Ion Etching manipulation, created a facile technique that we called as LARIEA NSL (Laser and Reactive Ion Etching Assisted Nanosphere Lithography) which can be a facile technique to fabricate controllable carbonaceous nanoparticles for applications such as lithographic mask, catalysts and heavy metal absorbers.

  19. Chemical analysis of surgical smoke by infrared laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianella, Michele; Sigrist, Markus W.

    2012-11-01

    The chemical composition of surgical smoke, a gaseous by-product of some surgical deviceslasers, drills, vessel sealing devicesis of great interest due to the many toxic components that have been found to date. For the first time, surgical smoke samples collected during routine keyhole surgery were analyzed with infrared laser spectroscopy. Traces (ppm range) of methane, ethane, ethylene, carbon monoxide and sevoflurane were detected in the samples which consisted mostly of carbon dioxide and water vapor. Except for the anaesthetic sevoflurane, none of the compounds were present at dangerous concentrations. Negative effects on the health of operation room personnel can be excluded for many toxic compounds found in earlier studies, since their concentrations are below recommended exposure limits.

  20. Numerical modeling of pyrolytic laser-induced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutlas, G. N.; Vlachos, N. S.

    2003-03-01

    Laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) is a technique to deposit thin films of oxidation, corrosion, and wear resistant as well as electronic, optoelectronic, and superconductor materials. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms of such a process we have developed a numerical model using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The Navier-Stokes equations governing the flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions of the gases are solved numerically while the temperature distribution in the substrate is determined by solving the corresponding heat conduction equation. The present CFD model provides an opportunity to assess the important parameters concerning the LCVD process, such as the gas flow field, temperature distribution, concentration of reactants/products, and deposition height. Indicative results are presented for the deposition of titanium carbide upon AISI 1060 carbon. These results provide understanding of the LCVD process and enable its optimization.

  1. Combustion Research Program: Flame studies, laser diagnostics, and chemical kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Crosley, D.R.

    1992-09-01

    This project has comprised laser flame diagnostic experiments, chemical kinetics measurements, and low pressure flame studies. Collisional quenching has been investigated for several systems: the OH radical, by H{sub 2}0 in low pressure flames; the rotational level dependence for NH, including measurements to J=24; and of NH{sub 2} at room temperature. Transition probability measurements for bands involving v{prime} = 2 and 3 of the A-X system of OH were measured in a flame. Laser-induced fluorescence of vinyl radicals was unsuccessfully attempted. RRKM and transition state theory calculations were performed on the OH + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} reaction, on the t-butyl radical + HX; and transition state theory has been applied to a series of bond scission reactions. OH concentrations were measured quantitatively in low pressure H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} flames, and the ability to determine spatially precise flame temperatures accurately using OH laser-induced fluorescence was studied.

  2. Innovative Laser Techniques in Chemical Kinetics: A Pedagogical Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalenko, Laurie J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    Considers two types of laser applications in kinetics. Explores short laser pulses to prepare a reactant in a known state and a continuous laser as a probe to monitor specific species in a reaction. Describes how lasers work and provides several examples of kinetic reactions. (ML)

  3. Laser optics for intracavity and extracavity applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 11-13, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Fauchet, P.M.; Guenther, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    Various papers on laser optics for intracavity and extracavity applications are presented. The general topics addressed include: design and requirements for high-power lasers, active elements, damage in optical components, FELs, and thin films. Individual subjects considered include: thermal effects in high-power Q-switched lasers, influence of self-focusing on bulk laser-induced damage, fly's eye modular optic concept for high-power lasers, liquid crystal optics for laser systems, thin-film coatings for laser cavity optics, and production of resonator optics for the 1315 nm oxygen iodine laser.

  4. Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jervis, T. R.

    1985-01-01

    Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO2 laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed X-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

  5. Piezo-electric tunable fiber Bragg grating diode laser for chemical sensing using wavelength modulation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Buric, Michael; Falk, Joel; Chen, Kevin P; Cashdollar, Lucas; Elyamani, Abdessamad

    2006-03-20

    This paper demonstrates, for the first time to our best knowledge, the application of a tunable external-cavity fiber Bragg grating diode laser in spectroscopic chemical sensing. A tunable fiber Bragg grating external-cavity semiconductor laser is demonstrated with over 10 nm of tuning range. A piezo-actuator was implemented to stretch the grating for rapid wavelength tuning of the laser. The application of such low-cost tunable FBG lasers in spectroscopic chemical sensing was demonstrated in acetylene gas with a wavelength modulation spectroscopy technique. PMID:19503551

  6. Modeling chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanov, S. V.; Gornushkin, I. B.

    2015-11-01

    Under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium, a numerical algorithm is proposed to find the equation of state for laser-induced plasmas (LIPs) in which chemical reactions are permitted in addition to ionization processes. The Coulomb interaction in plasma is accounted for by the Debye-Hckel method. The algorithm is used to calculate the equation of state for LIPs containing carbon, silicon, nitrogen, and argon. The equilibrium reaction constants are calculated using the latest experimental and ab initio data of spectroscopic constants for the molecules {N}_2, {C}_2, {Si}_2, {CN}, {SiN}, {SiC} and their ions. The algorithm is incorporated into a fluid dynamic numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equations describing an expansion of LIP plumes into an ambient gas. The dynamics of LIP plumes obtained by the ablation of SiC, solid silicon, or solid carbon in an ambient gas containing {N}_2 and Ar is simulated to study formation of molecules and molecular ions.

  7. Detection of chemical clouds using widely tunable quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Anish K.; Kotidis, Petros; Deutsch, Erik R.; Zhu, Ninghui; Norman, Mark; Ye, Jim; Zafiriou, Kostas; Mazurenko, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Widely tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) spanning the long-wave infrared (LWIR) atmospheric transmission window and an HgCdTe detector were incorporated into a transceiver having a 50-mm-diameter transmit/receive aperture. The transceiver was used in combination with a 50-mm-diameter hollow retro-reflector for the open-path detection of chemical clouds. Two rapidly tunable external-cavity QCLs spanned the wavelength range of 7.5 to 12.8 ?m. Open-path transmission measurements were made over round-trip path-lengths of up to 562 meters. Freon-132a and other gases were sprayed into the beam path and the concentration-length (CL) product was measured as a function of time. The system exhibited a noise-equivalent concentration (NEC) of 3 ppb for Freon-132a given a round-trip path of 310 meters. Algorithms based on correlation methods were used to both identify the gases and determine their CLproducts as a function of time.

  8. Laser ablation of maskant used in chemical milling process for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, C.; Lopresto, V.; Memola Capece Minutolo, F.; de Iorio, I.; Rinaldi, N.

    2010-09-01

    Chemical etching is a non-traditional machining process where a chemical solution is used to remove unwanted material by dissolution. To shape the etched area, before the process, a chemical inert paint (maskant) is applied on the surface. Then the maskant is trimmed away and the uncovered area is subject to the etching. The maskant cut could be obtained mechanically or by laser ablation. In this work, the effect of process parameters, cutting speed and beam power, on interaction phenomena and defect formation in laser cutting of polymeric maskant is studied, using a 30W CO2 laser source.

  9. Laser applications to chemical analysis: an introduction by the feature editors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Jay B.; Ramsey, J. Michael; Lucht, Robert P.

    1995-06-01

    This issue of Applied Optics features papers on the application of laser technology to chemical analysis. Many of the contributions, although not all, result from papers presented at the Fourth OSA Topical Meeting on Laser Applications to Chemical Analysis, which was held at Jackson Hole, Wyoming, March, 1994. This successful meeting, with nearly one hundred participants, continued the tradition of earlier LACA meetings to focus on the optical science of laser-based measurements of temperature and trace chemical assays in a wide variety of practical applications.

  10. Diode laser spectroscopy for on-line chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomse, David S.; Hovde, D. Christian; Oh, Daniel B.; Silver, Joel A.; Stanton, Alan C.

    1992-08-01

    Diode laser spectroscopy provides exceptional sensitivity and selectivity for real-time characterization of reacting systems and gas streams. High frequency wavelength modulation techniques achieve species detection limits that are routinely in the ppm range and can reach sub-ppb levels under favorable conditions. Narrow laser linewidths guarantee selective detection of key species even in the presence of myriad other components. Diode laser spectroscopy is also relatively immune from interference by black body radiation or chemiluminescence. Prototype diode-laser based systems have been demonstrated successfully for trace gas detection in turbulent, high temperature particle-laden streams, for oxygen quantitation in flames, for free radical characterization in a plasma etching reactor and for greenhouse gas flux measurements in air. We also discuss the availability of laser wavelengths, compatibility with fiber optics, cost safety and expectations for new laser development.

  11. Fast Infrared Chemical Imaging with a Quantum Cascade Laser

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging systems are a powerful tool for visualizing molecular microstructure of a sample without the need for dyes or stains. Table-top Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging spectrometers, the current established technology, can record broadband spectral data efficiently but requires scanning the entire spectrum with a low throughput source. The advent of high-intensity, broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has now accelerated IR imaging but results in a fundamentally different type of instrument and approach, namely, discrete frequency IR (DF-IR) spectral imaging. While the higher intensity of the source provides a higher signal per channel, the absence of spectral multiplexing also provides new opportunities and challenges. Here, we couple a rapidly tunable QCL with a high performance microscope equipped with a cooled focal plane array (FPA) detector. Our optical system is conceptualized to provide optimal performance based on recent theory and design rules for high-definition (HD) IR imaging. Multiple QCL units are multiplexed together to provide spectral coverage across the fingerprint region (776.9 to 1904.4 cm–1) in our DF-IR microscope capable of broad spectral coverage, wide-field detection, and diffraction-limited spectral imaging. We demonstrate that the spectral and spatial fidelity of this system is at least as good as the best FT-IR imaging systems. Our configuration provides a speedup for equivalent spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to the best spectral quality from a high-performance linear array system that has 10-fold larger pixels. Compared to the fastest available HD FT-IR imaging system, we demonstrate scanning of large tissue microarrays (TMA) in 3-orders of magnitude smaller time per essential spectral frequency. These advances offer new opportunities for high throughput IR chemical imaging, especially for the measurement of cells and tissues. PMID:25474546

  12. Fast infrared chemical imaging with a quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Kevin; Kenkel, Seth; Liu, Jui-Nung; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging systems are a powerful tool for visualizing molecular microstructure of a sample without the need for dyes or stains. Table-top Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging spectrometers, the current established technology, can record broadband spectral data efficiently but requires scanning the entire spectrum with a low throughput source. The advent of high-intensity, broadly tunable quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has now accelerated IR imaging but results in a fundamentally different type of instrument and approach, namely, discrete frequency IR (DF-IR) spectral imaging. While the higher intensity of the source provides a higher signal per channel, the absence of spectral multiplexing also provides new opportunities and challenges. Here, we couple a rapidly tunable QCL with a high performance microscope equipped with a cooled focal plane array (FPA) detector. Our optical system is conceptualized to provide optimal performance based on recent theory and design rules for high-definition (HD) IR imaging. Multiple QCL units are multiplexed together to provide spectral coverage across the fingerprint region (776.9 to 1904.4 cm(-1)) in our DF-IR microscope capable of broad spectral coverage, wide-field detection, and diffraction-limited spectral imaging. We demonstrate that the spectral and spatial fidelity of this system is at least as good as the best FT-IR imaging systems. Our configuration provides a speedup for equivalent spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to the best spectral quality from a high-performance linear array system that has 10-fold larger pixels. Compared to the fastest available HD FT-IR imaging system, we demonstrate scanning of large tissue microarrays (TMA) in 3-orders of magnitude smaller time per essential spectral frequency. These advances offer new opportunities for high throughput IR chemical imaging, especially for the measurement of cells and tissues. PMID:25474546

  13. Laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of copper from aqueous solutions without reducing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kochemirovsky, V A; Tumkin, I I; Logunov, L S; Safonov, S V; Menchikov, Leonid G

    2012-08-31

    Laser-induced chemical liquid phase deposition of copper without a traditional reducing agent has been used for the first time to obtain conductive patterns on a dielectric surface having a reducing ability. It is shown that phenol-formaldehyde binder of the dielectric (glass fibre) can successfully play the role of a reducing agent in this process. The resulting copper sediments have low electrical resistance and good topology. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasmas)

  14. Mushroom'' double-channel double-heterostructure lead chalcogenide lasers made by chemical etching

    SciTech Connect

    Schlereth, K.; Boettner, H.; Tacke, M. )

    1990-05-28

    Double-channel double-heterostructure (DCDH) lead chalcogenide lasers were made using a chemical etchant. The etching rate depends strongly on the europium content of the ternary compound Pb{sub {ital x}}Eu{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Se. This technique allows the development of selective etching processes for advanced laser design. The DCDH lasers show low-threshold current densities of 60 A/cm{sup 2} at 20 K and suppression of lateral modes.

  15. Optimization of an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser for Chemical Sensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Cannon, Bret D.; Schiffern, John T.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2010-03-01

    We describe and characterize an external cavity quantum cascade laser designed for detection of multiple airborne chemicals, and used with a compact astigmatic Herriott cell for sensing of acetone and hydrogen peroxide.

  16. Fiber ring laser interrogated zeolite-coated singlemode-multimode-singlemode structure for trace chemical detection.

    PubMed

    Lan, X; Huang, J; Han, Q; Wei, T; Gao, Z; Jiang, H; Dong, J; Xiao, H

    2012-06-01

    Zeolite thin films were synthesized on the claddingless multimode portion of a singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber structure to construct a chemical vapor sensor. The zeolite-coated SMS structure was inserted into a fiber ring amplifier to produce a laser line. Combining the strong molecular adsorption capability of the nanoporous zeolite and the high signal-to-noise ratio of the fiber laser, the device was demonstrated for chemical vapor sensing with a low detection limit. PMID:22660100

  17. Microstructure and chemical bond evolution of diamond-like carbon films machined by femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Chunhui; Liu, Yongsheng; Cheng, Laifei; Li, Weinan; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Xiaojun

    2015-06-01

    Femtosecond laser is of great interest for machining high melting point and hardness materials such as diamond-like carbon, SiC ceramic, et al. In present work, the microstructural and chemical bond evolution of diamond-like carbon films were investigated using electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques after machined by diverse femtosecond laser power in air. The results showed the machining depth was essentially proportional to the laser power. The well patterned microgrooves and ripple structures with nanoparticles were formed distinctly in the channels. Considering the D and G Raman band parameters on the laser irradiation, it revealed a conversion from amorphous carbon to nanocrystalline graphite after laser treated with increasing laser power. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed a great decrease of sp3/sp2 after laser treatment.

  18. Fabrication of glass micro-prisms using ultra-fast laser pulses with chemical etching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shao-Wei; Chang, Tien-Li; Tsai, Hung-Yin

    2012-02-01

    In this study, a new process of glass micro-prism structures is investigated by an ultra-fast laser irradiation with chemical etching process. The ultra-fast laser is employed by an all-in-one femtosecond laser (FS-laser) system with the amplifier as an excitation source for patterning the structures. Here, the center wavelength of laser is frequency-doubled to 517 nm. Besides, the repetition rate and pulse width of laser are 100 kHz and 350 fs, respectively. First, the embedded gratings of glass with different pitches can be fabricated using a FS-laser process. Afterwards, the glass samples are placed in the hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution for 15 min to develop structures. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that the V-cut micro-prisms are successfully formed by controlling etching concentration between intrinsic glass material and modified areas.

  19. Time and wavelength domain algorithms for chemical analysis by laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, David L.; Gillespie, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is a promising technique for laser radar applications. Laser radar using LIF has already been applied to algae blooms and oil slicks. Laser radar using LIF has great potential for remote chemical analysis because LIF spectra are extremely sensitive to chemical composition. However, most samples in the real world contain mixtures of fluorescing components, not merely individual components. Multicomponent analysis of laser radar returns from mixtures is often difficult because LIF spectra from solids and liquids are very broad and devoid of line structure. Therefore, algorithms for interpreting LIF spectra from laser radar returns must be able to analyze spectra that overlap in multicomponent systems. This paper analyzes the possibility of using factor analysis-rank annihilation (FARA) to analyze emission-time matrices (ETM) from laser radar returns instead of excitation-emission matrices (EEM). The authors here define ETM as matrices where the rows (or columns) are emission spectra at fixed times and the columns (or rows) are temporal profiles for fixed emission wavelengths. Laser radar usually uses pulsed lasers for ranging purposes, which are suitable for measuring temporal profiles. Laser radar targets are hard instead of diffuse; that is, a definite surface emits the fluorescence instead of an extended volume. A hard target would not broaden the temporal profiles as would a diffuse target. Both fluorescence lifetimes and emission spectra are sensitive to chemical composition. Therefore, temporal profiles can be used instead of excitation spectra in FARA analysis of laser radar returns. The resulting laser radar returns would be ETM instead of EEM.

  20. Ultrafast laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for high spatial resolution chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorba, Vassilia; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2011-02-01

    Femtosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to identify the spatial resolution limitations and assess the minimal detectable mass restrictions in laser-ablation based chemical analysis. The atomic emission of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) dopants in transparent dielectric Mica matrices was studied, to find that both these elements could be detected from 450 nm diameter ablation craters, full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). Under optimal conditions, mass as low as 220 ag was measured, demonstrating the feasibility of using laser-ablation based chemical analysis to achieve high spatial resolution elemental analysis in real-time and at atmospheric pressure conditions.

  1. Simulation of a two-frequency cw chemical HF-HBr laser

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, B P; Katorgin, B I; Stepanov, A A

    2008-10-31

    An autonomous cw chemical HF-HBr laser emitting simultaneously at {approx}2.7 {mu}m (HF molecules) and {approx}4.2 {mu}m (HBr molecules) is studied numerically by using complete Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown that the output power of the HBr laser per unit area of the nozzle array can achieve {approx}20 W cm{sup -2} for the laser region length {approx}20 cm. The relation between the radiation intensities emitted by HF and HBr molecules is controlled by diluting the secondary fuel by bromine. (lasers)

  2. Surface chemical reaction of laser ablated aluminum sample for detonation initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-hwan; Yoh, Jack J.

    2011-05-01

    We explore the evolution of metal plasma generated by high laser irradiances and its effect on the surrounding air by using shadowgraph images after laser pulse termination; hence the formation of laser supported detonation and combustion processes has been investigated. The essence of the paper is in observing initiation of chemical reaction between ablated aluminum plasma and oxygen from air by inducing high power laser pulse (>1000 mJ/pulse) and conduct a quantitative comparison of chemically reactive laser initiated waves with the classical detonation of exploding aluminum (dust) cloud in air. Findings in this work may lead to a new method of initiating detonation from metal sample in its bulk form without the need of mixing nano-particles with oxygen for initiation.

  3. Surface chemical reaction of laser ablated aluminum sample for detonation initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoh, Jack; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Gojani, Ardian

    2011-06-01

    We explore the evolution of metal plasma generated by high laser irradiances and its effect on the surrounding air by using shadowgraph images after laser pulse termination; hence the formation of laser supported detonation and combustion processes has been investigated. The essence of the paper is in observing initiation of chemical reaction between ablated aluminum plasma and oxygen from air by inducing high power laser pulse (>1000 mJ/pulse) and conduct a quantitative comparison of chemically reactive laser initiated waves with the classical detonation of exploding aluminum (dust) cloud in air. Findings in this work may lead to a new method of initiating detonation from metal sample in its bulk form without the need of mixing nano-particles with oxygen for initiation. Authors thank the financial support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (2009, 2010).

  4. A Topics Course on Chemical Application of Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a topics course offered at the University of New Mexico entitled "Lasers in Chemistry," which is designed for beginning graduate students and advanced undergraduates in all areas of chemistry. (CS)

  5. Predictions of Chemical Species via Diode Laser Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Shin-Juh; Silver, Joel A.; Dahm, Werner J. A.; Piltch, Nancy D.; Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A technique to predict temperature and chemical species in flames from absorbance measurement of one chemical species is presented. Predicted temperature and mole fractions of methane and water agreed well with measured and published results.

  6. IR LASER BASED CHEMICAL SENSOR FOR THE COOPERATIVE MONITORING PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A Whitaker

    2005-08-08

    The purpose of this project was to investigate the device properties of the quantum cascade laser (QCL), a type of laser invented at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies in the device physics research lab of Dr. Federico Capasso and more specifically to determine the remote sensing capability of this device. The PI and Stevens Institute of Technology collaborated with Dr. Capasso and Bell Laboratories to carry out this research project. The QCL is a unique laser source capable of generating laser radiation in the middle-infrared spectral region that overlaps the most important molecular absorption bands. With appropriate modulation techniques it is possible to use the laser to measure the concentration of many molecules of interest to the remote sensing community. In addition, the mid-IR emission wavelength is well suited to atmospheric transmission as mid-IR experiences much less scattering due to dust and fog. At the onset of this project little was known about several key device performance parameters of this family of lasers and the NNSA supported research enabled them to determine values of several of these characteristics.

  7. Laser-machined components for microanalytical and chemical separation devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, Dean W.; Martin, Peter M.; Bennett, Wendy D.

    1998-10-01

    Excimer lasers have proven to be powerful tools for machining polymeric components used in microanalytical and microchemical separation devices. We report the use of laser machining methods to produce microfluidic channels and liquid/liquid contact membranes for a number of devices fabricated at our laboratory. Microchannels 50- to 100- micrometers -wide have been produced directly in bulk polycarbonate chips using a direct-write laser micromachining system. Wider microchannels have been produced by laser machining paths through sheets of polyimide film, then sandwiching the patterned piece between solid chips of polycarbonate stock. A comparison of direct-write and mask machining processes used to produce some of the microfluidic features is made. Examples of microanalytical devices produced using these methods are presented. Included are microdialysis units used to remove electrolytes from liquid samples and electrophoretic separation devices, both used for extremely low volume samples intended for mass spectrometric analysis. A multilayered microfluidic device designed to analyze low volume groundwater samples for hazardous metals and a fluidics motherboard are also described. Laser machining processes have also been explored for producing polymeric membranes suitable for use in liquid/liquid contactors used for removal of soluble hazardous components from waste streams. A step-and-repeat mask machining process was used to produce 0.5 X 8 cm membranes in 25- and 50-micrometers -thick polyimide. Pore diameters produced using this method were five and ten micrometers. The laser machined membranes were sputter coated with PTFE prior to use to improve fluid breakthrough characteristics.

  8. Tooth bleaching using three laser systems, halogen-light unit, and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Housova, Devana; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Koranda, Petr; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2004-09-01

    μThe study describes the preclinical experience with laser-activated bleaching agent for discolored teeth. Extracted human upper central incisors were selected, and in the bleaching experiment 35% hydrogen peroxide was used. Three various laser systems and halogen-light unit for activation of the bleaching agent were applied. They were Alexandrite laser (wavelength 750 nm and 375 nm - SHG), Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1.064 m), and Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2.94 μm). The halogen-light unit was used in a standard regime. The enamel surface was analyzed in the scanning electron microscope. The method of chemical oxidation results in a 2-3 shade change in one treatment. The halogen-light units produced the same effect with shorter time of bleaching process (from 630 s to 300 s). The Alexandrite laser (750 nm) and bleaching agent helped to reach the desired color shade after a shorter time (400 s). Alexandrite laser (375 nm) and Nd:YAG laser had no effect on the longevity of the process of bleaching. Overheating of the chemical bleaching agent was visible after Er:YAG laser activation (195 s). Slight surface modification after bleaching process was detected in SEM.

  9. Surface chemical reaction of polymer film with reactive intermediates produced by laser ablation of azido compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Hiroyuki; Yabe, Akira

    1996-04-01

    The surface of poly(ethylene terephthalate) film was chemically modified with the fragments produced by ablation of pentafluorophenylazide at 90 K upon KrF excimer laser radiation. When the surface was exposed to the fragments in a vacuum, the photolyzed phenylazide was immobilized onto the surface through the chemical bond.

  10. CO2 laser scribe of chemically strengthened glass with high surface compressive stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghua; Vaddi, Butchi R.

    2011-03-01

    Chemically strengthened glass is finding increasing use in handheld, IT and TV cover glass applications. Chemically strengthened glass, particularly with high (>600MPa) compressive stress (CS) and deeper depth of layer (DOL), enable to retain higher strength after damage than non-strengthened glass when its surface is abraded. Corning Gorilla Glass has particularly proven to be advantageous over competition in this attribute. However, due to high compressive stress (CS) and Central Tension (CT) cutting ion-exchanged glass is extremely difficult and often unmanageable where ever the applications require dicing the chemically strengthened mother glass into smaller parts. We at Corning have developed a CO2 laser scribe and break method (LSB) to separate a single chemically strengthened glass sheet into plurality of devices. Furthermore, CO2 laser scribe and break method enables debris-free separation of glass with high edge strength due to its mirror-like edge finish. We have investigated laser scribe and break of chemically strengthened glass with surface compressive stress greater than 600 MPa. In this paper we present the results of CO2 scribe and break method and underlying laser scribing mechanisms. We demonstrated cross-scribe repetitively on GEN 2 size chemically strengthened glass substrates. Specimens for edge strength measurements of different thickness and CS/DOL glass were prepared using the laser scribe and break technique. The specimens were tested using the standard 4-point bend method and the results are presented.

  11. Preparation of ?-Al2O3 films by laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Ito, Akihiko; Goto, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    ?- and ?-Al2O3 films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using CO2, Nd:YAG, and InGaAs lasers to investigate the effects of varying the laser wavelength and deposition conditions on the phase composition and microstructure. The CO2 laser was found to mostly produce ?-Al2O3 films, whereas the Nd:YAG and InGaAs lasers produced ?-Al2O3 films when used at a high total pressure. ?-Al2O3 films had a cauliflower-like structure, while the ?-Al2O3 films had a dense and columnar structure. Of the three lasers, it was the Nd:YAG laser that interacted most with intermediate gas species. This promoted ?-Al2O3 nucleation in the gas phase at high total pressure, which explains the cauliflower-like structure of nanoparticles observed.

  12. Chemical detection and laser wavelength stabilization employing spectroscopic absorption via laser compliance voltage sensing

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S; Phillips, Mark C

    2014-03-18

    Systems and methods are disclosed that provide a direct indication of the presence and concentration of an analyte within the external cavity of a laser device that employ the compliance voltage across the laser device. The systems can provide stabilization of the laser wavelength. The systems and methods can obviate the need for an external optical detector, an external gas cell, or other sensing region and reduce the complexity and size of the sensing configuration.

  13. On chemical reactions in the laser-induced breakdown of a liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulis, M. A.; Ovchinnikov, O. B.; Margulis, I. M.

    2006-06-01

    It is shown experimentally that a laser-induced breakdown of a liquid is accompanied by chemical reactions initiated by radicals and excited species formed in the spark. It is found that, in water, the laser-induced breakdown is accompanied by the dissociation of water and dissolved nitrogen molecules with the formation of HNO2 and HNO3, while, in a FeSO4 aqueous solution, by the Fe2+ ? Fe3+ oxidation reaction. It is assumed that the mechanism of the process is analogous to that of the action of ionizing radiations and the chemical action of ultrasonically induced cavitation (it is proposed that this mechanism of chemical action of a laser-induced spark proposed be termed indirect). Energy yields of these reactions are found to be of the same order of magnitude as for sonochemical redox reactions. It is shown that the laser-induced breakdown of an aqueous solution of maleic acid is accompanied by its stereoisomerization into fumaric acid, a process catalyzed by small amounts of an alkyl bromide. It is established that, for the formation of fumaric acid in a laser-induced spark, the energy yield is about five orders of magnitude higher than that typical of the above-mentioned redox reactions in the laser-induced spark.

  14. Physico-Chemical Dynamics of Nanoparticle Formation during Laser Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, M.D.

    2005-06-01

    Laser-ablation based decontamination is a new and effective approach for simultaneous removal and characterization of contaminants from surfaces (e.g., building interior and exterior walls, ground floors, etc.). The scientific objectives of this research are to: (1) characterize particulate matter generated during the laser-ablation based decontamination, (2) develop a technique for simultaneous cleaning and spectroscopic verification, and (3) develop an empirical model for predicting particle generation for the size range from 10 nm to tens of micrometers. This research project provides fundamental data obtained through a systematic study on the particle generation mechanism, and also provides a working model for prediction of particle generation such that an effective operational strategy can be devised to facilitate worker protection.

  15. Laser treatment of alumina surface with chemically distinct carbide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, Bekir S.; Ali, Haider

    2014-12-01

    Laser treatment of pre-prepared alumina tile surface with a carbon film containing a mixture of 3 wt% TiC and 3 wt% B4C hard particles was conducted. Morphological and metallurgical changes at the laser treated surface were examined using optical and electron scanning microscopes, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Microhardness and fracture toughness of the treated surface were measured together with indentation tests. Residual stress generated at the surface region was determined from the X-ray diffraction data. It was found that TiC and B4C hard particles cause micro-crack formation in the vicinity of hard particles on the surface. This behavior is attributed to the differences between the thermal expansion coefficients of these particles. The laser treated surface is composed of a dense layer with fine sized grains and columnar structures formed below the dense layer. The presence of hard particles enhances the microhardness and lowers the fracture toughness of the surface. The formation of nitride compounds (AlN and AlON) contributes to volume shrinkage in the dense layer. Residual stress formed in the surface region is compressive.

  16. Ultrasensitive standoff chemical sensing based on nonlinear multi-photon laser wave-mixing spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregerson, Marc; Hetu, Marcel; Iwabuchi, Manna; Jimenez, Jorge; Warren, Ashley; Tong, William G.

    2012-10-01

    Nonlinear multi-photon laser wave mixing is presented as an ultrasensitive optical detection method for chem/bio agents in thin films and gas- and liquid-phase samples. Laser wave mixing is an unusually sensitive optical absorption-based detection method that offers significant inherent advantages including excellent sensitivity, small sample requirements, short optical path lengths, high spatial resolution, high spectral resolution and standoff remote detection capability. Wave mixing can detect trace amounts of chemicals even when using micrometer-thin samples, and hence, it can be conveniently interfaced to fibers, microarrays, microfluidic systems, lab-on-a-chip, capillary electrophoresis and other capillary- or fiber-based chemical separation systems. The wave-mixing signal is generated instantaneously as the two input laser beams intersect inside the analyte of interest. Laser excitation wavelengths can be tuned to detect multiple chemicals in their native form since wave mixing can detect both fluorescing and non-fluorescing samples at parts-pertrillion or better detection sensitivity levels. The wave-mixing signal is a laser-like coherent beam, and hence, it allows reliable and effective remote sensing of chemicals. Sensitive wave-mixing detectors offer many potential applications including sensitive detection of biomarkers, early detection of diseases, sensitive monitoring of environmental samples, and reliable detection of hazardous chem/bio agents with a standoff detection capability.

  17. About possibilities of clearing near-Earth space from dangerous debris by a spaceborne laser system with an autonomous cw chemical HF laser

    SciTech Connect

    Avdeev, A V; Bashkin, A S; Katorgin, Boris I; Parfen'ev, M V

    2011-07-31

    The possibility of clearing hazardous near-Earth space debris using a spaceborne laser station with a large autonomous cw chemical HF laser is substantiated and the requirements to its characteristics (i.e., power and divergence of laser radiation, pulse duration in the repetitively pulsed regime, repetition rate and total time of laser action on space debris, necessary to remove them from the orbits of the protected spacecrafts) are determined. The possibility of launching the proposed spaceborne laser station to the orbit with the help of a 'Proton-M' carrier rocket is considered. (laser applications)

  18. Co-catalytic absorption layers for controlled laser-induced chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, F Benjamin; Weatherup, Robert S; Bayer, Bernhard C; Bock, Maximilian C D; Sugime, Hisashi; Caneva, Sabina; Robertson, John; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Hofmann, Stephan

    2014-03-26

    The concept of co-catalytic layer structures for controlled laser-induced chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes is established, in which a thin Ta support layer chemically aids the initial Fe catalyst reduction. This enables a significant reduction in laser power, preventing detrimental positive optical feedback and allowing improved growth control. Systematic study of experimental parameters combined with simple thermostatic modeling establishes general guidelines for the effective design of such catalyst/absorption layer combinations. Local growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests directly on flexible polyimide substrates is demonstrated, opening up new routes for nanodevice design and fabrication. PMID:24564273

  19. Chemical-specific imaging of shallowly buried objects using femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Strycker, B D; Wang, K; Springer, M; Sokolov, A V

    2013-07-10

    We demonstrate that objects buried in sand (1 to 4 mm deep) may be selectively imaged according to their chemical composition through spectral analysis of the laser-induced breakdown signal. The signal is generated by loosely focused femtosecond laser pulses having energies ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 mJ. We determine the depth from which a spectral signal may be measured as a function of pulse energy. Having in mind applications to remote sensing, chemical-specific imaging of shallowly buried objects may find use in various fields ranging from space exploration to landmine detection. PMID:23852190

  20. LDRD final report on high power broadly tunable Mid-IR quantum cascade lasers for improved chemical species detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael Clement; Hudgens, James J.; Fuller, Charles T.; Samora, Sally; Klem, John Frederick; Young, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of our project was to examine a novel quantum cascade laser design that should inherently increase the output power of the laser while simultaneously providing a broad tuning range. Such a laser source enables multiple chemical species identification with a single laser and/or very broad frequency coverage with a small number of different lasers, thus reducing the size and cost of laser based chemical detection systems. In our design concept, the discrete states in quantum cascade lasers are replaced by minibands made of multiple closely spaced electron levels. To facilitate the arduous task of designing miniband-to-miniband quantum cascade lasers, we developed a program that works in conjunction with our existing modeling software to completely automate the design process. Laser designs were grown, characterized, and iterated. The details of the automated design program and the measurement results are summarized in this report.

  1. Concepts of risk assesment of complex chemical mixtures in laser pyrolysis fumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Lothar W.; Meier, Thomas H.

    1996-01-01

    Laser-tissue interaction may generate by energy absorption a complex mixture of gaseous, volatile, semi-volatile and particular substances. At the time about 150 different components are known from IR-laser interaction with different organ tissues like liver, fat, muscle and skin. The laser-tissue interaction process thereby is dominated by heating processes, which is confirmed by the similarity of formed chemical products in comparison with conventional cooking processes for food preparation. With the identified chemical substances and relative amounts in backmind a walk along the think path of risk assessment with special reference to pyrolysis products is given. The main way of intake of pyrolysis products is the inhalative one, which results from the fine aerosols formed and the high spreading energy out of the irradiated source. The liberated amounts of irritative chemicals as (unsaturated) aldehydes, heterocycles of bad odor and possibly cancerogenic acting substances relates to some (mu) g/g of laser vaporized tissue. With regard to this exposure level in a hypothetic one cubic meter volume the occupational limit settings are far away. Even indoor air exposure levels are in nearly all cases underwent, for the content of bad smelling substances forces an effective ventilation. Up to now no laser typical chemical substance could be identified, which was not elsewhere known by frying or baking processes of meat, food or familiar. Starting with the GRAS concept of 1957 the process of risk assessment by modified food products and new ingredients is still improofing. The same process of risk assessment is governing the laser pyrolysis products of mammalian tissues. By use of sufficient suction around the laser tissue source the odor problems as well as the toxicological problems could be solved.

  2. Chemical Changes Associated with Increased Acid Resistance of Er:YAG Laser Irradiated Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Olea-Meja, Oscar Fernando; Garca-Fabila, Mara Magdalena; Rodrguez-Vilchis, Laura Emma; Snchez-Flores, Ignacio; Centeno-Pedraza, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background. An increase in the acid resistance of dental enamel, as well as morphological and structural changes produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation, has been reported. Purpose. To evaluate the chemical changes associated with acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser. Methods. Forty-eight enamel samples were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Group I (control); Groups II, III, and IV were irradiated with Er:YAG at 100?mJ (12.7?J/cm2), 200?mJ (25.5?J/cm2), and 300?mJ (38.2?J/cm2), respectively. Results. There were significant differences in composition of irradiated groups (with the exception of chlorine) and in the amount of calcium released. Conclusions. Chemical changes associated with an increase in acid resistance of enamel treated with Er:YAG laser showed a clear postirradiation pattern characterized by a decrease in C at.% and an increase in O, P, and Ca at.% and no changes in Cl at.%. An increased Ca/P ratio after Er:YAG laser irradiation was associated with the use of higher laser energy densities. Chemical changes produced by acid dissolution showed a similar trend among experimental groups. Stable or increased Ca/P ratio after acid dissolution was observed in the irradiated groups, with reduction of Ca released into the acid solution. PMID:24600327

  3. Optical far- and near-field femtosecond laser ablation of Si for nanoscale chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zormpa, Vasileia; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2010-02-02

    Extending spatial resolution in laser-based chemical analysis to the nanoscale becomes increasingly important as nanoscience and nanotechnology develop. Implementation of femtosecond laser pulses arises as a basic strategy for increasing resolution since it is associated with spatially localized material damage. In this work we study femtosecond laser far- and near-field processing of silicon (Si) at two distinct wavelengths (400 and 800 nm), for nanoscale chemical analysis. By tightly focusing femtosecond laser beams in the far-field we were able to produce sub-micrometer craters. In order to further reduce the crater size, similar experiments were performed in the near-field through sub-wavelength apertures, resulting to the formation of sub-30 nm craters. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was used for chemical analysis with a goal to identify the minimum crater size from which spectral emission could be measured. Emission from sub-micrometer craters (full-with-at-half-maximum) was possible, which are among the smallest ever reported for femtosecond LIBS.

  4. Simple model for base pressure effects in source flow chemical lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, K. E.; Batteh, J. H.; Howie, S. S.

    1983-08-01

    A computationally efficient model is developed for the coupled gasdynamics and kinetics in a pure source flow chemical laser. Average flow properties are calculated using the 1D equations for flow with area expansion and heat release. The flame sheet approximation is used to describe the mixing, and subsequent reaction, of the fuel and oxidizer streams. The gasdynamic properties of the mixed zone are assumed to be related in a simple way to the average flow properties. Application of the model to an HF laser indicates that the chemical efficiency of the laser is increased by increasing the nozzle exit Mach number, decreasing the initial source flow radius, decreasing the throughput, and increasing the mixing rate.

  5. Chemical modification of lignocellulosic materials by irradiation with Nd-YAG pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botaro, V. R.; dos Santos, C. G.; Arantes Jnior, G.; da Costa, A. R.

    2001-11-01

    Most reports about modification of lignocellulosics are mainly based on chemical modifications such as specific reactions on hydroxyl groups of cellulose. In this work, we describe the irradiation of Whatman 5 filter paper, microcrystalline cellulose and organosolv lignin with Nd-YAG laser pulses at 1064 nm. The chemical and structural properties of the degraded products were investigated by using FTIR and UV spectroscopies, conductimetrical and SEC analyses. While irradiation affects molar mass and polydispersity of lignin, no detrimental effects caused by Nd-YAG laser treatments were observed for cellulose samples. These results demonstrate that Nd-YAG laser can be used as a practical and selective degradation tool, opening a new field for obtaining surface modified natural fibers.

  6. Laser/Plasma/Chemical-Vapor Deposition Of Diamond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, George C.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed process for deposition of diamond films includes combination of plasma induced in hydrocarbon feed gas by microwave radiation and irradiation of plasma and substrate by lasers. Deposition of graphite suppressed. Reaction chamber irradiated at wavelength favoring polymerization of CH2 radical into powders filtered out of gas. CH3 radicals, having desired sp3 configuration, remains in gas to serve as precursors for deposition. Feed gas selected to favor formation of CH3 radicals; candidates include CH4, C2H4, C2H2, and C2H6. Plasma produced by applying sufficient power at frequency of 2.45 GHz and adjusting density of gas to obtain electron kinetic energies around 100 eV in low-pressure, low-temperature regime.

  7. Combustion Research Program: Flame studies, laser diagnostics, and chemical kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Crosley, D.R.

    1991-01-22

    We have made a detailed study of the care that must be taken to correctly measure OH radical concentrations in flames. A large part of these studies has concerned collisional quenching of hydride radical species (OH, NH, and NH{sub 2}), in particular the dependence upon rotational level and collision velocity (temperature). The results on OH and NH have shown unique and interesting behavior from the viewpoint of fundamental molecular dynamics, pointing to quenching often governed by collisions on an anisotropic, attractive surface, whereas NH{sub 2} quenching appears to depend on state-mixing considerations, not dynamic control. This state-specific behavior of these small, theoretically tractable hydrides has direct ramifications for quantitative flame diagnostics. Our other effort in the diagnostic area has been repeated but unsuccessful searches for laser induced fluorescence in the vinyl radical.

  8. Generation of cavitation luminescence by laser-induced exothermic chemical reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Jung Park, Han; Diebold, Gerald J.

    2013-08-14

    Absorption of high power laser radiation by aqueous carbon suspensions is known to result in the formation of highly compressed bubbles of hydrogen and carbon monoxide through the endothermic carbon-steam reaction. The bubbles expand rapidly, overreaching their equilibrium diameter, and then collapse tens to hundreds of microseconds after formation to give a flash of radiation. Here we report on the effects of laser-initiated exothermic chemical reaction on cavitation luminescence. Experiments with hydrogen peroxide added to colloidal carbon suspensions show that both the time of the light flash following the laser pulse and the intensity of luminescence increase with hydrogen peroxide concentration, indicating that large, highly energetic gas bubbles are produced. Additional experiments with colloidal carbon suspensions show the effects of high pressure on the luminescent intensity and its time of appearance following firing of the laser.

  9. Generation of cavitation luminescence by laser-induced exothermic chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung Park, Han; Diebold, Gerald J.

    2013-08-01

    Absorption of high power laser radiation by aqueous carbon suspensions is known to result in the formation of highly compressed bubbles of hydrogen and carbon monoxide through the endothermic carbon-steam reaction. The bubbles expand rapidly, overreaching their equilibrium diameter, and then collapse tens to hundreds of microseconds after formation to give a flash of radiation. Here we report on the effects of laser-initiated exothermic chemical reaction on cavitation luminescence. Experiments with hydrogen peroxide added to colloidal carbon suspensions show that both the time of the light flash following the laser pulse and the intensity of luminescence increase with hydrogen peroxide concentration, indicating that large, highly energetic gas bubbles are produced. Additional experiments with colloidal carbon suspensions show the effects of high pressure on the luminescent intensity and its time of appearance following firing of the laser.

  10. About possibilities of clearing near-Earth space from dangerous debris by a spaceborne laser system with an autonomous cw chemical HF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeev, A. V.; Bashkin, A. S.; Katorgin, Boris I.; Parfen'ev, M. V.

    2011-07-01

    The possibility of clearing hazardous near-Earth space debris using a spaceborne laser station with a large autonomous cw chemical HF laser is substantiated and the requirements to its characteristics (i.e., power and divergence of laser radiation, pulse duration in the repetitively pulsed regime, repetition rate and total time of laser action on space debris, necessary to remove them from the orbits of the protected spacecrafts) are determined. The possibility of launching the proposed spaceborne laser station to the orbit with the help of a 'Proton-M' carrier rocket is considered.

  11. Laser spectroscopy of chemically reactive species. [NCO radical

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ming; Sears, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    We report the observation of stimulated emission pumping spectra in the NCO radical formed in a supersonic free jet expansion by the reaction between photolytically generated CN radicals and O[sub 2]. The spectra give rotationally resolved information on high lying vibrational levels that are difficult or impossible to detect by conventional single photon spectroscopic techniques. These new data provide detailed insight into the Renner-Teller, spin-orbit and Fermi-resonance coupling in the molecule. They also provide a solid basis for future state-selected chemical and dynamical studies involving this important radical species.

  12. Laser Microdissection and Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry Coupled for Multimodal Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Matthias; Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient laser ablation surface sampling, accomplished using a laser capture microdissection system, with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry for high spatial resolution multimodal imaging. A commercial laser capture microdissection system was placed in close proximity to a modified ion source of a mass spectrometer designed to allow for sampling of laser ablated material via a transfer tube directly into the ionization region. Rhodamine 6G dye of red sharpie ink in a laser etched pattern as well as cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section were identified and imaged from full scan mass spectra. A minimal spot diameter of 8 m was achieved using the 10X microscope cutting objective with a lateral oversampling pixel resolution of about 3.7 m. Distinguishing between features approximately 13 m apart in a cerebellum mouse brain thin tissue section was demonstrated in a multimodal fashion including co-registered optical and mass spectral chemical images.

  13. Chemical and microstructural transformations in lithium iron phosphate battery electrodes following pulsed laser exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutey, Adrian H. A.; Fiorini, Maurizio; Fortunato, Alessandro; Ascari, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Multi-layer lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery electrodes are exposed to nanosecond pulsed laser radiation of wavelength 1064 nm. Test parameters are chosen to achieve characteristic interaction types ranging from partial incision of the active coating layers only to complete penetration of the electrodes with high visual cut quality. Raman spectroscopy is performed on unexposed regions and at points approaching each incision, highlighting changes in chemical composition and microstructure in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Thermogravimetric analysis is performed on the unexposed electrode active materials to distinguish the development of compositional changes under conditions of slow heating below the melting and sublimation temperatures. A brief theoretical description of the physical phenomena taking place during laser exposure is provided in terms of direct ablation during each laser pulse and vaporization or thermal degradation due to conductive heat transfer on a much longer time-scale, with characteristics of the HAZ reported in terms of these changes. For all laser exposures carried out in the study, chemical and microstructural changes are limited to the visible HAZ. Some degree of oxidation and LFP olivine phase degradation is observed in the cathode, while the polycrystalline graphite structure becomes less ordered in the anode. Where complete penetration is achieved, melting of the cathode active layer and combustion of the anode active layer take place near the cut edge due to thermal conduction from the metallic conductive layers. The presented results provide insight into the effects of laser processing on LFP electrode integrity.

  14. Change in the surface morphology and chemical composition of some oxide crystals under UV laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzanyan, A S; Badalyan, G R; Kuzanyan, V S; Nikogosyan, V R; Pilosyan, S Kh; Nesterov, V M

    2011-07-31

    The effect of the 248-nm KrF and 355-nm YAG:Nd{sup 3+} laser radiation on the surface morphology and chemical composition of SrTiO{sub 3}, Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}, PbMoO{sub 4}, LiNbO{sub 3}, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals has been studied. A relationship between the laser energy density on the sample surface and the surface roughness caused by the irradiation is determined. A technique for determining exactly the geometric surface characteristics is proposed. The effect of the surface roughness on the results of energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis has been investigated. A method for correcting the EDX data for samples with a rough surface has been developed. It is shown that the small variation in the composition of PbMoO{sub 4}, LiNbO{sub 3}, Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples after laser irradiation can be explained by the measurement error, related to the change in the surface roughness. At the same time, the irradiation of SrTiO{sub 3} and Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} crystals by a YAG:Nd laser changes the chemical composition of their surface layers. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  15. Duration of an intense laser pulse can determine the breakage of multiple chemical bonds

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xinhua; Ltstedt, Erik; Roither, Stefan; Schffler, Markus; Kartashov, Daniil; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Baltuka, Andrius; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Kitzler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Control over the breakage of a certain chemical bond in a molecule by an ultrashort laser pulse has been considered for decades. With the availability of intense non-resonant laser fields it became possible to pre-determine femtosecond to picosecond molecular bond breakage dynamics by controlled distortions of the electronic molecular system on sub-femtosecond time scales using field-sensitive processes such as strong-field ionization or excitation. So far, all successful demonstrations in this area considered only fragmentation reactions, where only one bond is broken and the molecule is split into merely two moieties. Here, using ethylene (C2H4) as an example, we experimentally investigate whether complex fragmentation reactions that involve the breakage of more than one chemical bond can be influenced by parameters of an ultrashort intense laser pulse. We show that the dynamics of removing three electrons by strong-field ionization determines the ratio of fragmentation of the molecular trication into two respectively three moieties. We observe a relative increase of two-body fragmentations with the laser pulse duration by almost an order of magnitude. Supported by quantum chemical simulations we explain our experimental results by the interplay between the dynamics of electron removal and nuclear motion. PMID:26271602

  16. Chemical imaging of latent fingerprints by mass spectrometry based on laser activated electron tunneling.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuemei; Huang, Lulu; Zhang, Wenyang; Zhong, Hongying

    2015-03-01

    Identification of endogenous and exogenous chemicals contained in latent fingerprints is important for forensic science in order to acquire evidence of criminal identities and contacts with specific chemicals. Mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful technique for such applications without any derivatization or fluorescent tags. Among these techniques, MALDI (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization) provides small beam size but has interferences with MALDI matrix materials, which cause ion suppressions as well as limited spatial resolution resulting from uneven distribution of MALDI matrix crystals with different sizes. LAET (Laser Activated Electron Tunneling) described in this work offers capabilities for chemical imaging through electron-directed soft ionization. A special film of semiconductors has been designed for collection of fingerprints. Nanoparticles of bismuth cobalt zinc oxide were compressed on a conductive metal substrate (Al or Cu sticky tape) under 10 MPa pressure. Resultant uniform thin films provide tight and shining surfaces on which fingers are impressed. Irradiation of ultraviolet laser pulses (355 nm) on the thin film instantly generates photoelectrons that can be captured by adsorbed organic molecules and subsequently cause electron-directed ionization and fragmentation. Imaging of latent fingerprints is achieved by visualization of the spatial distribution of these molecular ions and structural information-rich fragment ions. Atomic electron emission together with finely tuned laser beam size improve spatial resolution. With the LAET technique, imaging analysis not only can identify physical shapes but also reveal endogenous metabolites present in females and males, detect contacts with prohibited substances, and resolve overlapped latent fingerprints. PMID:25647159

  17. Duration of an intense laser pulse can determine the breakage of multiple chemical bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xinhua; Ltstedt, Erik; Roither, Stefan; Schffler, Markus; Kartashov, Daniil; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Baltuka, Andrius; Yamanouchi, Kaoru; Kitzler, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Control over the breakage of a certain chemical bond in a molecule by an ultrashort laser pulse has been considered for decades. With the availability of intense non-resonant laser fields it became possible to pre-determine femtosecond to picosecond molecular bond breakage dynamics by controlled distortions of the electronic molecular system on sub-femtosecond time scales using field-sensitive processes such as strong-field ionization or excitation. So far, all successful demonstrations in this area considered only fragmentation reactions, where only one bond is broken and the molecule is split into merely two moieties. Here, using ethylene (C2H4) as an example, we experimentally investigate whether complex fragmentation reactions that involve the breakage of more than one chemical bond can be influenced by parameters of an ultrashort intense laser pulse. We show that the dynamics of removing three electrons by strong-field ionization determines the ratio of fragmentation of the molecular trication into two respectively three moieties. We observe a relative increase of two-body fragmentations with the laser pulse duration by almost an order of magnitude. Supported by quantum chemical simulations we explain our experimental results by the interplay between the dynamics of electron removal and nuclear motion.

  18. Chemical characterization of aerosol particles by laser Raman spectroscopy. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, K.H.

    1999-12-01

    The importance of aerosol particles in many branches of science, such as atmospheric chemistry, combustion, interfacial science, and material processing, has been steadily growing during the past decades. One of the unique properties of these particles is the very high surface-to-volume ratios, thus making them readily serve as centers for gas-phase condensation and heterogeneous reactions. These particles must be characterized by size, shape, physical state, and chemical composition. Traditionally, optical elastic scattering has been applied to obtain the physical properties of these particle (e.g., particle size, size distribution, and particle density). These physical properties are particularly important in atmospheric science as they govern the distribution and transport of atmospheric aerosols.

  19. Personnel protection equipment for use with laser chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, I.D.; Roepke, J.

    1984-08-01

    The NASA White Sands Test facility (WSTF) recently built the fluid distribution system for the Army's High Energy Laser System Test Facility (HELSTF). As part of the effort, WSTF personnel were required to activate the fluorine system. To insure adequate personnel protection during the fluorine system activation, a project was undertaken to evaluate and qualify personnel protection equipment to be used during the activation (passivation) activity. Previous work in the late 60's and early 70's showed that very few materials were totally satisfactory for use with fluorine. Little if any work has been done to measure the degree of protection afforded against either fluorine gas or hydrofluoric acid (HF), the principal residual reactive material. Two general types of tests were conducted to evaluate materials. These were (1) fluorine and HF gas permeation tests, and (2) high-velocity fluorine gas-impingement tests. The gas permeation tests were designed to exposure one side of the material to the gas at concentrations of up to 27% F2 or 1.5% HF in designed to expose one side of the material to the gas at concentrations of up to 27% F2 or 1.5% HF in GN2 with a gas purge on the opposite side leading to the detection system. The tests showed that all of the materials tested which included ILC Dover Chloropel, glove materials - Neoprene, Viton, leather, butyl rubber, face shield materials, etc., where neither permeated by HF at a 1200 ppm level nor by F2 in GN2 at concentrations as high as 27% by volume. The gas-impingement tests were designed to represent a high-pressure gas leak or the cracking of a B-nut on a system containing residual fluorine gas.

  20. Feasibility study of a novel pressure recovery system for CO2-COIL based on chemical absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingwei; Jin, Yuqi; Geng, Zicai; Li, Yongzhao; Zhang, Yuelong; Sang, Fengting

    2015-02-01

    A chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is an electronic transition, low pressure, high throughput system. The use of this laser demands a suitable pressure recovery system. This paper proposed a novel pressure recovery system based on chemical absorption and the feasibility for COIL with CO2 as buffer gas (CO2-COIL) was investigated. The novel pressure recovery system works by chemisorbing the CO2-COIL effluents into two fixed-beds maintained at initial temperature of around 293-323K. Compared with the cryosorption system for N2-COIL based on physical absorption, the novel chemisorptions based pressure recovery system has a simpler logistics and a shorter run-to-run preparation time. Two kinds of solid chemo-sorbents were designed and synthesized. One was used for chemisorbing the oxidizing gases such as O2 ,Cl2 and I2, another was used for chemisorbing the acidic gas such as CO2. The capacities of the two sorbents were measured to be 3.12 mmol?O2?/g and 3.84 mmol (CO2) /g, respectively. It indicated that the synthesized sorbents could effectively chemosorb the CO2-COIL effluents. Secondly, analog test equipment was set up and used to study the feasibility of the novel pressure recovery system used for CO2-COIL. The test results showed that the novel pressure recovery system could maintain the pressure under 6 Torr for tens seconds under the continuous gas flow. It showed that the novel pressure recovery system for CO2-COIL based on chemical absorption is feasible.

  1. Physics of a ballistic missile defense: The chemical laser boost-phase defense

    SciTech Connect

    Grabbe, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The basic physics involved in proposals to use a chemical laser based on satellites for a boost-phase defense are investigated. After a brief consideration of simple physical conditions for the defense, a calculation of an equation for the number of satellites needed for the defense is made along with some typical values of this for possible future conditions for the defense. Basic energy and power requirements for the defense are determined. A summary is made of probable minimum conditions that must be achieved for laser power, targeting accuracy, numbers of satellites, and total sources of power needed.

  2. Physics of a ballistic missile defense - The chemical laser boost-phase defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Crockett L.

    1988-01-01

    The basic physics involved in proposals to use a chemical laser based on satellites for a boost-phase defense are investigated. After a brief consideration of simple physical conditions for the defense, a calculation of an equation for the number of satellites needed for the defense is made along with some typical values of this for possible future conditions for the defense. Basic energy and power requirements for the defense are determined. A sumary is made of probable minimum conditions that must be achieved for laser power, targeting accuracy, number of satellites, and total sources for power needed.

  3. Evaluation of Adhesive Strength of Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamond Films by Laser Spallation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Ryuji; Tasaka, Syun; Cho, Hideo; Takemoto, Mikio

    2004-05-01

    The adhesive strength of polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-synthesized diamond films deposited on sintered SiC substrates was estimated using laser spallation. A strong pulse expansion wave was produced on the surface opposite the diamond film by the pulse laser breakdown of silicone grease confined by a silica plate and used to cause Mode-I fracture at the interface between the diamond and SiC. The amplitude of the expansion wave was monitored by a fast laser interferometer as a function of laser characteristics and the confining method. The critical laser energy for causing film spallation changed depending on the diameter of the laser beam and the thickness of the energy-absorbing layer (grease) confined by the silica plate. The driving force of the spallation was estimated to be the tensile stress of the expansion wave following the first compression wave, and it was changed significantly by the dynamics of dielectric breakdown. This was demonstrated by the waveform simulation of the out-of-plane displacement using a theoretical Greens function of the second kind for the dipole source. A pulse dipole source with short rise and decading times generates strong expansion waves.

  4. Influence of polymer molecular weight on the chemical modifications induced by UV laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Rebollar, Esther; Bounos, Giannis; Oujja, Mohamed; Domingo, Concepcin; Georgiou, Savas; Castillejo, Marta

    2006-07-27

    This paper investigates the influence of polymer molecular weight (M(W)) on the chemical modifications of poly(methyl methacrylate), PMMA, and polystyrene, PS, films doped with iodonaphthalene (NapI) and iodophenanthrene (PhenI), following irradiation at 248 nm (KrF excimer laser, 20 ns fwhm and hybrid excimer-dye laser, 500 fs fwhm) and at 308 nm (XeCl excimer laser, 30 ns fwhm). The changes of intensity and position of the polymer Raman bands upon irradiation provide information on cleavage of the polymer bonds. Degradation of PMMA, which is a weak absorbing system at 248 nm, occurs to a higher extent in the case of a larger M(W), giving rise to the creation of unsaturation centers and to degradation products. For highly absorbing PS, no degradation is observed upon irradiation with a KrF laser. Consistently irradiating doped PS at 308 nm, where the absorption is low, induces degradation of the polymer. Results provide direct support for the bulk photothermal model, according to which ejection requires a critical number of broken bonds. In the case of irradiation of doped PMMA with pulses of 248 nm and 500 fs, neither degradation nor dependence with polymer M(W) are observed, indicating that mechanisms involved in the femtosecond laser ablation differ from those operating in the case of nanosecond laser ablation. Participation of multiphoton/avalanche processes is proposed. PMID:16854122

  5. An intra-cavity device with a discharge-drived CW DF chemical laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Baozhu; Liu, Wenguang; Zhou, Qiong; Yuan, Shengfu; Lu, Qisheng

    2015-05-01

    The performance parameters of reflecting mirrors such as absorption coefficient or thermal distortion determine the beam quality of the output laser, so the quality of mirrors is one of the most important factors affecting the capability of the whole laser system. At the present time, there was obviously insufficient in test methods for the mirrors performance. The reflection coefficient, absorption coefficient and scattering coefficient of mirrors could be measured by a lot of test methods such as cavity ring-down method, photothermal deflection method, surface thermal lens method and laser calorimetry. But these methods could not test under high power density radiation. So the test data and results could not indicate the real performance in a real laser system exactly. Testing in a real laser system would be expensive and time consuming. Therefore, the test sequence and data would not be sufficient to analyze and realize the performance of mirrors. To examine the performance of mirrors under high power density radiation, the working principle of intra-cavity was introduced in this paper. Utilizing an output mirror with a low output coupling ratio, an intra-cavity could produce high-power density laser in the resonant cavity on the basis of a relatively small scale of gain medium, and the consumption and cost were very low relatively. Based on a discharge-drived CW DF chemical laser, an intra-cavity device was established. A laser beam of 3kw/cm2 was achieved in the resonant cavity. Two pieces of 22.5 degree mirrors and two pieces of 45 degree mirrors could be tested simultaneously. Absorption coefficient and thermal distortion were measured by calorimetry and Hartmann wavefront sensor respectively. This device was simple, convenient, low-maintenance, and could work for a long time. The test results would provide support for process improvement of mirrors.

  6. Middle infrared active coherent laser spectrometer for standoff detection of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Neil A; Rose, Rebecca; Weidmann, Damien

    2013-10-01

    Using a quantum cascade laser emitting at 7.85 ?m, a middle infrared active coherent laser spectrometer has been developed for the standoff detection of vapor phase chemicals. The first prototype has been tested using diffuse target backscattering at ranges up to ~30 m. Exploiting the continuous frequency tuning of the laser source, spectra of water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, and hydrogen peroxide were recorded. A forward model of the instrument was used to perform spectral unmixing and retrieve line-of-sight integrated concentrations and their one-sigma uncertainties. Performance was found to be limited by speckle noise originating from topographic targets. For absorbers with large absorption cross sections such as nitrous oxide (>10(-19) cm(2)molecule(-1)), normalized detection sensitivities range between 14 and 0.3 ppmmHz(-1/2), depending on the efficiency of the speckle reduction scheme implemented. PMID:24081032

  7. Chemical taggant detection and analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Steven H.; Almirall, Jose R

    2008-11-01

    A commercially available chemical identification taggant that imparts a unique elemental fingerprint to any object and can be analytically distinguished from billions of possible combinations has been developed. The liquid tag is easily applied and, once dry, can be removed and analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to determine the combination of elements present in the sample. The current study investigates the use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an alternative, and perhaps more practical, analysis scheme to LA-ICP-MS for this taggant. LIBS provides excellent discrimination potential, sensitivity, and repeatability of analysis for up to 17 rare-earth elements using a Nd:YAG 266 nm or 1064 nm laser and an intensified CCD detector.

  8. Chemical H/sub 2//F/sub 2/ laser initiated by an excimer lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, E.V.; Matyushenko, V.I.; Pavlenko, V.S.; Sizov, V.D.

    1985-01-01

    A chemical hydrogen--fluorine (H/sub 2//F/sub 2/) laser was operated for the first time by transverse initiation with incoherent radiation from a pulsed electric-discharge excimer lamp with XeCl, XeF, and KrF molecules. This laser operated only when superradiance of the excimer mixtures was suppressed. Estimates indicated that the technical efficiency of the excimer lamp was 5%, which was 10 times higher than the efficiency of an excimer laser which was used to construct it. A study was made of feasibility of constructing a system in which excimer molecules and vibrationally excited HF molecules would form in the same region in space.

  9. Optical properties and surface structure comparison of tooth whitening using four laser systems and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Pavel; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Housova, Devana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kokta, Milan R.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of various laser techniques for bleaching teeth in office vital whitening. Hydrogen peroxide (30% concentration) and carbamide peroxide (10% solution) were used for chemical activation of bleaching process. Extracted non-carcious upper central incisors were exposed to laser radiation. Four different laser systems (Nd:YAG laser SHG, wavelength 0.53 μm, CTE:YAG laser, wavelength 2.7 μm, Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1.06 μm, and alexandrite laser, wavelength 0.75 μm) were applied to accelerate the speed of the process. The end of chemical exposition was verified by the change of bleaching agent color. The color change was determined by stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan), the quality of surface structure was checked by scanning electron microscope Joel, Japan). The speed of bleaching rnaged from 630 s (chemical methods only) to 250-340 s (chemicals + alexandrite laser radiation). The Alexandrite laser application was considered an elective process to decrease the time of bleaching without modifying the surface.

  10. Influence of exothermic chemical reactions on laser-induced shock waves.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Jennifer L

    2014-10-21

    Differences in the excitation of non-energetic and energetic residues with a 900 mJ, 6 ns laser pulse (1064 nm) have been investigated. Emission from the laser-induced plasma of energetic materials (e.g. triaminotrinitrobenzene [TATB], cyclotrimethylene trinitramine [RDX], and hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane [CL-20]) is significantly reduced compared to non-energetic materials (e.g. sugar, melamine, and l-glutamine). Expansion of the resulting laser-induced shock wave into the air above the sample surface was imaged on a microsecond timescale with a high-speed camera recording multiple frames from each laser shot; the excitation of energetic materials produces larger heat-affected zones in the surrounding atmosphere (facilitating deflagration of particles ejected from the sample surface), results in the formation of additional shock fronts, and generates faster external shock front velocities (>750 m s(-1)) compared to non-energetic materials (550-600 m s(-1)). Non-explosive materials that undergo exothermic chemical reactions in air at high temperatures such as ammonium nitrate and magnesium sulfate produce shock velocities which exceed those of the inert materials but are less than those generated by the exothermic reactions of explosive materials (650-700 m s(-1)). The most powerful explosives produced the highest shock velocities. A comparison to several existing shock models demonstrated that no single model describes the shock propagation for both non-energetic and energetic materials. The influence of the exothermic chemical reactions initiated by the pulsed laser on the velocity of the laser-induced shock waves has thus been demonstrated for the first time. PMID:25182866

  11. Time evolution studies of laser induced chemical changes in InAs nanowire using Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Suparna; Aggarwal, R.; Kumari Gupta, Vandna; Ingale, Alka

    2014-07-07

    We report the study of time evolution of chemical changes on the surface of an InAs nanowire (NW) on laser irradiation in different power density regime, using Raman spectroscopy for a time span of 8–16 min. Mixture of metastable oxides like InAsO{sub 4,} As{sub 2}O{sub 3} are formed upon oxidation, which are reflected as sharp Raman peaks at ∼240–254 and 180–200 cm{sup −1}. Evidence of removal of arsenic layer by layer is also observed at higher power density. Position controlled laser induced chemical modification on a nanometer scale, without changing the core of the NW, can be useful for NW based device fabrication.

  12. Chemical analysis of human urinary and renal calculi by Raman laser fiber-optics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Nguyen T. D.; Phat, Darith; Plaza, Pascal; Daudon, Michel; Dao, Nguyen Q.

    1991-11-01

    The Raman laser fiberoptics (RLFO) method using Raman spectroscopy for determination of chemical composition and optical fibers allowing multiplex, in situ, and remote possibilities, enabled chemical analysis of various human urinary and renal calculi. Raman spectra of about 40 constituents (synthetic or natural) in the authors''s possession and its 437 various binary and ternary mixtures are recorded using 1.06 micrometers radiation of a Nd:YAG laser and a FT Raman interferometer. These spectra--most of them are fluorescence free--constituted the calculi library. In the presence of urine, unknown stones can then be identified by RLFO method using an automatic computer procedure (at the present time, the Bruker IR search program is used). The results obtained for the identification of the stones are satisfactory. Major constituents of a complex calculus (

  13. Ultrahigh-spatial-resolution chemical and magnetic imaging by laser-based photoemission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, Toshiyuki; Kotani, Yoshinori; Shin, Shik

    2015-02-01

    We report the first experiments carried out on a new chemical and magnetic imaging system, which combines the high spatial resolution of a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) with a continuous-wave deep-ultraviolet laser. Threshold photoemission is sensitive to the chemical and magnetic structures of the surface of materials. The spatial resolution of PEEM is limited by space charging when using pulsed photon sources as well as aberrations in the electron optics. We show that the use of a continuous-wave laser enabled us to overcome such a limit by suppressing the space-charge effect, allowing us to obtain a resolution of approximately 2.6 nm. With this system, we demonstrated the imaging of surface reconstruction domains on Si(001) by linear dichroism with normal incidence of the laser beam. We also succeeded in magnetic imaging of thin films with the use of magnetic circular dichroism near the Fermi level. The unique features of the ultraviolet laser will give us fast switching of the incident angles and polarizations of the photon source, which will be useful for the characterization of antiferromagnetic materials as well as ferromagnetic materials. PMID:25725846

  14. Chemical vapor synthesis of nanocrystalline perovskites using laser flash evaporation of low volatility solid precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterer, Markus; Srdic, Vladimir V.; Djenadic, Ruzica; Kompch, Alexander; Weirich, Thomas E.

    2007-12-01

    One key requirement for the production of multinary oxide films by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or nanocrystalline multinary oxides particles by chemical vapor synthesis (CVS) is the availability of precursors with high vapor pressure. This is especially the case for CVS where much higher production rates are required compared to thin films prepared by CVD. However, elements, which form low valent cations such as alkaline earth metals, are typically only available as solid precursors of low volatility, e.g., in form of ?-diketonates. This study describes laser flash evaporation as precursor delivery method for CVS of nanocrystalline perovskites. Laser flash evaporation exploits the nonequilibrium evaporation of solid metal organic precursors of low vapor pressure by absorption of the infrared radiation of a CO2 laser. It is shown that stoichiometric, nanocrystalline particles consisting of SrZrO3 and SrTiO3 can be formed from corresponding mixtures of ?-diketonates which are evaporated nonselectively and with high rates by laser flash evaporation.

  15. Nanosecond laser textured superhydrophobic metallic surfaces and their chemical sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Duong V.; Dunn, Andrew; Wasley, Thomas J.; Kay, Robert W.; Stringer, Jonathan; Smith, Patrick J.; Connaughton, Colm; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-12-01

    This work demonstrates superhydrophobic behavior on nanosecond laser patterned copper and brass surfaces. Compared with ultrafast laser systems previously used for such texturing, infrared nanosecond fiber lasers offer a lower cost and more robust system combined with potentially much higher processing rates. The wettability of the textured surfaces develops from hydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity over time when exposed to ambient conditions. The change in the wetting property is attributed to the partial deoxidation of oxides on the surface induced during laser texturing. Textures exhibiting steady state contact angles of up to ?152 with contact angle hysteresis of around 3-4 have been achieved. Interestingly, the superhydrobobic surfaces have the self-cleaning ability and have potential for chemical sensing applications. The principle of these novel chemical sensors is based on the change in contact angle with the concentration of methanol in a solution. To demonstrate the principle of operation of such a sensor, it is found that the contact angle of methanol solution on the superhydrophobic surfaces exponentially decays with increasing concentration. A significant reduction, of 128, in contact angle on superhydrophobic brass is observed, which is one order of magnitude greater than that for the untreated surface (12), when percent composition of methanol reaches to 28%.

  16. Laser structuring and modification of polymer surfaces for chemical and medical microcomponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremus-Koebberling, Elke A.; Meier-Mahlo, Ulrike; Henkenjohann, Oliver; Beckemper, Stefan; Gillner, Arnold

    2004-10-01

    In the production of micro devices the surface properties become more and more important for chemistry, biotechnology and medical technology with respect to wetting properties and chemical composition of the surface. Typical applications are implants as well as micro fluidic systems or miniaturized devices for DNA- and proteome analysis (biochips). In this paper newly designed laser technologies based on UV-laser treatment of polymers for surface processing are described to manipulate wetting properties, cell growth and immobilization of functional molecules with high spatial resolution. Depending on the processing parameters and used polymers either hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties can be enhanced (i.e. laser induced lotus/anti-lotus effect). Enhanced roughness and changes of the chemical composition have also influence on cell growth on polymer surfaces. Thus guiding aids for cells e.g. on medical implants can be generated by laser irradiation. Due to photo oxidation processes while UV-treatment in air, functional groups are created that are suited for covalent bonding of (bio)moelcules onto the surfaces. A second process for the locally selective immobilization of anchor molecules based on azide functionalized templates suitable for further modification steps is presented by means of irradiating polymers under solutions of these linkers.

  17. Ultrahigh-spatial-resolution chemical and magnetic imaging by laser-based photoemission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Taniuchi, Toshiyuki Kotani, Yoshinori; Shin, Shik

    2015-02-15

    We report the first experiments carried out on a new chemical and magnetic imaging system, which combines the high spatial resolution of a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) with a continuous-wave deep-ultraviolet laser. Threshold photoemission is sensitive to the chemical and magnetic structures of the surface of materials. The spatial resolution of PEEM is limited by space charging when using pulsed photon sources as well as aberrations in the electron optics. We show that the use of a continuous-wave laser enabled us to overcome such a limit by suppressing the space-charge effect, allowing us to obtain a resolution of approximately 2.6 nm. With this system, we demonstrated the imaging of surface reconstruction domains on Si(001) by linear dichroism with normal incidence of the laser beam. We also succeeded in magnetic imaging of thin films with the use of magnetic circular dichroism near the Fermi level. The unique features of the ultraviolet laser will give us fast switching of the incident angles and polarizations of the photon source, which will be useful for the characterization of antiferromagnetic materials as well as ferromagnetic materials.

  18. Engineering the plasmon resonance of large area bimetallic nanoparticle films by laser nanostructuring for chemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Beliatis, Michail J; Henley, Simon J; Silva, S Ravi P

    2011-04-15

    Large area fabrication of metal alloy nanoparticles with tunable surface plasmon resonances on low-cost substrates is reported. A UV excimer laser was used to anneal 5 nm thick Ag Au bilayer films deposited with different composition ratios to create alloy nanoparticles. These engineered surfaces are used to investigate how the wavelength of the surface plasmon resonance affects the optical detection capability of chemical species by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. PMID:21499357

  19. Synthesis of Cobalt Oxides Thin Films Fractal Structures by Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Haniam, P.; Kunsombat, C.; Chiangga, S.; Songsasen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of cobalt oxides (CoO and Co3O4) fractal structures have been synthesized by using laser chemical vapor deposition at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Various factors which affect the density and crystallization of cobalt oxides fractal shapes have been examined. We show that the fractal structures can be described by diffusion-limited aggregation model and discuss a new possibility to control the fractal structures. PMID:24672354

  20. Synthesis of cobalt oxides thin films fractal structures by laser chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Haniam, P; Kunsombat, C; Chiangga, S; Songsasen, A

    2014-01-01

    Thin films of cobalt oxides (CoO and Co3O4) fractal structures have been synthesized by using laser chemical vapor deposition at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Various factors which affect the density and crystallization of cobalt oxides fractal shapes have been examined. We show that the fractal structures can be described by diffusion-limited aggregation model and discuss a new possibility to control the fractal structures. PMID:24672354

  1. Laser-based standoff detection of surface-bound explosive chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, David L.; Smith, Gregory P.; Oser, Harald

    2010-04-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential damage from improvised explosive devices (IEDs) such as suicide, roadside, or vehicle bombs requires that the explosive device be detected and neutralized outside its effective blast radius. Only a few seconds may be available to both identify the device as hazardous and implement a response. As discussed in a study by the National Research Council, current technology is still far from capable of meeting these objectives. Conventional nitrocarbon explosive chemicals have very low vapor pressures, and any vapors are easily dispersed in air. Many pointdetection approaches rely on collecting trace solid residues from dust particles or surfaces. Practical approaches for standoff detection are yet to be developed. For the past 5 years, SRI International has been working toward development of a novel scheme for standoff detection of explosive chemicals that uses infrared (IR) laser evaporation of surfacebound explosive followed by ultraviolet (UV) laser photofragmentation of the explosive chemical vapor, and then UV laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of nitric oxide. This method offers the potential of long standoff range (up to 100 m or more), high sensitivity (vaporized solid), simplicity (no spectrometer or library of reference spectra), and selectivity (only nitrocompounds).

  2. Ambient diode laser desorption dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry of nonvolatile chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Schilling, Michael; Ahlmann, Norman; Michels, Antje; Hayen, Heiko; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; García-Reyes, Juan F; Franzke, Joachim

    2013-03-19

    In this work, the combined use of desorption by a continuous wave near-infrared diode laser and ionization by a dielectric barrier discharge-based probe (laser desorption dielectric barrier discharge ionization mass spectrometry (LD-DBDI-MS)) is presented as an ambient ionization method for the mass spectrometric detection of nonvolatile chemicals on surfaces. A separation of desorption and ionization processes could be verified. The use of the diode laser is motivated by its low cost, ease of use, and small size. To achieve an efficient desorption, the glass substrates are coated at the back side with a black point (target point, where the sample is deposited) in order to absorb the energy offered by the diode laser radiation. Subsequent ionization is accomplished by a helium plasmajet generated in the dielectric barrier discharge source. Examples on the application of this approach are shown in both positive and negative ionization modes. A wide variety of multiclass species with low vapor pressure were tested including pesticides, pharmaceuticals and explosives (reserpine, roxithromycin, propazine, prochloraz, spinosad, ampicillin, dicloxacillin, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, erythromycin, spinosad, cyclo-1,3,5,7-tetramethylene tetranitrate (HMX), and cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene trinitramine (RDX)). A comparative evaluation revealed that the use of the laser is advantageous, compared to just heating the substrate surface. PMID:23419061

  3. Photothermal laser fabrication of micro- and nanostructured chemical templates for directed protein immobilization.

    PubMed

    Schrter, Anja; Franzka, Steffen; Hartmann, Nils

    2014-12-16

    Photothermal patterning of poly(ethylene glycol) terminated organic monolayers on surface-oxidized silicon substrates is carried out using a microfocused beam of a CW laser operated at a wavelength of 532 nm. Trichlorosilane and trimethoxysilane precursors are used for coating. Monolayers from trimethoxysilane precursors show negligible unspecific protein adsorption in the background, i.e., provide platforms of superior protein repellency. Laser patterning results in decomposition of the monolayers and yields chemical templates for directed immobilization of proteins at predefined positions. Characterization is carried out via complementary analytical methods including fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Appropriate labeling techniques (fluorescent markers and gold clusters) and substrates (native and thermally oxidized silicon substrates) are chosen in order to facilitate identification of protein adsorption and ensure high sensitivity and selectivity. Variation of the laser parameters at a 1/e(2) spot diameter of 2.8 ?m allows for fabrication of protein binding domains with diameters on the micrometer and nanometer length scale. Minimum domain sizes are about 300 nm. In addition to unspecific protein adsorption on as-patterned monolayers, biotin-streptavidin coupling chemistry is exploited for specific protein binding. This approach represents a novel facile laser-based means for fabrication of protein micro- and nanopatterns. The routine is readily applicable to femtosecond laser processing of glass substrates for the fabrication of transparent templates. PMID:25397891

  4. Chemical decomposition of urinary stones during holmium-laser lithotripsy: II. Evidence for photothermal breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glickman, Randolph D.; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Vassar, George J.; Weintraub, Susan T.; Chan, Kin Foong; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Welch, Ashley J.

    1999-06-01

    Because of the greater than or equal to 250 microsecond pulsewidth emitted by the Ho:YAG laser used in clinical lithotripsy, it is unlikely that stress confinement occurs within the irradiated stones. Experimental data supports a thermal mechanism for Ho:YAG laser stone ablation. Stone fragmentation occurs soon after the onset of the laser pulse, is uncorrelated to cavitation bubble formation or collapse, and is associated with low pressures (cf. part I). The mass- loss of desiccated calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones exposed to 150 J from the Ho:YAG laser in air was 40 plus or minus 12 mg (mean plus or minus 1 s.d.); for hydrated stones in air was 25 plus or minus 9 mg; and for hydrated stones in water was 17 plus or minus 3 mg, p less than .001. These differences indicate that direct absorption of the laser radiation by the stone is required for the most efficient ablation. Lowering the initial temperature of COM or cystine stones also reduced the stone mass-loss following 20 J of delivered laser energy: 2.2 plus or minus 1.1 mg vs 5.2 plus or minus 1.6 mg for COM stones (-80 vs 23 degrees Celsius), and 0.8 plus or minus 0.4 mg vs 2.2 plus or minus 1.1 mg for cystine stones (-80 vs 23 degrees Celsius), p less than or equal to .05. Finally, chemical analysis of the laser-induced stone fragments revealed the presence of thermal breakdown products: CaCO3 from COM; free sulfur and cysteine from cystine; Ca2O7P2 from calcium hydorgen phosphate dihydrate, and cyanide from uric acid.

  5. Toward the realization of a compact chemical sensor platform using quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holthoff, Ellen L.; Marcus, Logan S.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

    2015-05-01

    The Army is investigating several spectroscopic techniques (e.g., infrared spectroscopy) that could allow for an adaptable sensor platform. Traditionally, chemical sensing platforms have been hampered by the opposing concerns of increasing sensor capability while maintaining a minimal package size. Current sensors, although reasonably sized, are geared to more classical chemical threats, and the ability to expand their capabilities to a broader range of emerging threats is uncertain. Recently, photoacoustic spectroscopy, employed in a sensor format, has shown enormous potential to address these ever-changing threats, while maintaining a compact sensor design. In order to realize the advantage of photoacoustic sensor miniaturization, light sources of comparable size are required. Recent research has employed quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in combination with MEMS-scale photoacoustic cell designs. The continuous tuning capability of QCLs over a broad wavelength range in the mid-infrared spectral region greatly expands the number of compounds that can be identified. Results have demonstrated that utilizing a tunable QCL with a MEMS-scale photoacoustic cell produces favorable detection limits (ppb levels) for chemical targets (e.g., dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), vinyl acetate, 1,4-dioxane). Although our chemical sensing research has benefitted from the broad tuning capabilities of QCLs, the limitations of these sources must be considered. Current commercially available tunable systems are still expensive and obviously geared more toward laboratory operation, not fielding. Although the laser element itself is quite small, the packaging, power supply, and controller remain logistical burdens. Additionally, operational features such as continuous wave (CW) modulation and laser output powers while maintaining wide tunability are not yet ideal for a variety of sensing applications. In this paper, we will discuss our continuing evaluation of QCL technology as it matures in relation to our ultimate goal of a universal compact chemical sensor platform.

  6. Theoretical and experimental examination of pulsed 16. mu. m CO/sub 2/ transfer chemical lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Jaul, W.K.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation of hydrogen-halide CO/sub 2/ 16 ..mu..m laser systems was made. The experiments employed a pulsed hydrogen-halide chemical laser to optically pump a cell containing a mixture of HX, CO/sub 2/, and diluent. Similar experiments using deuterium instead of hydrogen were also performed. Initially a computer model was developed simulating laser oscillation in a DF/CO/sub 2/ and HBr/CO/sub 2/ device. The model used a rate equation approach to compute the time histories of the concentrations of both the lasing and non-lasing species. Rotational non-equilibrium of the rotational population could be the result of lasing or preferential pumping. Kinetic mechanisms important to 16 ..mu..m lasing were identified using the results of the computer simulation. Because of the potential for higher output powers and energies from HF lasers compared to HBr and HF pumped HF/CO/sub 2/ 16 ..mu..m laser would be desirable. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a device experiments were performed using an HF laser to optically pump an HF/CO/sub 2//He gas mixture. Due to HF polymerization at low temperatures it was necessary to maintain the gas mixture above 260/sup 0/K contrast to the HBr device of Osgood that could operate at 193/sup 0/K. No evidence of laser output from the HF/CO/sub 2/ device was ever observed. To attempt to explain these results the computer model was modified to simulate the chemical kinetics in an HF/C/sub 2/ gas mixture. The results of the computer calculations predicted very weak 9.4 ..mu..m lasing (approximately 2% of HBr output at 9.4 ..mu..m) and no 16 ..mu..m laser output. A combination of slower energy tranfer between HF and CO/sub 2/ compared to HBr and a vibrational self-deactivation rate two orders of magnitude greater for HF than for HBr appeared to be responsible for these results.

  7. On the possibility of simultaneous emission of an autonomous cw HF-DF chemical laser in two spectral ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkin, A S; Gurov, L V; Katorgin, B I; Petrova, S N; Polinovsky, D V

    2008-05-31

    The efficiencies of different fuel compositions used in the combustion chamber of an autonomous cw chemical HF-DF laser for obtaining high specific energy parameters during simultaneous lasing in HF and DF molecules in two spectral ranges are theoretically analysed. It is shown that mirrors with the reflectance above 99% in these spectral ranges can be manufactured in principle. (lasers)

  8. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  9. Development of a new laser heating system for thin film growth by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Eiji; Sumiya, Masatomo; Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi; Lippmaa, Mikk; Takeguchi, Masaki; Koinuma, Hideomi; Matsumoto, Yuji

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a new laser heating system for thin film growth by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). A collimated beam from a high-power continuous-wave 808 nm semiconductor laser was directly introduced into a CVD growth chamber without an optical fiber. The light path of the heating laser inside the chamber was isolated mechanically from the growth area by bellows to protect the optics from film coating. Three types of heat absorbers, (10 × 10 × 2 mm3) consisting of SiC, Ni/NiOx, or pyrolytic graphite covered with pyrolytic BN (PG/PBN), located at the backside of the substrate, were tested for heating performance. It was confirmed that the substrate temperature could reach higher than 1500 °C in vacuum when a PG/PBN absorber was used. A wide-range temperature response between 400 °C and 1000 °C was achieved at high heating and cooling rates. Although the thermal energy loss increased in a H2 gas ambient due to the higher thermal conductivity, temperatures up to 1000°C were achieved even in 200 Torr H2. We have demonstrated the capabilities of this laser heating system by growing ZnO films by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The growth mode of ZnO films was changed from columnar to lateral growth by repeated temperature modulation in this laser heating system, and consequently atomically smooth epitaxial ZnO films were successfully grown on an a-plane sapphire substrate.

  10. Sensing signatures mediated by chemical structure of molecular solids in laser-induced plasmas.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Jorge; Moros, Javier; Laserna, J Javier

    2015-03-01

    Laser ablation of organic compounds has been investigated for almost 30 years now, either in the framework of pulse laser deposition for the assembling of new materials or in the context of chemical sensing. Various monitoring techniques such as atomic and molecular fluorescence, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and optical emission spectroscopy have been used for plasma diagnostics in an attempt to understand the spectral signature and potential origin of gas-phase ions and fragments from organic plasmas. Photochemical and photophysical processes occurring within these systems are generally much more complex than those suggested by observation of optical emission features. Together with laser ablation parameters, the structural and chemical-physical properties of molecules seem to be closely tied to the observed phenomena. The present manuscript, for the first time, discusses the role of molecular structure in the optical emission of organic plasmas. Factors altering the electronic distribution within the organic molecule have been found to have a direct impact on its ensuing optical emissions. The electron structure of an organic molecule, resulting from the presence, nature, and position of its atoms, governs the breakage of the molecule and, as a result, determines the extent of atomization and fragmentation that has proved to directly impact the emissions of CN radicals and C2 dimers. Particular properties of the molecule respond more positively depending on the laser irradiation wavelength, thereby redirecting the ablation process through photochemical or photothermal decomposition pathways. It is of paramount significance for chemical identification purposes how, despite the large energy stored and dissipated by the plasma and the considerable number of transient species formed, the emissions observed never lose sight of the original molecule. PMID:25668318

  11. Characterizing effects and benefits of beam defocus on high energy laser performance under thermal blooming and turbulence conditions for air-to-ground engagements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Scott N.

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation makes contributions towards knowledge of optimizing of laser weapon performance when operating in the air-to-ground (ATG) regime in thermal blooming conditions. Wave optics modeling techniques were used to represent laser weapon performance in a high fidelity sense to allow progress to be made toward improving lower-fidelity scaling laws that can be used in systems level analysis which has need for better representations of thermal blooming. Chemical-oxygen iodine laser (COIL) based weapon systems that operate near the ground will experience thermal blooming due to atmospheric absorption if output power is sufficiently high. The thermal lens in the ATG case is predominantly in the far-field of the optical system which puts the problem outside the envelope for most classical phase correction techniques. Focusing the laser beyond the target (defocus) in the air-to-ground regime is shown to improve irradiance at the target and can be thought of as reducing the thermal blooming distortion number, ND, rather than phase correction. Improvement is shown in a baseline scenario presented and all variations from it explored herein. The Breaux ND is examined for potential use in a defocus scaling law, and a correction factor due to Smith (1977), developed for a different context, is proposed to address deficiencies. Optimal defocus settings and expected improvement are presented as a function of Breaux ND. Also, the generally negative interaction between turbulence and thermal blooming is investigated and shown to further limit performance potential of ATG laser weapons. This negative interaction can impact the weapon design trade space and operational methods for minimizing the interaction and thermal blooming are explored in a case study.

  12. Laser and chemical surface modifications of titanium grade 2 for medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwa?niak, P.; Pura, J.; Zwoli?ska, M.; Wieci?ski, P.; Skar?y?ski, H.; Olszewski, L.; Marczak, J.; Garbacz, H.; Kurzyd?owski, K. J.

    2015-05-01

    The article presents combined, chemical and physical approach to titanium surface functionalization designed for biomedical applications. The topography modification has been obtained by employing the double laser beam interference technique and chemical etching. In the outcome, clean and smooth Ti surface as well as periodic striated topography with the roughness range from nano- to micrometers were created. The obtained structures were characterized in terms of shape, roughness, chemical composition, mechanical properties and microstructures. In order to achieve all information, numerous of research methods have been used: scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical profilometry and microhardness measurements. Demonstrated methodology can be used as an effective tool for manufacturing controlled surface structures improving the bone-implants interactions.

  13. Estimation of risks by chemicals produced during laser pyrolysis of tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Lothar W.; Spleiss, Martin

    1995-01-01

    Use of laser systems in minimal invasive surgery results in formation of laser aerosol with volatile organic compounds of possible health risk. By use of currently identified chemical substances an overview on possibly associated risks to human health is given. The class of the different identified alkylnitriles seem to be a laser specific toxicological problem. Other groups of chemicals belong to the Maillard reaction type, the fatty acid pyrolysis type, or even the thermally activated chemolysis. In relation to the available different threshold limit values the possible exposure ranges of identified substances are discussed. A rough estimation results in an exposure range of less than 1/100 for almost all substances with given human threshold limit values without regard of possible interactions. For most identified alkylnitriles, alkenes, and heterocycles no threshold limit values are given for lack of, until now, practical purposes. Pyrolysis of anaesthetized organs with isoflurane gave no hints for additional pyrolysis products by fragment interactions with resulting VOCs. Measurements of pyrolysis gases resulted in detection of small amounts of NO additionally with NO2 formation at plasma status.

  14. Sub-millisecond post exposure bake of chemically amplified resists by CO2 laser heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Byungki; Sha, Jing; Paredes, Florencia; Ober, Christopher K.; Thompson, Michael O.; Chandhok, Manish; Younkin, Todd R.

    2010-04-01

    Chemically amplified photoresists require a post exposure bake (PEB), typically on a hot plate at 90-150C for 30-120 seconds, to catalytically deprotect the polymer backbone. During PEB, excessive diffusion of the photo-generated acid results in loss of line edge definition, blurring of latent images and changes in the line edge roughness. Both acid diffusion and deprotection are thermally activated processes, with the relative rates affected by the time/temperature profile of the PEB. In this work, we introduce an alternate PEB method involving 500 ?s time scale heating over a temperature range of 130C to 450C using a continuous wave CO2 laser. A methodology is developed for characterizing this laser PEB and comparing the behavior with conventional hot plate PEB. The thermal stability of several polymer and photoacid generator (PAG) resist systems were studied and shown to be stable at these high temperatures due to the short heating duration. Sensitivity of resists under hot plate and laser PEB were measured. Under moderate temperatures, the laser PEB sensitivity can exceed that of hot plate PEB by an order of magnitude. Quantitative determination of the acid diffusion was obtained using resist bilayers (PAG loaded / PAG free). Despite the five orders of magnitude difference in PEB time, systems with l-PEB and hot-plate PEB exhibit comparable imaging quality under deep ultraviolet exposure.

  15. Chemical reactions of excited nitrogen atoms for short wavelength chemical lasers. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-15

    Accomplishments of this program include the following: (1) Scalable, chemical generation of oxygen atoms by reaction of fluorine atoms and water vapor. (2) Production of nitrogen atom densities of 1 {times} 10{sup 1}5 cm{sup {minus}3} with 5% electrical efficiency by injecting trace amounts of fluorine into microwave discharged nitrogen. (3) Production of cyanide radicals by reaction of high densities of N atoms with cyanogen. (4) Production of carbon atoms by reaction of nitrogen atoms with cyanogen or with fluorine atoms and hydrogen cyanide. (5) Confirmation that the reaction of carbon atoms and carbonyl sulfide produces CS(a{sup 3} {Pi}{sub r}), as predicted by conservation of electron spin and orbital angular momenta and as proposed by others under another SWCL program. (6) Production of cyanide radicals by injection of cyanogen halides into active nitrogen and use as spectroscopic calibration source. (7) Demonstration that sodium atoms react with cyanogen chloride, bromide and iodide and with cyanuric trifluoride to produce cyanide radicals. (8) Demonstration of the potential utility of the fluorine atom plus ammonia reaction system in the production of NF(b{sup l}{Sigma}{sup +}) via N({sup 2}D) + F{sub 2}.

  16. IR and UV laser-induced chemical vapor deposition: Chemical mechanism for a-Si:H and Cr (O,C) film formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Peter

    The characteristic features of laser-induced chemical vapor deposition in the parallel and perpendicular laser beam/surface configurations are discussed. Low temperature chemical processing with directed and spatially localized energy deposition in the system is investigated. Results obtained for the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films in the parallel configuration employing CO 2 and KrFlasers and SiH 4 and Si 2H 6 as precursors are presented. As a second example, the growth of oxygen- and carbon-containing chromium films Cr(O,C) from chromium hexacarbonyl as the precursor using cw and pulse uv lasers is discussed. The chemical pathways leasing to film formation are investigated in detail.

  17. Latest developments toward the demonstration of a KW-class EOIL laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Alan E.

    2008-05-01

    The electric oxygen iodine laser (EOIL) offers a vastly more practical, implementable, and safer alternative to its predecessor, the chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL), particularly for airborne or other mobile military applications. Despite its promise and after 25 years effort, numerous laboratories around the world have not succeeded in providing the known basic physical requirements needed to electrically convert O2 into O2(a1Δ) with the fractional yields and efficiencies needed to make a practical laser. Hence, as of this date, the world record power generated from an EOIL device is only 6.5 watts. In this paper, a 30% conversion from O2 into O2(a1Δ) operating at substantial oxygen mass flow rates (0.090 moles O2/sec at 50 torr) and 40% electrical efficiency is reported. The O2(a1Δ) flow stream being produced carries 2400 watts. Gain measurements are currently in progress, to be followed shortly by power extraction. Current conditions imply that initial power extraction could push beyond 1 KW. Efforts to date have failed to generate substantial laser power because critical criteria have not been met. In order to achieve good O2(a1Δ) fractional yield, it is normally mandatory to impart on the order of 100 KJ/mole O2 while efficiently removing the waste heat energy from the generator so that less than a few hundred degrees Kelvin rise occurs due to gas heating. The generator must be excited by an electric field on the order of 10 Td. This is far below glow potential; hence, a fully externally sustained plasma generation technique is required. Ionization is supplied by means of applying short (tens of nanosecond) pulses to the O2(a1Δ) generator at 50,000 PPS, which are on the order of ten times breakdown potential. This enables a quasi-steady adjustable DC current to flow through the generator, being conducted by application of a DC, 10 to 14 Td pump E-field. This field is independently tunable. The result is that up to 180 KJ/mole O2 gets imparted to the gas by means of the 6 KW sub-breakdown pump field, while another 2700 watts is applied to the controlled avalanche field. The generator consists of 24 each, 1 cm diameter tubes that are submerged in rapidly circulating cold fluorinert. Heat is efficiently removed so that that the gas temperature, initially 273°K, raises only by 125°K, as evidenced by spectrographic analysis of the fine structure of O2(b1Σ) at lower pressure. Since all necessary conditions have been met, a 30% conversion rate of O2 to O2(a1Δ) has been achieved. Fortuitously, neither excited O atom production nor O2(b1Σ) production is visible in the spectra of the higher pressure, best yield runs. Essentially all other spectral lines are dwarfed in comparison the O2(a1Δ) line. Energy normally partitioned to O2(b1Σ) and apparently O atoms now feeds into O2(a1Δ) directly, enabling electrical efficiency to exceed 40%. As a continuation of this work, an I2 disassociating mixing section - then subsequently a 20 cm transverse M = 2.5 laser channel - has been coupled to the O2(a1Δ) generator. The effects of titrating NO, NO2, etc. to scavenge O atoms and O3 atoms is under current investigation. Laser power extraction will commence after having optimized all parameters to achieve maximum gain. Power extraction has been delayed due to substantial mechanical equipment failure; however, the apparatus has now been fully restored. Also, several modes of potential discharge instabilities peculiar to high O2(a1Δ) concentrations have been discovered. These phenomenon and their means of prevention will be discussed.

  18. `Laser chemistry' synthesis, physicochemical properties, and chemical processing of nanostructured carbon foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seral-Ascaso, Andrs; Garriga, Rosa; Sanjun, Mara Luisa; Razal, Joselito M.; Lahoz, Ruth; Laguna, Mariano; de la Fuente, Germn F.; Muoz, Edgar

    2013-05-01

    Laser ablation of selected coordination complexes can lead to the production of metal-carbon hybrid materials, whose composition and structure can be tailored by suitably choosing the chemical composition of the irradiated targets. This `laser chemistry' approach, initially applied by our group to the synthesis of P-containing nanostructured carbon foams (NCFs) from triphenylphosphine-based Au and Cu compounds, is broadened in this study to the production of other metal-NCFs and P-free NCFs. Thus, our results show that P-free coordination compounds and commercial organic precursors can act as efficient carbon source for the growth of NCFs. Physicochemical characterization reveals that NCFs are low-density mesoporous materials with relatively low specific surface areas and thermally stable in air up to around 600C. Moreover, NCFs disperse well in a variety of solvents and can be successfully chemically processed to enable their handling and provide NCF-containing biocomposite fibers by a wet-chemical spinning process. These promising results may open new and interesting avenues toward the use of NCFs for technological applications.

  19. Laser chemistry’ synthesis, physicochemical properties, and chemical processing of nanostructured carbon foams

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Laser ablation of selected coordination complexes can lead to the production of metal-carbon hybrid materials, whose composition and structure can be tailored by suitably choosing the chemical composition of the irradiated targets. This ‘laser chemistry’ approach, initially applied by our group to the synthesis of P-containing nanostructured carbon foams (NCFs) from triphenylphosphine-based Au and Cu compounds, is broadened in this study to the production of other metal-NCFs and P-free NCFs. Thus, our results show that P-free coordination compounds and commercial organic precursors can act as efficient carbon source for the growth of NCFs. Physicochemical characterization reveals that NCFs are low-density mesoporous materials with relatively low specific surface areas and thermally stable in air up to around 600°C. Moreover, NCFs disperse well in a variety of solvents and can be successfully chemically processed to enable their handling and provide NCF-containing biocomposite fibers by a wet-chemical spinning process. These promising results may open new and interesting avenues toward the use of NCFs for technological applications. PMID:23679938

  20. Chemical and explosive detections using photo-acoustic effect and quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choa, Fow-Sen

    2013-12-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) effect is a sensitive spectroscopic technique for chemical sensing. In recent years, with the development of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), significant progress has been achieved for PA sensing applications. Using high-power, tunable mid-IR QCLs as laser sources, PA chemical sensor systems have demonstrated parts-pertrillion- level detection sensitivity. Many of these high sensitivity measurements were demonstrated locally in PA cells. Recently, we have demonstrated standoff PA detection of isopropanol vapor for more than 41 feet distance using a quantum cascade laser and a microphone with acoustic reflectors. We also further demonstrated solid phase TNT detections at a standoff distance of 8 feet. To further calibrate the detection sensitivity, we use nerve gas simulants that were generated and calibrated by a commercial vapor generator. Standoff detection of gas samples with calibrated concentration of 2.3 ppm was achieved at a detection distance of more than 2 feet. An extended detection distance up to 14 feet was observed for a higher gas concentration of 13.9 ppm. For field operations, array of microphones and microphone-reflector pairs can be utilized to achieve noise rejection and signal enhancement. We have experimentally demonstrated that the signal and noise spectra of the 4 microphone/4 reflector system with a combined SNR of 12.48 dB. For the 16-microphone and one reflector case, an SNR of 17.82 was achieved. These successful chemical sensing demonstrations will likely create new demands for widely tunable QCLs with ultralow threshold (for local fire-alarm size detection systems) and high-power (for standoff detection systems) performances.

  1. Hybrid chemical etching of femtosecond laser irradiated structures for engineered microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoTurco, S.; Osellame, R.; Ramponi, R.; Vishnubhatla, K. C.

    2013-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of 3D buried micro-structures in fused silica glass using the selective chemical etching along femtosecond laser irradiated zones. Specifically, we have exploited a novel approach combining two different etching agents in successive steps. The widely used hydrofluoric acid solution, which provides fast volume removal, and potassium hydroxide solution, which exhibits high selectivity, are used to fabricate microfluidic structures. We demonstrate that this hybrid approach takes advantage of both of the individual etchants special characteristics and facilitates prototyping and fabrication of complex geometries for microfluidic devices.

  2. Initiation with an electron beam of chemical reactions of interest for visible wavelength lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittier, J. S.; Cool, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the first results obtained with a new shock tube-electron beam facility designed to provide a versatile means for the systematic search for laser operation among several candidate metal atom-oxidizer systems. According to the current experimental approach, metal atoms are obtained in the vapor phase by the dissociation of metal compounds. A shock tube is employed to provide a short duration flow through an array of 29 supersonic flow-mixing nozzles. A high energy electron accelerator is used for the rapid initiation of chemical reaction in a mixed flow of encapsulated metal and oxidizer.

  3. Fabrication of microstructures in Foturan glass using infrared femtosecond laser pulses and chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C. W.; Chen, J. S.; Lee, P. X.; Chien, C. W.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a method for the fabrication of microstructures on the surface and inside Foturan glass by femtosecond laser-induced modification was developed. This technique was followed by heat treatment to crystallize the modified area, and the specimen was then placed in an 8% HF acid solution for chemical etching. The fabricated microstructures were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that the etching time is an important parameter in the fabrication of microstructures on Foturan glass. An example of a tapered U-shaped microchannel with a minimized neck diameter of about 5 ?m at the central point for cell detection is presented.

  4. Schottky diodes and ohmic contacts formed by thermally assisted photolytic laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braichotte, D.; van den Bergh, H.

    Thermally assisted photolytic laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of platinum on n-doped gallium arsenide, a two-phase hybrid scheme for the production of Schottky diodes, is discussed. The low temperature photolytic deposits of the initial slow phase contain a nonnegligible fraction of organic ligand material and tend to be amorphous. In the second phase, light absorption of the photolytically deposited metal causes a temperature rise which facilitates the removal of ligand material from the deposit, and which is sufficient for fast pyrolytic LCVD. Measurements of the influence of light intensity, in addition to metalorganic and inert gas pressure, on the deposition rates in both phases are obtained.

  5. A miniature laser ablation mass spectrometer for in situ chemical composition investigation of lunar surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuland, M. B.; Mezger, K.; Riedo, A.; Tulej, M.; Wurz, P.

    2015-10-01

    A miniature laser ablation mass spectrometer (LMS) is presented. The LMS is designed as a flight instrument for planetary and space research and optimised for in situ measurements of the chemical composition of rocks and soils on a planetary surface. By means of measure-ments standard reference materials of soil and a sample of the Allende meteorite we demonstrate that LMS is a suitable instrument for in situ measurements of elemental and isotopic composition with high precision and accuracy. Furthermore, it is shown that LMS data allows deriving of the material mineralogy and petrology with high spatial resolution, lateral and vertical, and the application of in situ age dating methods.

  6. A 2D CFD comparison of straight versus contoured wall HF chemical laser nozzle designs

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.E.; Smith, W. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison of the flowfields produced by Two Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (2D CFD) analysis of the current Hypersonic Low Temperature (HYLTE) HF chemical laser straight wall design with that of an optimized contour design. The 2D CFD model used for the comparison is the PARCH/LF code that solves the full Navier Stokes equations, including detailed finite-rate chemical kinetics, using state-of-art implicit procedures based in block-matrix inversion within a time-asymptotic framework to arrive at the steady state solution. Results from the analysis are presented as comparisons of selected line plots and color filled contour plats for the temperature, velocity, specie concentrations and other flow properties in the nozzle base/cavity region. 3 refs.

  7. InGaAsP-InP planar-stripe lasers fabricated by wet chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, S.; Kawaguchi, H.

    1981-05-01

    It is pointed out that the 1.4-1.7 micrometers spectral region is currently of great interest because of the recent development of low-loss optical fibers for this region. InGaAsP-InP double-heterostructure (DH) lasers emitting in the 1.4-1.7 micrometers wavelength range become therefore prospective light sources for an optical fiber communication system. An investigation is reported concerning the monolithic fabrication of planar-stripe InGaAsP-InP DH lasers by wet chemical etching. The InGaAsP-InP wafers used in the experiments were grown in a specially designed carbon boat by low-temperature liquid phase epitaxy. The four-layer double heterostructure, nI-InP, InGaAsP, p-InP and n-InGaAsP was grown on a (001) n-InP substrate. To prepare the planar-stripe laser, a SiO2 film was sputtered onto the n-InGaAsP cap layer and 10-micrometers wide stripe windows were opened by standard photolithography techniques. A 0.3 vol. % Br2 in methanol solution was used in the experiments.

  8. Laser chemical vapor deposition of millimeter scale three-dimensional shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaarawi, Mohammed Saad

    2001-07-01

    Laser chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) has been successfully developed as a technique to synthesize millimeter-scale components directly from the gas phase. Material deposition occurs when heat generated by the interaction of a laser beam with a substrate thermally decomposes the gas precursor. Selective illumination or scanning the laser beam over portions of a substrate forms the single thin layer of material that is the building block of this process. Sequential scanning of the laser in a pre-defined pattern on the substrate and subsequent deposit causes the layers to accumulate forming the three-dimensional shape. The primary challenge encountered in LCVD shape forming is the synthesis of uniform layers. Three deposition techniques are studied to address this problem. The most successful technique, Active Surface Deposition, is based on the premise that the most uniform deposits are created by measuring the deposition surface topology and actively varying the deposition rate in response to features at the deposition surface. Defects observed in the other techniques were significantly reduced or completely eliminated using Active Surface Deposition. The second technique, Constant Temperature Deposition, maintains deposit uniformity through the use of closed-loop modulation of the laser power to sustain a constant surface temperature during deposition. The technique was successful in depositing high quality graphite tubes >2 mm tall from an acetylene precursor and partially successful in depositing SiC + C composite tubes from tetramethylsilane (TMS). The final technique, Constant Power Deposition, is based on the premise that maintaining a uniform power output throughout deposition would result in the formation of uniform layers. Constant Power Deposition failed to form coherent shapes. Additionally, LCVD is studied using a combination of analytic and numerical models to gain insight into the deposition process. Thermodynamic modeling is used to predict the phase content for the various deposition conditions observed during deposition. Rod deposition from TMS is examined in terms of a numerical model that incorporates transport phenomena and chemical reactions to simulate steady state deposition. Predictions about deposition rates, phase content and morphological features made by the models compared favorably with experimental results.

  9. Chemical models for simulating single-walled nanotube production in arc vaporization and laser ablation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical kinetic models for the nucleation and growth of clusters and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) growth are developed for numerical simulations of the production of SWNTs. Two models that involve evaporation and condensation of carbon and metal catalysts, a full model involving all carbon clusters up to C80, and a reduced model are discussed. The full model is based on a fullerene model, but nickel and carbon/nickel cluster reactions are added to form SWNTs from soot and fullerenes. The full model has a large number of species--so large that to incorporate them into a flow field computation for simulating laser ablation and arc processes requires that they be simplified. The model is reduced by defining large clusters that represent many various sized clusters. Comparisons are given between these models for cases that may be applicable to arc and laser ablation production. Solutions to the system of chemical rate equations of these models for a ramped temperature profile show that production of various species, including SWNTs, agree to within about 50% for a fast ramp, and within 10% for a slower temperature decay time.

  10. Comparison of laser-ablation and hot-wall chemical vapour deposition techniques for nanowire fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, E.; Cheng, G.; Guthrie, S.; Turner-Evans, D.; Broomfield, E.; Lei, B.; Li, C.; Zhang, D.; Zhou, C.; Reed, M. A.

    2006-06-01

    A comparison of the transport properties of populations of single-crystal, In2O3 nanowires (NWs) grown by unassisted hot-wall chemical vapour deposition (CVD) versus NWs grown by laser-ablation-assisted chemical vapour deposition (LA-CVD) is presented. For nominally identical growth conditions across the two systems, NWs fabricated at 850 °C with laser-ablation had significantly higher average mobilities at the 99.9% confidence level, 53.3 ± 5.8 cm2 V-1 s-1 versus 10.2 ± 1.9 cm2 V-1 s-1. It is also observed that increasing growth temperature decreases mobility for LA-CVD NWs. Transmission electron microscopy studies of CVD-fabricated samples indicate the presence of an amorphous In2O3 region surrounding the single-crystal core. Further, low-temperature measurements verify the presence of ionized impurity scattering in low-mobility CVD-grown NWs.

  11. Bioactive Ti metal analogous to human cancellous bone: Fabrication by selective laser melting and chemical treatments.

    PubMed

    Pattanayak, Deepak K; Fukuda, A; Matsushita, T; Takemoto, M; Fujibayashi, S; Sasaki, K; Nishida, N; Nakamura, T; Kokubo, T

    2011-03-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is a useful technique for preparing three-dimensional porous bodies with complicated internal structures directly from titanium (Ti) powders without any intermediate processing steps, with the products being expected to be useful as a bone substitute. In this study the necessary SLM processing conditions to obtain a dense product, such as the laser power, scanning speed, and hatching pattern, were investigated using a Ti powder of less than 45 ?m particle size. The results show that a fully dense plate thinner than 1.8 mm was obtained when the laser power to scanning speed ratio was greater than 0.5 and the hatch spacing was less than the laser diameter, with a 30 ?m thick powder layer. Porous Ti metals with structures analogous to human cancellous bone were fabricated and the compressive strength measured. The compressive strength was in the range 35-120 MPa when the porosity was in the range 75-55%. Porous Ti metals fabricated by SLM were heat-treated at 1300 C for 1h in an argon gas atmosphere to smooth the surface. Such prepared specimens were subjected to NaOH, HCl, and heat treatment to provide bioactivity. Field emission scanning electron micrographs showed that fine networks of titanium oxide were formed over the whole surface of the porous body. These treated porous bodies formed bone-like apatite on their surfaces in a simulated body fluid within 3 days. In vivo studies showed that new bone penetrated into the pores and directly bonded to the walls within 12 weeks after implantation into the femur of Japanese white rabbits. The percentage bone affinity indices of the chemical- and heat-treated porous bodies were significantly higher than that of untreated implants. PMID:20883832

  12. Direct spatiotemporal analysis of femtosecond laser-induced plasma-mediated chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straw, Marcus; Randolph, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Localized, micron to millimetre-scale plasmas resulting from the fleeting interaction between ultrashort laser pulses and matter have been studied extensively in inert atmospheres. In spite of recent interest in reactive plasmas as a nanofabrication tool, ultrashort pulsed laser ablation in reactive gas atmospheres has undergone little study. In this study, we develop a methodology combining time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy and spectrally filtered time-gated fast photography to directly observe and analyse plasma-mediated chemical reactions that occur when laser ablation is performed in reactive gases. Specifically, we compare the ablation of silicon dioxide in an atmosphere of xenon difluoride gas to its ablation in nitrogen and xenon atmospheres. We show that when xenon difluoride molecules are collisionally driven into an excited state by the silicon plasma produced during laser-induced decomposition of the solid substrate, the gas undergoes dissociation. The resulting fluorine radicals react spontaneously with the silicon plasma to produce volatile fluorinated silicon compounds. In particular, mass spectroscopy shows that the primary reaction byproduct is SiF2 with small amounts of SiF and SiF4. The high spatial and temporal resolution of our methodology reveals a slowly expanding plume having an atomic silicon core with a XeF? shell that persists for less than 300 ns. As the silicon is fluorinated, the optical emission due to excited silicon is quenched. The absence of a silicon signal after 300 ns establishes this as the upper limit of the reaction lifetime given the conditions of the experiment.

  13. In Situ Chemical Composition Measurements of Planetary Surfaces with a Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Riedo, Andreas; Meyer, Stefan; Mezger, Klaus; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The knowledge of the chemical composition of moons, comets, asteroids or other planetary bodies is of particular importance for the investigation of the origin and evolution of the Solar System. For cosmochemistry, the elemental and isotopic composition of the surface material is essential information to investigate origin, differentiation and evolution processes of the body and therefore the history of our Solar System [1]. We show that the use of laser-based mass spectrometers is essential in such research because of their high sensitivity in the ppm range and their capability for quantitative elemental and isotopic analysis. A miniaturised Laser Ablation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (LMS) was developed in our group to study the elemental composition of solid samples [2]. The instrument's small size and light weight make it suitable for an application on a space mission to determine the elemental composition of a planetary surface for example [3]. Meteorites offer the excellent possibility to study extraterrestrial material in the laboratory. To demonstrate the sensitivity and functionality of the LMS instrument, a sample of the Allende meteorite has been investigated with a high spatial resolution. The LMS measurements allowed investigations of the elemental abundances in the Allende meteorite and detailed studies of the mineralogy and volatility [4]. These approaches can be of considerable interest for in situ investigation of grains and inhomogeneous materials with high sensitivity on a planetary surface. [1] Wurz, P., Whitby, J., Managadze, G., 2009, Laser Mass Spectrometry in Planetary Science, AIP Conf. Proc. CP1144, 70-75. [2] Tulej, M., Riedo, A., Iakovleva, M., Wurz, P., 2012, Int. J. Spec., On Applicability of a Miniaturized Laser Ablation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer for Trace Element Measurements, article ID 234949. [3] Riedo, A., Bieler, A., Neuland, M., Tulej, M., Wurz, P., 2012, Performance evaluation of a miniature laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer designed for in-situ investigations in planetary space research, J. Mass Spectrom., in press. [4] Neuland, M.B., Meyer, S., Mezger, K., Riedo, A., Tulej, M., Wurz, P., Probing the Allende meteorite with a miniature Laser-Ablation Mass Analyser for space application, Planetary and Space Science, Special Issue: Terrestrial Planets II, submitted

  14. Chemical-Assisted Femtosecond Laser Writing of Lab-in-Fiber Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Moez

    Three-dimensional (3D) patterning inside optical fiber was shown to be a powerful tool for embedding refractive index and microfluidic structures inside the flexible glass fiber for enabling novel sensing opportunities with lab-in-fibers (LIFs). A femtosecond laser was tightly focused into optical fibers using an oil-immersion lens to eliminate extreme optical aberrations from the cladding-air interface. The laser interactions were then optimized to bring ˜12 nm rms surfaces for the first time inside the fiber cladding by precisely conforming planar nanograting structures when assembled by the writing laser. Further, the unprecedented integration of cladding waveguides, X-couplers, fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), microholes, mirrors, optofluidic resonators, and microfluidic reservoirs defined the building blocks for facile interconnection of inline core-waveguide devices with fiber cladding optofluidics. Laser templating was restricted to the single mode fiber (SMF) cladding or formed inside all-fused silica coreless optical fibers to meet with buried laser-formed waveguides that were fused to SMFs for novel seamless inline probing while avoiding undesired concave surface profiles and negative lensing losses associated with writing optofluidic templates across the germanium-doped SMF core waveguide. With these components, more advanced, integrated, and multiplexed fiber microsystems were demonstrated for fluorescence detection, Fabry Perot interferometer (FPI) refractometry, and simultaneous sensing of refractive index, temperature, and bending strain. Tapered access ports were found to minimize fiber mechanical weakening and thereby avoid fiber breakage during optofluidic sensing. Optical resonator arrays (ORAs) were then explored to deepen fringe contrasts beyond that available with a single FPI for opening new prospects for fiber inline pass-band optical filters and broadband reflectors. Finally, wavefront splitting interferometers (WSIs) were targeted to improve fringe contrast and peak resolution beyond that available with FPIs and offer a significant theoretical improvement in refractometer sensitivity. The advanced laser processes optimized here may provide a new base for photonics, microfluidics, and optofluidics fabrication in a LIF platform with multiplexed functionality and rapid prototyping capabilities of fully integrable 3D optofluidic systems. The proposed LIF devices define new micro-systems for temperature, strain, pressure, refractive index, and bend strain sensing that may find application in the acoustic, aerospace, automotive, biological, chemical, civil, or medical fields.

  15. An infrared free-electron laser for the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory. Design report

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, D.

    1992-04-01

    This document describes a free-electron laser (FEL) proposed as part of the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL), a user facility that also incorporates several advanced lasers of conventional design and two beamlines for the ALS. The FEL itself addresses the needs of the chemical sciences community for a high-brightness, tunable source covering a broad region of the infrared spectrum -- from 3 to 50 {mu}m. All of these sources, together with a variety of sophisticated experimental stations, will be housed in a new building to be located adjacent to the ALS. The radiation sources can be synchronized to permit powerful two-color, pump-probe experiments that will further our fundamental understanding of chemical dynamics at the molecular level, especially those aspects relevant to practical issues in combustion chemistry. The technical approach adopted in this design makes use of superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) accelerating structures. The primary motivation for adopting this approach was to meet the user requirement for wavelength stability equal to one part in 10{sup 4}. Previous studies concluded that a wavelength stability of only one part in 10{sup 3} could be achieved with currently available room-temperature technology. In addition, the superconducting design operates in a continuous-wave (cw) mode and hence offers considerably higher average optical output power. It also allows for various pulse-gating configurations that will permit simultaneous multiuser operations. A summary of the comparative performance attainable with room-temperature and superconducting designs is given. The FEL described in this report provides a continuous train of 30-ps micropulses, with 100{mu}J of optical energy per micropulse, at a repetition rate of 6.1 MHz. The device can also deliver pulses at a cw repetition rate of 12.2 MHz, with a peak power of 50 {mu}J per micropulse. 70 ref.

  16. An infrared free-electron laser for the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, D.

    1992-04-01

    This document describes a free-electron laser (FEL) proposed as part of the Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL), a user facility that also incorporates several advanced lasers of conventional design and two beamlines for the ALS. The FEL itself addresses the needs of the chemical sciences community for a high-brightness, tunable source covering a broad region of the infrared spectrum -- from 3 to 50 {mu}m. All of these sources, together with a variety of sophisticated experimental stations, will be housed in a new building to be located adjacent to the ALS. The radiation sources can be synchronized to permit powerful two-color, pump-probe experiments that will further our fundamental understanding of chemical dynamics at the molecular level, especially those aspects relevant to practical issues in combustion chemistry. The technical approach adopted in this design makes use of superconducting radiofrequency (SCRF) accelerating structures. The primary motivation for adopting this approach was to meet the user requirement for wavelength stability equal to one part in 10{sup 4}. Previous studies concluded that a wavelength stability of only one part in 10{sup 3} could be achieved with currently available room-temperature technology. In addition, the superconducting design operates in a continuous-wave (cw) mode and hence offers considerably higher average optical output power. It also allows for various pulse-gating configurations that will permit simultaneous multiuser operations. A summary of the comparative performance attainable with room-temperature and superconducting designs is given. The FEL described in this report provides a continuous train of 30-ps micropulses, with 100{mu}J of optical energy per micropulse, at a repetition rate of 6.1 MHz. The device can also deliver pulses at a cw repetition rate of 12.2 MHz, with a peak power of 50 {mu}J per micropulse. 70 ref.

  17. Static diode pumped alkali lasers: Model calculations of the effects of heating, ionization, high electronic excitation and chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmashenko, B. D.; Rosenwaks, S.; Heaven, M. C.

    2013-04-01

    The effects of heating, ionization, high electronic excitation and chemical reactions on the operation of diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) with a static, non-flowing gain medium are calculated using a semi-analytical model. Unlike other models, assuming a three-level scheme of the laser and neglecting influence of the temperature on the lasing power, it takes into account the temperature rise and losses of neutral alkali atoms due to ionization and chemical reactions, resulting in decrease of the pump absorption and slope efficiency. Good agreement with measurements in a static DPAL [B.V. Zhdanov, J. Sell, R.J. Knize, Electron. Lett. 44 (2008) 582] is obtained. It is found that the ionization processes have a small effect on the laser operation, whereas the chemical reactions of alkali atoms with hydrocarbons strongly affect the lasing power.

  18. Morphology and chemical composition analysis on multi-pulsed CO2 laser ablation of HgCdTe crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei; Guo, Jin; Shao, Jun-feng; Wang, Ting-feng

    2013-09-01

    In order to study deeply damage mechanism of HgCdTe crystal irradiated by multi-pulsed CO2 laser and obtain the characteristics of surface morphological and chemical composition changes. Firstly, Irradiation effect experiment is conducted on the Hg0.826Cd0.174Te crystal by pulsed CO2 laser, which has a pulse width of 200ns and repetition frequency ranges from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. Then morphological and chemical composition changes of Hg0.826Cd0.174Te crystal is measured by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and damage threshold is obtained by morphology method. Finally, the impact of laser power density on morphological and chemical composition changes is analyzed. The research results show that: damage threshold of Hg0.826Cd0.174Te crystal which is irradiated by multi-pulsed CO2 laser is 950 W/cm2. The crystal surface melting phenomenon is very obvious, the obvious crack which is caused by thermal stress is not found in the surface, and a large number of bulges and pits are taken shape in the laser ablation zone. Chemical composition changes of the crystal are obvious, and a lot of O element is found in the laser ablation zone. With the increase of laser irradiation power, the content of Hg element decrease rapidly, the content of Cd, Te and O element raise by degrees, and chemical composition changes of the crystal are more and more obvious. When the irradiation power density is 1.8kW/cm2, the surface becomes smooth in the ablation zone due to the impact of laser impulse force, and the content of the chemical compositions is that Hg accounts for 0.23%, Cd accounts for 21.38%, Te accounts for 26.27%, and O accounts for 52.12%. The conclusions of the study have a reference value for the Hg0.826Cd0.174Tecrystal in the application of making infrared detector and pulsed CO2 laser in the aspect of laser processing.

  19. High rate, large area laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition of nickel from nickel carbonyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paserin, Vlad

    High-power diode lasers (HPDL) are being increasingly used in industrial applications. Deposition of nickel from nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4 ) precursor by laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was studied with emphasis on achieving high deposition rates. An HPDL system was used to provide a novel energy source facilitating a simple and compact design of the energy delivery system. Nickel deposits on complex, 3-dimensional polyurethane foam substrates were prepared and characterized. The resulting "nickel foam" represents a novel material of high porosity (>95% by volume) finding uses, among others, in the production of rechargeable battery and fuel cell electrodes and as a specialty high-temperature filtration medium. Deposition rates up to ˜19 mum/min were achieved by optimizing the gas precursor flow pattern and energy delivery to the substrate surface using a 480W diode laser. Factors affecting the transition from purely heterogeneous decomposition to a combined hetero- and homogeneous decomposition of nickel carbonyl were studied. High quality, uniform 3-D deposits produced at a rate more than ten times higher than in commercial processes were obtained by careful balance of mass transport (gas flow) and energy delivery (laser power). Cross-flow of the gases through the porous substrate was found to be essential in facilitating mass transport and for obtaining uniform deposits at high rates. When controlling the process in a transient regime (near the onset of homogenous decomposition), unique morphology features formed as part of the deposits, including textured surface with pyramid-shape crystallites, spherical and non-spherical particles and filaments. Operating the laser in a pulsed mode produced smooth, nano-crystalline deposits with sub-100 nm grains. The effect of H2S, a commonly used additive in nickel carbonyl CVD, was studied using both polyurethane and nickel foam substrates. H2S was shown to improve the substrate coverage and deposit uniformity in tests with polyurethane substrate, however, it was found to have no effect in improving the overall deposition rate compared to H2S-free deposition process. Deposition on other selected substrates, such as ultra-fine polymer foam, carbon nanofoam and multi-wall carbon nanotubes, was demonstrated. The HPDL system shows good promise for large-scale industrial application as the cost of HPDL energy continues to decrease.

  20. Effect of sample compositions on chemical analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Schriemer, D.; Dai, Y.; Li, L.

    1996-12-31

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is an effective ionization technique for mass spectrometry. It takes advantages of some unique properties of certain organic chemicals to provide entrapment, isolation, vaporization, and ionization of the analyte of interest. While the main application of the MALDI technique is currently in the area of biological molecule analysis, it is possible to use this technique for monitoring polymer chemistry such as degradation processes. This is potentially important for studying and developing environmentally degradable polymers. Direct analysis of the analyte in real-world samples is possible with MALDI. However, there is a significant effect of the overall composition of a sample on the detectability and performance of MALDI. Two examples are given to illustrate the positive and negative effects of buffers, salts, and additives on the MALDI sample preparation.

  1. Ar+ and CuBr laser-assisted chemical bleaching of teeth: estimation of whiteness degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, S.; Todorovska, Roumyana; Gizbrecht, Alexander I.; Raychev, L.; Petrov, Lyubomir P.

    2003-11-01

    In this work the results of adaptation of impartial methods for color determination aimed at developing of techniques for estimation of human teeth whiteness degree, sufficiently handy for common use in clinical practice are presented. For approbation and by the way of illustration of the techniques, standards of teeth colors were used as well as model and naturally discolored human teeth treated by two bleaching chemical compositions activated by three light sources each: Ar+ and CuBr lasers, and a standard halogen photopolymerization lamp. Typical reflection and fluorescence spectra of some samples are presented; the samples colors were estimated by a standard computer processing in RGB and B coordinates. The results of the applied spectral and colorimetric techniques are in a good agreement with those of the standard computer processing of the corresponding digital photographs and complies with the visually estimated degree of the teeth whiteness judged according to the standard reference scale commonly used in the aesthetic dentistry.

  2. Colour and chemical changes of the lime wood surface due to CO2 laser thermal modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubovský, Ivan; Kačík, František

    2014-12-01

    We studied colour and main wood components changes of lime wood caused by CO2 laser beam irradiation. The dry surface of lime wood (Tilia vulgaris L.) was irradiated with the CO2 laser beam (wavelength of 10.6 μm) at different exposures (expressed as the irradiation dose). Colour changes were monitored by the spectrophotometer, chemical changes were observed by the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and carbohydrates were analysed by the HPLC method. With the growth of the irradiation dose (from 8.1 to 28.7 J cm-2) lightness (ΔL*) decrease and increase of the total colour difference (ΔE*) were observed. Higher values of the input energy lead to accelerating the mutual reaction of the functional groups resulting in the subsequent condensation of lignin. The total decrease in saccharides at the highest irradiation dose reaches 27.39% of the initial amount of saccharides in the reference sample. We have observed degradation and loss of hemicelluloses.

  3. Focused laser spike (FLaSk) annealing of photoactivated chemically amplified resists for rapid hierarchical patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Jonathan P.; Kooi, Steven E.; Thomas, Edwin L.

    2011-07-01

    Lithographic alternatives to conventional layer-by-layer processes for the design of 3D structures such as photonic or phononic crystals often present a dichotomy: patterning control versus patterning area. We demonstrate a combined technique of large area interference lithography and local area direct write focused laser spike (FLaSk) annealing that can enable the microscale patterning of hierarchical structures defined in their morphology by the interference and defined in placement and shape by the direct write. This is accomplished by doping a commercial chemically amplified photoresist (SU-8) with an absorbing dye to provide thermal activation at a wavelength shifted from that causing UV crosslinking. In this way, the necessary post-exposure bake to complete the crosslinking of the resist is locally performed by the FLaSk laser, rather than globally on a hot plate. By utilizing the same experimental setup as used by a 3D direct write system, it is possible to integrate another level of patterning by enabling fully dense, arbitrarily written features on multiple length scales. Both experimental and simulated results of this novel processing method are shown.

  4. Chemical, morphological and chromatic behavior of mural paintings under Er:YAG laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striova, J.; Camaiti, M.; Castellucci, E. M.; Sansonetti, A.

    2011-08-01

    Several pigments (malachite CuCO3?Cu(OH)2, azurite 2CuCO3?Cu(OH)2, yellow ochre (goethite ?-FeOOH, gypsum CaSO4?2H2O), St. John's white CaCO3 formed from slaked lime) and respective mural paintings specimens were subjected to the free-running Er:YAG laser radiation in order to study their damage thresholds, in a broad range of laser fluences, both in dry and wet conditions. The specimens' damage thresholds were evaluated by spectroscopic methods, colorimetric measurements and microscopic observation. The pigments containing -OH groups were found to be more sensitive than St. John's white; hence the most sensitive paint layers in dry conditions are those containing malachite, azurite (both 1.3 J/cm2) and yellow ochre (2.5 J/cm2) as compared to the ones containing St. John's white (15.2 J/cm2). The presence of wetting agents (w.a.) attenuated the pigments chemical alteration. The damage thresholds of all the paint layers, in presence of w.a., were found to be around 2.5 J/cm2. The alteration was caused by thermo-mechanical damage and by binding medium ablation of a fresco and a secco prepared specimens, respectively.

  5. Spherical silicon-shell photonic band gap structures fabricated by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Yang, Z. Y.; Lu, Y. F.

    2007-02-01

    Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition was applied in fabricating three-dimensional (3D) spherical-shell photonic band gap (PBG) structures by depositing silicon shells covering silica particles, which had been self-assembled into 3D colloidal crystals. The colloidal crystals of self-assembled silica particles were formed on silicon substrates using the isothermal heating evaporation approach. A continuous wave Nd:YAG laser (1064nm wavelength) was used to deposit silicon shells by thermally decomposing disilane gas. Periodic silicon-shell/silica-particle PBG structures were obtained. By removing the silica particles enclosed in the silicon shells using hydrofluoric acid, hollow spherical silicon-shell arrays were produced. This technique is capable of fabricating structures with complete photonic band gaps, which is predicted by simulations with the plane wave method. The techniques developed in this study have the potential to flexibly engineer the positions of the PBGs by varying both the silica particle size and the silicon-shell thickness. Ellipsometry was used to investigate the specific photonic band gaps for both structures.

  6. Effects of high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser micromachining on the physical and chemical properties of polylactide (PLA).

    PubMed

    Jia, Wei; Luo, Yiming; Yu, Jian; Liu, Bowen; Hu, Minglie; Chai, Lu; Wang, Chingyue

    2015-10-19

    The effects of femtosecond laser ablation, with 115 fs pulses at 1040 nm wavelength and 57 MHz repetition-rate, on the physical and chemical properties of polylactide (PLA) were studied in air and in water. The surface of the PLA sample ablated by high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser was analysed using field emission scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, raman spectroscopy, as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the experiments in the air at ambient temperature, melting resolidification was negligible for the experiments conducted under water. Neither in air nor under water did oxidation and crystallization process take place in the laser ablated surface. In addition, the intensity of some oxygen related peaks increased for water experiments, probably due to the hydrolysis. Meantime, the chemical shift to higher energies appeared in C1s XPS spectrum of laser processing in water. Interestingly, a large amount of defects were observed after laser processing in air, while no significant change was shown under water experiments. This indicates that thermal and mechanical effects by high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser ablation in water are quite limited, which could be even ignored. PMID:26480354

  7. Luminescence properties of SiO{sub x}N{sub y} irradiated by IR laser 808 nm: The role of Si quantum dots and Si chemical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggeri, Rosa; Neri, Fortunato; Sciuto, Antonella; Privitera, Vittorio; Spinella, Corrado; Mannino, Giovanni

    2012-01-23

    We investigated optical, structural, and chemical properties of SiO{sub x}N{sub y} layers irradiated by CW IR laser during a time lapse of few milliseconds. We observed tunable photoluminescence signal at room temperature in the range 750-950 nm, without Si/SiO{sub 2} phase separation, depending on the IR laser power irradiation. Furthermore, no photoluminescence signal was recorded when the IR laser power density was high enough to promote phase separation forming Si quantum dots. By chemical analysis the source of the luminescence signal has been identified in a change of silicon chemical environment induced by IR laser annealing inside the amorphous matrix.

  8. Luminescence properties of SiOxNy irradiated by IR laser 808 nm: The role of Si quantum dots and Si chemical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Rosa; Neri, Fortunato; Sciuto, Antonella; Privitera, Vittorio; Spinella, Corrado; Mannino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    We investigated optical, structural, and chemical properties of SiOxNy layers irradiated by CW IR laser during a time lapse of few milliseconds. We observed tunable photoluminescence signal at room temperature in the range 750-950 nm, without Si/SiO2 phase separation, depending on the IR laser power irradiation. Furthermore, no photoluminescence signal was recorded when the IR laser power density was high enough to promote phase separation forming Si quantum dots. By chemical analysis the source of the luminescence signal has been identified in a change of silicon chemical environment induced by IR laser annealing inside the amorphous matrix.

  9. Use of external cavity quantum cascade laser compliance voltage in real-time trace gas sensing of multiple chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Kriesel, Jason M.

    2015-02-08

    We describe a prototype trace gas sensor designed for real-time detection of multiple chemicals. The sensor uses an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) swept over its tuning range of 940-1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.7 µm) at a 10 Hz repetition rate.

  10. Synthesis of nanostructured carbon materials by open-air laser-induced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Kinghong

    Elemental carbon in the sp2 hybridization state can form a great variety of graphitic and amorphous structures. Carbon nanotube is a well-known form of graphitic carbon that has remarkable mechanical, electronic and electrochemical properties with applications ranging from reinforced composite materials to micro-scale electronic devices. Pyrolytic carbon film with turbostratic structure is a form of amorphous carbon that possesses excellent barrier properties against diffusion of moisture and hydrogen, and is used as hermetic coating for optical fibers operating under harsh environments. Current deposition techniques for these novel carbon materials are limited in production rate, quality and reproducibility, thereby restricting their usage for advanced applications. In this dissertation, an open-air laser-induced chemical vapor deposition technique is proposed and investigated for the rapid growth of high quality carbon nanotubes and nanometer thick pyrolytic carbon films. The first part of the thesis focuses on the open-air synthesis of carbon nanotubes on stationary and moving fused quartz substrates. The second part will study the deposition of pyrolytic carbon film on various optical components including optical fibers. Optical microscopy, high-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman and Auger electron spectroscopy, as well as x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry, scanning white-light interferometry and thermal pyrometry are used to investigate the deposition rate, morphology, microstructure and chemical composition of the deposited carbon materials.

  11. A modular architecture for multi-channel external cavity quantum cascade laser-based chemical sensors: a systems approach

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Stahl, Robert D.; Cannon, Bret D.; Schiffern, John T.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2012-04-01

    A multi-channel laser-based chemical sensor platform is presented, in which a modular architecture allows the exchange of complete sensor channels without disruption to overall operation. Each sensor channel contains custom optical and electronics packages, which can be selected to access laser wavelengths, interaction path lengths and modulation techniques optimal for a given application or mission. Although intended primarily to accommodate mid-infrared (MIR) external cavity quantum cascade lasers (ECQCLs)and astigmatic Herriott cells, channels using visible or near infrared (NIR) lasers or other gas cell architectures can also be used, making this a truly versatile platform. Analog and digital resources have been carefully chosen to facilitate small footprint, rapid spectral scanning, ow-noise signal recovery, failsafe autonomous operation, and in-situ chemometric data analysis, storage and transmission. Results from the demonstration of a two-channel version of this platform are also presented.

  12. Femtosecond laser pulses for chemical-free embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mthunzi, Patience; Dholakia, Kishan; Gunn-Moore, Frank

    2011-10-01

    Owing to their self renewal and pluripotency properties, stem cells can efficiently advance current therapies in tissue regeneration and/or engineering. Under appropriate culture conditions in vitro, pluripotent stem cells can be primed to differentiate into any cell type some examples including neural, cardiac and blood cells. However, there still remains a pressing necessity to answer the biological questions concerning how stem cell renewal and how differentiation programs are operated and regulated at the genetic level. In stem cell research, an urgent requirement on experimental procedures allowing non-invasive, marker-free observation of growth, proliferation and stability of living stem cells under physiological conditions exists. Femtosecond (fs) laser pulses have been reported to non-invasively deliver exogenous materials, including foreign genetic species into both multipotent and pluripotent stem cells successfully. Through this multi-photon facilitated technique, directly administering fs laser pulses onto the cell plasma membrane induces transient submicrometer holes, thereby promoting cytosolic uptake of the surrounding extracellular matter. To display a chemical-free cell transfection procedure that utilises micro-litre scale volumes of reagents, we report for the first time on 70 % transfection efficiency in ES-E14TG2a cells using the enhanced green fluorescing protein (EGFP) DNA plasmid. We also show how varying the average power output during optical transfection influences cell viability, proliferation and cytotoxicity in embryonic stem cells. The impact of utilizing objective lenses of different numerical aperture (NA) on the optical transfection efficiency in ES-E14TG2a cells is presented. Finally, we report on embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. The produced specialized cell types could thereafter be characterized and used for cell based therapies.

  13. Chemical and structural changes of quartz surfaces due to structuring by laser-induced backside wet etching.

    PubMed

    Kopitkovas, G; Deckert, V; Lippert, T; Raimondi, F; Schneider, C W; Wokaun, A

    2008-06-14

    Various physical and chemical processes which are involved in laser-induced backside wet etching are investigated. The surface of quartz etched by the laser-induced backside wet etching using a XeCl excimer laser at various fluences is analyzed by Raman microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fiber-tip attenuated total-reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The investigations reveal the formation of a high amount of amorphous carbon deposits at low laser fluences, which strongly adhere to the quartz surface. Combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy reveals that the quartz is also chemically and structurally modified due to a loss of oxygen and by a change of the quartz polymorph at intermediate and high laser fluences. These modification and their differences for different fluences are explained by the etching mechanisms itself, i.e. different magnitudes of temperature and pressure jumps. The results show clearly which conditions for etching must be applied to machine high-quality structures, e.g. micro-optical elements in quartz. PMID:18500395

  14. Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy helps fight terrorism: High sensitivity detection of chemical Warfare Agent and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. K. N.

    2008-01-01

    Tunable laser photoacoustic spectroscopy is maturing rapidly in its applications to real world problems. One of the burning problems of the current turbulent times is the threat of terrorist acts against civilian population. This threat appears in two distinct forms. The first is the potential release of chemical warfare agents (CWA), such as the nerve agents, in a crowded environment. An example of this is the release of Sarin by Aum Shinrikyo sect in a crowded Tokyo subway in 1995. An example of the second terrorist threat is the ever-present possible suicide bomber in crowded environment such as airports, markets and large buildings. Minimizing the impact of both of these threats requires early detection of the presence of the CWAs and explosives. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is an exquisitely sensitive technique for the detection of trace gaseous species, a property that Pranalytica has extensively exploited in its CO2 laser based commercial instrumentation for the sub-ppb level detection of a number of industrially important gases including ammonia, ethylene, acrolein, sulfur hexafluoride, phosphine, arsine, boron trichloride and boron trifluoride. In this presentation, I will focus, however, on our recent use of broadly tunable single frequency high power room temperature quantum cascade lasers (QCL) for the detection of the CWAs and explosives. Using external grating cavity geometry, we have developed room temperature QCLs that produce continuously tunable single frequency CW power output in excess of 300 mW at wavelengths covering 5 μm to 12 μm. I will present data that show a CWA detection capability at ppb levels with false alarm rates below 1:108. I will also show the capability of detecting a variety of explosives at a ppb level, again with very low false alarm rates. Among the explosives, we have demonstrated the capability of detecting homemade explosives such as triacetone triperoxide and its liquid precursor, acetone which is a common household liquid. This capability, deployed at airports and other public places, will go a long way towards increasing public safety and minimizing inconveniences faced in airline travel.

  15. Process development for the manufacture of an integrated dispenser cathode assembly using laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ryan William

    2005-07-01

    Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition (LCVD) has been shown to have great potential for the manufacture of small, complex, two or three dimensional metal and ceramic parts. One of the most promising applications of the technology is in the fabrication of an integrated dispenser cathode assembly. This application requires the deposition of a boron nitride-molybdenum composite structure. In order to realize this structure, work was done to improve the control and understanding of the LCVD process and to determine experimental conditions conducive to the growth of the required materials. A series of carbon fiber and line deposition studies were used to characterize process-shape relationships and study the kinetics of carbon LCVD. These studies provided a foundation for the fabrication of the first high aspect ratio multi-layered LCVD wall structures. The kinetics studies enabled the formulation of an advanced computational model in the FLUENT CFD package for studying energy transport, mass and momentum transport, and species transport within a forced flow LCVD environment. The model was applied to two different material systems and used to quantify deposition rates and identify rate-limiting regimes. A computational thermal-structural model was also developed using the ANSYS software package to study the thermal stress state within an LCVD deposit during growth. Georgia Tech's LCVD system was modified and used to characterize both boron nitride and molybdenum deposition independently. The focus was on understanding the relations among process parameters and deposit shape. Boron nitride was deposited using a B3 N3H6-N2 mixture and growth was characterized by sporadic nucleation followed by rapid bulk growth. Molybdenum was deposited from the MoCl5-H2 system and showed slow, but stable growth. Each material was used to grow both fibers and lines. The fabrication of a boron nitride-molybdenum composite was also demonstrated. In sum, this work served to both advance the general science of Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition and to elucidate the practicality of fabricating ceramic-metal composites using the process.

  16. Laser speckle technique to study the effect of chemical pre-treatment on the quality of minimally processed apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minz, Preeti D.; Nirala, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the laser speckle technique has been used for the quality evaluation of chemically treated cut apples. Chemical pre-treatment includes 1% (w/v) solution of citric acid (CA), sodium chloride (SC), and a combination of CA and sodium chloride (CS). The variation in weight loss, respiration rate, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA), and absorbance of chemically treated cut apples stored at 5 °C was monitored for 11 d. The speckle grain size was calculated by an autocovariance method from the speckled images of freshly cut chemically treated apples. The effect of chemicals on TSS and the TA content variation of the cut apples were well correlated to the linear speckle grain size. Circular degree of polarization confirms the presence of a small scatterer and hence Rayleigh diffusion region. For all the treated cut apples, a decrease in the concentration of small particles nearly after the mid-period of storage results in the fast decay of circular degree of polarization. For non-invasive and fast analysis of the chemical constituent of fruits during minimal processing, the laser speckle can be practically used in the food industry.

  17. Atmospheric pressure laser-induced acoustic desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry for analysis of saturated hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Nyadong, Leonard; Quinn, John P; Hsu, Chang S; Hendrickson, Christopher L; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2012-08-21

    We present atmospheric pressure laser-induced acoustic desorption chemical ionization (AP/LIAD-CI) with O(2) carrier/reagent gas as a powerful new approach for the analysis of saturated hydrocarbon mixtures. Nonthermal sample vaporization with subsequent chemical ionization generates abundant ion signals for straight-chain, branched, and cycloalkanes with minimal or no fragmentation. [M - H](+) is the dominant species for straight-chain and branched alkanes. For cycloalkanes, M(+) species dominate the mass spectrum at lower capillary temperature (<100 C) and [M - H](+) at higher temperature (>200 C). The mass spectrum for a straight-chain alkane mixture (C(21)-C(40)) shows comparable ionization efficiency for all components. AP/LIAD-CI produces molecular weight distributions similar to those for gel permeation chromatography for polyethylene polymers, Polywax 500 and Polywax 655. Coupling of the technique to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) for the analysis of complex hydrocarbon mixtures provides unparalleled mass resolution and accuracy to facilitate unambiguous elemental composition assignments, e.g., 1754 peaks (rms error = 175 ppb) corresponding to a paraffin series (C(12)-C(49), double-bond equivalents, DBE = 0) and higher DBE series corresponding to cycloparaffins containing one to eight rings. Isoabundance-contoured plots of DBE versus carbon number highlight steranes (DBE = 4) of carbon number C(27)-C(30) and hopanes of C(29)-C(35) (DBE = 5), with sterane-to-hopane ratio in good agreement with field ionization (FI) mass spectrometry analysis, but performed at atmospheric pressure. The overall speciation of nonpolar, aliphatic hydrocarbon base oil species offers a promising diagnostic probe to characterize crude oil and its products. PMID:22881221

  18. Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    Rill, Michael S; Plet, Christine; Thiel, Michael; Staude, Isabelle; von Freymann, Georg; Linden, Stefan; Wegener, Martin

    2008-07-01

    Metamaterials are artificial materials that--unlike natural substances--enable magnetism to be achieved at optical frequencies. The vast majority of photonic metamaterials has been fabricated by electron-beam lithography and evaporation of metal films, both of which are well-established two-dimensional (2D) technologies. Although stacking of three or four functional layers made using these methods has been reported, a truly 3D fabrication approach would be preferable for 3D photonic metamaterials. Here, we report first steps in this direction by using a combination of direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition--the 3D analogues of electron-beam lithography and evaporation, respectively. The optical characterization of a planar test structure composed of elongated split-ring resonators is in good agreement with theory. Retrieval of the effective optical parameters reveals the importance of bi-anisotropy. Once suitable theoretical blueprints are available, our fabrication approach will enable rapid prototyping of truly 3D photonic metamaterials. PMID:18469820

  19. Effects of specific heat ratio on a simulated chemical-laser-cavity flow. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Botts, C.D.

    1990-12-01

    Mixing of primary cold flow air and secondary helium to control the ratio of specific heats for the medium flowing through a simulated chemical laser nozzle/lasing cavity was accomplished. The effects of a range of mixture specific heat ratios on flowfield behavior were examined using static pressure ports in the test cavity. Schlieren photography and high speed filming aided description of the flow dynamics. Results indicated that boundary layer effects became evident in the nozzles as specific heat ratios increased. Large pressure fluctuations were observed in the cavity when helium was introduced into the flow to raise the specific heat ratio. This unstable behavior was attributed to the helium mass flow into the mixer and the mixer design itself. Use of the air/helium mixer brought about the pressure fluctuations earlier in a test run than with than with the mixer removed under the same conditions. Favorable pressure conditions for lasing were achieved for at least two seconds for the supersonic nozzles' design specific heat ratio of 1.51. Adverse pressure behavior was also attributed to three dimensional viscous effects along the cavity walls. (JHD)

  20. Data Analysis of Multi-Laser Standoff Spectral identification of chemical and biological compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Farahi, R H; Zaharov, Viktor; Tetard, Laurene; Thundat, Thomas George; Passian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    With the availability of tunable broadband coherent sources that emit mid-infrared radiation with well-defined beam characteristics, spectroscopies that were traditionally not practical for standoff detection1 or for develop- ment of miniaturized infrared detectors2, 3 have renewed interest. While obtaining compositional information for objects from a distance remains a major challenge in chemical and biological sensing, recently we demonstrated that capitalizing on mid-infrared excitation of target molecules by using quantum cascade lasers and invoking a pump probe scheme can provide spectral fingerprints of substances from a variable standoff distance.3 However, the standoff data is typically associated with random fluctuations that can corrupt the fine spectral features and useful data. To process the data from standoff experiments toward better recognition we consider and apply two types of denoising techniques, namely, spectral analysis and Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT). Using these techniques, infrared spectral data have been effectively improved. The result of the analysis illustrates that KLT can be adapted as a powerful data denoising tool for the presented pump-probe infrared standoff spectroscopy.

  1. Laser-induced surface modification on LTCC materials for chemical metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordas, Krisztian; Pap, Andrea E.; Saavalainen, Jussi; Jantunen, Heli; Moilanen, Pekka; Haapaniemi, Esa; Leppavuori, Seppo; Nanai, Laszlo

    2003-04-01

    Low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCCs) are mainly applied in hybride microelectronics packaging technology, whereas the fabrication of metallic conductors on LTCC materials is done by various printing technologies. The conventional process is fast and cost-effective in the case of mass-production but too slow and difficult when repair and/or some modifications in circuitry are needed. Printing also fails when deposition of thin metal films on LTCC is demanded. Here, a simple laser-assisted process is presented by which the surface of LTCCs can be activated for consecutive electroless chemical metal plating. The method enables the realization of thick high-conductance metallic Cu micro-patterns and thin seed layers of Ag and Au, with a lateral resolution of a few tens of micrometers. The process is also suitable for 3D-MEMS applications. Morphological, structural and composition aspects of LTCC surfaces treated by a Nd:YAG pulses are carried out using FESEM, SEM, XRD and Raman measurements.

  2. Data analysis of multi-laser standoff spectral identification of chemical and biological compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, R.; Zaharov, V.; Tetard, L.; Thundat, T.; Passian, A.

    2013-06-01

    With the availability of tunable broadband coherent sources that emit mid-infrared radiation with well-defined beam characteristics, spectroscopies that were traditionally not practical for standoff detection1 or for development of miniaturized infrared detectors2, 3 have renewed interest. While obtaining compositional information for objects from a distance remains a major challenge in chemical and biological sensing, recently we demonstrated that capitalizing on mid-infrared excitation of target molecules by using quantum cascade lasers and invoking a pump probe scheme can provide spectral fingerprints of substances from a variable standoff distance.3 However, the standoff data is typically associated with random fluctuations that can corrupt the fine spectral features and useful data. To process the data from standoff experiments toward better recognition we consider and apply two types of denoising techniques, namely, spectral analysis and Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT). Using these techniques, infrared spectral data have been effectively improved. The result of the analysis illustrates that KLT can be adapted as a powerful data denoising tool for the presented pump-probe infrared standoff spectroscopy.

  3. Particle Generation by Laser Ablation in Support of Chemical Analysis of High Level Mixed Waste from Plutonium Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    J. Thomas Dickinson; Michael L. Alexander

    2001-11-30

    Investigate particles produced by laser irradiation and their analysis by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA/ICP-MS), with a view towards optimizing particle production for analysis of high level waste materials and waste glass. LA/ICP-MS has considerable potential to increase the safety and speed of analysis required for the remediation of high level wastes from cold war plutonium production operations. In some sample types, notably the sodium nitrate-based wastes at Hanford and elsewhere, chemical analysis using typical laser conditions depends strongly on the details of sample history composition in a complex fashion, rendering the results of analysis uncertain. Conversely, waste glass materials appear to be better behaved and require different strategies to optimize analysis.

  4. Chemical-assisted femtosecond laser writing of lab-in-fibers.

    PubMed

    Haque, Moez; Lee, Kenneth K C; Ho, Stephen; Fernandes, Lus A; Herman, Peter R

    2014-10-01

    The lab-on-chip (LOC) platform has presented a powerful opportunity to improve functionalization, parallelization, and miniaturization on planar or multilevel geometries that has not been possible with fiber optic technology. A migration of such LOC devices into the optical fiber platform would therefore open the revolutionary prospect of creating novel lab-in-fiber (LIF) systems on the basis of an efficient optical transport highway for multifunctional sensing. For the LIF, the core optical waveguide inherently offers a facile means to interconnect numerous types of sensing elements along the optical fiber, presenting a radical opportunity for optimizing the packaging and densification of diverse components in convenient geometries beyond that available with conventional LOCs. In this paper, three-dimensional patterning inside the optical fiber by femtosecond laser writing, together with selective chemical etching, is presented as a powerful tool to form refractive index structures such as optical waveguides and gratings as well as to open buried microfluidic channels and optical resonators inside the flexible and robust glass fiber. In this approach, optically smooth surfaces (~12 nm rms) are introduced for the first time inside the fiber cladding that precisely conform to planar nanograting structures when formed by aberration-free focusing with an oil-immersion lens across the cylindrical fiber wall. This process has enabled optofluidic components to be precisely embedded within the fiber to be probed by either the single-mode fiber core waveguide or the laser-formed optical circuits. We establish cladding waveguides, X-couplers, fiber Bragg gratings, microholes, mirrors, optofluidic resonators, and microfluidic reservoirs that define the building blocks for facile interconnection of inline core-waveguide devices with cladding optofluidics. With these components, more advanced, integrated, and multiplexed fiber microsystems are presented demonstrating fluorescence detection, Fabry-Perot interferometric refractometry, and simultaneous sensing of refractive index, temperature, and bending strain. The flexible writing technique and multiplexed sensors described here open powerful prospects to migrate the benefits of LOCs into a more flexible and miniature LIF platform for highly functional and distributed sensing capabilities. The waveguide backbone of the LIF inherently provides an efficient exchange of information, combining sensing data that are attractive in telecom networks, smart catheters for medical procedures, compact sensors for security and defense, shape sensors, and low-cost health care products. PMID:25120138

  5. Advanced COIL technologies for field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tei, Kazuyoku; Sugimoto, Daichi; Ito, T.; Watanabe, G.; Vyskubenko, O.; Takeuchi, N.; Muto, S.; Kenzo, N.; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2005-01-01

    Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has a great potential for applications such as decommissioning and dismantlement (D&D) of nuclear reactor, rock destruction and removal and extraction of a natural resource (Methane hydrate) because of the unique characteristics such as power scalability, high optical beam quality and optical fiber beam. Five-kilowatt Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) test facility has been developed. The chemical efficiency of 27% has been demonstrated with a moderate beam quality for optical fiber coupling. Our research program contains conventional/ejector-COIL scheme, Jet-SOG/Mist-SOG optimization, fiber delivery and long-term operation.

  6. Technical progress in industrial COIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tei, K.; Sugimoto, Daichi; Ito, T.; Watanabe, G.; Vyskubyenko, O.; Takeuchi, N.; Muto, S.; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2005-03-01

    Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has a great potential for applications such as decommissioning and dismantlement (D&D) of nuclear reactor, rock destruction and removal and extraction of a natural resource (Methane hydrate) because of the unique characteristics such as power scalability, high optical beam quality and optical fiber beam. Five-kilowatt Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) test facility has been developed. The chemical efficiency of 27% has been demonstrated with a moderate beam quality for optical fiber coupling. Our research program contains conventional/ejector-COIL scheme, Jet-SOG/Mist-SOG optimization, fiber delivery and long-term operation.

  7. High-resolution chemical depth profiling of solid material using a miniature laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Grimaudo, Valentine; Moreno-Garca, Pavel; Riedo, Andreas; Neuland, Maike B; Tulej, Marek; Broekmann, Peter; Wurz, Peter

    2015-02-17

    High-resolution chemical depth profiling measurements of copper films are presented. The 10 ?m thick copper test samples were electrodeposited on a Si-supported Cu seed under galvanostatic conditions in the presence of particular plating additives (SPS, Imep, PEI, and PAG) used in the semiconductor industry for the on-chip metallization of interconnects. To probe the trend of these plating additives toward inclusion into the deposit upon growth, quantitative elemental mass spectrometric measurements at trace level concentration were conducted by using a sensitive miniature laser ablation ionization mass spectrometer (LIMS), originally designed and developed for in situ space exploration. An ultrashort pulsed laser system (? ? 190 fs, ? = 775 nm) was used for ablation and ionization of sample material. We show that with our LIMS system, quantitative chemical mass spectrometric analysis with an ablation rate at the subnanometer level per single laser shot can be conducted. The measurement capabilities of our instrument, including the high vertical depth resolution coupled with high detection sensitivity of ?10 ppb, high dynamic range ?10(8), measurement accuracy and precision, is of considerable interest in various fields of application, where investigations with high lateral and vertical resolution of the chemical composition of solid materials are required, these include, e.g., wafers from semiconductor industry or studies on space weathered samples in space research. PMID:25642789

  8. Standoff detection of explosives and chemical agents using broadly tuned external-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCLs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Eric B.; Rayner, Timothy; Weida, Miles; Crivello, Salvatore; Day, Timothy

    2007-10-01

    Civilian soft targets such as transportation systems are being targeted by terrorists using IEDs and suicide bombers. Having the capability to remotely detect explosives, precursors and other chemicals would enable these assets to be protected with minimal interruption of the flow of commerce. Mid-IR laser technology offers the potential to detect explosives and other chemicals in real-time and from a safe standoff distance. While many of these agents possess "fingerprint" signatures in the mid-IR (i.e. in the 3-20 micron regime), their effective interrogation by a practical, field-deployable system has been limited by size, complexity, reliability and cost constraints of the base laser technology. Daylight Solutions has addressed these shortcomings by developing compact, portable, broadly tunable mid-IR laser sources based upon external-cavity quantum cascade technology. This technology is now being applied by Daylight in system level architectures for standoff and remote detection of explosives, precursors and chemical agents. Several of these architectures and predicted levels of performance will be presented.

  9. Effect of laser power on orientation and microstructure of Ba2TiO4 film prepared by laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dongyun; Goto, Takashi; Wang, Chuanbin; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2012-08-01

    Ba2TiO4 films were prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by laser chemical vapor deposition method. The effect of laser power (PL) on orientation and microstructure was investigated. With increasing PL from 52 to 93 W, the deposition temperature (Tdep) increased from 845 to 946 K. With increasing Tdep from 845 to 927 K, the preferred orientation of Ba2TiO4 films changed from (0 9 1) to (1 0 3), the surface morphologies changed from faceted to rectangular, and the columnar cross-section became thicker. The films prepared at high Tdep (931-946 K) had the porous cross-section consisted of powder-like grains. Ba2TiO4 film prepared at 881 K had high deposition rate (Rdep) of 51.4 ?m h-1, which was advantageous to industrial production.

  10. Two-coordinate control of the radiation pattern of a chemical non-chain electric-discharge DF laser by using space-time light modulators

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, V N; Kotylev, V N; Liber, V I

    2008-07-31

    The results of studies of radiation parameters of a chemical non-chain DF laser (emitting in the range from 3.5 to 4.1 {mu}m) with an intracavity control of the radiation pattern with the help of spatiotemporal modulators based on PLZT electrooptic ceramics are presented. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  11. Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Rivera, William; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2010-09-01

    This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were 35 m for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) detection and 60, 90 and 140 m for cyclohexane detection. The prototype systems consisted of a Raman spectrometer equipped with a CCD detector (for CW measurements) and an I-CCD camera with time-gated electronics (for pulsed laser measurements), a reflecting telescope, a fiber optic assembly, a single-line CW laser source (514.5, 488.0, 351.1 and 363.8 nm) and a frequency-doubled single frequency Nd:YAG 532 nm laser (5 ns pulses at 10 Hz). The telescope was coupled to the spectrograph using an optical fiber, and filters were used to reject laser radiation and Rayleigh scattering. Two quartz convex lenses were used to collimate the light from the telescope from which the telescope-focusing eyepiece was removed, and direct it to the fiber optic assembly. To test the standoff sensing system, the Raman Telescope was used in the detection of liquid TIC: benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane and carbon disulfide. Other compounds studied were CWAS: dimethylmethyl phosphonate, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-(butylamino)-ethanethiol. Relative Raman scattering cross sections of liquid CWAS were measured using single-line sources at 532.0, 488.0, 363.8 and 351.1 nm. Samples were placed in glass and quartz vials at the standoff distances from the telescope for the Remote Raman measurements. The mass of DMMP present in water solutions was also quantified as part of the system performance tests.

  12. Electromagnetic launch, then lessening chemical thrust over time as laser beam powered ion thrust grows{emdash}to any orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, T.M.

    1996-03-01

    The ElectroMagnetic (EM) Launch Tube (LT), using High-Temp SuperConduction (HTSC) EM launch coils if developed, will be built in a tall building, or, if not, at a steep angle up the west slope of an extinct volcano. The Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) exits the LT at such high velocity that the otherwise violent entry into the atmosphere is made possible by Special-Laser-Launch-Assist (SLLA), which ionizes and expands the atmosphere immediately ahead of the RLV. At first a brief period of chemical thrust is followed by a long period of ion thrust during ascent to orbit. As decades pass and greater ion thrust is developed, the period of chemical thrust shortens until it is no longer needed. The RLV{close_quote}s ion thrusters are powered by laser/maser, beamed first from the launch site, then from two large Solar-Power-Satellites (SPS) 180{degree} apart in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) orbit. In orbit, the RLV is limited in where it can go only by the amount of propellant it carries or is stored in various orbits. The RLV can land at a launch site on Earth by using both chemical and ion thrust at first, and later by ion thrust alone as developments cause a far lighter RLV to carry no chemical engines/fuel/tanks. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. System and method for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2014-01-28

    A system and method for laser desorption of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a suspended solvent to form a testing solution are described. The method can include providing a specimen supported by a desorption region of a specimen stage and desorbing an analyte from a target site of the specimen with a laser beam centered at a radiation wavelength (.lamda.). The desorption region is transparent to the radiation wavelength (.lamda.) and the sampling probe and a laser source emitting the laser beam are on opposite sides of a primary surface of the specimen stage. The system can also be arranged where the laser source and the sampling probe are on the same side of a primary surface of the specimen stage. The testing solution can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  14. Remote explosive and chemical agent detection using broadly tunable mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Timothy; Weida, Miles; Pushkarsky, Michael; Day, Timothy

    2007-04-01

    Terrorists both with IEDs and suicide bombers are targeting civilian infrastructures such as transportation systems. Although explosive detection technologies exist and are used effectively in aviation, these technologies do not lend themselves well to protecting open architecture soft targets, as they are focused on a checkpoint form factor that limits throughput. However, remote detection of explosives and other chemicals would enable these kinds of targets to be protected without interrupting the flow of commerce. Tunable mid-IR laser technology offers the opportunity to detect explosives and other chemicals remotely and quickly. Most chemical compounds, including explosives, have their fundamental vibrational modes in the mid-infrared region (3 to 15?m). There are a variety of techniques that focus on examining interactions that have proven effective in the laboratory but could never work in the field due to complexity, size, reliability and cost. Daylight Solutions has solved these problems by integrating quantum cascade gain media into external tunable cavities. This has resulted in miniaturized, broadly tunable mid-IR laser sources. The laser sources have a capability to tune to +/- 5% of their center wavelength, which means they can sweep through an entire absorption spectrum to ensure very good detection and false alarm performance compared with fixed wavelength devices. These devices are also highly portable, operate at room temperature, and generate 10's to 100's of mW in optical power, in pulsed and continuous wave configurations. Daylight Solutions is in the process of developing a variety of standoff explosive and chemical weapon detection systems using this technology.

  15. Stabilization, Injection and Control of Quantum Cascade Lasers, and Their Appli-cation to Chemical Sensing in the Infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Williams, Richard M.

    2004-12-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) are a relatively new type of semiconductor laser operating in the mid- to long-wave infrared. These monopolar multilayered quantum well structures can be fabricated to operate anywhere between 3.5 microns and 20 microns, which includes the molecular fingerprint region of the in-frared. This makes them an ideal choice for infrared chemical sensing, a topic of great interest at present. Frequency stabilization and injection locking increase the utility of QCLs. We present results of locking quantum cascade lasers to optical cavities, achieving relative linewidths down to 5.6 Hz. We report injec-tion locking of one distributed feedback grating QCL with light from a similar QCL, demonstrating capture ranges of up to 500 MHz, and suppression of amplitude modulation by up to 49 dB. We also present various cavity-enhanced chemical sensors employing the frequency stabilization techniques developed, in-cluding the resonant sideband technique known as Nice-Ohms. Sensitivities of 9.7 x 10-11 cm-1 Hz-1/2 have been achieved in nitrous oxide.

  16. Injecting parameters design and performance test of the pre-igniter for continuous wave DF/HF chemical lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bing; Yuan, Shengfu; Yang, Lijia; Fang, Xiaoting

    2014-11-01

    Combustion-driven continuous wave (CW) DF/HF chemical lasers cannot be inflamed successfully sometimes because the spark-plug-igniter is intolerant of ablation especially after long-time operation which deeply affected the reliability of the lasers. In this paper, a pre-igniter is designed as a new igniter system to produce F2 to solve the problem. Based on the engineering practices and the principle that high-intensity spontaneous combustion will happen when mixing F2 and H2. The results of NF3 and H2 reacting with different mole ratios were calculated by CEA software. The operation reliability of the pre-igniter, the mole concentration of F2 in the mixing gas, and the equilibrium temperature were validated by a series of experiments. The experimental results were consistent with the calculated data: with the mole ratio of NF3 to H2 increasing, the equilibrium temperature decreased gradually and finally leveled off; the mole concentration of F2 in the mixing gas first increased and then decreased, achieving the maximum of about 40% when the mole ratio of NF3 to H2 was about 3.2. Experimental results outlined that the pre-igniter performed reliability and could produce high output of F2. The ignition system with a pre-igniter and a spark plug could provide a new alternative for combustion-driven CW DF/HF chemical lasers.

  17. Hybridation of electrical, chemical kinetics and particle models for numerical study of XeCl laser discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lamrous, O.; Gaouar, A.; Yousfi, M.

    1995-12-31

    Discharge pumped XeCl lasers are very convenient sources of high radiative power useful for many industrial and medical applications. So numerous codes, devoted to numerical modeling of excimer laser, are available in the literature. The aim of this paper is to present an hybrid model to study the plasma characteristics of XeCl laser impulsional discharge in Ne-Xe-HCl mixture. This model is a coupling of electric circuit equations (electric model), electron Boltzmann equation (particle model) and kinetic equations of both charged particles and the main neutral or excited species (chemical kinetics model). This hybrid model presents some specificity and originality for each part of the model (kinetic, particle and electric). The particle model is based on a powerful iterative solution of non linear electron Boltzmann equation including the main processes involved in the discharge plasma (inelastic, superelastic, Coulomb collisions, dissociation, attachment, ionization Penning, recombination). The chemical kinetics model including vibrational states is based on a powerful numerical scheme valid for stiff equations and for any kind of interactions whatever its time scale or the magnitude of its rate coefficient. The electrical circuit model is modular enough to take into account any kind of electric circuit including equivalent impedance of discharge for several cases of number of loops of the network (1 or 2 or 3 or more).

  18. Detection of chemical changes in bone after irradiation with Er,Cr:YSGG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, Carolina; Santos, Moises O.; Rabelo, Jose S.; Ana, Patrcia A.; Correa, Paulo R.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2011-03-01

    The use of laser for bone cutting can be more advantageous than the use of drill. However, for a safe clinical application, it is necessary to know the effects of laser irradiation on bone tissues. In this study, the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to verify the molecular and compositional changes promoted by laser irradiation on bone tissue. Bone slabs were obtained from rabbit's tibia and analyzed using ATR-FTIR. After the initial analysis, the samples were irradiated using a pulsed Er,Cr:YSGG laser (2780nm), and analyzed one more time. In order to verify changes due to laser irradiation, the area under phosphate (1300-900cm-1), amides (1680-1200cm-1), water (3600-2400cm-1), and carbonate (around 870cm-1 and between 1600-1300cm-1) bands were calculated, and normalized by phosphate band area (1300-900cm-1). It was observed that Er,Cr:YSGG irradiation promoted a significant decrease in the content of water and amides I and III at irradiated bone, evidencing that laser procedure caused an evaporation of the organic content and changed the collagen structure, suggesting that these changes may interfere with the healing process. In this way, these changes should be considered in a clinical application of laser irradiation in surgeries.

  19. Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays by near-field laser ablation and metal-assisted chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Brodoceanu, D; Alhmoud, H Z; Elnathan, R; Delalat, B; Voelcker, N H; Kraus, T

    2016-02-19

    We present an elegant route for the fabrication of ordered arrays of vertically-aligned silicon nanowires with tunable geometry at controlled locations on a silicon wafer. A monolayer of transparent microspheres convectively assembled onto a gold-coated silicon wafer acts as a microlens array. Irradiation with a single nanosecond laser pulse removes the gold beneath each focusing microsphere, leaving behind a hexagonal pattern of holes in the gold layer. Owing to the near-field effects, the diameter of the holes can be at least five times smaller than the laser wavelength. The patterned gold layer is used as catalyst in a metal-assisted chemical etching to produce an array of vertically-aligned silicon nanowires. This approach combines the advantages of direct laser writing with the benefits of parallel laser processing, yielding nanowire arrays with controlled geometry at predefined locations on the silicon surface. The fabricated VA-SiNW arrays can effectively transfect human cells with a plasmid encoding for green fluorescent protein. PMID:26778665

  20. Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays by near-field laser ablation and metal-assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodoceanu, D.; Alhmoud, H. Z.; Elnathan, R.; Delalat, B.; Voelcker, N. H.; Kraus, T.

    2016-02-01

    We present an elegant route for the fabrication of ordered arrays of vertically-aligned silicon nanowires with tunable geometry at controlled locations on a silicon wafer. A monolayer of transparent microspheres convectively assembled onto a gold-coated silicon wafer acts as a microlens array. Irradiation with a single nanosecond laser pulse removes the gold beneath each focusing microsphere, leaving behind a hexagonal pattern of holes in the gold layer. Owing to the near-field effects, the diameter of the holes can be at least five times smaller than the laser wavelength. The patterned gold layer is used as catalyst in a metal-assisted chemical etching to produce an array of vertically-aligned silicon nanowires. This approach combines the advantages of direct laser writing with the benefits of parallel laser processing, yielding nanowire arrays with controlled geometry at predefined locations on the silicon surface. The fabricated VA-SiNW arrays can effectively transfect human cells with a plasmid encoding for green fluorescent protein.

  1. Fabrication of ridge waveguide of 808 nm GaAs-based laser diodes by wet chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Li; Degang, Zhao; Desheng, Jiang; Ping, Chen; Zongshun, Liu; Jianjun, Zhu; Ming, Shi; Danmei, Zhao; Wei, Liu; Shuming, Zhang; Hui, Yang

    2015-07-01

    The fabrication of ridge waveguide of 808 nm GaAs-based laser diodes by wet chemical etching is investigated. The etching behavior of GaAs, InGaP and AlGaInP in various solutions is evaluated. As a result, the etching solutions simultaneously corroding InGaP and AlGaInP layers are searched successfully. Effects of etching time and the concentration of mixtures on etching depth and the geometrical shape of ridge are analyzed. It is found that under proper conditions, appropriate etching depth and smooth surfaces can be obtained and the steep degree of pattern can be accepted, especially for wide ridge waveguide laser diodes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474110, 61377020, 61376089, 61223005, 61176126) and the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (No. 60925017).

  2. Design and chemical synthesis of iodine-containing molecules for application to solar-pumped I* lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiner, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    This work is directed toward the design and chemical synthesis of new media for solar-pumped I* lasers. In view of the desirability of preparing a perfluoroalkyl iodide absorbing strongly at 300 nm, the relationship betwen perfluoroalkyl iodide structure and the corresponding absorption wavelength was reexamined. Analysis of existing data suggests that, in this family of compounds, the absorption maximum shifts to longer wavelength, as desired, as the C-I bond in the lasant is progressively weakened. Weakening of the C-I bond correlates, in turn, with increasing stability of the perfluoroalkyl radical formed upon photodissociation of the iodide. The extremely promising absorption characteristics of perfluoro-tert-butyl iodide can be accounted for on this basis. A new technique of diode laser probing to obtain precise yields of I* atoms in photodissociation was also developed.

  3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL DYNAMICS OF NANOPARTICLE FORMATION DURING LASER DECONTAMINATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improvement of understanding on nanoparticle production during simultaneous laser-based decontamination and characterization is imperative to the acceleration of decommission and deactivation (D&D) missions of US Department of Energy (DOE). Many researchers, mostly in material re...

  4. SITE - EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES: LASER INDUCED PHOTO- CHEMICAL OXIDATIVE DESTRUCTION OF TOXIC ORGANICS IN LEACHATES AND GROUNDWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology described in this report has been developed under the Emerging Technology Program of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to photochemically oxidize organic compounds in wastewater by applying ultraviolet radiation using an excimer laser. T...

  5. Overall payload ratio of a combined laser and chemical propulsion system for geo launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zuu-Chang; Liu, Jia Ming; Chern, Jeng-Shing

    2002-04-01

    This paper gives a discussion about the overall payload ratio of solid-rocket-booster-assisted laser propulsion system for geosynchronous earth orbit payload launch. When the ground station can provide the required peak laser power, we can obtain the maximum payload ratio (ratio of final mass to initial mass). Now, if the peak laser power is limited to a lower level, the payload ratio which can be obtained will also be lower. When the peak laser power that can be provided is too low, the thrust-to-weight ratio will be <1 at the initial phase of the launch. In order to keep the performance of the launching system, we use a strap-on solid-rocket-booster to compensate the system for thrust loss. It is found that the penalty can be reduced significantly.

  6. Experimental study and chemical application of GaAs semiconductor laser treating trigeminal neuralgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Ke-Qum; Cao, Shu-Chen; Wang, Hu-Zhong; Wang, Ke-Ning; Xiao, Ton-Ha; Shen, Ke-Wei

    1993-03-01

    GaAs semiconductor laser was used to treat trigeminal neuralgia with an effective rate of 91.1%, and no side effects were found in 67 cases. Changes in and the recovery of the trigeminal nerve cell were studied with light and electromicroscope. Discussed in this article are the time length and quantity of laser treatment with low power. Experimental study and clinical application of the GaAs semiconductor laser have been carried out in our department since 1987. One-hundred-fifteen patients with various diseases in the maxillofacial region (including 67 cases of trigeminal neuralgia) have been treated with satisfactory effects and without any side-effects. The wavelength of the laser is 904 mu, the largest pulse length is 200 mu, and the average power is 2000 HZ.

  7. Comparison of laser-induced fragmentation channels of CS+ and CO+: a study in chemically similar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsch, K. J.; Severt, T.; Ablikim, U.; Zohrabi, M.; Jochim, B.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2013-05-01

    In an effort to address how well the idea of chemically similar molecules extends into strong field phenomena, we explore similarities and differences in ultrafast laser-induced fragmentation channels from CS+ and CO+ molecular ion beams. We find similar fragmentation channels and features of interest, such as a laser-intensity-dependent high kinetic-energy-release (KER) peak in the dissociation channels of both molecules. However, molecule-specific features, such as the relative abundances and KERs of individual channels, are also observed. For example, we observe that, in the asymmetric-charge breakup channel CS+ --> CS2+ --> C + S2+, the carbon atom is neutral. This is opposite to the asymmetric-charge breakup from CO+, where the carbon fragment carries the charge. Based upon their chemical similarity, we would expect similar asymmetric breakup for the two molecules. We will discuss why the actual behavior differs from our expectations. This work has been supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-86ER13491.

  8. High-power supersonic chemical lasers: gas-dynamic problems of operation of mobile systems with PRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreysho, A. S.; Malkov, V. M.; Savin, A. V.

    2008-10-01

    Supersonic chemical lasers, such as HF /DF and COIL, have always been in the focus of special interest as the most powerful sources of continuous wave generation. Presently, autonomous mobile laser complexes (both air- and landbased) are being developed on the basis of SCL [1-3]. It is commonly accepted that SCL appeared, conditionally speaking, at the crossroads of a number of sciences: of physics - quantum electronics and physical kinetics; chemistry - combustion theory and chemical kinetics; classic optics - theory of resonators, aero-optics, and gas dynamics (there is a supersonic flow in the SCL channel). Due to this fact, all tasks and problems which could be resolved in the course of SCL development have complex character and could be considered as the next stage of complexity in comparison with the well known similar tasks which had been considered earlier. This is why they should be resolved anew with consideration of the specific aspects of the SCL processes. This is true for the gas-dynamic problems: new parameter areas, non-traditional channel geometry, consideration of new phenomena, etc.Supersonic chemical lasers, such as HF /DF and COIL, have always been in the focus of special interest as the most powerful sources of continuous wave generation. Presently, autonomous mobile laser complexes (both air- and landbased) are being developed on the basis of SCL [1-3]. It is commonly accepted that SCL appeared, conditionally speaking, at the crossroads of a number of sciences: of physics - quantum electronics and physical kinetics; chemistry - combustion theory and chemical kinetics; classic optics - theory of resonators, aero-optics, and gas dynamics (there is a supersonic flow in the SCL channel). Due to this fact, all tasks and problems which could be resolved in the course of SCL development have complex character and could be considered as the next stage of complexity in comparison with the well known similar tasks which had been considered earlier. This is why they should be resolved anew with consideration of the specific aspects of the SCL processes. This is true for the gas-dynamic problems: new parameter areas, non-traditional channel geometry, consideration of new phenomena, etc.

  9. Fabrication of microcapillaries in fused silica using axicon focusing of femtosecond laser radiation and chemical etchingion/ms

    SciTech Connect

    Yashunin, D A; Malkov, Yu A; Stepanov, A N

    2013-04-30

    Fabrication of microcapillaries with a diameter of 50 - 80 {mu}m and a length up to 2.5 mm in fused silica by axicon focusing of femtosecond laser radiation and subsequent chemical etching in a 8 % hydrofluoric acid solution is demonstrated. The etching rate is {approx}6 {mu}m min{sup -1}. It is shown that the microcapillaries have optical waveguiding properties, which testifies to the optical quality of the walls of obtained structures. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  10. Highly sensitive refractive index fiber inline Mach-Zehnder interferometer fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining and chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Yan; Chu, Dong-Kai; Dong, Xin-Ran; Zhou, Chu; Li, Hai-Tao; Luo-Zhi; Hu, You-Wang; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Cong-Wang; Duan, Ji-An

    2016-03-01

    A High sensitive refractive index (RI) sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) in a conventional single-mode optical fiber is proposed, which is fabricated by femtosecond laser transversal-scanning inscription method and chemical etching. A rectangular cavity structure is formed in part of fiber core and cladding interface. The MZI sensor shows excellent refractive index sensitivity and linearity, which exhibits an extremely high RI sensitivity of -17197 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) with the linearity of 0.9996 within the refractive index range of 1.3371-1.3407. The experimental results are consistent with theoretical analysis.

  11. Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

    2010-05-01

    Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

  12. Ion Yields in the Coupled Chemical and Physical Dynamics Model of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knochenmuss, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The Coupled Chemical and Physical Dynamics (CPCD) model of matrix assisted laser desorption ionization has been restricted to relative rather than absolute yield comparisons because the rate constant for one step in the model was not accurately known. Recent measurements are used to constrain this constant, leading to good agreement with experimental yield versus fluence data for 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Parameters for alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid are also estimated, including contributions from a possible triplet state. The results are compared with the polar fluid model, the CPCD is found to give better agreement with the data.

  13. Laser induced damage characteristics of fused silica optics treated by wet chemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui; Li, Yaguo; Yuan, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Wei; Xu, Qiao

    2015-12-01

    Laser damage to fused silica continues a main issue of high-power/energy laser systems. HF-based etching technique is known to mitigate laser damage initiation and growth under UV laser illumination. The responses of material surface properties, especially surface damage characteristics to various etching parameters are questioned in the article. Fused silica was submerged into HF-based etchants (HF, NH4F:HF, HF:HNO3 with diverse concentrations) in an attempt to improve its laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT). The results have evidenced that the LIDT relies on, to a greater degree, the etched thickness and the etchant composition. The secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS) testing was aimed at relating the LIDT to certain metallic contaminant; however, the LIDT exhibits weak direct correlation with Ce, La, Ca, Fe contaminants. The surfaces with the highest LIDT are, more often than not, such that the surface roughness is <10 nm RMS and few metallic impurities are present. In addition, we tried to link the LIDT to the hardness and Young's modulus of fused silica, but no testing data show that there exists direct dependence of the LIDT on hardness and Young's modulus, which are actually independent of the removed thickness.

  14. Chemical-free inactivated whole influenza virus vaccine prepared by ultrashort pulsed laser treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei David; Donthi, Nisha; La, Victor; Hsieh, Wen-Han; Li, Yen-Der; Knoff, Jayne; Chen, Alexander; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Hung, Chien-Fu; Achilefu, Samuel; Tsen, Kong-Thon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. There is an urgent need for rapid methods to develop vaccines in response to emerging viral pathogens. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines represent an ideal strategy for this purpose; however, a universal method for producing safe and immunogenic inactivated vaccines is lacking. Conventional pathogen inactivation methods such as formalin, heat, ultraviolet light, and gamma rays cause structural alterations in vaccines that lead to reduced neutralizing antibody specificity, and in some cases, disastrous T helper type 2-mediated immune pathology. We have evaluated the potential of a visible ultrashort pulsed (USP) laser method to generate safe and immunogenic WIV vaccines without adjuvants. Specifically, we demonstrate that vaccination of mice with laser-inactivated H1N1 influenza virus at about a 10-fold lower dose than that required using conventional formalin-inactivated influenza vaccines results in protection against lethal H1N1 challenge in mice. The virus, inactivated by the USP laser irradiation, has been shown to retain its surface protein structure through hemagglutination assay. Unlike conventional inactivation methods, laser treatment did not generate carbonyl groups in protein, thereby reducing the risk of adverse vaccine-elicited T helper type 2 responses. Therefore, USP laser treatment is an attractive potential strategy to generate WIV vaccines with greater potency and safety than vaccines produced by current inactivation techniques. PMID:25423046

  15. Improving UV laser damage threshold of fused silica optics by wet chemical etching technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui; Li, Yaguo; Yuan, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao; Yang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Fused silica is widely used in high-power laser systems because of its good optical performance and mechanical properties. However, laser damage initiation and growth induced by 355 nm laser illumination in optical elements have become a bottleneck in the development of high energy laser system. In order to improve the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT), the fused silica optics were treated by two types of HF-based etchants: 1.7%wt. HF acid and buffer oxide etchant (BOE: the mixture of 0.4%wt. HF and 12%wt. NH4F), respectively, for varied etching time. Damage testing shows that both the etchants increase the damage threshold at a certain depth of material removal, but further removal of material lowers the LIDT markedly. The etching rates of both etchants keep steady in our processing procedure, ~58 μg/min and ~85 μg/min, respectively. The micro-surface roughness (RMS and PV) increases as etching time extends. The hardness (H) and Young's modulus (E) of the fused silica etched for diverse time, measured by nano-indenter, show no solid evidence that LIDT can be related to hardness or Young's modulus.

  16. Chemical-free inactivated whole influenza virus vaccine prepared by ultrashort pulsed laser treatment.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei David; Donthi, Nisha; La, Victor; Hsieh, Wen-Han; Li, Yen-Der; Knoff, Jayne; Chen, Alexander; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Hung, Chien-Fu; Achilefu, Samuel; Tsen, Kong-Thon

    2015-05-01

    There is an urgent need for rapid methods to develop vaccines in response to emerging viral pathogens. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines represent an ideal strategy for this purpose; however, a universal method for producing safe and immunogenic inactivated vaccines is lacking. Conventional pathogen inactivation methods such as formalin, heat, ultraviolet light, and gamma rays cause structural alterations in vaccines that lead to reduced neutralizing antibody specificity, and in some cases, disastrous T helper type 2-mediated immune pathology. We have evaluated the potential of a visible ultrashort pulsed (USP) laser method to generate safe and immunogenic WIV vaccines without adjuvants. Specifically, we demonstrate that vaccination of mice with laser-inactivated H1N1 influenza virus at about a 10-fold lower dose than that required using conventional formalin-inactivated influenza vaccines results in protection against lethal H1N1 challenge in mice. The virus, inactivated by the USP laser irradiation, has been shown to retain its surface protein structure through hemagglutination assay. Unlike conventional inactivation methods, laser treatment did not generate carbonyl groups in protein, thereby reducing the risk of adverse vaccine-elicited T helper type 2 responses. Therefore, USP laser treatment is an attractive potential strategy to generate WIV vaccines with greater potency and safety than vaccines produced by current inactivation techniques. PMID:25423046

  17. Chemical-free inactivated whole influenza virus vaccine prepared by ultrashort pulsed laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei David; Donthi, Nisha; La, Victor; Hsieh, Wen-Han; Li, Yen-Der; Knoff, Jayne; Chen, Alexander; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Hung, Chien-Fu; Achilefu, Samuel; Tsen, Kong-Thon

    2015-05-01

    There is an urgent need for rapid methods to develop vaccines in response to emerging viral pathogens. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines represent an ideal strategy for this purpose; however, a universal method for producing safe and immunogenic inactivated vaccines is lacking. Conventional pathogen inactivation methods such as formalin, heat, ultraviolet light, and gamma rays cause structural alterations in vaccines that lead to reduced neutralizing antibody specificity, and in some cases, disastrous T helper type 2-mediated immune pathology. We have evaluated the potential of a visible ultrashort pulsed (USP) laser method to generate safe and immunogenic WIV vaccines without adjuvants. Specifically, we demonstrate that vaccination of mice with laser-inactivated H1N1 influenza virus at about a 10-fold lower dose than that required using conventional formalin-inactivated influenza vaccines results in protection against lethal H1N1 challenge in mice. The virus, inactivated by the USP laser irradiation, has been shown to retain its surface protein structure through hemagglutination assay. Unlike conventional inactivation methods, laser treatment did not generate carbonyl groups in protein, thereby reducing the risk of adverse vaccine-elicited T helper type 2 responses. Therefore, USP laser treatment is an attractive potential strategy to generate WIV vaccines with greater potency and safety than vaccines produced by current inactivation techniques.

  18. Use of external cavity quantum cascade laser compliance voltage in real-time trace gas sensing of multiple chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Kriesel, Jason

    2015-01-01

    We describe a prototype trace gas sensor designed for real-time detection of multiple chemicals. The sensor uses an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) swept over its tuning range of 940-1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.7 μm) at a 10 Hz repetition rate. The sensor was designed for operation in multiple modes, including gas sensing within a multi-pass Heriott cell and intracavity absorption sensing using the ECQCL compliance voltage. In addition, the ECQCL compliance voltage was used to reduce effects of long-term drifts in the ECQCL output power. The sensor was characterized for noise, drift, and detection of chemicals including ammonia, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, Freon- 134a, Freon-152a, and diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP). We also present use of the sensor for mobile detection of ammonia downwind of cattle facilities, in which concentrations were recorded at 1-s intervals.

  19. Development of Efficient Mid-IR Interband Cascade Lasers for Chemical Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Hill, Cory J.; Yang, Baohua; Qiu, Yueming; Jan, Darrell

    2006-01-01

    Significant progress has been made: Above room temperature (up to 350K) pulsed operation has been demonstrated. CW operation temperature has been raised up to 237 K. DFB IC lasers have been applied for the detection of trace gases such as CH4, HCl, and H2CO. Devices have been operated continuously over several hundred hours without degradation. Main challenge remains for many potential applications of ICLs. CW operation at room temperature and above with significant output powers. There is still significant room for improvement: Laser design and material quality - many parameters have not been optimized. Device fabrication and thermal management (passivation, better mounting, etc.). Significantly higher output power can be achieved with laser arrays.

  20. (Study of flow properties of wet solids using laser induced photo chemical anemometry)

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, B.

    1992-04-09

    A new diagnostic measurement technique is being developed that will enable the investigation of the dynamics of flowing wet solids. The technique involves the use of Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry (LIPA), enhanced to enable two photochemical species to be excited. It uses laser induced photochromic and photo luminescent molecules to separately tag the two phases for times long enough for them to distort the tagging. Recording the distortions of the tagging caused by the movement of each phase enables us to obtain local characterization of flow properties of both phases of the wet solids at many positions simultaneously across a pipe.

  1. (Study of flow properties of wet solids using laser induced photo chemical anemometry)

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, B.

    1991-01-20

    A new diagnostic measurement technique is being developed that will enable the investigation of the dynamics of flowing wet solids. The technique involves the use of Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry (LIPA), enhanced to enable two photochemical species to be excited. It uses laser induced photochromic and photo luminescent molecules to separately tag the two phases for times long enough for them to distort the tagging. Recording the distortions of the tagging caused by the movement of each phase enables us to obtain local characterization of flow properties of both phases of the wet solids at many positions simultaneously across a pipe.

  2. Systems and methods for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2014-06-03

    Systems and methods are described for laser ablation of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a dispensed solvent to form a testing solution. A solvent dispensing and extraction system can form a liquid microjunction with the specimen. The solvent dispensing and extraction system can include a surface sampling probe. The laser beam can be directed through the surface sampling probe. The surface sampling probe can also serve as an atomic force microscopy probe. The surface sampling probe can form a seal with the specimen. The testing solution including the analyte can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  3. Systems and methods for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2013-08-27

    Systems and methods are described for laser ablation of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a dispensed solvent to form a testing solution. A solvent dispensing and extraction system can form a liquid microjunction with the specimen. The solvent dispensing and extraction system can include a surface sampling probe. The laser beam can be directed through the surface sampling probe. The surface sampling probe can also serve as an atomic force microscopy probe. The surface sampling probe can form a seal with the specimen. The testing solution including the analyte can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  4. Systems and methods for laser assisted sample transfer to solution for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2015-09-29

    Systems and methods are described for laser ablation of an analyte from a specimen and capturing of the analyte in a dispensed solvent to form a testing solution. A solvent dispensing and extraction system can form a liquid microjunction with the specimen. The solvent dispensing and extraction system can include a surface sampling probe. The laser beam can be directed through the surface sampling probe. The surface sampling probe can also serve as an atomic force microscopy probe. The surface sampling probe can form a seal with the specimen. The testing solution including the analyte can then be analyzed using an analytical instrument or undergo further processing.

  5. Combustion Research Program: Flame studies, laser diagnostics, and chemical kinetics. Final report, 15 July 1987--15 June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Crosley, D.R.

    1992-09-01

    This project has comprised laser flame diagnostic experiments, chemical kinetics measurements, and low pressure flame studies. Collisional quenching has been investigated for several systems: the OH radical, by H{sub 2}0 in low pressure flames; the rotational level dependence for NH, including measurements to J=24; and of NH{sub 2} at room temperature. Transition probability measurements for bands involving v{prime} = 2 and 3 of the A-X system of OH were measured in a flame. Laser-induced fluorescence of vinyl radicals was unsuccessfully attempted. RRKM and transition state theory calculations were performed on the OH + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} reaction, on the t-butyl radical + HX; and transition state theory has been applied to a series of bond scission reactions. OH concentrations were measured quantitatively in low pressure H{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} flames, and the ability to determine spatially precise flame temperatures accurately using OH laser-induced fluorescence was studied.

  6. Time-Resolved Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy of Pulsed Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition Processes Containing BCl3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Norbert; Hempel, Frank; Strmke, Siegfried; Rpcke, Jrgen

    2011-08-01

    In situ measurements are reported giving insight into the plasma chemical conversion of the precursor BCl3 in industrial applications of boriding plasmas. For the online monitoring of its ground state concentration, quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS) in the mid-infrared spectral range was applied in a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) reactor. A compact quantum cascade laser measurement and control system (Q-MACS) was developed to allow a flexible and completely dust-sealed optical coupling to the reactor chamber of an industrial plasma surface modification system. The process under the study was a pulsed DC plasma with periodically injected BCl3 at 200 Pa. A synchronization of the Q-MACS with the process control unit enabled an insight into individual process cycles with a sensitivity of 10-6 cm-1Hz-1/2. Different fragmentation rates of the precursor were found during an individual process cycle. The detected BCl3 concentrations were in the order of 1014 moleculescm-3. The reported results of in situ monitoring with QCLAS demonstrate the potential for effective optimization procedures in industrial PACVD processes.

  7. Comparison of some effects of modification of a polylactide surface layer by chemical, plasma, and laser methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraczewski, Krzysztof; Rytlewski, Piotr; Malinowski, Rafał; Żenkiewicz, Marian

    2015-08-01

    The article presents the results of studies and comparison of selected properties of the modified PLA surface layer. The modification was carried out with three methods. In the chemical method, a 0.25 M solution of sodium hydroxide in water and ethanol was utilized. In the plasma method, a 50 W generator was used, which produced plasma in the air atmosphere under reduced pressure. In the laser method, a pulsed ArF excimer laser with fluency of 60 mJ/cm2 was applied. Polylactide samples were examined by using the following techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Images of surfaces of the modified samples were recorded, contact angles were measured, and surface free energy was calculated. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical composition of the PLA surface layer were performed as well. Based on the survey it was found that the best modification results are obtained using the plasma method.

  8. Chemical Composition of Micrometer-Sized Filaments in an Aragonite Host by a Miniature Laser Ablation/Ionization Mass Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Tulej, Marek; Neubeck, Anna; Ivarsson, Magnus; Riedo, Andreas; Neuland, Maike B; Meyer, Stefan; Wurz, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Detection of extraterrestrial life is an ongoing goal in space exploration, and there is a need for advanced instruments and methods for the detection of signatures of life based on chemical and isotopic composition. Here, we present the first investigation of chemical composition of putative microfossils in natural samples using a miniature laser ablation/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LMS). The studies were conducted with high lateral (?15??m) and vertical (?20-200?nm) resolution. The primary aim of the study was to investigate the instrument performance on micrometer-sized samples both in terms of isotope abundance and element composition. The following objectives had to be achieved: (1) Consider the detection and calculation of single stable isotope ratios in natural rock samples with techniques compatible with their employment of space instrumentation for biomarker detection in future planetary missions. (2) Achieve a highly accurate chemical compositional map of rock samples with embedded structures at the micrometer scale in which the rock matrix is easily distinguished from the micrometer structures. Our results indicate that chemical mapping of strongly heterogeneous rock samples can be obtained with a high accuracy, whereas the requirements for isotope ratios need to be improved to reach sufficiently large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). PMID:26247475

  9. DIODE LASER-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE GAS DURING CHEMICAL SUPPRESSION OF FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-infrared tunable diode laser (NIR-TDL) spectroscopy is used to quantify hydrogen fluoride (HF) gas produced during fire-suppressant testing of Halon alternatives. Results of comparisons with other techniques for measuring HF gas concentrations are discussed. Measurements of ...

  10. DIODE-LASER-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF HYDROGEN FLUORIDE GAS DURING CHEMICAL SUPPRESSION OF FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-infrared tunable diode laser (NIR-TDL) spectroscopy is used to quantify HF gas produced during fire suppressant testing of Halon alternatives. Results of comparisons with other techniques for measuring HF gas concentrations are discussed. Measurements of HF gas produced in l...

  11. Characterization of Nonpolar Lipids and Selected Steroids by Using Laser-Induced Acoustic Desorption/Chemical Ionization, Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization, and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhicheng; Daiya, Shivani; Kenttmaa, Hilkka I.

    2011-01-01

    Laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) combined with ClMn(H2O)+ chemical ionization (CI) was tested for the analysis of nonpolar lipids and selected steroids in a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR). The nonpolar lipids studied, cholesterol, 5?-cholestane, cholesta-3,5-diene, squalene, and ?-carotene, were found to solely form the desired water replacement product (adduct-H2O) with the ClMn(H2O)+ ions. The steroids, androsterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), estrone, estradiol, and estriol, also form abundant adduct-H2O ions, but less abundant adduct-2H2O ions were also observed. Neither (+)APCI nor (+)ESI can ionize the saturated hydrocarbon lipid, cholestane. APCI successfully ionizes the unsaturated hydrocarbon lipids to form exclusively the intact protonated analytes. However, it causes extensive fragmentation for cholesterol and the steroids. The worst case is cholesterol that does not produce any stable protonated molecules. On the other hand, ESI cannot ionize any of the hydrocarbon analytes, saturated or unsaturated. However, ESI can be used to protonate the oxygen-containing analytes with substantially less fragmentation than for APCI in all cases except for cholesterol and estrone. In conclusion, LIAD/ClMn(H2O)+ chemical ionization is superior over APCI and ESI for the mass spectrometric characterization of underivatized nonpolar lipids and steroids. PMID:21528012

  12. 3D mapping of chemical distribution from melting at lower mantle conditions in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, S. M.; Nabiei, F.; Cantoni, M.; Badro, J.; Gaal, R.; Gillet, P.

    2014-12-01

    The laser-heated diamond anvil cell is a unique tool for subjecting materials to pressures over few hundreds of GPa and temperatures of thousands of Kelvins which enables us to experimentally simulate the inaccessible interiors of planets. However, small sample size, laser profile and thermally conductive diamonds cause temperature gradients of 1000s K over a few microns which also affects chemical and structural distribution of phases in the sample. We have examined samples of San Carlos olivine (Mg,Fe)2SiO3 powder melted in the diamond anvil cell by double-sided and single-sided laser heating for 3-6 minutes to ~3000 K at 35-37 GPa. Moreover, MgO is used as an insulating media in one of the sample. Recovered samples were analyzed by a combination of focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) detector. Images and chemical maps were acquired for ~300 slices with ~70 nm depth from each sample, comprising about half of the heated zone. Detailed chemical and structural analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of lamellas prepared from the remaining section of the samples will also be presented. In all samples the heated zone included (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite-structured bridgmanite (PV) phase and two (Mg, Fe)O phases, one of which, magnesiowstite (MW), is richer in iron than the other one, ferropericlase (FP). In double-side heated samples we observe a Fe-rich quenched melt core surrounded by MW phase. Our results show that with increasing heating time, Fe migrates to the molten center of the sample. In the single-side heated sample, the Fe-rich MW phase is concentrated in the center of heated zone. In all samples a FP crust was observed around the heated zone. This crust, however, is broken in the upper part (colder part) of the single-side heated sample due the high asymmetrical temperature gradient within the sample. The results confirm the importance of double-side heating and insulating media for generating homogenous central temperature and chemical distribution.

  13. Short wavelength chemical laser demonstration based on N({sup 2}D) chemistry. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-19

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate lasing on the NCl(b{yields}x) transition at 665 nm. Our scheme is based on chemical production of excited nitrogen atoms in the {sup 2}D metastable state and subsequent reaction of N({sup 2}D) with Cl{sub 2} to produce NCl(b). Our intermediate objectives were: (1) demonstrate chemical generation of N({sup 2}D), (2) identify and measure rate constants important to the chemical scheme, and (3) demonstrate production of NCl(b) from the N({sup 2}D) + Cl{sub 2} reaction. The program results and accomplishments are summarized in this report.

  14. Photo-chemical etching on silicon-carbide by using KrF excimer laser and Xe{sub 2}* excimer lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, K.; Murahara, M.

    1996-12-31

    Silicon-carbide (SiC) has excellent refractivity in the range of soft X-ray and is well-used as a diffraction grating for Synchrotron-radiation (SR) light. This material has a high melting point, hardness and chemical stability. Therefore, etching of the material by chemical or physical methods is very difficult. The authors reported a photo-chemical etching method in which a SiC surface is placed in NF{sub 3} laser light of 248 nm perpendicularly on the sample surface. The Xe{sub 2}* excimer lamp light are employed for NF{sub 3} gas decomposition, and KrF laser light used for excitation on the sample surface. This photochemical etching reaction are detected by XPS, QMS and FTIR measurements. This method achieved 0.18 {angstrom}/shot in etching efficiency, and became maximum approximately 7 times as high as ArF laser light for photodecomposition.

  15. Scanning Diode Laser Desorption Thin-Layer Chromatography Coupled with Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Song; Ahlmann, Norman; Edler, Michael; Franzke, Joachim

    Continuous wave diode laser is applied for desorption of an analyte from a porous surface of a thin-layer plate covered with a graphite suspension. The thermally desorbed analyte molecules are ionized in the gas phase by a corona discharge at atmospheric pressure. Therefore, both essential processes - the desorption and the ionization of analyte molecules, which are often performed in one step - are separated. Reserpine was chosen as model analyte, which is often used for specification of mass spectrometers. No fragmentation was observed because of efficient collisional cooling under atmospheric pressure. The influence of diode laser power and the composition of the graphite suspension were investigated, and a primary optimization was performed. An interface to allow online qualitative and quantitative full plate detection and analysis of compounds separated by thin-layer chromatography is presented.

  16. Soft x-ray laser ablation mass spectrometry for materials study and nanoscale chemical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Ilya; Burian, Tomas; Juha, Libor; Soufli, Regina; Filevich, Jorge; Woolston, M.; Bernstein, Elliot R.; Crick, Dean C.; Carlton, D.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E. H.; Rocca, Jorge J.; Menoni, Carmen S.

    2015-09-01

    There are significant advantages for using a compact capillary discharge soft x-ray laser (SXRL) with wavelength of 46.9 nm for mass spectrometry applications. The 26.4 eV energy photons provide efficient single-photon ionization while preserving the structure of molecules and clusters. The tens of nanometers absorption depth of the radiation coupled with the focusing of the laser beam to diameter of ˜100 nm result in the ablation of atto-liter scale craters which in turn enable high resolution mass spectral imaging of solid samples. In this paper we describe results on the analysis of composition depth-profiling of multilayer oxide stack and material studies in photoresists, ionic crystals, and magnesium corrosion products using SXRL ablation mass spectrometry, a method first demonstrated by our group. These materials are used in a variety of soft x-ray applications such as detectors, multilayer optics, and many more.

  17. Laser based in-situ and standoff detection of chemical warfare agents and explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-09-01

    Laser based detection of gaseous, liquid and solid residues and trace amounts has been developed ever since lasers were invented. However, the lack of availability of reasonably high power tunable lasers in the spectral regions where the relevant targets can be interrogated as well as appropriate techniques for high sensitivity, high selectivity detection has hampered the practical exploitation of techniques for the detection of targets important for homeland security and defense applications. Furthermore, emphasis has been on selectivity without particular attention being paid to the impact of interfering species on the quality of detection. Having high sensitivity is necessary but not a sufficient condition. High sensitivity assures a high probability of detection of the target species. However, it is only recently that the sensor community has come to recognize that any measure of probability of detection must be associated with a probability of false alarm, if it is to have any value as a measure of performance. This is especially true when one attempts to compare performance characteristics of different sensors based on different physical principles. In this paper, I will provide a methodology for characterizing the performance of sensors utilizing optical absorption measurement techniques. However, the underlying principles are equally application to all other sensors. While most of the current progress in high sensitivity, high selectivity detection of CWAs, TICs and explosives involve identifying and quantifying the target species in-situ, there is an urgent need for standoff detection of explosives from safe distances. I will describe our results on CO2 and quantum cascade laser (QCL) based photoacoustic sensors for the detection of CWAs, TICs and explosives as well the very new results on stand-off detection of explosives at distances up to 150 meters. The latter results are critically important for assuring safety of military personnel in battlefield environment, especially from improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and of civilian personnel from terrorist attacks in metropolitan areas.

  18. Chemical sensing with pulsed QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 micrometers.

    PubMed

    Kosterev, A A; Curl, R F; Tittel, F K; Rochat, M; Beck, M; Hofstetter, D; Faist, J

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed thermoelectrically cooled QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 micrometers were characterized for spectroscopic gas sensing applications. A new method for wavelength scanning based on repetition rate modulation was developed. A non-wavelength-selective pyroelectric detector was incorporated in the sensor configuration giving the advantage of room-temperature operation and low cost. Absorption lines of CO2 and H2O were observed in ambient air, providing information about the concentration of these species. PMID:12599401

  19. Chemical sensing with pulsed QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosterev, A. A.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Rochat, M.; Beck, M.; Hofstetter, D.; Faist, J.

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed thermoelectrically cooled QC-DFB lasers operating at 15.6 micrometers were characterized for spectroscopic gas sensing applications. A new method for wavelength scanning based on repetition rate modulation was developed. A non-wavelength-selective pyroelectric detector was incorporated in the sensor configuration giving the advantage of room-temperature operation and low cost. Absorption lines of CO2 and H2O were observed in ambient air, providing information about the concentration of these species.

  20. Kr/sup +/ laser-induced chemical vapor deposition of W

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, G.Q.; Szoerenyi, T.; Baeuerle, D.

    1987-07-15

    Kr/sup +/ laser-induced pyrolytic direct writing of W stripes by H/sub 2/ reduction of WF/sub 6/ has been investigated. The reproducibility of the process and the morphology and electrical properties of deposits depend heavily on the partial pressures of both WF/sub 6/ and H/sub 2/; the best results have been obtained with p(WF/sub 6/) = 5 mbar and 100 mbarless than or equal top(H/sub 2/)less than or equal to800 mbar. For a laser focus of 2w/sub 0/ = 7 ..mu..m and laser powers between 30 and 200 mW, the widths of stripes varied between 1.5 and 15 ..mu..m with corresponding thicknesses between 0.1 to 3 ..mu..m. The width of stripes is independent of the scanning speed within the range 20 ..mu..m/sless than or equal toV/sub s/ less than or equal to400 ..mu..m/s. The electrical resistivities of these stripes were about a factor of 1.3--2.3 larger than the bulk value.

  1. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of planetary rocks using a laser ablation mass spectrometer for in situ space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Mezger, Klaus; Riedo, Andreas; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The context chemical analysis is of considerable importance in space research. High resolution in situ studies of planetary materials can yield important information on surface heterogeneity, basic grain mineralogy and chemical composition of surface and subsurface. In turn, these data are the basis for our understanding of the physical and chemical processes which led to the formation and alteration of planetary material [1] [2]. A highly heterogeneous sample of Allende meteorite, representative for extraterrestrial material, is investigated by LMS, a miniature laser ablation mass spectrometer designed for space research [3]. In the current setup a fs-laser ablation ion source is applied, allowing chemical analysis with lateral resolution of about 10-15 ?m and sub-micrometre depth resolution [4]. The reflectron TOF mass analyser is used to measure elemental and isotopic composition of the sampled surface. The LMS instrument supports mass resolution 400 and dynamic range of 108 [5]. In the current studies with the fs-ablation ion source significant improvements in the detection efficiency of several metals e.g., Ni, Co, and non-metals e.g., Si, P, S and O, was achieved comparing to our previous setup [6]. Also the values of sensitivity coefficients for these elements are determined to be close to one, which resulted in the substantial improvements of the quantitative element analysis of the sample. Since the ablation crater depth is expected to be about 1 nm/laser shot also the possible changes of the main element or isotope distribution in depth can be analysed to assess their influence on the mineralogical analysis [7]. Several areas on an Allende sample were investigated and the chemical composition across the surface was determined from the mass spectrometric analysis. Also accurate isotope analysis could be conducted for most of main elements with sufficiently high signal to noise ratio. Correlation of elements was conducted and yielded mineralogical maps. With the current spatial resolution, grain-sized inclusions embedded in the surface (e.g. CAIs, dark inclusions, metal grains) could be identified. Detailed investigations, e.g. differentiation of chondrule components from rims of chondrules can be derived from LMS data. LMS has capabilities for highly sensitive chemical composition measurements of grain sized inclusions and sub-micrometre sized surface layers. The latter information is of considerable interest in the context of space weathering. References [1] P. Wurz, et al., 2009, AIP Conf.Proc. , CP1144:70-75. [2] P. Wurz et al.,2012, Sol. Sys. Res. 46 408-422. [3] U. Rohner, J. Whitby, and P. Wurz, 2003, Meas. Sci. Technol., 14 2159-2164. [4] A. Riedo et al.,2013, J.Anal.Atom.Spectrom. 28(8):1133-1356. [5] A. Riedo, et al., 2013, J. Mass Spectrom.48, 1-15. [6] M.B. Neuland et al.,2014, Planet. Space. Sci. 101, 196-209. [7] V. Grimaudoet al.,2014, Anal. Chem., submitted.

  2. Laser-induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy for applications in chemical sensing and optical refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumi Barimah, Eric

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an innovative technique that has been used as a method for fast elemental analysis in real time. Conventional ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) LIBS has been applied to detect the elemental composition of different materials, including explosives, pharmaceutical drugs, and biological samples. The extension of conventional LIBS to the infrared region (1-12 mum) promises to provide additional information on molecular emission signatures due to rotational-vibrational transitions. In this research, a pulsed Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm was focused onto several sodium compounds (NaCl, NaClO3, Na2CO3 and NaClO4) and potassium compounds (KCl, KClO3, K2CO3 and KClO4) to produce an intense plasma at the target surface. Several distinct infrared (IR) atomic emission signatures were observed from all sodium and potassium containing compounds. The atomic emission lines observed from the investigated samples matched assigned transitions of neutral sodium and potassium atoms published in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) atomic database. In addition to the intense atomic lines, the rst evidence of molecular LIBS emission structures were observed at 10.0 m in KClO3 and NaClO3 for the chlorate anion (ClO3 --1), at 6.7 to 8.0 mum in KNO3 and NaNO 3 for the nitrate anion (NO3--1 ), 8.0 to 10.0 mum in KClO4 and NaClO4 for perchlorate anion (ClO4--1 ), and 6.88 mum and 11.53 mum in Na2CO3 for the carbonate anion (CO3--1 ). The observed molecular emission showed strong correlation with the conventional Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) absorption spectra of the investigated samples. IR LIBS was also applied to determine the limit of detection (LOD) for the perchlorate anion in KClO4 using the 8.0 -11.0 mum IR-LIBS emission band. The calibration curve of ClO4 in KClO4 was constructed using peak and integrated emission intensities for known concentrations of mixed KClO4/NH4NO3 samples. The limit of detection for ClO4, was determined to be 14.7 +/- 0.5 wt%/wt for the given experimental conditions. In the second part of this research, the temperature-dependent absorption and emission properties of Tm doped KPb2Cl5 (KPC) and KPb2Br5 (KPB) were evaluated for applications in laser cooling. A Tm doped Y3Al5O12 (YAG) crystal was also included for comparative studies. Under laser pumping, all crystals exhibited broad IR fluorescence at room temperature with a mean fluorescence wavelength of 1.82 mum and bandwidth of 0.14 mum (FWHM) for Tm:KPC/KPB and 1.79 mum for Tm:YAG. Initial experiments on laser-induced heating/cooling were performed using a combined IR imaging and fluorescence thermometry setup. Employing a continuous-wave laser operating at 1.907 mum, Tm: KPC and Tm: KPB crystals revealed a very small heat load resulting in temperature increase of 0.3 ( +/- 0.1)C. The heat loading in Tm:YAG was signicantly larger and resulted in a temperature increase of 0.9 (+/-0.1)C. The results derived from IR imaging were also conrmed by the fluorescence thermometry experiments, which showed only minimal changes in the FIR intensity ratio of the green Er3+ fluorescence lines from Er:KPC.

  3. Resonant laser ablation ion trap mass spectrometry -- Recent applications for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, C.G.; Garrett, A.W.; Hemberger, P.H.; Nogar, N.S.

    1995-12-31

    Resonant Laser Ablation (RLA) is a useful ionization process for selectively producing gas phase ions from a solid sample. Recent use of RLA for mass spectrometry by this group and by others has produced a wealth of knowledge and useful analytical techniques. The method relies upon the focusing of modest intensity laser pulses ({le} 10{sup 7} W {center_dot} Cm{sup {minus}2}) upon a sample surface. A small quantity of material is vaporized, and atoms of desired analyte are subsequently ionized by (n + m) photon processes in the gas phase (where n = number of photons to a resonant transition and m = number of photons to exceed the ionization limit). The authors have been using (2 + 1) resonant ionization schemes for this work. Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry is realizing a very prominent role in current mass spectrometric research. Ion traps are versatile, powerful and extremely sensitive mass spectrometers, capable of a variety of ionization modes, MS{sup n} type experiments, high mass ranges and high resolution, all for a fraction of the cost of other instrumentation with similar capabilities. Quadrupole ion traps are ideally suited to pulsed ionization sources such as laser ionization methods, since their normal operational method (Mass Selective Instability) relies upon the storage of ions from a finite ionization period followed by ejection and detection of these ions based upon their mass to charge ratios. The paper describes selective ionization for trace atomic analysis, selective reagent ion source for ion chemistry investigations, and the analysis of ``difficult`` environmental contaminants, i.e., TBP.

  4. Increasing the output power of single 808-nm laser diodes using diamond submounts produced by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ashkinazi, E E; Bezotosnyi, V V; Bondarev, Vadim Yu; Kovalenko, V I; Konov, Vitalii I; Krokhin, Oleg N; Oleshchenko, V A; Pevtsov, Valerii F; Popov, Yurii M; Popovich, A F; Ral'chenko, Viktor G; Cheshev, E A

    2012-11-30

    We have designed and fabricated submounts from synthetic diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition and developed an economical process for metallising such submounts. Laser diode chips having an 808-nm emission wavelength, 3-mm-long cavity and 130-mm-wide stripe contact were mounted on copper heat sinks with the use of diamond submounts differing in quality. The devices were tested for more than 150 h in continuous mode at an output power of 8 W on diamond with a thermal conductivity of 700 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, and no changes in their output power were detected. On diamond with a thermal conductivity of 1600 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}, stable cw operation for 24 h at an output power of 12 W was demonstrated. (letters)

  5. Comparison of the structural and chemical composition of two unique micro/nanostructures produced by femtosecond laser interactions on nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Zuhlke, Craig A.; Anderson, Troy P.; Alexander, Dennis R.

    2013-09-16

    The structural and chemical composition of two unique microstructures formed on nickel, with nanoscale features, produced using femtosecond laser surface processing (FLSP) techniques is reported in this paper. These two surface morphologies, termed mounds and nanoparticle-covered pyramids, are part of a larger class of self-organized micro/nanostructured surfaces formed using FLSP. Cross-sections of the structures produced using focused ion beam milling techniques were analyzed with a transmission electron microscope. Both morphologies have a solid core with a layer of nanoparticles on the surface. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy by scanning transmission electron microscopy studies reveal that the nanoparticles are a nickel oxide, while the core material is pure nickel.

  6. Laser fluorescence studies of the chemical interactions of sodium species with sulfur bearing fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, M.; Schofield, K.

    1983-01-01

    By using a large matrix of fuel rich and fuel lean H2/O2/N2 and fuel rich C2H2/O2/N2 flames, the behavior of sodium and its interactions with sulfur at high temperatures was extensively characterized. OH concentrations were measured for each flame using the previously validated laser induced fluorescence technique. Sodium atomic concentrations were obtained by the saturated laser fluorescence method. Measurements were made in the absence and presence of up to 2% sulfur. In oxygen rich systems sodium is depleted by NaO2 and NaOH formation. The relative amounts of each are controlled by the degree of nonequilibration of the flame radicals and by the temperature. The bond strength of NaO2 was established. For the first time, a complete understanding of the complex behavior of sodium in fuel lean H2/O2 flames has emerged and computer modeling has permitted various rate constants of Na, NaO2 and NaOH reactions to be approximately fixed.

  7. Effects of texturization due to chemical etching and laser on the optical properties of multicrystalline silicon for applications in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, D.; Mass, J.; Manotas, M.; Cabanzo, R.; Mejia, E.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we carried out the texturization of surfaces of multicrystalline silicon type-p in order to decrease the reflection of light on the surface, using the chemical etching method and then a treatment with laser. In the first method, it was immersed in solutions of HF:HNO3:H2O, HF:HNO3:CH3COOH, HF:HNO3:H3PO4, in the proportion 14:01:05, during 30 seconds, 1, 2 and 3 minutes. Subsequently with a laser (ND:YAG) grids were generated beginning with parallel lines separated 50μm. The samples were analyzed by means of diffuse spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and scanning electron micrograph (SEM) before and after the laser treatment. The lowest result of reflectance obtained by HF:HNO3:H2O during 30 seconds, was of 15.5%. However, after applying the treatment with laser the reflectance increased to 17.27%. On the other hand, the samples treated (30 seconds) with acetic acid and phosphoric acid as diluents gives as a result a decrease in the reflectance values after applying the laser treatment from 21.97% to 17.79% and from 27.73% to 20.03% respectively. The above indicates that in some cases it is possible to decrease the reflectance using jointly the method of chemical etching and then a laser treatment.

  8. Combining Transmission Geometry Laser Ablation and a Non Contact Continuous Flow Surface Sampling Probe/Electrospray Emitter for Mass Spectrometry-Based Chemical Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikova, Olga S; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the coupling of ambient pressure transmission geometry laser ablation with a liquid phase sample collection into a continuous flow surface sampling probe/electrospray emitter for mass spectrometry based chemical imaging. The flow probe/emitter device was placed in close proximity to the surface to collect the sample plume produced by laser ablation. The sample collected was immediately aspirated into the probe and on to the electrospray emitter, ionized and detected with the mass spectrometer. Freehand drawn ink lines and letters and an inked fingerprint on microscope slides were analyzed. The circular laser ablation area was about 210 m in diameter and under the conditions used in these experiments the spatial resolution, as determined by the size of the surface features distinguished in the chemical images, was about 100 m.

  9. An infrared free electron laser system for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL based on a 500 MHz superconducting linac

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Byrns, R.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Donahue, R.; Edighoffer, J.; Gough, R.; Hoyer, E.; Leemans, W.; Staples, J.; Taylor, B.; Xie, M.

    1992-09-01

    We describe a new design of the Infrared Free Electron Laser (IRFEL) for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory (CDRL) at LBL. The design and choice of parameters are dictated by the unique requirements of the CDRL scientific program. The accelerator system is based on the 500 MHz superconducting cavity technology to achieve a wavelength stability of 10{sup {minus}4}.

  10. Mitigation of organic laser damage precursors from chemical processing of fused silica.

    PubMed

    Baxamusa, S; Miller, P E; Wong, L; Steele, R; Shen, N; Bude, J

    2014-12-01

    Increases in the laser damage threshold of fused silica have been driven by the successive elimination of near-surface damage precursors such as polishing residue, fractures, and inorganic salts. In this work, we show that trace impurities in ultrapure water used to process fused silica optics may be responsible for the formation of carbonaceous deposits. We use surrogate materials to show that organic compounds precipitated onto fused silica surfaces form discrete damage precursors. Following a standard etching process, solvent-free oxidative decomposition using oxygen plasma or high-temperature thermal treatments in air reduced the total density of damage precursors to as low as <50 cm(-2). Finally, we show that inorganic compounds are more likely to cause damage when they are tightly adhered to a surface, which may explain why high-temperature thermal treatments have been historically unsuccessful at removing extrinsic damage precursors from fused silica. PMID:25606889

  11. NCl(b) based short wavelength chemical laser. Final report, 15 October 1992-14 February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.T.; Gylys, V.T.; Hindy, R.N.

    1994-02-14

    Based on the results of this work, the prospects of development of a visible chemical laser based on NCl(b) are promising. NCl, in the electronically excited b-state emits to the ground state at 665 nm. The NCl b-state is generated by energy-pooling of NCl(a) and excited iodine atoms I*. All of these species can be generated from chemical reactions solely. This work has shown that: (1) In the generation of NCl, the branching ratio for NCl(a) is high. 65% of the HN3 ends up in the NCl(a) state; (2) The rate constant for the energy-pooling reaction NCl(a) + I NCl(b) is quite favorably large, approximately 10-11 cu cm/sec; (3) A gain on the order of 1x10(exp 4)/cm was obtained; and (4) Variations of the cavity ring-down experiment showed that virtually no NCl(x) is formed via reaction.

  12. Design and Performance of a Sensor System for Detection of Multiple Chemicals Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Cannon, Bret D.; Schiffern, John T.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2010-01-23

    We describe the performance of a sensor system designed for simultaneous detection of multiple chemicals with both broad and narrow absorption features. The sensor system consists of a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), multi-pass Herriott cell, and custom low-noise electronics. The ECQCL features a rapid wavelength tuning rate of 2265 cm 1/s (15660 nm/s) over its tuning range of 1150-1270 cm 1 (7.87-8.70 ?m), which permits detection of molecules with broad absorption features and dynamic concentrations, while the 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution of the ECQCL system allows measurement of small molecules with atmospherically broadened absorption lines. High-speed amplitude modulation and low-noise electronics are used to improve the ECQCL performance for direct absorption measurements. We demonstrate simultaneous detection of Freon-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane), ammonia (NH3), and nitrous oxide (N2O) at low-ppb concentrations in field measurements of atmospheric chemical releases from a point source.

  13. Possibilities of improving the performance of an autonomous cw chemical DF laser by replacing the slot nozzles by the ramp ones in the nozzle array

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkin, A S; Gurov, L V; Kurdyukov, M V

    2011-08-31

    The results of a comparative numerical study of the performance of an autonomous cw chemical DF laser are obtained by simulating the processes in the nozzles and laser cavity where several configurations of slot and ramp nozzle arrays are employed. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations solved with the Ansys CFX software are used to describe the reacting multicomponent flow in the nozzles and laser cavity. To investigate lasing characteristics, a supplementary code is developed and is used to calculate the radiation intensity in the Fabry-Perot resonator, taking into account its nonuniform distribution along the aperture width and height. It is shown that the use of the nozzle array consisting of ramp nozzles, which, in contrast to the slot nozzles, provide enhanced mixing of the reactants makes it possible to improve the laser performance in the case of a high-pressure (more than 15 Torr) active medium. (control of radiation parameters)

  14. Mesoscale elucidation of laser-assisted chemical deposition of Sn nanostructured electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhixiao; Mukherjee, Partha P.; Deng, Biwei; Cheng, Gary J.; Deng, Huiqiu

    2015-06-07

    Nanostructured tin (Sn) is a promising high-capacity electrode for improved performance in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. In this work, Sn nanoisland growth for nanostructured electrodes assisted by the pulse laser irradiation has been investigated based on a mesoscale modeling formalism. The influence of pertinent processing conditions, such as pulse duration, heating/cooling rates, and atom flux, on the Sn nanostructure formation is specifically considered. The interaction between the adsorbed atom and the substrate, represented by the adatom diffusion barrier, is carefully studied. It is found that the diffusion barrier predominantly affects the distribution of Sn atoms. For both α-Sn and β-Sn, the averaged coordination number is larger than 3 when the diffusion barrier equals to 0.15 eV. The averaged coordination number decreases as the diffusion barrier increases. The substrate temperature, which is determined by heating/cooling rates and pulse duration, can also affect the formation of Sn nanoislands. For α-Sn, when applied low heating/cooling rates, nanoislands cannot form if the diffusion barrier is larger than 0.35 eV.

  15. Mesoscale elucidation of laser-assisted chemical deposition of Sn nanostructured electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhixiao; Deng, Biwei; Cheng, Gary J.; Deng, Huiqiu; Mukherjee, Partha P.

    2015-06-01

    Nanostructured tin (Sn) is a promising high-capacity electrode for improved performance in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. In this work, Sn nanoisland growth for nanostructured electrodes assisted by the pulse laser irradiation has been investigated based on a mesoscale modeling formalism. The influence of pertinent processing conditions, such as pulse duration, heating/cooling rates, and atom flux, on the Sn nanostructure formation is specifically considered. The interaction between the adsorbed atom and the substrate, represented by the adatom diffusion barrier, is carefully studied. It is found that the diffusion barrier predominantly affects the distribution of Sn atoms. For both ?-Sn and ?-Sn, the averaged coordination number is larger than 3 when the diffusion barrier equals to 0.15 eV. The averaged coordination number decreases as the diffusion barrier increases. The substrate temperature, which is determined by heating/cooling rates and pulse duration, can also affect the formation of Sn nanoislands. For ?-Sn, when applied low heating/cooling rates, nanoislands cannot form if the diffusion barrier is larger than 0.35 eV.

  16. Chemical imaging of trichome specialized metabolites using contact printing and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Wang, Zhenzhen; Jones, A Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Cell transfer by contact printing coupled with carbon-substrate-assisted laser desorption/ionization was used to directly profile and image secondary metabolites in trichomes on leaves of the wild tomato Solanum habrochaites. Major specialized metabolites, including acyl sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoid acids, were successfully detected in positive ion mode or negative ion mode, and in some cases in both modes. This simple solvent-free and matrix-free sample preparation for mass spectrometry imaging avoids tedious sample preparation steps, and high-spatial-resolution images were obtained. Metabolite profiles were generated for individual glandular trichomes from a single Solanum habrochaites leaf at a spatial resolution of around 50?m. Relative quantitative data from imaging experiments were validated by independent liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of subsamples from fresh plant material. The spatially resolved metabolite profiles of individual glands provided new information about the complexity of biosynthesis of specialized metabolites at the cellular-resolution scale. In addition, this technique offers a scheme capable of high-throughput profiling of metabolites in trichomes and irregularly shaped tissues and spatially discontinuous cells of a given cell type. PMID:24220760

  17. Chemical kinetic studies of atmospheric reactions using tunable diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worsnop, Douglas R.; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    IR absorption using tunable diode laser spectroscopy provides a sensitive and quantitative detection method for laboratory kinetic studies of atmospheric trace gases. Improvements in multipass cell design, real time signal processing, and computer controlled data acquisition and analysis have extended the applicability of the technique. We have developed several optical systems using off-axis resonator mirror designs which maximize path length while minimizing both the sample volume and the interference fringes inherent in conventional 'White' cells. Computerized signal processing using rapid scan (300 kHz), sweep integration with 100 percent duty cycle allows substantial noise reduction while retaining the advantages of using direct absorption for absolute absorbance measurements and simultaneous detection of multiple species. Peak heights and areas are determined by curve fitting using nonlinear least square methods. We have applied these techniques to measurements of: (1) heterogeneous uptake chemistry of atmospheric trace gases (HCl, H2O2, and N2O5) on aqueous and sulfuric acid droplets; (2) vapor pressure measurements of nitric acid and water over prototypical stratospheric aerosol (nitric acid trihydrate) surfaces; and (3) discharge flow tube kinetic studies of the HO2 radical using isotopic labeling for product channel and mechanistic analysis. Results from each of these areas demonstrate the versatility of TDL absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric chemistry applications.

  18. Slow Passage Through Bifurcation and Limit Points. Asymptotic Theory and Applications in the Areas of Chemical and Laser Instabilities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Miltiades

    We study several new effects of slow passage through bifurcation parameter and limit points. First, we investigate experimental results on slow passage through limit points, recently obtained for the bistable iodate-arsenous acid reaction. We compare these observations with the asymptotic and numerical results obtained from a simple model. The transition near the lower limit point is fast and follows the varepsilon ^{2/3} law predicted by the theory (varepsilon is the ramp rate of the control parameter). By contrast, the jump transition near the upper limit point is slow and follows an varepsilon law which is not predicted by the theory. Our numerical study shows that the values of varepsilon used in the experiments are too large to follow the varepsilon^{2/3} law. Second, we investigate the effect of additive gaussian white noise on the pulsed solutions of a laser with a saturable absorber (LSA). We assume that the noise does not affect the short time inner solution, and concentrate on the long time outer solution. Using asymptotic methods we show that the problem is adequately described by a single nonlinear differential equation with a slowly varying bifurcation parameter. We solve the Langevin equation and we determine the scalings between the delay and the amplitude of the noise. These results agree with the numerical study of the complete laser equations. Finally, we consider the slow passage past a low frequency Hopf bifurcation, in the context of the chemical model of the Brusselator. Using phase plane techniques, we show that the oscillations may disappear as a result of the slowly varying bifurcation parameter. This phenomenon appears if the time scale of the variation of the bifurcation parameter is of the same order as the time scale of the slow part of the relaxation oscillations.

  19. Chemical Production by Pulse-Laser Irradiation on Ices: Simulation of Impact Shock-Induced Chemistry on Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nna-Mvondo, Delphine; Khare, B. N.; Ishihara, T.; McKay, C. P.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Borucki, W. J.

    2007-12-01

    Several icy satellites of the outer planets show a variety of impact cratering features. The effect of impact by extraterrestrial objects into the surface is commonly related to physical changes. Most of the research applied to impacts on ices has been developed to study and understand the cratering formation process and their physical, geophysical characteristics. Chemical changes and synthesis occurring on icy planetary surfaces are generally explained by the influence of UV photons and high-energy charged particles on ices. Nonetheless, impact process onto ices could be a source of local or global endogenic process and could be especially advantageous as an efficient energy source for driving interesting chemistry. Upon impact on icy surface, the kinetic energy of the impacting body is transferred to the ground liberating a great deal of stress energy which could initiate in situ aqueous melts of the ice, hydrolysis and other chemical reactions in the fracture zone beneath the crater. Here we present a novel experimental method to study the chemistry in planetary ices induced by impact shocks. Impact shocks were simulated in laboratory using a powerful pulsed laser (Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, 1064 nm). We have irradiated at 77K icy mixtures of H2O / CO2, H2O / Na2CO3, H2O / CH3OH and finally H2O / CH3OH / (NH4)2SO4. GC-MS and FTIR analyses show that hydrogen peroxide, carbon monoxide and methanol are formed in irradiated H2O / CO2 ices. Ice containing sodium carbonate generates under simulated impact CO and CO2 which are also produced in impacted H2O / CH3OH and H2O / CH3OH / (NH4)2SO4 ices. But, in both latter icy mixtures, methane and more complex molecules are also formed. We have detected acetone, methyl formate and dimethyl formal. Adding ammonium sulfate to ice containing methanol induces the production of N2O, HCN and CH3CN.

  20. Periodic nanostructuring of Er/Yb-codoped IOG1 phosphate glass by using ultraviolet laser-assisted selective chemical etching

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, C.; Pissadakis, S.

    2006-12-01

    The patterning of submicron period ({approx_equal}500 nm) Bragg reflectors in the Er/Yb-codoped IOG1 Schott, phosphate glass is demonstrated. A high yield patterning technique is presented, wherein high volume damage is induced into the glass matrix by exposure to intense ultraviolet 213 nm, 150 ps Nd:YAG laser radiation and, subsequently, a chemical development in potassium hydroxide (KOH)/ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) aqueous solution selectively etches the exposed areas. The electronic changes induced by the 213 nm ultraviolet irradiation are examined by employing spectrophotometric measurements, while an estimation of the refractive index changes recorded is provided by applying Kramers-Kronig transformation to the absorption change data. In addition, real time diffraction efficiency measurements were obtained during the formation of the volume damage grating. After the exposure, the growth of the relief grating pattern in time was measured at fixed time intervals and the dependence of the grating depth on the etching time and exposure conditions is presented. The gratings fabricated are examined by atomic and scanning electron microscopies to reveal the relief topology of the structures. Gratings with average depth of 120 nm and excellent surface quality were fabricated by exposing the IOG1 phosphate glass to 36 000 pulses of 208 mJ/cm{sup 2} energy density, followed by developing in the KOH/EDTA agent for 6 min.

  1. A hyphenated optical trap capillary electrophoresis laser induced native fluorescence system for single-cell chemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cecala, Christine; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Mitchell, Jennifer W.; Gillette, Martha U.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2013-01-01

    Single-cell measurements allow a unique glimpse into cell-to-cell heterogeneity; even small changes in selected cells can have a profound impact on an organisms physiology. Here an integrated approach to single-cell chemical sampling and assay are described. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF) has the sensitivity to characterize natively-fluorescent indoles and catechols within individual cells. While the separation and detection approaches are well established, the sampling and injection of individually selected cells requires new approaches. We describe an optimized system that interfaces a single-beam optical trap with CE and multichannel LINF detection. A cell is localized within the trap and then the capillary inlet is positioned near the cell using a computer-controlled micromanipulator. Hydrodynamic injection allows cell lysis to occur within the capillary inlet, followed by the CE separation and LINF detection. The use of multiple emission wavelengths allows improved analyte identification based on differences in analyte fluorescence emission profiles and migration time. The system enables injections of individual rat pinealocytes and quantification of their endogenous indoles, including serotonin, N-acetyl-serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid, tryptophol and others. The amounts detected in individual cells incubated in 5-hydroxytryptophan ranged from 10?14 mol to 10?16 mol, an order of magnitude higher than observed in untreated pinealocytes. PMID:22543409

  2. High Temperature Nanocomposites For Nuclear Thermal Propulsion and In-Space Fabrication by Hyperbaric Pressure Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, J. L.; Webb, N. D.; Espinoza, M.; Cook, S.; Houts, M.; Kim, T.

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is an indispensable technology for the manned exploration of the solar system. By using Hyperbaric Pressure Laser Chemical Vapor Deposition (HP-LCVD), the authors propose to design and build a promising next-generation fuel element composed of uranium carbide UC embedded in a latticed matrix of highly refractory Ta4HfC5 for an NTP rocket capable of sustaining temperatures up to 4000 K, enabling an Isp of up to 1250 s. Furthermore, HP-LCVD technology can also be harnessed to enable 3D rapid prototyping of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics and composites, opening up the possibility of in-space fabrication of components, replacement parts, difficult-to-launch solar sails and panels and a variety of other space structures. Additionally, rapid prototyping with HP-LCVD makes a feasible "live off the land" strategy of interplanetary and interstellar exploration ­ the precursors commonly used in the technology are found, often in abundance, on other solar system bodies either as readily harvestable gas (e.g. methane) or as a raw material that could be converted into a suitable precursor (e.g. iron oxide into ferrocene on Mars).

  3. Design and chemical synthesis of iodine-containing molecules for application to solar-pumped I* lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiner, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    The design and chemical synthesis of new media for solar pumped iodine molecule lasers are explored. In an effort to prepare an iodo fluorocarbon compound absorbing strongly at 300 nm or above, the synthesis of perfluoro allylic iodides was investigated. These compounds furnish especially stable allylic radicals upon photodissociation. The desired red shift is anticipated in the absorption maximum could correlate with increasing radical stability. This expectation was based upon the analysis, previously reported, of the structures and absorption maxima of compounds studied earlier. A previously unknown substance was prepared, a prototypical target molecule, perfluoro-3-iodocyclopent-1-ene. It was obtained by reaction of perfluorocyclopentene with sulfur trioxide under the influence of antimony pentafluoride catalyst, followed by treatment of the resulting allylic fluorosulfonate with sodium iodide in sulfoland solvent. Preliminary data indicate that the absorption maximum for the iodo fluorocarbon is not shifted significantly to longer wavelength. It is not certain whether this result reflects an unexpected influence of the cyclic structure upon the position of the absorption maximum.

  4. Periodic nanostructuring of Er /Yb-codoped IOG1 phosphate glass by using ultraviolet laser-assisted selective chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, C.; Pissadakis, S.

    2006-12-01

    The patterning of submicron period (?500nm) Bragg reflectors in the Er /Yb-codoped IOG1 Schott, phosphate glass is demonstrated. A high yield patterning technique is presented, wherein high volume damage is induced into the glass matrix by exposure to intense ultraviolet 213nm, 150ps Nd:YAG laser radiation and, subsequently, a chemical development in potassium hydroxide (KOH)/ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) aqueous solution selectively etches the exposed areas. The electronic changes induced by the 213nm ultraviolet irradiation are examined by employing spectrophotometric measurements, while an estimation of the refractive index changes recorded is provided by applying Kramers-Kronig transformation to the absorption change data. In addition, real time diffraction efficiency measurements were obtained during the formation of the volume damage grating. After the exposure, the growth of the relief grating pattern in time was measured at fixed time intervals and the dependence of the grating depth on the etching time and exposure conditions is presented. The gratings fabricated are examined by atomic and scanning electron microscopies to reveal the relief topology of the structures. Gratings with average depth of 120nm and excellent surface quality were fabricated by exposing the IOG1 phosphate glass to 36 000 pulses of 208mJ/cm2 energy density, followed by developing in the KOH/EDTA agent for 6min.

  5. Laser-induced chemical reactions. [H + H/sub 2/; F + H/sub 2/; H + HF; Cl + H/sub 2/; H + HCl; H + LiF

    SciTech Connect

    Orel, A.E.

    1980-12-01

    A classical model for the interaction of laser radiation with a molecular system is derived. This model is used to study the enhancement of a chemical reaction via a collision induced absorption. It was found that an infrared laser will in general enhance the rate of a chemical reaction, even if the reactants are infrared inactive. Results for an illustrative analytically solvable model are presented, as well as results from classical trajectory studies on a number of systems. The collision induced absorption spectrum in these systems can be written as the Fourier transform of a particular dipole correlation function. This is used to obtain the collision induced absorption spectrum for a state-selected, mono-energetic reactive collision system. Examples treated are a one-dimensional barrier problem, reactive and nonreactive collisions of H + H/sub 2/, and a modified H + H/sub 2/ potential energy surface which leads to a collision intermediate. An extension of the classical model to treat laser-induced electronically nonadiabatic collision processes is constructed. The model treats all degrees of freedom, molecular, electronic and radiation, in a dynamically consistent framework within classical mechanics. Application is made to several systems. Several interesting phenomena are discovered including a Franck-Condon-like effect causing maxima in the reaction probability at energies much below the classical threshold, laser de-enhancement of chemical reactions and an isotope effect. In order to assess the validity of the classical model for electronically nonadiabatic process (without a laser field), a model problem involving energy transfer in a collinear atom-diatom system is studied, and the results compared to the available quantum mechanical calculation. The calculations are in qualitative agreement.

  6. Laser interaction with tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Berns, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on laser biomedicine. Topics include: light distributions on tissue; chemical byproducts of laser/tissue interactions; laser applications in ophthalmology; phododynamic therapy; diode pumped solid state lasers at two and three micrometers; and applications of excimer lasers to peripheral nerve repair.

  7. Chemical mapping of hot-embossed and UV-laser-ablated microchannels in poly(methyl methacrylate) using carboxylate specific fluorescent probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Waddell, Emanuel A.; Kramer, Gary W.; Locascio, Laurie E.

    2001-09-01

    The physical morphology and chemical functionality of fluid microchannels formed in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrates were studied to increase the fundamental understanding of polymer microchannel surface properties for 'lab-on-a-chip' devices. Microchannels were formed by a hot-imprint method using a silicon template or by a laser ablation process (248 nm KrF laser) operating at low to moderate fluence levels (up to 1180 mJ/cm 2). The carboxylate groups, which are responsible for the surface charges, were fluorescently labeled by reaction with an ethyl-dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide hydrochloride/amino-fluorescein solution. Fluorescence microscopy was then used to locate and measure qualitatively the charge present on the microchannel walls. Results suggest that surface charges are localized on the corners of trapezoidal channels formed by the hot-imprint method and that the amount of charge present is significantly less compared to laser-ablated microchannels where charges appear to be distributed uniformly. For substrates irradiated at fluences above the laser ablation threshold, it was found that one pass of the laser produced a surface with greater charge than channels made with multiple passes, that ablation under nitrogen resulted in more charge than ablation under oxygen, and that non-sonicated substrates had more charge than samples that were sonicated after ablation. Trends in the data for sonicated samples are explained through scanning electron microscopy images showing etch depth and UV-laser penetration to depths below the surface of the formed microchannel. Finally, we have determined that the surface charge on the substrate can be modified by using the laser at fluence levels lower than those required to ablate the substrate.

  8. Laser applications in chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kompa, K.L.; Wanner, J.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents information on laser and related light sources, laser applications to analytical chemistry, spectroscopic and dynamical studies, and approaches to laser synthesis. Topics on these subjects include: laser sources for chemical experiments, high power optically pumped mid-infrared molecular gas lasers, analytical chemistry methods based on absorption of laser light, laser excited fluorescence methods in analytical chemistry, nonlinear spectroscopic techniques and their applications to analytical chemistry, and VUV laser spectroscopy of atomic and molecular hydrogen. Laser spectroscopy of molecular ions is discussed along with photodissociation dynamics experiments with NO/sub 2/, multiphoton selective ionization and fragmentation of polyatomic molecules, and laser initiated free radical chemistry.

  9. Lasers '92; Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers and Applications, 15th, Houston, TX, Dec. 7-10, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles P. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: x-ray lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, high power lasers, blue-green lasers, dye lasers, solid state lasers, semiconductor lasers, gas and discharge lasers, carbon dioxide lasers, ultrafast phenomena, nonlinear optics, quantum optics, dynamic gratings and wave mixing, laser radar, lasers in medicine, optical filters and laser communication, optical techniques and instruments, laser material interaction, and industrial and manufacturing applications.

  10. Laser thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    Laser propulsion can reduce fuel by 57 t to 105 t over chemical propulsion for a 144 t Lunar base, with no significant increase in trip time. Laser propulsion reduces trip time by a factor of 40 to 120 over nuclear electric propulsion and time in radiation belts by a factor of 100 to 1700. Either solar or nuclear driven laser diode arrays could produce multimegawatt beams, typically 3,700 t for a 235 MW laser system. Laser diode arrays have high payoff due to short wavelength (850 nm) and high diode efficiency (70 percent). A dry laser OTV of 8790 kg and 60 percent efficiency can transport a 144 t lunar base. Laser propulsion could carry both personnel and cargo safely to the lunar base.

  11. The laser guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, J.

    1986-01-01

    In introductory chapters, the author discusses such topics as the evolution of the laser concept, laser theory and principles, methods to enhance laser operation, and accessories that improve laser performance. The heart of the book, however, is devoted to individual laser types. In these chapters, Hecht examines the major and minor kinds of lasers that are commercially available, such as helium-neon, ion, carbon dioxide, chemical, copper vapor, excimer, far-infrared, dye, nitrogen, gallium arsenide, semiconductor diode, and neodymium.

  12. Polymer-inorganic nanocomposite thin film emitters, optoelectronic chemical sensors, and energy harvesters produced by multiple-beam pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darwish, Abdalla M.; Wilson, Simeon; Blackwell, Ashley; Taylor, Keylantra; Sarkisov, Sergey; Patel, Darayas; Mele, Paolo; Johnson, Michael W.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Koplitz, Brent

    2015-08-01

    Large class of new photonic devices, including light emitters, chemical sensors, and energy harvesters, can be made of the polymer-inorganic nanocomposite thin films produced by the new multiple-beam pulsed laser deposition process (MB-PLD). We describe the PLD system and the film deposition process itself, particularly the multiple-beam matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MB-MAPLE) version with laser beam scanning and plume direction control. We also report on the results of the investigation of optical and performance characteristics of three types of the fabricated nanocomposite thin film devices: upconversion light emitters, chemical (ammonia) sensors, and thermoelectric energy harvesters. The emitters were made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film impregnated with the nanoparticles of rare-earth (RE) fluorides such as NaYF4: Yb3+, Er3+ and NaYF4: Yb3+, Ho3+. They demonstrated bright upconversion emission in visible region being pumped with a 980-nm infra-red laser. The same films, but doped with an indicator dye, were tested as ammonia sensors. They demonstrated the drop of upconversion emission (registered by a photodetector) due to the rise of the optical absorption of the indicator dye affected by ammonia. The capability of detecting fractions of one percent (molar) of ammonia was established. The thermoelectric energy harvesters were made of nanocomposite films of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) impregnated with polymer nanoparticles. The role of the nanoparticles was to reduce the thermoconductivity and increase electroconductivity thus contributing to the improvement of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT.

  13. Design of Laser Based Monitoring Systems for Compliance Management of Odorous and Hazardous Air Pollutants in Selected Chemical Industrial Estates at Hyderabad, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, P.; Kalavathi, P.; Ramakrishna Rao, D.; Satyanarayna, M.

    2014-12-01

    Industrialization can no longer sustain without internalization of the concerns of the receiving environment and land-use. Increased awareness and public pressure, coupled with regulatory instruments and bodies exert constant pressure on industries to control their emissions to a level acceptable to the receiving environment. However, when a group of industries come-up together as an industrial estate, the cumulative impacts of all the industries together often challenges the expected/desired quality of receiving environment, requiring stringent pollution control and monitoring measures. Laser remote sensing techniques provide powerful tools for environmental monitoring. These methods provide range resolved measurements of concentrations of various gaseous pollutants and suspended particulate matter (SPM) not only in the path of the beam but over the entire area. A three dimensional mapping of the pollutants and their dispersal can be estimated using the laser remote sensing methods on a continuous basis. Laser Radar (Lidar) systems are the measurements technology used in the laser remote sensing methods. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Raman Lidar technologies have proved to be very useful for remote sensing of air pollutants. DIAL and Raman lidar systems can be applied for range resolved measurements of molecules like SO2, NO2, O3 Hg, CO, C2H4, H2O, CH4, hydrocarbons etc. in real time on a continuous basis. This paper describes the design details of the DAIL and Raman lidar techniques for measurement of various hazardous air pollutants which are being released into the atmosphere by the chemical industries operating in the Bachupally industrial Estate area at Hyderabad, India. The relative merits of the two techniques have been studied and the minimum concentration of pollutants that can be measured using these systems are presented. A dispersion model of the air pollutants in the selected chemical industrial estates at Hyderabad has been developed.

  14. The role of physical and chemical properties of Pd nanostructured materials immobilized on inorganic carriers on ion formation in atmospheric pressure laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silina, Yuliya E; Koch, Marcus; Volmer, Dietrich A

    2014-06-01

    Fundamental parameters influencing the ion-producing efficiency of palladium nanostructures (nanoparticles [Pd-NP], nanoflowers, nanofilms) during laser irradiation were studied in this paper. The nanostructures were immobilized on the surface of different solid inorganic carrier materials (porous and mono-crystalline silicon, anodic porous aluminum oxide, glass and polished steel) by using classical galvanic deposition, electroless local deposition and sputtering. It was the goal of this study to investigate the influence of both the nanoparticular layer as well as the carrier material on ion production for selected analyte molecules. Our experiments demonstrated that the dimensions of the synthesized nanostructures, the thickness of the active layers, surface disorders, thermal conductivity and physically or chemically adsorbed water influenced signal intensities of analyte ions during surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) while no effects such as plasmon resonance, photoelectric effect or catalytic activity were expected to occur. Excellent LDI abilities were seen for Pd-NPs immobilized on steel, while Pd nanoflowers on porous silicon exhibited several disadvantages; viz, strong memory effects, dependency of the analytical signal on amount of physically and chemically adsorbed water inside porous carrier, reduced SALDI activity from unstable connections between Pd and semiconductor material, decrease of the melting point of pure silicon after Pd immobilization and resulting strong laser ablation of metal/semiconductor complex, as well as significantly changed surface morphology after laser irradiation. The analytical performance of Pd-NP/steel was further improved by applying a hydrophobic coating to the steel surface before galvanic deposition. This procedure increased the distance between Pd-NPs, thus reducing thermal stress upon LDI; it simultaneously decreased spot sizes of deposited sample solutions. PMID:24913399

  15. Quantitative measurement of the chemical composition of geological standards with a miniature laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer designed for in situ application in space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuland, M. B.; Grimaudo, V.; Mezger, K.; Moreno-García, P.; Riedo, A.; Tulej, M.; Wurz, P.

    2016-03-01

    A key interest of planetary space missions is the quantitative determination of the chemical composition of the planetary surface material. The chemical composition of surface material (minerals, rocks, soils) yields fundamental information that can be used to answer key scientific questions about the formation and evolution of the planetary body in particular and the Solar System in general. We present a miniature time-of-flight type laser ablation/ionization mass spectrometer (LMS) and demonstrate its capability in measuring the elemental and mineralogical composition of planetary surface samples quantitatively by using a femtosecond laser for ablation/ionization. The small size and weight of the LMS make it a remarkable tool for in situ chemical composition measurements in space research, convenient for operation on a lander or rover exploring a planetary surface. In the laboratory, we measured the chemical composition of four geological standard reference samples USGS AGV-2 Andesite, USGS SCo-l Cody Shale, NIST 97b Flint Clay and USGS QLO-1 Quartz Latite with LMS. These standard samples are used to determine the sensitivity factors of the instrument. One important result is that all sensitivity factors are close to 1. Additionally, it is observed that the sensitivity factor of an element depends on its electron configuration, hence on the electron work function and the elemental group in agreement with existing theory. Furthermore, the conformity of the sensitivity factors is supported by mineralogical analyses of the USGS SCo-l and the NIST 97b samples. With the four different reference samples, the consistency of the calibration factors can be demonstrated, which constitutes the fundamental basis for a standard-less measurement-technique for in situ quantitative chemical composition measurements on planetary surface.

  16. Design, construction and development of a laser desorption ionization/laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical analysis with and without surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owega, Sandy

    Theoretical modeling of the Wiley-McLaren double-focusing field system (two acceleration fields) provided the critical dimensions for the design and construction of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) for this research. For optimum resolution, the distances within the acceleration fields, s (0.26 cm) and d (2.60 cm) were determined for a drift tube length D of 42.2 cm. Arcing occurred frequently using our laser desorption ionization (LDI)/laser ablation (LA) technique; five different configurations were designed and evaluated. The third configuration was determined to be the most useful for LDI/LA-TOFMS experiments. The LDI/LA technique was tested for molecular mass and structural reactivity analysis. This LDI/LA technique was successfully applied to dithizone, 1,4,8,11- tetraazocyclotetradecane, dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 ether, [5]-helicene dendrimer, gramicidin S, substance P, mellitin, PAHs, fullerenes/derivatives, thia fatty esters/acids, and a variety of related compounds. One advantage of the present LDI/LA technique, over conventional ones is that the sample does not need to have appreciable spectral absorption at the laser wavelength. The physical process that occurred during our LDI/LA technique was elucidated with internal standardization and ion association using gramicidin S. The LDI/LA mechanism generating the [M + Ag]+ cation was thought to be electronic-excitation (at low laser fluences) that evolved into a thermal one (at high laser fluences), depending on the silver film thickness. The five configurations were also evaluated for incorporating surface plasmon resonance (SPR) into our LDI/LA technique to ultimately construct a novel SPR- LDI/LA-TOFMS instrument. They indicated that silver surface plasmons have a SPR angle ?r of 44 and an energy of 3.7 eV for a thin silver film thickness of 40 nm. The SPR-LDI/LA technique demonstrated that a lower minimum laser fluence for the production of the silver cluster cations [Agn]+ was required at ? r. SPR was thus confirmed to assist in the electronic-excitation desorption during LDI/LA of a thin silver film with or without deposited samples. The capability to perform SPR- LDI/LA on a molecular weight of 1141 Da from a thin silver film represents a new milestone beyond previous achievements. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  17. Herbert P. Broida Prize Talk: Experimental realization of coherent control of molecular dynamics and chemical reactions with feedback-optimized laser pulses--Quantum Control of Femtochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Gustav

    2009-05-01

    By using coherent control techniques we control the behavior of quantum systems on their natural fs-time scale by applying ultrashort coherent light fields in the wavelength range from the IR to the UV. These laser pulses can be variably shaped in space and time using a laser pulse shaper consisting of a liquid-crystal display. [1] Laser-optimized femtochemistry in the gas phase and liquid phase is one field in which this new technique is successfully employed. Automated optimization of branching ratios and total product yields of gas phase photodissociation reactions as well as chemically selective molecular excitation in the liquid phase is performed [2][3]. Structural changes of a molecule in the liquid phase have been controlled by laser-optimized photoisomerization of a cyanine dye molecule [4] and of retinal in bacteriorhodopsin [5]. So far, optimal control techniques have been restricted to gas phase and condensed phase optimization experiments. Recently we have demonstrated femtosecond laser-assisted catalytic reactions on a Pd(100) single crystal surface. By applying a closed-loop optimal control scheme, we manipulate these reactions and selectively optimize the ratio of different bond-forming reaction channels, in contrast to previous quantum control experiments aiming at bond-cleavage. The results represent a first step towards selective photocatalysis of molecules. [4pt] [1] T. Baumert et al, Appl. Phys. B 65, 779 (1997)[0pt] [2] A. Assion et al, Science 282, 919(1998); T. Brixner et al, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 539 (2003)[0pt] [3] T. Brixner et al, Nature, Vol. 414, 57 (2001) and J. Chem. Phys. 118, 3692 (2003)[0pt] [4] G. Krampert et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 068305 (2005)[0pt] [5] G. Vogt et al, Chem. Phys. Lett. 433, 211 (2006) P. Nuernberger et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9, 2470 (2007)

  18. Reversible laser chemically induced phase transformations in thin-film Ba/sub 2/YCu/sub 3/O/sub x/ superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Rothschild, M.; Sedlacek, J.H.C.; Black, J.G.; Ehrlich, D.J.

    1988-02-01

    Phase transformations of a thin film of Ba/sub 2/YCu/sub 3/O/sub x/ were induced with a focused laser beam in chemical ambients. The transformations, involving superconductive and nonsuperconductive phases, are achieved rapidly and with a high degree of spatial control. They are fully reversible, and the appropriate processing parameters have been studied. These effects are interpreted within present models, which relate the superconducting properties of Ba/sub 2/YCu/sub 3/O/sub x/ to its oxygen content and crystalline structure.

  19. Preparation of the c-axis oriented AlN film by laser chemical vapor deposition using a newly proposed Al(acac)3 precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yu; Ito, Akihiko; Tu, Rong; Goto, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    Highly oriented AlN film was prepared on a c-plane sapphire substrate by laser chemical vapor deposition using a newly proposed aluminum acetylacetonate precursor and ammonia gas as source reactants. The c-axis oriented AlN films were obtained on the c-plane sapphire substrate at deposition temperatures from 900 to 1230 K. AlN film prepared at 1047 K showed an epitaxial relation as (//( [//[. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray rocking curve for AlN (0002) plane increased with increasing deposition temperature. The c-axis lattice parameter decreased with increasing deposition temperature.

  20. Rapid differentiation of in vitro cellular responses to toxic chemicals by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Norman H L; Jia, Zhenquan; Diaz, Reynaldo; Wright, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Changes in protein expression as a cellular response to chemical exposure have been well established. Current methods for monitoring cellular responses usually require the use of specific reagents and/or labor-intensive procedures. The present study demonstrates the concept of using mass spectral pattern to distinguish different cellular responses. The concept is based on the ability to acquire a unique mass spectral pattern directly from a specific cell culture by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The results demonstrate that distinguishable and reproducible spectral patterns can be obtained from different cellular responses. PMID:25319019

  1. A method to give chemically stabilities of photoelectrodes for water splitting: Compositing of a highly crystalized TiO2 layer on a chemically unstable Cu2O photocathode using laser-induced crystallization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Masami; Fukuda, Masayuki; Nakabayashi, Yukihiro; Saito, Nobuo; Ogawa, Nobuhiro; Nakajima, Tomohiko; Shinoda, Kentaro; Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Nosaka, Yoshio

    2016-02-01

    To prevent the self-reduction of the Cu2O photocathode for solar hydrogen production, we developed a compositing process of a highly crystalized TiO2 layer on the Cu2O photocathode using an excimer-laser-assisted metal-organic deposition (ELAMOD) process. The TiO2 layer was successfully crystalized without oxidation of Cu2O to CuO mainly owing to a photothermal effect with nanosecond duration time induced by laser absorption of the TiO2 precursor while the crystallization of the TiO2 layer by usual furnace heating process was accompanied by oxidation of Cu2O which degrade the water reduction ability. On the TiO2/Cu2O photocathode prepared by ELAMOD process, the self-reduction of Cu2O did not occur and then photocurrent due to water reduction was constant with reaction time while on the bare Cu2O photocathode, the photocurrent decreased owing to the occurrence of the self-reduction. This indicated that reaction stability of the photocathode was largely enhanced after compositing of the crystallineTiO2 layer. This ELAMOD process would be applicable for any kinds of chemically unstable photoelectrodes containing non-oxides such as sulfides and phosphides, and therefore any kinds of photoelectrodes would have potentials toward a practical use by improving their chemical stabilities.

  2. Pulsed laser photolysis and quantum chemical-statistical rate study of the reaction of the ethynyl radical with water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carl, Shaun A.; Minh Thi Nguyen, Hue; Elsamra, Rehab M. I.; Tho Nguyen, Minh; Peeters, Jozef

    2005-03-01

    The rate coefficient of the gas-phase reaction C2H+H2O?products has been experimentally determined over the temperature range 500-825K using a pulsed laser photolysis-chemiluminescence (PLP-CL) technique. Ethynyl radicals (C2H) were generated by pulsed 193nm photolysis of C2H2 in the presence of H2O vapor and buffer gas N2 at 15Torr. The relative concentration of C2H radicals was monitored as a function of time using a CH * chemiluminescence method. The rate constant determinations for C2H+H2O were k1(550K)=(2.31.3)10-13cm3s-1, k1(770cm3s-1, and k1(825cm3s-1. The error in the only other measurement of this rate constant is also discussed. We have also characterized the reaction theoretically using quantum chemical computations. The relevant portion of the potential energy surface of C2H3O in its doublet electronic ground state has been investigated using density functional theory B3LYP /6-311++G(3df,2p) and molecular orbital computations at the unrestricted coupled-cluster level of theory that incorporates all single and double excitations plus perturbative corrections for the triple excitations, along with the 6-311++G(3df,2p) basis set [(U)CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,2p)] and using UCCSD(T )/6-31G(d,p) optimized geometries. Five isomers, six dissociation products, and sixteen transition structures were characterized. The results confirm that the hydrogen abstraction producing C2H2+OH is the most facile reaction channel. For this channel, refined computations using (U)CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,2p)//(U)CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p) and complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory/complete-active-space self-consistent-field theory (CASPT2/CASSCF) [B. O. Roos, Adv. Chem. Phys. 69, 399 (1987)] using the contracted atomic natural orbitals basis set (ANO-L) [J. Almlf and P. R. Taylor, J. Chem. Phys.86, 4070 (1987)] were performed, yielding zero-point energy-corrected potential energy barriers of 17kJmol-1 and 15kJmol-1, respectively. Transition-state theory rate constant calculations, based on the UCCSD(T) and CASPT2/CASSCF computations that also include H-atom tunneling and a hindered internal rotation, are in perfect agreement with the experimental values. Considering both our experimental and theoretical determinations, the rate constant can best be expressed, in modified Arrhenius form as k1(T)=(2.20.1)10-21T3.05exp[-(376100)/T]cm3s-1 for the range 300-2000K. Thus, at temperatures above 1500K, reaction of C2H with H2O is predicted to be one of the dominant C2H reactions in hydrocarbon combustion.

  3. Design and chemical synthesis of iodine-containing molecules for application to solar-pumped I* lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiner, Christopher S.

    1986-01-01

    Research is directed toward the design and synthesis of new media for solar-pumped I* lasers. Since the most effective existing lasants are perfluoroalkyl iodides, a strategy was proposed for the development of improved materials of this type with absorption maxima at 300 nm. Absorption spectra were synthesized and measured for prototypical species containing iodine bound to boron, iron, and cobalt.

  4. PARTICLE GENERATION BY LASER ABLATION IN SUPPORT OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HIGH LEVEL MIXED WASTE FROM PLUTONIUM PRODUCTION OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for compositional analysis of fissile materials and radioactive/toxic wastes are being developed to support characterization prior to treatment and remediation. The need for rapid, real-time, on site characterization of waste at DOE sites has led to deployment of laser ab...

  5. Chemical and Isotopic Analysis of Trace Organic Matter on Meteorites and Interstellar Dust Using a Laser Microprobe Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zare, Richard N.; Boyce, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of considerable interest today because they are ubiquitous on Earth and in the interstellar medium (ISM). In fact, about 20% of cosmic carbon in the galaxy is estimated to be in the form of PAHs. Investigation of these species has obvious uses for determining the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Work in this laboratory has focused on four main areas: 1) Mapping the spatial distribution of PAHs in a variety of meteoritic samples and comparing this distribution with mineralogical features of the meteorite to determine whether a correlation exists between the two. 2) Developing a method for detection of fullerenes in extraterrestrial samples using microprobe Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectroscopy and utilizing this technique to investigate fullerene presence, while exploring the possibility of spatially mapping the fullerene distribution in these samples through in situ detection. 3) Investigating a possible formation pathway for meteoritic and ancient terrestrial kerogen involving the photochemical reactions of PAHs with alkanes under prebiotic and astrophysically relevant conditions. 4) Studying reaction pathways and identifying the photoproducts generated during the photochemical evolution of PAH-containing interstellar ice analogs as part of an ongoing collaboration with researchers at the Astrochemistry Lab at NASA Ames. All areas involve elucidation of the solar system formation and chemistry using microprobe Laser Desorption Laser Ionization Mass Spectrometry. A brief description of microprobe Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectroscopy, which allows selective investigation of subattomole levels of organic species on the surface of a sample at 10-40 micrometer spatial resolution, is given.

  6. Facile and Chemically Pure Preparation of YVO4:Eu3+ Colloid with Novel Nanostructure via Laser Ablation in Water

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haohao; Odawara, Osamu; Wada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A YVO4:Eu3+ colloid with an interesting nanostructure was formed by pulsed laser ablation in deionized water without any additives or surfactants. Analyses of particle morphology, composition and optical properties were accomplished by SEM, TEM, EDS PL and UV-vis. Ovoid-like particles formed by the agglomeration of numerous nanocrystals were observed by SEM and TEM, while EDS with area-mode analysis revealed that the content of dopant ion was well retained within the nanoparticles. In addition, the formation mechanism is deduced and discussed for the first time in this research. The findings of this study could provide new insights into the understanding of laser-induced oxide materials and offer an opportunity for other research groups to pursue red emitting nanophosphors with outstandingly purity. PMID:26842419

  7. Optical and laser properties of Tm3+-doped air-cladding fiber fabricated by plasma non-chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Changming; Zhou, Guiyao; Liu, Jiantao; Zhang, Wei; Han, Ying; Yuan, Jinhui

    2015-10-01

    Tm3+/Al3+ co-doped silica glass with the composition of 0.08 Tm2O3-0.8 Al2O3-99.12 SiO2 (mol%) is prepared by combining the high-temperature plasma furnace sintering technology and the dried RE-doped granulates. Using the prepared Tm3+/Al3+ co-doped silica glass as the fiber core, the Tm3+/Al3+ co-doped air-cladding fiber is fabricated by the stack-and-draw technology. Optical and laser properties of Tm3+/Al3+ co-doped air-cladding fiber are studied. The experimental results show that the Tm3+/Al3+ co-doped air-cladding fiber can be used as the potential material for the high-power fiber laser operating at 2 ?m.

  8. Photoexcitation of lasers and chemical reactions for NASA missions: A theoretical study. [optical pumping in high pressure gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javan, A.; Guerra, M.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining CW laser oscillation by optical pumping in the infrared at an elevated gas pressure is reviewed. A specific example utilizing a mixture of CO and NO gases is included. The gas pressures considered are in excess of several atmospheres. Laser frequency tuning over a broad region becomes possible at such elevated gas pressures due to collisional broadening of the amplifying transitions. The prior-rate and surprisal analysis are applied to obtain detailed VV and VT rates for CO and NO molecules and the transfer rates in a CO-NO gas mixture. The analysis is capable of giving temperature dependence of the rate constants. Computer estimates of the rates are presented for vibrational levels up to v = 50. The results show that in the high-lying vibrational states the VV transfer rates with Delta nu = 2 become appreciable.

  9. Facile and Chemically Pure Preparation of YVO4:Eu3+ Colloid with Novel Nanostructure via Laser Ablation in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haohao; Odawara, Osamu; Wada, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    A YVO4:Eu3+ colloid with an interesting nanostructure was formed by pulsed laser ablation in deionized water without any additives or surfactants. Analyses of particle morphology, composition and optical properties were accomplished by SEM, TEM, EDS PL and UV-vis. Ovoid-like particles formed by the agglomeration of numerous nanocrystals were observed by SEM and TEM, while EDS with area-mode analysis revealed that the content of dopant ion was well retained within the nanoparticles. In addition, the formation mechanism is deduced and discussed for the first time in this research. The findings of this study could provide new insights into the understanding of laser-induced oxide materials and offer an opportunity for other research groups to pursue red emitting nanophosphors with outstandingly purity.

  10. Facile and Chemically Pure Preparation of YVO4:Eu(3+) Colloid with Novel Nanostructure via Laser Ablation in Water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haohao; Odawara, Osamu; Wada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    A YVO4:Eu(3+) colloid with an interesting nanostructure was formed by pulsed laser ablation in deionized water without any additives or surfactants. Analyses of particle morphology, composition and optical properties were accomplished by SEM, TEM, EDS PL and UV-vis. Ovoid-like particles formed by the agglomeration of numerous nanocrystals were observed by SEM and TEM, while EDS with area-mode analysis revealed that the content of dopant ion was well retained within the nanoparticles. In addition, the formation mechanism is deduced and discussed for the first time in this research. The findings of this study could provide new insights into the understanding of laser-induced oxide materials and offer an opportunity for other research groups to pursue red emitting nanophosphors with outstandingly purity. PMID:26842419

  11. Tunable laser flash absorption: a new technique for measuring rates and yields of chemical reactions at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    VonDrasek, W.A. ); Okajima, S. ); Kiefer, J.H.; Ogren, P.J.; Hessler, J.P. )

    1990-11-20

    The flash absorption technique, whereby light from an excimer laser is used to measure the kinetic behavior of absorbing species in the high temperature region behind a shock front with a linear array detector, has been extended by using tunable light from a high resolution, pulsed dye laser. The use of narrowband, tunable light allows us to access isolated rovibronic transitions and, thereby, obtain state-specific kinetic information. If the oscillator strength of the transition and the absorption line profile are known, the absolute concentration may be determined. We demonstrate the technique by measuring the temporal development of the hydroxyl radical as it is formed after propane has been thermally dissociated in the presence of oxygen. We conclude that accurate kinetic measurements can be made with hydroxyl concentrations of 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3}. This technique may also be applied to study any species which absorbs below 50,000 cm{sup {minus}1}.

  12. Development of a deep-sea laser-induced breakdown spectrometer for in situ multi-element chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, Blair; Takahashi, Tomoko; Sato, Takumi; Sakka, Tetsuo; Tamura, Ayaka; Matsumoto, Ayumu; Nozaki, Tatsuo; Ohki, Toshihiko; Ohki, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Spectroscopy is emerging as a technique that can expand the envelope of modern oceanographic sensors. The selectivity of spectroscopic techniques enables a single instrument to measure multiple components of the marine environment and can form the basis for versatile tools to perform in situ geochemical analysis. We have developed a deep-sea laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (ChemiCam) and successfully deployed the instrument from a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to perform in situ multi-element analysis of both seawater and mineral deposits at depths of over 1000 m. The instrument consists of a long-nanosecond duration pulse-laser, a spectrometer and a high-speed camera. Power supply, instrument control and signal telemetry are provided through a ROV tether. The instrument has two modes of operation. In the first mode, the laser is focused directly into seawater and spectroscopic measurements of seawater composition are performed. In the second mode, a fiber-optic cable assembly is used to make spectroscopic measurements of mineral deposits. In this mode the laser is fired through a 4 m long fiber-optic cable and is focused onto the target's surface using an optical head and a linear stage that can be held by a ROV manipulator. In this paper, we describe the instrument and the methods developed to process its measurements. Exemplary measurements of both seawater and mineral deposits made during deployments of the device at an active hydrothermal vent field in the Okinawa trough are presented. Through integration with platforms such as underwater vehicles, drilling systems and subsea observatories, it is hoped that this technology can contribute to more efficient scientific surveys of the deep-sea environment.

  13. Effect of chemical and Er:YAG laser treatment on bond strength of root canal resin-based sealers.

    PubMed

    Akisue, Eduardo; Araki, Angela Toshie; Michelotto, Andr Luiz Costa; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Gavini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Different treatments of dentin walls, as laser irradiation, prior to obturation can influence the adhesion ability of endodontic sealers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare in vitro the shear bond strength of four resin-based sealers to dentin treated with citric acid solution or erbium: yttrium, aluminum, garnet (Er:YAG) irradiation. A total of 240 slices with 1.6 mm of thickness were cut using middle third of 84 teeth. Each slice was widened using a #45 taper.06 rotary K3 instrument. The sample was divided into groups according to dentin pretreatment (15 % citric acid or Er:YAG laser) and sealer used (AH Plus, Acroseal, EndoREZ, or RealSeal). Shear bond strength was measured using a universal materials testing machine. As results, significant differences were found when comparing sealers between all groups (p < 0.05) by Kruskal-Wallis test, regardless of the pretreatment used. Comparing pretreatments, 15 % citric acid solution had better outcomes than Er:YAG laser, with significant differences in all groups, except for Acroseal groups (p < 0.05). It was concluded that RealSeal and 15 % citric acid solution achieved the best results regarding the sealer and pretreatment used, respectively. PMID:22710741

  14. Chemical characterization of single micro- and nano-particles by optical catapulting-optical trapping-laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, Francisco J.; Fernndez-Bravo, Angel; Javier Laserna, J.

    2014-10-01

    Spectral identification of individual micro- and nano-sized particles by the sequential intervention of optical catapulting, optical trapping and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is presented. The three techniques are used for different purposes. Optical catapulting (OC) serves to put the particulate material under inspection in aerosol form. Optical trapping (OT) permits the isolation and manipulation of individual particles from the aerosol, which are subsequently analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Once catapulted, the dynamics of particle trapping depends both on the laser beam characteristics (power and intensity gradient) and on the particle properties (size, mass and shape). Particles are stably trapped in air at atmospheric pressure and can be conveniently manipulated for a precise positioning for LIBS analysis. The spectra acquired from the individually trapped particles permit a straightforward identification of the material inspected. Variability of LIBS signal for the inspection of Ni microspheres was 30% relative standard deviation. OC-OT-LIBS permits the separation of particles in a heterogeneous mixture and the subsequent analysis of the isolated particle of interest. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the approach, the number of absolute photons emitted by a single trapped particle was calculated. The limit of detection (LOD) for Al2O3 particles was calculated to be 200 attograms aluminium.

  15. Laser Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York is a broad-based firm which produces photographic apparatus and supplies, fibers, chemicals and vitamin concentrates. Much of the company's research and development effort is devoted to photographic science and imaging technology, including laser technology. Eastman Kodak is using a COSMIC computer program called LACOMA in the analysis of laser optical systems and camera design studies. The company reports that use of the program has provided development time savings and reduced computer service fees.

  16. Time-Resolved O3 Chemical Chain Reaction Kinetics Via High-Resolution IR Laser Absorption Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcke, Axel; Blackmon, Brad; Chapman, William B.; Kim, In Koo; Nesbitt, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Excimer laser photolysis in combination with time-resolved IR laser absorption detection of OH radicals has been used to study O3/OH(v = 0)/HO2 chain reaction kinetics at 298 K, (i.e.,(k(sub 1) is OH + 03 yields H02 + 02 and (k(sub 2) is H02 + 03 yields OH + 202). From time-resolved detection of OH radicals with high-resolution near IR laser absorption methods, the chain induction kinetics have been measured at up to an order of magnitude higher ozone concentrations ([03] less than or equal to 10(exp 17) molecules/cu cm) than accessible in previous studies. This greater dynamic range permits the full evolution of the chain induction, propagation, and termination process to be temporally isolated and measured in real time. An exact solution for time-dependent OH evolution under pseudo- first-order chain reaction conditions is presented, which correctly predicts new kinetic signatures not included in previous OH + 03 kinetic analyses. Specifically, the solutions predict an initial exponential loss (chain "induction") of the OH radical to a steady-state level ([OH](sub ss)), with this fast initial decay determined by the sum of both chain rate constants, k(sub ind) = k(sub 1) + k(sub 2). By monitoring the chain induction feature, this sum of the rate constants is determined to be k(sub ind) = 8.4(8) x 10(exp -14) cu cm/molecule/s for room temperature reagents. This is significantly higher than the values currently recommended for use in atmospheric models, but in excellent agreement with previous results from Ravishankara et al.

  17. Investigation of the chemical stability of the laser-induced fluorescence tracers acetone, diethylketone, and toluene under IC engine conditions using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Trost, Johannes; Zigan, Lars; Eichmann, Simone C; Seeger, Thomas; Leipertz, Alfred

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the chemical stability of the common laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) tracers acetone, diethylketone, and toluene. Stability is analyzed using linear Raman spectroscopy inside a heated pressure cell with optical access, which is used for the LIF calibration of these tracers. The measurements examine the influence of temperature, pressure, and residence time on tracer oxidation, which occurs without a rise in temperature or pressure inside the cell, highlighting the need for optical detection. A comparison between the three different tracers shows large differences, with diethylketone having the lowest and toluene by far the highest stability. An analysis of the sensitivity of the measurement shows that the detection limit of the oxidized tracer is well below 3% molar fraction, which is typical for LIF applications in combustion devices such as internal combustion (IC) engines. Furthermore, the effect on the LIF signal intensity is examined in an isothermal turbulent mixing study. PMID:24085091

  18. Comparison of chemical and laser lift-off for the transfer of InGaN-based p-i-n junctions from sapphire to glass substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, D. J.; Bove, P.; Teherani, F. Hosseini; Pantzas, K.; Moudakir, T.; Orsal, G.; Patriarche, G.; Gautier, S.; Ougazzaden, A.; Sandana, V. E.; McClintock, R.; Razeghi, M.

    2013-03-01

    InGaN-based p-i-n structures were transferred from sapphire to soda-lime glass substrates using two approaches: (1) laser-lift-off (LLO) and thermo-metallic bonding and (2) chemical lift-off (LLO) by means sacrificial ZnO templates and direct wafer bonding. Both processes were found to function at RT and allow reclaim of the expensive single crystal substrate. Both approaches have also already been demonstrated to work for the wafer-scale transfer of III/V semiconductors. Compared with the industry-standard LLO, the CLO offers the added advantages of a lattice match to InGaN with higher indium contents, no need for an interfacial adhesive layer (which facilitates electrical, optical and thermal coupling), no damaged/contaminated GaN surface layer, simplified sapphire reclaim (GaN residue after LLO may complicate reclaim) and cost savings linked to elimination of the expensive LLO process.

  19. Laser propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.; Putre, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The use of an earth-based high-power laser beam to provide energy for earth-launched rocket vehicle is investigated. The laser beam energy is absorbed in an opaque propellant gas and is converted to high-specific-impulse thrust by expanding the heated propellant to space by means of a nozzle. This laser propulsion scheme can produce specific impulses of several thousand seconds. Payload to gross-weight fractions about an order of magnitude higher than those for conventional chemical earth-launched vehicles appear possible. There is a potential for a significant reduction in cost per payload mass in earth orbit.

  20. 2-?m wavelength all-fiber Q-switched double-clad fiber laser using monopiece single-layer chemical-vapor-deposition graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yizhong; Luo, Zhengqian; Liu, Chun; Wu, Duanduan; Li, Yingyue; Le, Lili

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate a large-energy 2-?m double-clad Tm-doped fiber laser (DC-TDFL) Q-switched by a monopiece single-layer graphene nanosheet. The single-layer graphene is fabricated by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and then transferred onto the facet of a fiber ferrule for constructing a fiber-compatible saturable absorber (SA). The Q-switching operation of the DC-TDFL at 1980 nm is achieved and has a large pulse energy of 1.06 ?J (corresponding to the average output power of 28.6 mW). The narrowest pulse duration is 2.7 ?s, and the pulse repetition rate can be tuned from 8 to 27 kHz by changing the pump power from 2.35 to 2.82 W. To the best of our knowledge, this work is not only the first demonstration of a 2-?m Q-switched all-fiber laser using monopiece single-layer CVD graphene as a SA, but also generates the largest pulse energy from graphene-based all-fiber DC-TDFLs.

  1. Determining the order of deposition of natural latent fingerprints and laser printed ink using chemical mapping with secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Attard Montalto, Nicola; Ojeda, Jess J; Jones, Benjamin J

    2013-03-01

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) chemical mapping was used to investigate the order of deposition of natural latent fingerprints and laser printed ink on paper. This feasibility study shows that sodium, potassium and C(3)H(5) positive ions were particularly abundant endogenous components of the natural fingerprints and also present in the paper examined, but were mostly absent in the laser printed ink. Mapping of these ions enables the observation of friction ridges from latent prints on the ink surface, only when a fingerprint was deposited above the layer of ink. As a demonstration of proof of concept, blind testing of 21 samples from three donors resulted in a 100% success rate. The sensitivity of this technique was investigated within this trial through the examination of up to fifth depletion fingerprints and ageing of up to 28 days. Migration of fingerprint and paper components to the ink surface, although observed with increased ageing time, was not found to compromise determination of the deposition sequence. PMID:23380055

  2. Chemical analysis of pharmaceuticals and explosives in fingermarks using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaplan-Sandquist, Kimberly; LeBeau, Marc A; Miller, Mark L

    2014-02-01

    Chemical analysis of latent fingermarks, "touch chemistry," has the potential of providing intelligence or forensically relevant information. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF MS) was used as an analytical platform for obtaining mass spectra and chemical images of target drugs and explosives in fingermark residues following conventional fingerprint development methods and MALDI matrix processing. There were two main purposes of this research: (1) develop effective laboratory methods for detecting drugs and explosives in fingermark residues and (2) determine the feasibility of detecting drugs and explosives after casual contact with pills, powders, and residues. Further, synthetic latent print reference pads were evaluated as mimics of natural fingermark residue to determine if the pads could be used for method development and quality control. The results suggest that artificial amino acid and sebaceous oil residue pads are not suitable to adequately simulate natural fingermark chemistry for MALDI/TOF MS analysis. However, the pads were useful for designing experiments and setting instrumental parameters. Based on the natural fingermark residue experiments, handling whole or broken pills did not transfer sufficient quantities of drugs to allow for definitive detection. Transferring drugs or explosives in the form of powders and residues was successful for preparing analytes for detection after contact with fingers and deposition of fingermark residue. One downfall to handling powders was that the analyte particles were easily spread beyond the original fingermark during development. Analyte particles were confined in the original fingermark when using transfer residues. The MALDI/TOF MS was able to detect procaine, pseudoephedrine, TNT, and RDX from contact residue under laboratory conditions with the integration of conventional fingerprint development methods and MALDI matrix. MALDI/TOF MS is a nondestructive technique which provides chemical information in both the mass spectra and chemical images. PMID:24447453

  3. The influence of the gas environment on morphology and chemical composition of surfaces micro-machined with a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Jorge; de Marchi, Fabrizio; Matus, Luke; MacLeod, Jennifer; Rosei, Federico; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the influence of different gas environments on the fabrication of surfaces, homogeneously covered with equally sized and spaced micro-structures. Two types of structures have been successfully micro-machined with a femtosecond laser on titanium surfaces in various atmospheres. The surface chemistry of samples machined in oxygen and helium shows TiO2, while machining in nitrogen leads to an additional share of TiN. The actual surface structure was found to vary significantly as a function of the gas environment. We found that the ablated particles and their surface triggered two consecutive events: The optical properties of the gas environment became non-isotropic which then led to the pulse intensity being redistributed throughout the cross section of the laser beam. Additionally, the effective intensity was further reduced for TiN surfaces due to TiN's high reflectivity. Thus, the settings for the applied raster-scanning machining method had to be adjusted for each gas environment to produce comparable structures. In contrast to previous studies, where only noble gases were found suitable to produce homogeneous patches, we obtained them in an oxygen environment.

  4. Laser satellite power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walbridge, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    A laser satellite power system (SPS) converts solar power captured by earth-orbiting satellites into electrical power on the earth's surface, the satellite-to-ground transmission of power being effected by laser beam. The laser SPS may be an alternative to the microwave SPS. Microwaves easily penetrate clouds while laser radiation does not. Although there is this major disadvantage to a laser SPS, that system has four important advantages over the microwave alternative: (1) land requirements are much less, (2) radiation levels are low outside the laser ground stations, (3) laser beam sidelobes are not expected to interfere with electromagnetic systems, and (4) the laser system lends itself to small-scale demonstration. After describing lasers and how they work, the report discusses the five lasers that are candidates for application in a laser SPS: electric discharge lasers, direct and indirect solar pumped lasers, free electron lasers, and closed-cycle chemical lasers. The Lockheed laser SPS is examined in some detail. To determine whether a laser SPS will be worthy of future deployment, its capabilities need to be better understood and its attractiveness relative to other electric power options better assessed. First priority should be given to potential program stoppers, e.g., beam attenuation by clouds. If investigation shows these potential program stoppers to be resolvable, further research should investigate lasers that are particularly promising for SPS application.

  5. Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocki, G.; Lewicki, R.; Curl, R. F.; Tittel, F. K.; Diehl, L.; Capasso, F.; Troccoli, M.; Hofler, G.; Bour, D.; Corzine, S.; Maulini, R.; Giovannini, M.; Faist, J.

    2008-09-01

    Recent progress in the development of room temperature, continuous wave, widely tunable, mode-hop-free mid-infrared external cavity quantum cascade laser (EC-QCL) spectroscopic sources is reported. A single mode tuning range of 155 cm-1 (˜ 8% of the center wavelength) with a maximum power of 11.1 mW and 182 cm-1 (˜ 15% of the center wavelength) with a maximum power of 50 mW was obtained for 5.3 and 8.4 μm EC-QCLs respectively. This technology is particularly suitable for high resolution spectroscopic applications, multi species trace-gas detection and spectroscopic measurements of broadband absorbers. Several examples of spectroscopic measurements performed using EC-QCL based spectrometers are demonstrated.

  6. Combustion Research Program: Flame studies, laser diagnostics, and chemical kinetics. Progress report, 15 July 1987--3 December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Crosley, D.R.

    1991-01-22

    We have made a detailed study of the care that must be taken to correctly measure OH radical concentrations in flames. A large part of these studies has concerned collisional quenching of hydride radical species (OH, NH, and NH{sub 2}), in particular the dependence upon rotational level and collision velocity (temperature). The results on OH and NH have shown unique and interesting behavior from the viewpoint of fundamental molecular dynamics, pointing to quenching often governed by collisions on an anisotropic, attractive surface, whereas NH{sub 2} quenching appears to depend on state-mixing considerations, not dynamic control. This state-specific behavior of these small, theoretically tractable hydrides has direct ramifications for quantitative flame diagnostics. Our other effort in the diagnostic area has been repeated but unsuccessful searches for laser induced fluorescence in the vinyl radical.

  7. Infrared Scattering Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy Using An External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser For Nanoscale Chemical Imaging And Spectroscopy of Explosive Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Ian M.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Josberger, Erik E.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2013-02-04

    Infrared scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) is an apertureless superfocusing technique that uses the antenna properties of a conducting atomic force microscope (AFM) tip to achieve infrared spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. The instrument can be used either in imaging mode, where a fixed wavelength light source is tuned to a molecular resonance and the AFM raster scans an image, or in spectroscopy mode where the AFM is held stationary over a feature of interest and the light frequency is varied to obtain a spectrum. In either case, a strong, stable, coherent infrared source is required. Here we demonstrate the integration of a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) into an s-SNOM and use it to obtain infrared spectra of microcrystals of chemicals adsorbed onto gold substrates. Residues of the explosive compound tetryl was deposited onto gold substrates. s-SNOM experiments were performed in the 1260-1400 cm−1 tuning range of the ECQCL, corresponding to the NO2 symmetric stretch vibrational fingerprint region. Vibrational infrared spectra were collected on individual chemical domains with a collection area of *500nm2 and compared to ensemble averaged far-field reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) results.

  8. Tunable lasers- an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, B.D.; Buser, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    This overview of tunable lasers describes their applicability to spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and middle infrared ranges; to rapid on-line diagnostics by ultrashort cavity lasers; to exploration, by the free electron laser, for its wide tuning in the far infrared to submillimeter region; to remote detection, in areas such as portable pollution monitors, on-line chemical analyzers, auto exhaust analyzers, and production line controls; to photochemistry; and to other potential areas in diagnostics, communications, and medical and biological sciences. The following lasers are characterized by their tunability: solid state lasers, primarily alexandrite, with a tuning range of ca 1000 Angstroms; color center lasers; semiconductor lasers; dye lasers; gas lasers, where high-pressure CO/sub 2/ discharges are the best known example for a wide tunability range, and research is continuing in systems such as the alkali dimers; and, at wavelengths beyond 10 micrometers, the possibilities beyond Cerenkov and free electron lasers.

  9. Microbore reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic purification of peptides for combined chemical sequencing-laser-desorption mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Elicone, C; Lui, M; Geromanos, S; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Tempst, P

    1994-07-29

    An optimized microbore RP-HPLC system (1.0 mm I.D. columns) for the purification of low picomole amounts (< 5 pmol) of peptides is described. It is comprised of commercially available columns, instrument components and parts. These were selected on the basis of a comparative evaluation and to yield the highest resolution and most efficient peak collection. The sensitivity of this system equals, probably surpasses, that of advanced chemical microsequencing for which 2-4 pmol of peptide are minimally required. As an automated sequencer cannot be "on-line" connected with a micro-preparative HPLC system, fractions must be collected and transferred. With a typical flow of 30 microliters, efficient manual collection is possible and fractions (about 20 microliters in volume) can still be handled without unacceptable losses, albeit with great precaution. Furthermore, major difficulties were encountered to efficiently and quantitatively load low- or sub-picomole amounts of peptide mixtures onto the RP-HPLC column for separation. Discipline and rigorous adherence to sample handling protocols are thus on order when working at those levels of sensitivity. With adequate instrumentation and handling procedures in place, we demonstrate that low picomole amounts of peptides can now be routinely prepared for analysis by combined Edman-chemical sequencing-matrix-assisted laser-desorption mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The integrated method was applied to covalent structural characterization of minute quantities of a gel-purified protein of known biological function but unknown identity. The results allowed unambiguous identification and illustrated the power of MALDI-MS-aided interpretation of chemical sequencing data: accurate peptide masses were crucial for (i) confirmation of the results, (ii) deconvolution of mixed sequences, (iii) proposal of complete structures on the basis of partial sequences, and (iv) confirmation of protein identification (obtained by database search with a single, small stretch of peptide sequence) by "mass matching" of several more peptides with predicted proteolytic fragments. PMID:7921170

  10. Singlet oxygen production in vortex-flow dc glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheyev, Pavel A.; Shepelenko, Alexander A.; Kupryaev, Nikolay V.; Voronov, Anatoly I.

    2000-05-01

    The possibility to produce high concentrations of singlet delta oxygen, enough to operate oxygen-iodine laser, using discharge techniques without dangerous chemicals was investigated. The results of study of singlet oxygen yield in the vortex-flow glow discharge in pure oxygen are presented. The discharge in the vortex flow is used because it permits to have extremely stable CW discharge with very high power load at high pressures.

  11. Confocal laser scanning microscopy elucidation of the micromorphology of the leaf cuticle and analysis of its chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Nadiminti, Pavani P; Rookes, James E; Boyd, Ben J; Cahill, David M

    2015-11-01

    Electron microscopy techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been invaluable tools for the study of the micromorphology of plant cuticles. However, for electron microscopy, the preparation techniques required may invariably introduce artefacts in cuticle preservation. Further, there are a limited number of methods available for quantifying the image data obtained through electron microscopy. Therefore, in this study, optical microscopy techniques were coupled with staining proceduresand, along with SEM were used to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the ultrastructure of plant leafcuticles. Leaf cryosections of Triticum aestivum (wheat), Zea mays (maize), and Lupinus angustifolius (lupin) were stained with either fat-soluble azo stain Sudan IV or fluorescent, diarylmethane Auramine O and were observed under confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). For all the plant species tested, the cuticle on the leaf surfaces could be clearly resolved in many cases into cuticular proper (CP), external cuticular layer (ECL), and internal cuticular layer (ICL). Novel image data analysis procedures for quantifying the epicuticular wax micromorphology were developed, and epicuticular waxes of L. angustifolius were described here for the first time. Together, application of a multifaceted approach involving the use of a range of techniques to study the plant cuticle has led to a better understanding of cuticular structure and provides new insights into leaf surface architecture. PMID:25712592

  12. Analysis of trimethoprim, lincomycin, sulfadoxin and tylosin in swine manure using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Solliec, Morgan; Mass, Daniel; Sauv, Sbastien

    2014-10-01

    A new extraction method coupled to a high throughput sample analysis technique was developed for the determination of four veterinary antibiotics. The analytes belong to different groups of antibiotics such as chemotherapeutics, sulfonamides, lincosamides and macrolides. Trimethoprim (TMP), sulfadoxin (SFX), lincomycin (LCM) and tylosin (TYL) were extracted from lyophilized manure using a sonication extraction. McIlvaine buffer and methanol (MeOH) were used as extraction buffers, followed by cation-exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) for clean-up. Analysis was performed by laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical-ionization (LDTD-APCI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) detection. The LDTD is a high throughput sample introduction method that reduces total analysis time to less than 15s per sample, compared to minutes when using traditional liquid chromatography (LC). Various SPE parameters were optimized after sample extraction: the stationary phase, the extraction solvent composition, the quantity of sample extracted and sample pH. LDTD parameters were also optimized: solvent deposition, carrier gas, laser power and corona discharge. The method limit of detection (MLD) ranged from 2.5 to 8.3 g kg(-1) while the method limit of quantification (MLQ) ranged from 8.3 to 28gkg(-1). Calibration curves in the manure matrix showed good linearity (R(2)? 0.996) for all analytes and the interday and intraday coefficients of variation were below 14%. Recoveries of analytes from manure ranged from 53% to 69%. The method was successfully applied to real manure samples. PMID:25059125

  13. A spectrometer on chemical vapour deposition-diamond basis for the measurement of the charge-state distribution of heavy ions in a laser-generated plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cayzac, Witold; Frank, Alexander; Schumacher, Dennis; Roth, Markus; Blazevic, Abel; Wamers, Felix; Traeger, Michael; Berdermann, Eleni; Voss, Bernd; Hessling, Thomas

    2013-04-15

    This article reports on the development and the first applications of a new spectrometer which enables the precise and time-resolved measurement of both the energy loss and the charge-state distribution of ion beams with 10 < Z < 30 at energies of 4-8 MeV/u after their interaction with a laser-generated plasma. The spectrometer is based on five 20 Multiplication-Sign 7 mm{sup 2} large and 20 {mu}m thick polycrystalline diamond samples produced via the Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) process and was designed with the help of ion-optical simulations. First experiments with the spectrometer were successfully carried out at GSI using {sup 48}Ca ions at an energy of 4.8 MeV/u interacting with a carbon plasma generated by the laser irradiation of a thin foil target. Owing to the high rate capability and the short response time of the spectrometer, pulsed ion beams with 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} ions per bunch at a bunch frequency of 108 MHz could be detected. The temporal evolution of the five main charge states of the calcium ion beams as well as the corresponding energy loss values could be measured simultaneously. Due to the outstanding properties of diamond as a particle detector, a beam energy resolution ({Delta}E/E) Almost-Equal-To 0.1% could be reached using the presented experimental method, while a precision of 10% in the energy loss and charge-state distribution data was obtained.

  14. Novel two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry (2S-LAIMS) of actor-spectator ice layers: Probing chemical composition of D{sub 2}O ice beneath a H{sub 2}O ice layer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Rui Gudipati, Murthy S.

    2014-03-14

    In this work, we report for the first time successful analysis of organic aromatic analytes imbedded in D{sub 2}O ices by novel infrared (IR) laser ablation of a layered non-absorbing D{sub 2}O ice (spectator) containing the analytes and an ablation-active IR-absorbing H{sub 2}O ice layer (actor) without the analyte. With these studies we have opened up a new method for the in situ analysis of solids containing analytes when covered with an IR laser-absorbing layer that can be resonantly ablated. This soft ejection method takes advantage of the tenability of two-step infrared laser ablation and ultraviolet laser ionization mass spectrometry, previously demonstrated in this lab to study chemical reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cryogenic ices. The IR laser pulse tuned to resonantly excite only the upper H{sub 2}O ice layer (actor) generates a shockwave upon impact. This shockwave penetrates the lower analyte-containing D{sub 2}O ice layer (spectator, a non-absorbing ice that cannot be ablated directly with the wavelength of the IR laser employed) and is reflected back, ejecting the contents of the D{sub 2}O layer into the vacuum where they are intersected by a UV laser for ionization and detection by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Thus, energy is transmitted from the laser-absorbing actor layer into the non-absorbing spectator layer resulting its ablation. We found that isotope cross-contamination between layers was negligible. We also did not see any evidence for thermal or collisional chemistry of PAH molecules with H{sub 2}O molecules in the shockwave. We call this “shockwave mediated surface resonance enhanced subsurface ablation” technique as “two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry of actor-spectator ice layers.” This method has its roots in the well-established MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization) method. Our method offers more flexibility to optimize both the processes—ablation and ionization. This new technique can thus be potentially employed to undertake in situ analysis of materials imbedded in diverse media, such as cryogenic ices, biological samples, tissues, minerals, etc., by covered with an IR-absorbing laser ablation medium and study the chemical composition and reaction pathways of the analyte in its natural surroundings.

  15. Novel two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry (2S-LAIMS) of actor-spectator ice layers: probing chemical composition of D2O ice beneath a H2O ice layer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Gudipati, Murthy S

    2014-03-14

    In this work, we report for the first time successful analysis of organic aromatic analytes imbedded in D2O ices by novel infrared (IR) laser ablation of a layered non-absorbing D2O ice (spectator) containing the analytes and an ablation-active IR-absorbing H2O ice layer (actor) without the analyte. With these studies we have opened up a new method for the in situ analysis of solids containing analytes when covered with an IR laser-absorbing layer that can be resonantly ablated. This soft ejection method takes advantage of the tenability of two-step infrared laser ablation and ultraviolet laser ionization mass spectrometry, previously demonstrated in this lab to study chemical reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cryogenic ices. The IR laser pulse tuned to resonantly excite only the upper H2O ice layer (actor) generates a shockwave upon impact. This shockwave penetrates the lower analyte-containing D2O ice layer (spectator, a non-absorbing ice that cannot be ablated directly with the wavelength of the IR laser employed) and is reflected back, ejecting the contents of the D2O layer into the vacuum where they are intersected by a UV laser for ionization and detection by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Thus, energy is transmitted from the laser-absorbing actor layer into the non-absorbing spectator layer resulting its ablation. We found that isotope cross-contamination between layers was negligible. We also did not see any evidence for thermal or collisional chemistry of PAH molecules with H2O molecules in the shockwave. We call this "shockwave mediated surface resonance enhanced subsurface ablation" technique as "two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry of actor-spectator ice layers." This method has its roots in the well-established MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization) method. Our method offers more flexibility to optimize both the processes--ablation and ionization. This new technique can thus be potentially employed to undertake in situ analysis of materials imbedded in diverse media, such as cryogenic ices, biological samples, tissues, minerals, etc., by covered with an IR-absorbing laser ablation medium and study the chemical composition and reaction pathways of the analyte in its natural surroundings. PMID:24628162

  16. Novel two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry (2S-LAIMS) of actor-spectator ice layers: Probing chemical composition of D2O ice beneath a H2O ice layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui; Gudipati, Murthy S.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we report for the first time successful analysis of organic aromatic analytes imbedded in D2O ices by novel infrared (IR) laser ablation of a layered non-absorbing D2O ice (spectator) containing the analytes and an ablation-active IR-absorbing H2O ice layer (actor) without the analyte. With these studies we have opened up a new method for the in situ analysis of solids containing analytes when covered with an IR laser-absorbing layer that can be resonantly ablated. This soft ejection method takes advantage of the tenability of two-step infrared laser ablation and ultraviolet laser ionization mass spectrometry, previously demonstrated in this lab to study chemical reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cryogenic ices. The IR laser pulse tuned to resonantly excite only the upper H2O ice layer (actor) generates a shockwave upon impact. This shockwave penetrates the lower analyte-containing D2O ice layer (spectator, a non-absorbing ice that cannot be ablated directly with the wavelength of the IR laser employed) and is reflected back, ejecting the contents of the D2O layer into the vacuum where they are intersected by a UV laser for ionization and detection by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Thus, energy is transmitted from the laser-absorbing actor layer into the non-absorbing spectator layer resulting its ablation. We found that isotope cross-contamination between layers was negligible. We also did not see any evidence for thermal or collisional chemistry of PAH molecules with H2O molecules in the shockwave. We call this "shockwave mediated surface resonance enhanced subsurface ablation" technique as "two-step laser ablation and ionization mass spectrometry of actor-spectator ice layers." This method has its roots in the well-established MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption and ionization) method. Our method offers more flexibility to optimize both the processesablation and ionization. This new technique can thus be potentially employed to undertake in situ analysis of materials imbedded in diverse media, such as cryogenic ices, biological samples, tissues, minerals, etc., by covered with an IR-absorbing laser ablation medium and study the chemical composition and reaction pathways of the analyte in its natural surroundings.

  17. Laser Safety Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A major focus of work done at Air Products and Chemicals' Laser Application Laboratory is on use of ultraviolet radiation using high energy excimer lasers. Because light within the wavelength of excimer lasers is invisible, it can cause serious damage to eyes and tissue. To contain the laser beam, Air Products Incorporated a Jet Propulsion Laboratory invention described in a technical support package into its beam stops. The technology interrupts the laser pathway and allows workers to remain in the target area without shutting off the laser.

  18. Simultaneous determination of phytohormones containing carboxyl in crude extracts of fruit samples based on chemical derivatization by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Guo, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Wang, Hong

    2011-06-15

    An efficient and sensitive capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phytohormones containing carboxyl group, including gibberellic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, indole butyric acid, 1-naphthalene acetic acid and 2,4-dichloro-phenoxy acetic acid, based on the chemical derivatization with 6-oxy-(acetypiperazine) fluorescein. Using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide as the condensing reagent, the derivatization reaction completed at 60C in 60 min and the derivatization limits could reach 20 nmol L(-1). The formed derivatives of seven phytohormones have been separated and quantified within 20 min. The linearity was found in the range of 0.01-1 ?mol L(-1) and the limits of detection were 1.6-6.7 nmol L(-1) (S/N=3). The proposed method has been applied to analyze the crude extract of 0.5 g banana samples directly without further purification and the recoveries varying from 90.7 to 106.1%. PMID:21612989

  19. The influence of laser-induced nanosecond rise-time stress waves on the microstructure and surface chemical activity of single crystal Cu nanopillars

    SciTech Connect

    Youssef, G.; Crum, R.; Seif, D.; Po, G.; Prikhodko, S. V.; Kodambaka, S.; Ghoniem, N.; Gupta, V.

    2013-02-28

    An apparatus and test procedure for fabrication and loading of single crystal metal nanopillars under extremely high pressures (>1 GPa) and strain rates (>10{sup 7} s{sup -1}), using laser-generated stress waves, are presented. Single-crystalline Cu pillars ({approx}1.20 {mu}m in tall and {approx}0.45 {mu}m in diameter) prepared via focused ion beam milling of Cu(001) substrates are shock-loaded using this approach with the dilatational stress waves propagating along the [001] axis of the pillars. Transmission electron microscopy observations of shock-loaded pillars show that dislocation density decreases and that their orientation changes with increasing stress wave amplitude, indicative of dislocation motion. The shock-loaded pillars exhibit enhanced chemical reactivity when submerged in oil and isopropyl alcohol solutions, due likely to the exposure of clean surfaces via surface spallation and formation of surface steps and nanoscale facets through dislocation motion to the surface of the pillars, resulting in growth of thin oxide films on the surfaces of the pillars.

  20. Total Analysis of Microcystins in Fish Tissue Using Laser Thermal Desorption-Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-HRMS).

    PubMed

    Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Solliec, Morgan; Sinotte, Marc; Deblois, Christian; Sauv, Sbastien

    2015-08-26

    Microcystins (MCs) are cyanobacterial toxins encountered in aquatic environments worldwide. Over 100 MC variants have been identified and have the capacity to covalently bind to animal tissue. This study presents a new approach for cell-bound and free microcystin analysis in fish tissue using sodium hydroxide as a digestion agent and Lemieux oxidation to obtain the 2-methyl-3-methoxy-4-phenylbutyric acid (MMPB) moiety, common to all microcystin congeners. The use of laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with Q-Exactive mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-HRMS) led to an analysis time of approximately 10 s per sample and high-resolution detection. Digestion/oxidation and solid phase extraction recoveries ranged from 70 to 75% and from 86 to 103%, respectively. Method detection and quantification limits values were 2.7 and 8.2 ?g kg(-1), respectively. Fish samples from cyanobacteria-contaminated lakes were analyzed, and concentrations ranging from 2.9 to 13.2 ?g kg(-1) were reported. PMID:26211936

  1. Cationic drug analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry: application to influx kinetics, multidrug resistance, and intracellular chemical change.

    PubMed Central

    Rideout, D; Bustamante, A; Siuzdak, G

    1993-01-01

    Highly sensitive and convenient analysis of intracellular cationic drugs has been achieved by applying matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALD-MS). Tetraphenylphosphonium cation was readily identified and quantified (using methyltriphenylphosphonium cation as an internal standard) at subpicomole levels in crude lysate from < 4 x 10(3) FaDu human hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells. A quantitative MALD-MS time course for tetraphenylphosphonium cation accumulation into FaDu cells was comparable to a time course using scintillation counting with tritiated tetraphenylphosphonium. MALD-MS was also capable of demonstrating the reduced accumulation of the cationic drug rhodamine-123 by DoxR MCF7, a multiply drug-resistant human breast adenocarcinoma cell line, relative to the nonresistant parent line MCF7. In addition, MALD-MS was used to follow a chemical reaction inside intact FaDu cells: the formation of a hydrazone (II-51) from benzaldehyde and an acylhydrazide, 5-[tris(4-dimethylaminophenyl)phosphonio]pentanoyl hydrazide (II-25). These results suggest that MALD-MS may provide a rapid and practical alternative to existing methods for the analysis of cationic drugs, toxins, and their metabolites in cells and tissues. PMID:8234281

  2. The influence of laser-induced nanosecond rise-time stress waves on the microstructure and surface chemical activity of single crystal Cu nanopillars

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, G.; Crum, R.; Prikhodko, S. V.; Seif, D.; Po, G.; Ghoniem, N.; Kodambaka, S.; Gupta, V.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus and test procedure for fabrication and loading of single crystal metal nanopillars under extremely high pressures (>1?GPa) and strain rates (>107?s?1), using laser-generated stress waves, are presented. Single-crystalline Cu pillars (?1.20??m in tall and ?0.45??m in diameter) prepared via focused ion beam milling of Cu(001) substrates are shock-loaded using this approach with the dilatational stress waves propagating along the [001] axis of the pillars. Transmission electron microscopy observations of shock-loaded pillars show that dislocation density decreases and that their orientation changes with increasing stress wave amplitude, indicative of dislocation motion. The shock-loaded pillars exhibit enhanced chemical reactivity when submerged in oil and isopropyl alcohol solutions, due likely to the exposure of clean surfaces via surface spallation and formation of surface steps and nanoscale facets through dislocation motion to the surface of the pillars, resulting in growth of thin oxide films on the surfaces of the pillars. PMID:23526837

  3. Determination of Os by isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with the combination of laser ablation to introduce chemically separated geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yali; Ren, Minghao; Xia, Xiaoping; Li, Congying; Sun, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    A method was developed for the determination of trace Os in geological samples by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) with the combination of chemical separation and preconcentration. Samples are digested using aqua regia in Carius tubes, and the Os analyte is converted into volatile OsO4, which is distilled and absorbed with HBr. The HBr solution is concentrated for further Os purification using the microdistillation technique. The purified Os is dissolved in 10 μl of 0.02% sucrose-0.005% H3PO4 solution and then evaporated on pieces of perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) film, resulting in the formation of a tiny object (< 3 × 104 μm2 superficial area). Using LA-ICP-MS measurements, the object can give Os signals at least 100 times higher than those provided by routine solution-ICP-MS while successfully avoiding the memory effect. The procedural blank and detection limit in the developed technique are 3.0 pg and 1.8 pg for Os, respectively when 1 g of samples is taken. Reference materials (RM) are analyzed, and their Os concentrations obtained by isotope dilution are comparable to reference or literature values. Based on the individual RM results, the precision is estimated within the range of 0.6 to 9.4% relative standard deviation (RSD), revealing that this method is applicable to the determination of trace Os in geological samples.

  4. Influence of plasma density on the chemical composition and structural properties of pulsed laser deposited TiAlN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Quiñones-Galván, J. G.; Camps, Enrique; Muhl, S.; Flores, M.; Campos-González, E.

    2014-05-15

    Incorporation of substitutional Al into the TiN lattice of the ternary alloy TiAlN results in a material with improved properties compared to TiN. In this work, TiAlN thin films were grown by the simultaneous ablation of Ti and Al targets in a nitrogen containing reactive atmosphere. The deposit was formed on silicon substrates at low deposition temperature (200 °C). The dependence of the Al content of the films was studied as a function of the ion density of the plasma produced by the laser ablation of the Al target. The plasma parameters were measured by means of a planar Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The chemical composition of the films was measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed a strong dependence of the amount of aluminum incorporated in the films with the plasma density. The structural characterization of the deposits was carried out by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy, where the substitutional incorporation of the Al into the TiN was demonstrated.

  5. Growth, structure, chemical etching, and spectroscopic properties of a 2.9 ?m Tm,Ho:GdYTaO4 laser crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Renqin; Zhang, Qingli; Liu, Wenpeng; Luo, Jianqiao; Wang, Xiaofei; Ding, Shoujun; Sun, Dunlu

    2015-10-01

    A new promising 2.9 ?m Tm,Ho:GdYTaO4 (Tm,Ho:GYTO) laser crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of X-ray rocking curve on the (0 1 0) face is only 0.05, which indicates that the crystal has high crystalline quality. The structure parameters of Tm,Ho:GYTO crystal were determined by Rietveld refinement method. Chemical etching is employed to investigate the defect structure of Tm,Ho:GYTO crystal with KOH etchant. The absorption, emission spectra, and level lifetimes were measured, and the corresponding absorption transitions were assigned. The absorption cross-section at 790 nm was calculated to be 2.04 10-20 cm2 and maximum emission-cross section at 2932 nm was 2.05 10-20 cm2. The level lifetimes of 5I6 and 5I7 are 131 ?s and 4.09 ms, respectively. Compared with other hosts, such as Ho:YAG, the shorter lifetime of 5I7 and long lifetime of 5I6 in the Tm,Ho:GYTO crystal are easier to realize population inversion. The Tm-Ho energy transfer mechanism in GYTO is also demonstrated.

  6. The influence of laser-induced nanosecond rise-time stress waves on the microstructure and surface chemical activity of single crystal Cu nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, G.; Crum, R.; Prikhodko, S. V.; Seif, D.; Po, G.; Ghoniem, N.; Kodambaka, S.; Gupta, V.

    2013-02-01

    An apparatus and test procedure for fabrication and loading of single crystal metal nanopillars under extremely high pressures (>1 GPa) and strain rates (>107 s-1), using laser-generated stress waves, are presented. Single-crystalline Cu pillars (1.20 ?m in tall and 0.45 ?m in diameter) prepared via focused ion beam milling of Cu(001) substrates are shock-loaded using this approach with the dilatational stress waves propagating along the [001] axis of the pillars. Transmission electron microscopy observations of shock-loaded pillars show that dislocation density decreases and that their orientation changes with increasing stress wave amplitude, indicative of dislocation motion. The shock-loaded pillars exhibit enhanced chemical reactivity when submerged in oil and isopropyl alcohol solutions, due likely to the exposure of clean surfaces via surface spallation and formation of surface steps and nanoscale facets through dislocation motion to the surface of the pillars, resulting in growth of thin oxide films on the surfaces of the pillars.

  7. Fast epitaxial growth of a-axis- and c-axis-oriented YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ films on (1 0 0) LaAlO 3 substrate by laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Pei; Ito, Akihiko; Tu, Rong; Goto, Takashi

    2011-02-01

    a-axis- and c-axis-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films were epitaxially grown on (1 0 0) LaAlO3 substrates by laser chemical vapor deposition. The preferred orientation in the YBCO film changed from the a-axis to the c-axis with increasing laser powers from 77 to 158 W (the deposition temperatures from 951 to 1087 K). The a-axis-oriented YBCO film showed in-plane epitaxial growth of YBCO [0 0 1]//LAO [0 0 1], and the c-axis-oriented YBCO film showed that of YBCO [0 1 0]//LAO [0 0 1]. A c-axis-oriented YBCO film with a high critical temperature of 90 K was prepared at a deposition rate of 90 μm h-1, about 2-1000 times higher than that of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition.

  8. Industrial laser use expanding in the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikhov, Y. P.

    1985-04-01

    The effect of lasers on industrial procedures and the economy is discussed. Some applications of lasers in industry which are considered are laser thermal technology, laser control of industrial processes and large scale chemical production. Lasers are applied in such fields as biology, environmental protection, construction and irrigation works, communications, computer technology, printing and image recording and processing. Lasers also have applications toward the problem of controlling thermonuclear reactions. Objectives of laser application studies are outlined.

  9. Metastable alloy nanoparticles, metal-oxide nanocrescents and nanoshells generated by laser ablation in liquid solution: influence of the chemical environment on structure and composition.

    PubMed

    Scaramuzza, Stefano; Agnoli, Stefano; Amendola, Vincenzo

    2015-11-14

    Alloy nanoparticles are characterized by the combination of multiple interesting properties, which are attractive for technological and scientific purposes. A frontier topic of this field is nanoalloys with compositions not thermodynamically allowed at ordinary temperature and pressure (i.e. metastable), because they require out-of-equilibrium synthetic approaches. Recently, laser ablation synthesis in solution (LASiS) was successfully applied for the realization of metastable nanoalloys because of the fast kinetics of nanoparticle formation. However, the role played by the chemical environment on the final composition and structure of laser generated nanoalloys still has to be fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the influence of different synthetic conditions on the LASiS of metastable nanoalloys composed of Au and Fe, such as the use of water instead of ethanol, the bubbling of inert gases and the addition of a few vol% of H2O2 and H2O. The two elements showed different reactivity when LASiS was performed in water instead of ethanol, while minor effects were observed from bubbling pure gases such as N2, Ar and CO2 in the liquid solution. Moreover, the plasmonic response and the structure of the nanoalloys were sensibly modified by adding H2O2 to water. We also found that nanoparticle production is dramatically influenced just by adding 0.2% of H2O in ethanol. These results suggest that the formation of a cavitation bubble with long lifetime and large size during LASiS is useful for the preservation of the metastable alloy composition, whereas an oxidative environment hampers the formation of metastable alloy nanoparticles. Overall, by acting on the type of solvent and solutes, we were able to switch from a traditional synthetic approach for the composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys to one using a reactive environment, which gives unconventional structures such as metal@iron-oxide nanoshells and nanocrescents of oxide supported on metal nanospheres. These results expand the knowledge about the mechanism of the formation of nanoalloys using LASiS and show how to obtain multielement nanoparticles of enormous interest for nanomedicine, plasmonics, magneto-plasmonics and catalysis. PMID:25746398

  10. Laser-assisted electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, D.F.

    1995-05-01

    The effect of laser irradiation on electrodeposition processes has been investigated. These studies demonstrated that the addition of laser irradiation to an electroplating process can dramatically enhance plating rates and current efficiencies, as well as improve the morphology of the resultant electrodeposit. During the course of these investigations, the mechanism for the laser enhancement of electrodeposition processes was determined. Experimental evidence was obtained to show that laser irradiation of the substrate results in increased metal ion concentrations at the surface of the electrode due to a laser-induced Soret effect. The laser-induced Soret effect has important implications for laser-assisted electrochemical processing. The increase in the surface concentration of ions allows efficient electrodeposition from dilute solutions. As such, laser- assisted electrodeposition may develop into an environmentally conscious manufacturing process by reducing waste and limiting worker exposure to toxic chemicals.

  11. Laser technology for space tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauch, Uwe; Schall, Wolfgang; Spindler, Gerhard; Wittwer, Wolfram; Zeyfang, Eberhard

    1990-04-01

    The possibilities of using lasers for energy supply, transport and debris elimination in space are studied. Laser cutting has been successful for aluminum, titanium and their alloys, and ceramics and composites, for space structures. Optimal photoelectric convectors of laser light to electric energy show a high efficiency, such as thermic lasers, which seem a good alternative to chemical and electrical energy vectors for low Earth orbital stations. For the estimation of the debris size, the focusing of a laser beam with lenses or a little mirror is possible with mean power lasers. It is concluded that laser technology shows a high potential for the future and needs a better development.

  12. FINAL REPORT. PARTICLE GENERATION BY LASER ABLATION IN SUPPORT OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HIGH LEVEL MIXED WASTE FROM PLUTONIUM PRODUCTION OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigate particles produced by laser irradiation and their analysis by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (LA/ICP-MS), with a view towards optimizing particle production for analysis of high level waste materials and waste glass. LA/ICP-MS has consi...

  13. Controllable high-throughput high-quality femtosecond laser-enhanced chemical etching by temporal pulse shaping based on electron density control

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mengjiao; Hu, Jie; Jiang, Lan; Zhang, Kaihu; Liu, Pengjun; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient fabrication method of high-quality concave microarrays on fused silica substrates based on temporal shaping of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. This method involves exposures of fs laser pulse trains followed by a wet etching process. Compared with conventional single pulses with the same processing parameters, the temporally shaped fs pulses can enhance the etch rate by a factor of 37 times with better controllability and higher quality. Moreover, we demonstrated the flexibility of the proposed method in tuning the profile of the concave microarray structures by changing the laser pulse delay, laser fluence, and pulse energy distribution ratio. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was conducted to elucidate the stronger modification induced by the fs laser pulse trains in comparison with the single pulses. Our calculations show that the controllability is due to the effective control of localized transient free electron densities by temporally shaping the fs pulses. PMID:26307148

  14. Controllable high-throughput high-quality femtosecond laser-enhanced chemical etching by temporal pulse shaping based on electron density control.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengjiao; Hu, Jie; Jiang, Lan; Zhang, Kaihu; Liu, Pengjun; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient fabrication method of high-quality concave microarrays on fused silica substrates based on temporal shaping of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. This method involves exposures of fs laser pulse trains followed by a wet etching process. Compared with conventional single pulses with the same processing parameters, the temporally shaped fs pulses can enhance the etch rate by a factor of 37 times with better controllability and higher quality. Moreover, we demonstrated the flexibility of the proposed method in tuning the profile of the concave microarray structures by changing the laser pulse delay, laser fluence, and pulse energy distribution ratio. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was conducted to elucidate the stronger modification induced by the fs laser pulse trains in comparison with the single pulses. Our calculations show that the controllability is due to the effective control of localized transient free electron densities by temporally shaping the fs pulses. PMID:26307148

  15. The gas flow lasers - A review of theoretical and experimental development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, W.

    The current trends and principles of gas flow lasers, chemical lasers, and electrically excited supersonic lasers are reviewed with an emphasis on gas dynamic lasers. The principles, aeodynamics and characteristics of 16- and 9-micron CO2 gasdynamic lasers are analyzed. The performance characteristics of supersonic flow chemical lasers, such as HF, DF, and CO lasers, and electrically excited supersonic flow CO and CO2 lasers are compared. The future prospects of gas flow lasers are discussed.

  16. Direct chemical-analysis of uv laser-ablation products of organic polymers by using selective ion monitoring mode in gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cho, Yirang; Lee, H.W.; Fountain, S.T.; Lubman, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Trace quantities of laser ablated organic polymers were analyzed by using commercial capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; the instrument was modified so that the laser ablation products could be introduced into the capillary column directly and the constituents of each peak in the chromatogram were identified by using a mass spectrometer. The present study takes advantage of the selective ion monitoring mode for significantly improving the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer as a detector, which is critical in analyzing the trace quantities and confirming the presence or absence of the species of interest in laser ablated polymers. The initial composition of the laser ablated polymers was obtained by using an electron impact reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the possible structure of the fragments observed in the spectra was proposed based on the structure of the polymers.

  17. Growth of ferroelectric Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 epitaxial films by ultraviolet pulsed laser irradiation of chemical solution derived precursor layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queralt, A.; Prez del Pino, A.; de la Mata, M.; Arbiol, J.; Tristany, M.; Gmez, A.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.

    2015-06-01

    Highly crystalline epitaxial Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 (BST) thin-films are grown on (001)-oriented LaNiO3-buffered LaAlO3 substrates by pulsed laser irradiation of solution derived barium-zirconium-titanium precursor layers using a UV Nd:YAG laser source at atmospheric conditions. The structural analyses of the obtained films, studied by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy, demonstrate that laser processing allows the growth of tens of nm-thick BST epitaxial films with crystalline structure similar to that of films obtained through conventional thermal annealing methods. However, the fast pulsed nature of the laser employed leads to crystallization kinetic evolution orders of magnitude faster than in thermal treatments. The combination of specific photothermal and photochemical mechanisms is the main responsible for the ultrafast epitaxial laser-induced crystallization. Piezoresponse microscopy measurements demonstrate equivalent ferroelectric behavior in laser and thermally annealed films, being the piezoelectric constant 25 pm V-1.

  18. Instabilities and structure formation in laser processing

    SciTech Connect

    Baeuerle, D.; Arenholz, E.; Arnold, N.; Heitz, J.; Kargl, P.B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper gives an overview on different types of instabilities and structure formation in various fields of laser processing. Among the examples discussed in detail are non-coherent structures observed in laser-induced chemical vapor deposition (LCVD), in laser-induced surface modifications, and in laser ablation of polymers.

  19. Intracorporeal laser lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Papatsoris, Athanasios G.; Skolarikos, Andreas; Buchholz, Noor

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To review the current literature on intracorporeal laser lithotripsy. Methods We searched PubMed for relevant reports up to January 2012, using the keywords laser, lithotripsy and intracorporeal. Results We studied 125 relevant reports of studies with various levels of evidence. Efficient lithotripsy depends on the laser variables (wavelength, pulse duration and pulse energy) and the physical properties of the stones (optical, mechanical and chemical). The most efficient laser for stones in all locations and of all mineral compositions is the holmium yttriumaluminiumgarnet laser (Ho:YAG). The frequency-doubled double-pulse Nd:YAG laser functions through the generation of a plasma bubble. New laser systems, such as the erbium:YAG and the thulium laser, are under evaluation. Laser protection systems have also been developed for the novel digital flexible ureteroscopes. Although complications are rare, a high relevant clinical suspicion is necessary. Conclusions Laser lithotripsy technology is continuously developing, while the Ho:YAG laser remains the reference standard for intracorporeal lithotripsy. PMID:26558041

  20. Lasers '85; Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference, Las Vegas, NV, Dec. 2-6, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    The present conference on laser technology development encompasses issues in such areas as VUV and X-ray lasers; optical phase conjugation and nonlinear optics; laser applications in medicine; methods for optical processing; laser and nonlinear spectroscopy; ultrashort-pulse lasers and their applications; frequency selection in pulsed lasers; and interactions between laser beams, material surfaces, and material volumes. Also treated are laser applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative program, chemical laser design and performance, the lasing of biophysical materials, laser diagnostics in fluids and plasma, semiconductor laser diodes and arrays, solid state lasers, radiation- and solar-pumped lasers, laser cavities and propagation, remote sensing with lasers and fiber-optics, coupled resonators and diode lasers, industrial applications of lasers, excimer lasers, optoelectronics, CO/sub 2/ lasers, fiber-optic sensors, alexandrite lasers, free electron lasers, and IR and visible wavelength lasers.

  1. Lasers '86; Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Lasers and Applications, Orlando, FL, Nov. 3-7, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Mcmillan, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    Laser physics, technology, and applications are examined in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include VUV and X-ray lasers, vibrational energy transfer and kinetics, medical applications, ultrashort lasers and spectroscopy, surface and material interactions, lasers in atmospheric physics, and fiber-optic systems. Consideration is given to alexandrite lasers, four-wave mixing and nonlinear optics, chemical lasers, semiconductor lasers, photothermal and photoacoustic spectroscopy, dye lasers, optical phase conjugation and SBS, excimer lasers, SDI laser applications, remote-sensing with lasers, FELs, and applications in chemistry. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  2. [Study of flow properties of wet solids using laser induced photo chemical anemometry]. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, B.

    1991-01-20

    A new diagnostic measurement technique is being developed that will enable the investigation of the dynamics of flowing wet solids. The technique involves the use of Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry (LIPA), enhanced to enable two photochemical species to be excited. It uses laser induced photochromic and photo luminescent molecules to separately tag the two phases for times long enough for them to distort the tagging. Recording the distortions of the tagging caused by the movement of each phase enables us to obtain local characterization of flow properties of both phases of the wet solids at many positions simultaneously across a pipe.

  3. [Study of flow properties of wet solids using laser induced photo chemical anemometry]. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Falco, B.

    1992-04-09

    A new diagnostic measurement technique is being developed that will enable the investigation of the dynamics of flowing wet solids. The technique involves the use of Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry (LIPA), enhanced to enable two photochemical species to be excited. It uses laser induced photochromic and photo luminescent molecules to separately tag the two phases for times long enough for them to distort the tagging. Recording the distortions of the tagging caused by the movement of each phase enables us to obtain local characterization of flow properties of both phases of the wet solids at many positions simultaneously across a pipe.

  4. Laser rocket system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. S.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The laser rocket systems investigated in this study were for orbital transportation using space-based, ground-based and airborne laser transmitters. The propulsion unit of these systems utilizes a continuous wave (CW) laser beam focused into a thrust chamber which initiates a plasma in the hydrogen propellant, thus heating the propellant and providing thrust through a suitably designed nozzle and expansion skirt. The specific impulse is limited only by the ability to adequately cool the thruster and the amount of laser energy entering the engine. The results of the study showed that, with advanced technology, laser rocket systems with either a space- or ground-based laser transmitter could reduce the national budget allocated to space transportation by 10 to 345 billion dollars over a 10-year life cycle when compared to advanced chemical propulsion systems (LO2-LH2) of equal capability. The variation in savings depends upon the projected mission model.

  5. Large-energy, wavelength-tunable, all-fiber passively Q-switched Er:Yb-codoped double-clad fiber laser with mono-layer chemical vapor deposition graphene.

    PubMed

    Wu, Duanduan; Xiong, Fengfu; Zhang, Cankun; Chen, Shanshan; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Cai, Weiwei; Che, Kaijun; Luo, Zhengqian

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a large-energy, wavelength-tunable, all-fiber passively Q-switched Er:Yb-codoped laser using a mono-layer chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene saturable absorber (SA). By exploiting the large laser gain of Er:Yb double-clad fiber and optimizing the coupling ratio of the output coupler, not only can the mono-layer CVD graphene SA be protected from oversaturation and thermal damage, but also a large pulse energy up to 1.05?J (corresponding to the average output power of 25.6mW) is thus achieved. Using a tunable fiber Fabry-Perot filter, stable Q-switched pulses can operate with a tunable range from 1530.97 to 1546.92nm, covering a wavelength range of ?16??nm. The Q-switching states at the different lasing wavelengths have been observed and recorded. The Q-switched repetition rate and the pulse duration (with the minimum one of 2.6?s) have been characterized as well. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the largest pulse energy from an all-fiber graphene Q-switched laser. PMID:25089965

  6. Measurement and analysis of internal loss and injection efficiency for continuous-wave blue semipolar ( 20 2 ¯ 1 ¯ ) III-nitride laser diodes with chemically assisted ion beam etched facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Daniel L.; Kuritzky, Leah Y.; Nedy, Joseph; Saud Abbas, Arwa; Pourhashemi, Arash; Farrell, Robert M.; Cohen, Daniel A.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji

    2016-02-01

    Continuous-wave blue semipolar ( 20 2 ¯ 1 ¯ ) III-nitride laser diodes were fabricated with highly vertical, smooth, and uniform mirror facets produced by chemically assisted ion beam etching. Uniform mirror facets are a requirement for accurate experimental determination of internal laser parameters, including internal loss and injection efficiency, which were determined to be 9 cm-1 and 73%, respectively, using the cavity length dependent method. The cavity length of the uncoated devices was varied from 900 μm to 1800 μm, with threshold current densities ranging from 3 kA/cm2 to 9 kA/cm2 and threshold voltages ranging from 5.5 V to 7 V. The experimentally determined internal loss was found to be in good agreement with a calculated value of 9.5 cm-1 using a 1D mode solver. The loss in each layer was calculated and in light of the analysis several modifications to the laser design are proposed.

  7. Mixed-layered bismuth-oxygen-iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2013-02-26

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  8. Mixed-layered bismuth--oxygen--iodine materials for capture and waste disposal of radioactive iodine

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Nenoff, Tina M

    2015-01-06

    Materials and methods of synthesizing mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine materials, which can be synthesized in the presence of aqueous radioactive iodine species found in caustic solutions (e.g. NaOH or KOH). This technology provides a one-step process for both iodine sequestration and storage from nuclear fuel cycles. It results in materials that will be durable for repository conditions much like those found in Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and estimated for Yucca Mountain (YMP). By controlled reactant concentrations, optimized compositions of these mixed-layered bismuth oxy-iodine inorganic materials are produced that have both a high iodine weight percentage and a low solubility in groundwater environments.

  9. Quantitative chemical imaging of element diffusion into heterogeneous media using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, H A O; Grolimund, D; Van Loon, L R; Barmettler, K; Borca, C N; Aeschlimann, B; Günther, D

    2011-08-15

    Quantitative chemical imaging of trace elements in heterogeneous media is important for the fundamental understanding of a broad range of chemical and physical processes. The primary aim of this study was to develop an analytical methodology for quantitative high spatial resolution chemical imaging based on the complementary use of independent microanalytical techniques. The selected scientific case study is focused on high spatially resolved quantitative imaging of major elements, minor elements, and a trace element (Cs) in Opalinus clay, which has been proposed as the host rock for high-level radioactive waste repositories. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), providing quantitative chemical information, and synchrotron radiation based micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-microXRF), providing high spatial resolution images, were applied to study Cs migration into Opalinus clay rock. The results indicate that combining the outputs achievable by the two independent techniques enhances the imaging capabilities significantly. The qualitative high resolution image of SR-microXRF is in good agreement with the quantitative image recorded with lower spatial resolution by LA-ICPMS. Combining both techniques, it was possible to determine that the Opalinus clay sample contains two distinct domains: (i) a clay mineral rich domain and (ii) a calcium carbonate dominated domain. The two domains are separated by sharp boundaries. The spatial Cs distribution is highly correlated to the distribution of the clay. Furthermore, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicates that the trace element Cs preferentially migrates into clay interlayers rather than into the calcite domain, which complements the results acquired by LA-ICPMS and SR-microXRF. By using complementary techniques, the quantification robustness was improved to quantitative micrometer spatial resolution. Such quantitative, microscale chemical images allow a more detailed understanding of the chemical reactive transport process into and within heterogeneous media to be gained. PMID:21623637

  10. Understanding lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Gibilisco, S.

    1989-01-01

    Covering all different types of laser applications-Gibilisco offers an overview of this fascinating phenomenon of light. Here he describes what lasers are and how they work and examines in detail the different kinds of lasers in use today. Topics of particular interest include: the way lasers work; the different kinds of lasers; infrared, ultraviolet and x-ray lasers; use of lasers in industry and manufacturing; use of lasers for long-distance communications; fiberoptic communications; the way laser shows work; the reality of Star Wars; lasers in surgical and medical applications; and holography and the future of laser technology.

  11. Laser propulsion for orbit transfer - Laser technology issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, J. C.; Frisbee, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Using reasonable near-term mission traffic models (1991-2000 being the assumed operational time of the system) and the most current unclassified laser and laser thruster information available, it was found that space-based laser propulsion orbit transfer vehicles (OTVs) can outperform the aerobraked chemical OTV over a 10-year life-cycle. The conservative traffic models used resulted in an optimum laser power of about 1 MW per laser. This is significantly lower than the power levels considered in other studies. Trip time was taken into account only to the extent that the system was sized to accomplish the mission schedule.

  12. A high-repetition rate scheme for synchrotron-based picosecond laser pump/x-ray probe experiments on chemical and biological systems in solution.

    PubMed

    Lima, Frederico A; Milne, Christopher J; Amarasinghe, Dimali C V; Rittmann-Frank, Mercedes Hannelore; van der Veen, Renske M; Reinhard, Marco; Pham, Van-Thai; Karlsson, Susanne; Johnson, Steven L; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Huthwelker, Thomas; Janousch, Markus; van Mourik, Frank; Abela, Rafael; Chergui, Majed

    2011-06-01

    We present the extension of time-resolved optical pump/x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) probe experiments towards data collection at MHz repetition rates. The use of a high-power picosecond laser operating at an integer fraction of the repetition rate of the storage ring allows exploitation of up to two orders of magnitude more x-ray photons than in previous schemes based on the use of kHz lasers. Consequently, we demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in the signal-to-noise of time-resolved XAS of molecular systems in solution. This makes it possible to investigate highly dilute samples at concentrations approaching physiological conditions for biological systems. The simplicity and compactness of the scheme allows for straightforward implementation at any synchrotron beamline and for a wide range of x-ray probe techniques, such as time-resolved diffraction or x-ray emission studies. PMID:21721678

  13. A high-repetition rate scheme for synchrotron-based picosecond laser pump/x-ray probe experiments on chemical and biological systems in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Frederico A.; Milne, Christopher J.; Amarasinghe, Dimali C. V.; Rittmann-Frank, Mercedes Hannelore; Veen, Renske M. van der; Reinhard, Marco; Pham, Van-Thai; Karlsson, Susanne; Mourik, Frank van; Chergui, Majed; Johnson, Steven L.; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia; Huthwelker, Thomas; Janousch, Markus; Abela, Rafael

    2011-06-15

    We present the extension of time-resolved optical pump/x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) probe experiments towards data collection at MHz repetition rates. The use of a high-power picosecond laser operating at an integer fraction of the repetition rate of the storage ring allows exploitation of up to two orders of magnitude more x-ray photons than in previous schemes based on the use of kHz lasers. Consequently, we demonstrate an order of magnitude increase in the signal-to-noise of time-resolved XAS of molecular systems in solution. This makes it possible to investigate highly dilute samples at concentrations approaching physiological conditions for biological systems. The simplicity and compactness of the scheme allows for straightforward implementation at any synchrotron beamline and for a wide range of x-ray probe techniques, such as time-resolved diffraction or x-ray emission studies.

  14. USE OF MULTI-PHOTON LASER-SCANNING MICROSCOPY TO DESCRIBE THE DISTRIBUTION OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    To better understand the mechanisms by which persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs) produce toxicity during fish early life stages (ELS), dose response relationships need to be determined in relation to the dynamic distribution of chemicals in sensitive tissues. In this stud...

  15. Rapid on-site detection of explosives on surfaces by ambient pressure laser desorption and direct inlet single photon ionization or chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, S; Hölzer, J; Rittgen, J; Pütz, M; Schulte-Ladbeck, R; Zimmermann, R

    2013-09-01

    Considering current security issues, powerful tools for detection of security-relevant substances such as traces of explosives and drugs/drug precursors related to clandestine laboratories are required. Especially in the field of detection of explosives and improvised explosive devices, several relevant compounds exhibit a very low vapor pressure. Ambient pressure laser desorption is proposed to make these substances available in the gas phase for the detection by adapted mass spectrometers or in the future with ion-mobility spectrometry as well. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal desorption approach, by which the sample surface is probed for explosive traces by a wipe pad being transferred to a thermal desorber unit, by the ambient pressure laser desorption approach presented here, the sample is directly shockwave ablated from the surface. The laser-dispersed molecules are sampled by a heated sniffing capillary located in the vicinity of the ablation spot into the mass analyzer. This approach has the advantage that the target molecules are dispersed more gently than in a thermal desorber unit where the analyte molecules may be decomposed by the thermal intake. In the technical realization, the sampling capillary as well as the laser desorption optics are integrated in the tip of an endoscopic probe or a handheld sampling module. Laboratory as well as field test scenarios were performed, partially in cooperation with the Federal Criminal Police Office (Bundeskriminalamt, BKA, Wiesbaden, Germany), in order to demonstrate the applicability for various explosives, drugs, and drug precursors. In this work, we concentrate on the detection of explosives. A wide range of samples and matrices have been investigated successfully. PMID:23455645

  16. Volatiles & Organics Isotopic Composition Experiment (VOICE) : a combination of static MS, GCIRMS and Laser MS for accurate measurement of Martian isotopic ratios and for direct chemical characterization of biogenic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassefiere, E.; Wurz, P.; Voice Team

    VOICE is a 8-kg instrumental set proposed in response to the Call for Idea for the instrumentation of the PASTEUR rover, in the frame of the Aurora program, and selected for further study. It combines several complementary analytical tools, devoted to an in-depth investigation of isotopic ratios in both volatile and solid material, and to the search for possible biogenic large molecules in solid samples : (1) Static Mass Spectrometry (Static-MS), associated with a combination of chemical trapping and cryo-adsorption separation techniques, for analysis of atmospheric noble gases, stable isotopes, and trace species; (2) Dynamical Mass Spectrometry, associated with chromatographic separation (GCIRMS), for the measurement of C, H, O, N (both organic and inorganic) isotopic ratios in pyrolysis products of rocks, soils and ices; (3) Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ToF-MS), shared by the Static-MS and GCIRMS lines (mass range : 1-1000 Da, optionally : 1-10000 Da, mass resolution : 700); (4) Laser Mass Spectrometry (LMS) for analysis of chemical and isotopic composition of solid material, using its own sub-miniature ToF MS (mass range : 1-300 Da, mass resolution : 200), with an optional Laser Desorption ToF capability; (5) Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography (2DGC), which is part of GCIRMS, for extracting and separating the various classes of organic compounds that could be found in solid material (and analyzing their isotopic ratios); (6) Reusable pyrolysis oven, coupled with the GCIRMS line, and possibly with the Static-MS line. The main scientific objectives of VOICE are : noble gases abundances and isotopic ratios in atmosphere, and in pyrolyzed samples, at typical accuracy of a few per mille; stable isotopes (C, H, O, N, and others) in atmosphere, and their diurnal/ seasonal variability, et 1 per mille precision level; trace gases of exobiological/ geochemical interest (absolute detection limit of a few pptv by using Static-MS); mineralogy and chemical composition, including isotopic ratios of both refractory and volatile elements in minerals; nature, abundance, chemical and isotopic properties of carbon compounds (both organic and inorganic) in soils, rocks and ices, or any combination of them, at typical accuracy better than 5 per mille; chemical and isotopic composition of elements other than C that are relevant to life (H, O, N, P -- no isotopes in this case-, S, Cl, ...) present in rocks, soils, and ices, at typical accuracy better than 5 per mille; search to toxic substances in Martian surface environment (dust, atmosphere, rocks).

  17. NASA's laser-propulsion project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, L. W.; Keefer, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Design concepts, study results, and research directions toward development of CW laser heating of remotely flying spacecraft fuels to provide high impulse thrust are presented. The incident laser radiation would be absorbed by hydrogen through a medium of a laser-supported plasma. The laser energy could be furnished from an orbiting solar-powered laser platform and used to drive the engines of an orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) at costs less than with a chemical propulsion system. The OTV propulsion chamber would be reduced in size comparable to the volume addition of the incident laser energy absorber. The temperatures in the hydrogen-fueled system could reach 5000-15,000 K, and studies have been done to examine the feasibility of ion-electron recombination. Kinetic performance, temperature field, and power necessary to sustain a laser thrust augmented system modeling results are discussed, along with near-term 30 kW CO2 laser system tests.

  18. Chromium-doped chalcogenide lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrig, Timothy J.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Alford, William J.; Zakel, Andrew

    2004-09-01

    Broadly tunable near- and mid-infrared lasers are of interest for a variety of applications including high-resolution spectroscopy, metrology, pumping of nonlinear optical frequency converters such as optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) and standoff chemical sensing. Tunable laser sources in the 2-3 um region include Cr2+ doped chalcogenide lasers; cryogenic systems, such as color center lasers; limited tunability devices, such as Tm and Ho lasers, gas or chemical lasers, and diode lasers; and nonlinear optical devices such as OPOs. Transition-metal-doped chalcogenide lasers are of high interest because of their high versatility, broad room-temperature wavelength tunability, high optical efficiencies, and their potential to be scaled to high powers via direct diode or fiber laser pumping. To date, continuous-wave, gain-switched, Q-switched and mode-locked laser operation has been demonstrated. Material advantages include broad absorption and emission bands, high fluorescence quantum efficiencies at room temperature, high gain cross-sections, and minimal loss mechanisms such as excited-state absorption or upconversion. Additionally, the materials can be produced by a variety of methods, including several direct growth techniques and diffusion doping. The principal material disadvantages include a relatively large change in refractive index with temperature (large dn/dT), which can induce thermal lensing, and a short, microseconds, energy storage time. In this paper we review fundamental material properties, the current state-of-the-art of continuous-wave and pulsed Cr2+ doped chalcogenide lasers, and recent research results.

  19. Multi-purpose InGaAsP buried heterostructure laser diodes for uncooled digital, analog, and wireless applications grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickrell, G. W.; Zhang, H. L.; Ren, H. W.; Zhang, D.; Xue, Q.; Um, J.; Lin, H. C.; Anselm, K. A.; Makino, T.; Hwang, W. Y.

    2009-02-01

    Using a combination of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic, chemical-vapor deposition (MOCVD), highperformance, buried-heterostructure, distributed feedback (DFB), laser diodes are being manufactured for multiple, uncooled (-20 to 85 C and -40 to 95 C) product lines. MBE is used to grow the active regions and the p-type cladding layers, while MOCVD is used for the Fe-doped blocking layers. Multi-wafer growths are used to reduce device costs. Devices, employing the same basic active region design, have been fabricated operating at wavelengths from 1490 to 1610 nm for applications including coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) OC-48 digital, analog return path, and 2.2 GHz (3G) wireless code division multiple access (W-CDMA). These devices show good linearity (analog return path and wireless) and high-speed operation (digital). Accelerated lifetime testing of these devices shows excellent reliability with a median lifetime of 17 years at 90 C.

  20. USE OF WHOLE BODY CHEMICAL RESIDUE ANALYSIS AND LASER SCREENING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY TO DESCRIBE DISTRIBUTION OF PBTS IN FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages (ELS) are more sensitive than juveniles or adults to many persistent bioaccumulative toxicants (PBTs). To better understand the mechanisms by which these chemicals produce toxicity during fish ELS, dose-response relationships need to be determined in relat...

  1. Engineering Light: Quantum Cascade Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Claire Gmachl

    2010-03-17

    Quantum cascade lasers are ideal for environmental sensing and medical diagnostic applications. Gmachl discusses how these lasers work, and their applications, including their use as chemical trace gas sensors. As examples of these applications, she briefly presents results from her field campaign at the Beijing Olympics, and ongoing campaigns in Texas, Maryland, and Ghana.

  2. Engineering Light: Quantum Cascade Lasers

    ScienceCinema

    Claire Gmachl

    2010-09-01

    Quantum cascade lasers are ideal for environmental sensing and medical diagnostic applications. Gmachl discusses how these lasers work, and their applications, including their use as chemical trace gas sensors. As examples of these applications, she briefly presents results from her field campaign at the Beijing Olympics, and ongoing campaigns in Texas, Maryland, and Ghana.

  3. High temperature pulsed and continuous-wave operation and thermally stable threshold characteristics of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo; Zhou, P.; Cheng, Julian; Malloy, K. J.; Zolper, J. C.

    1994-09-01

    A systematic and comparative study of the temperature performance of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is presented to discuss how thermal effects govern their temperature range for cw operation. These include the temperature-induced detuning of the lasing mode from the gain peak, thermal self-heating, and thermal runaway. The power dissipation of the VCSELs and the resultant rise in junction temperature have been measured as a function of the mode detuning. It is shown that low power dissipation is achieved by aligning the cavity mode to the gain peak and introducing continuously graded heterointerfaces throughout the VCSEL structure. By selecting the optimal mode detuning, VCSELs have achieved excellent operating characteristics over a broad range of temperatures, including thermally stable threshold voltage and current, and a very wide temperature range for both pulsed (100-580 K) and continuous-wave (100-400 K) operations.

  4. Femtochemistry: Atomic-Scale Dynamics of the Chemical Bond Using Ultrafast Lasers (Nobel Lecture) Copyright((c)) The Nobel Foundation 2000. We thank the Nobel Foundation, Stockholm, for permission to print this lecture.

    PubMed

    Zewail

    2000-08-01

    Over many millennia, humankind has thought to explore phenomena on an ever shorter time scale. In this race against time, femtosecond resolution (1 fs=10(-15) s) is the ultimate achievement for studies of the fundamental dynamics of the chemical bond. Observation of the very act that brings about chemistry-the making and breaking of bonds on their actual time and length scales-is the wellspring of the field of femtochemistry, which is the study of molecular motions in the hitherto unobserved ephemeral transition states of physical, chemical, and biological changes. For molecular dynamics, achieving this atomic-scale resolution using ultrafast lasers as strobes is a triumph, just as X-ray and electron diffraction, and, more recently, STM and NMR spectroscopy, provided that resolution for static molecular structures. On the femtosecond time scale, matter wave packets (particle-type) can be created and their coherent evolution as a single-molecule trajectory can be observed. The field began with simple systems of a few atoms and has reached the realm of the very complex in isolated, mesoscopic, and condensed phases, as well as in biological systems such as proteins and DNA structures. It also offers new possibilities for the control of reactivity and for structural femtochemistry and femtobiology. This anthology gives an overview of the development of the field from a personal perspective, encompassing our research at Caltech and focusing on the evolution of techniques, concepts, and new discoveries. PMID:10934390

  5. Laser device

    SciTech Connect

    Mcmahan, W.H.

    1980-10-21

    A means is provided for continuously purging deleterious contaminants including water vapor, ozone and organic vapors from the resonant cavity of lasers where the resonant cavity is characterized by a gap-space between the gain medium and the optical mirror at both ends of the cavity with each of the gapspaces being disposed within an enclosed chamber where the contaminants tend to collect. This is accomplished by connecting the interiors of the gap-space chambers through tubular gas conduits with one or more canisters which contain a chemical desiccant or molecular sieve capable of removing the unwanted gases or vapors. A molecular sieve comprised of zeolite with the appropriate intermolecular spacing is especially preferred.

  6. Method for laser induced isotope enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Pronko, Peter P.; Vanrompay, Paul A.; Zhang, Zhiyu

    2004-09-07

    Methods for separating isotopes or chemical species of an element and causing enrichment of a desired isotope or chemical species of an element utilizing laser ablation plasmas to modify or fabricate a material containing such isotopes or chemical species are provided. This invention may be used for a wide variety of materials which contain elements having different isotopes or chemical species.

  7. Chemical recognition software

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures. even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  8. Chemical recognition software

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.; Trahan, M.W.; Nelson, W.E.; Hargis, P.H. Jr.; Tisone, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a capability to make real time concentration measurements of individual chemicals in a complex mixture using a multispectral laser remote sensing system. Our chemical recognition and analysis software consists of three parts: (1) a rigorous multivariate analysis package for quantitative concentration and uncertainty estimates, (2) a genetic optimizer which customizes and tailors the multivariate algorithm for a particular application, and (3) an intelligent neural net chemical filter which pre-selects from the chemical database to find the appropriate candidate chemicals for quantitative analyses by the multivariate algorithms, as well as providing a quick-look concentration estimate and consistency check. Detailed simulations using both laboratory fluorescence data and computer synthesized spectra indicate that our software can make accurate concentration estimates from complex multicomponent mixtures, even when the mixture is noisy and contaminated with unknowns.

  9. A tomographic technique for the simultaneous imaging of temperature, chemical species, and pressure in reactive flows using absorption spectroscopy with frequency-agile lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Weiwei; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2014-01-20

    This paper proposes a technique that can simultaneously retrieve distributions of temperature, concentration of chemical species, and pressure based on broad bandwidth, frequency-agile tomographic absorption spectroscopy. The technique holds particular promise for the study of dynamic combusting flows. A proof-of-concept numerical demonstration is presented, using representative phantoms to model conditions typically prevailing in near-atmospheric or high pressure flames. The simulations reveal both the feasibility of the proposed technique and its robustness. Our calculations indicate precisions of ?70?K at flame temperatures and ?0.05 bars at high pressure from reconstructions featuring as much as 5% Gaussian noise in the projections.

  10. Chemical synthesis and crystal growth of AgGaGeS4, a material for mid-IR nonlinear laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rame, J.; Petit, J.; Clement, Q.; Melkonian, J. M.; Viana, B.

    2015-02-01

    AgGaGeS4 compound (AGGS) is a promising nonlinear material for mid-IR applications. The different steps of this materials processing are presented. The chemical synthesis of polycrystals and the single crystal growth process are described. Compounds volatility can induce stoichiometry deviation and reduce the quality of obtained single crystals. Nevertheless, 28 mm diameter and 70 mm length single crystals have been grown by Bridgman-Stockbarger method, cut and polished AGGS crystal is obtained. The crystal has good homogeneity and absorption coefficient of less than 0.1 cm-1 in the 0.5-11.5 μm range which make it usable in nonlinear devices.

  11. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  12. Chemical Peels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z Diseases and treatments A - D Chemical peel Chemical peels Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do you ... the cost of cosmetic treatments. Learn more about chemical peels: Is a chemical peel the right choice ...

  13. Chemical cytometry of thiols using capillary zone electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence and TMPAB-o-M, an improved fluorogenic reagent.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Feng; Arceo, Jennifer; Huge, Bonnie Jaskowski; Ludwig, Katelyn R; Dovichi, Norman J

    2016-02-01

    Low molecular weight thiol compounds play crucial roles in many physiological processes. Most methods for determination of thiol compounds are population-averaged; few methods for quantification of thiol compounds in single cells have been reported. We report an ultrasensitive method for determination of thiol compounds in single cells by use of 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-8-phenyl-(2-maleimide)-difluoroboradiaza-s-indacene (TMPAB-o-M), a fluorogenic probe with useful spectral properties, coupled with capillary zone electrophoresis and laser induced fluorescence detection using a post-column sheath flow cuvette. TMPAB-o-M provides low background, high sensitivity, and excellent reactivity. After optimization of the separation method, we achieved baseline separation of labeled glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), homocysteine, and γ-glutamylcysteine within 11 min, and produced concentration limits of detection from 10 to 20 pM and mass LODs of 65 to 100 zmol. The method was applied for analysis of thiol containing compounds in both cell homogenates and in single HCT-29 and MCF-10A cells. GSH was the main thiol, and Cys was also detected in both cell types. Cells were treated with N-ethylmaleimide, which significantly attenuated thiol levels. PMID:26814594

  14. Controlling Chemical Reactions by Short, Intense Mid-Infrared Laser Pulses: Comparison of Linear and Circularly Polarized Light in Simulations of ClCHO(+) Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xuetao; Thapa, Bishnu; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H Bernhard

    2016-02-25

    Enhanced mode selective fragmentation of oriented ClCHO(+) ? Cl + HCO(+), H + ClCO(+), HCl(+) + CO with linear polarized intense mid-IR pulses was demonstrated in our previous computational study ( J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2012 , 3 , 2541 ). Simulations of angle-dependent strong field ionization of ClCHO indicate the ionization rate in the molecular plane is nearly twice as large as perpendicular to the plane, suggesting a degree of planar alignment can be obtained experimentally for ClCHO(+), starting from neutral molecules. Classical trajectory calculations with a 4 cycle 7 ?m laser pulse (peak intensity of 1.26 10(14) W/cm(2)) show that circularly polarized light with the electric field in the plane of the molecule deposits more energy and yields larger branching ratios for higher energy fragmentation channels than linearly polarized light with the same maximum field strength. These results suggest circularly polarized mid-IR pulses can not only achieve control on reactions but also provide an experimentally accessible implementation. PMID:26814607

  15. Ion beam induced chemical and morphological changes in TiO2 films deposited on Si(1 1 1) surface by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanta, R. R.; Medicherla, V. R. R.; Mohanta, K. L.; Nayak, Nimai C.; Majumder, S.; Solanki, V.; Varma, Shikha; Bapna, Komal; Phase, D. M.; Sathe, V.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated TiO2 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition method on Si(1 1 1) surface using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and ion beam sputtering techniques. Our XRD data along with Raman indicated that the deposited TiO2 is in anatase phase. The binding energy position of Ti 2p also supports the anatase phase formation. AFM topography of as deposited film indicates the formation of non uniform TiO2 growth with the formation of voids on Si(1 1 1) substrate. After sputtering with argon ion beam, surface erosion occurs and voids have disappeared. The Ti 2p core level of sputtered TiO2 exhibits the formation of Ti2O3, TiO and pure Ti on the surface. High binding energy shoulder of O 1s peak becomes sharp after sputtering. Ti LMM Auger peaks become broader after sputtering but no shift in kinetic energy is observed.

  16. Laser-heated thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, N. H.; Lewis, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a computer program for the design of the thrust chamber for a CW laser heated thruster was examined. Hydrodgen was employed as the propellant gas and high temperature absorber. The laser absorption coefficient of the mixture/laser radiation combination is given in temperature and species densities. Radiative and absorptive properties are given to determine radiation from such gas mixtures. A computer code for calculating the axisymmetric channel flow of a gas mixture in chemical equilibrium, and laser energy absorption and convective and radiative heating is described. It is concluded that: (1) small amounts of cesium seed substantially increase the absorption coefficient of hydrogen; (2) cesium is a strong radiator and contributes greatly to radiation of cesium seeded hydrogen; (3) water vapor is a poor absorber; and (4) for 5.3mcm radiation, both H2O/CO and NO/CO seeded hydrogen mixtures are good absorbers.

  17. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  18. Remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by CO2 -lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiko, Pavel P.; Smirnov, Sergey S.

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of remote sensing of chemical warfare agent by differential absorption method were analyzed. The CO2 - laser emission lines suitable for sounding of chemical warfare agent with provision for disturbing absorptions by water vapor were choose. The detection range of chemical warfare agents was estimated for a lidar based on CO2 - laser The other factors influencing upon echolocation range were analyzed.

  19. Dye lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, F.P. )

    1990-01-01

    This book includes chapters on continuous-wave dye lasers and properties of dye lasers and a chapter on continuous-wave dye lasers. There is also a chapter on wavemeters. This book provides an introduction to dye lasers and contains information for scientists and engineers who deal with their applications.

  20. Laser clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facklam, R. L.

    1984-11-01

    A laser clock includes a linear laser in one embodiment of the clock and a ring laser gyro in the other embodiment. The linear laser is frequency stabilized and utilizes a single active medium in the form of a low pressure gas, such as He-Ne, with a Doppler broadened gain curve. The ring laser gyro is a four frequency laser with a Faraday rotor. Detector and electronic circuitry associated with the laser of each embodiment detect a beat frequency and coverts it to a clock signal.

  1. Energy transmission by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2015-02-01

    Laser spark obtained by using a conical optics is much more appropriate to form conducting channels in atmosphere. Only two types of lasers are actively considered to be used in forming high-conductivity channels in atmosphere, controlled by laser spark: pulsed sub-microsecond gas and chemical lasers (CO2, DF) and short pulse solid-state and UV lasers. Main advantage of short pulse lasers is their ability in forming of superlong ionised channels with a characteristic diameter of ~ 100 mkm in atmosphere along the beam propagation direction. At estimated electron densities below 1016 cm-3 in these filaments and laser wavelengths in the range of 0.5 - 1.0 mm, the plasma barely absorbs laser radiation. In this case, the length of the track composed of many filaments is determined by the laser intensity and may reach many kilometers at a femtosecond pulse energy of ~ 100 mJ. However, these lasers could not be used to form high-conductivity long channels in atmosphere. The ohmic resistance of this type a conducting channels turned out to be very high, and the gas in the channels could not be strongly heated (< 1 J). An electric breakdown controlled by radiation of femtosecond solid-state laser was implemented in only at a length of 3 m with a voltage of 2 MV across the discharge gap (670 kV/m). Not so long ago scientific group from P.N. Lebedev has improved that result, the discharge gap -1m had been broken under KrF laser irradiation when switching high-voltage (up to 390 kV/m) electric discharge by 100-ns UV pulses. Our previous result - 16 m long conducting channel controlled by a laser spark at the voltage - 3 MV - was obtained more than 20years ago in Russia and Japan by using pulsed CO2 laser with energy - 0.5 kJ. An average electric field strength was < 190 kV/m. It is still too much for efficient applications.

  2. InAsSb-based mid-infrared lasers (3.5--3.9 {micro}m) and light-emitting diodes with AlAsSb claddings and semi-metal electron injection grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Allerman, A.A.; Biefeld, R.M.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1997-10-01

    Mid-infrared (3--5 {micro}m) lasers and LED`s are being developed for use in chemical sensor systems. As-rich, InAsSb heterostructures display unique electronic properties that are beneficial to the performance of these midwave infrared emitters. The metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of AlAs{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} cladding layers and InAsSb/InAsP superlattice active regions are described. A regrowth technique has been used to fabricate gain-guided, injection lasers using undoped (p-type) AlAs{sub 0.16}Sb{sub 0.84} for optical confinement. In device studies, the authors demonstrate lasers and LEDs utilizing the semi-metal properties of a p-GaAsSb/n-InAs heterojunction as a source for injection of electrons into the active region of emitters. This avoids the difficulties associated with n-type doping of AlAsSb cladding layers required for conventional p-n junction lasers and also provides a means for construction of active regions with multiple gain stages. Gain guided injected lasers employing a strained InAsSb/InAs multi-quantum well active region operated up to 210 K in pulsed mode, with an emission wavelength of 3.8--3.9 {micro}m. A characteristic temperature of 40 K was observed to 140 K and 29 K from 140 K to 210 K. An optically pumped laser with an InAsSb/InAsP superlattice active region is also described. The maximum operating temperature of this 3.7 {micro}m laser was 240 K.

  3. Diode-pumped neodymium lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Peter

    1990-08-01

    Since the invention of diode lasers in the early 1960's there had been continuous investigations in laser diode pumped solid state lasers as has been reviewed in detail by a number of papers ( see e.g. [1] ). There are two main advantages of using diode lasers instead of flashlaraps as a pump source for solid state lasers: First the emission of the diode lasers matches well with the absorption bands of several Rare Earth ions that are doped in laser crystals ( mainly Nd3+, but also Er3, Tm3, Dy3', and others ) . This summary will report only about diode lasers at a wavelength of around BlOnm, which fits to an absorptionband of Nd3t Second diode lasers provide the possibility of longitudinally pumped configurations and therefore an excellent mode matching with the solid state laser mode. For both reasons the efficiency of a diode laser puniped solid state laser is nuch higher than of a flashlamp pumped one. Since the early 1980's a much wider interest in diode laser pumped solid state lasers arose. It was stimulated by the improved performance of the new generation of diode lasers in terms of reliability , operational lifetime and output power [21. Two important steps in direction to the diode lasers at present time were the developments of double hetero (DH) structure- and graded index separate confinement hetero (GrInSCH) structurediode lasers. In the same way the development of new production techniques were necessary to ensure the reliability of the diode lasers. Starting with the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) the (GaAl)As structures are now grown by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), mainly used for very high precision laboratory investigations, and metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), mainly used for commercial production. As a first commercial product SDL introduced a 100mW array in 1984. Since then the output power of the commercially available diode lasers increased by two orders of magnitude to lOW. These diode lasers are multi stripe bar arrays like the 5W diode laser

  4. Investigation of passive and active silica-tin oxide nanostructured optical fibers fabricated by "inverse dip-coating" and "powder in tube" method based on the chemical sol-gel process and laser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, G.; Restoin, C.; Roy, P.; Jamier, R.; Rougier, S.; Duclere, J.-R.; Lecomte, A.; Dauliat, R.; Blondy, J.-M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a study of original nanostructured optical fibers based on the SiO2-SnO2-(Yb3+) system. Two different processes have been developed and compared: the sol-gel chemical method associated to the "inverse dip-coating" (IDC) and the "powder in tube" (PIT). The microstructural and optical properties of the fibers are studied according to the concentration of SnO2. X-Ray Diffraction as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy studies show that the SnO2 crystallizes into the cassiterite phase as nanoparticles with a diameter ranging from 4 to 50 nm as a function of tin oxide concentration. A comparative study highlights a better conservation of SnO2 into the fiber core with the PIT approach according to the refractive index profile and energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry measurement. The attenuation evaluated by the classic cut-back method gives respectively values higher than 3 dB/m and 0.2 dB/m in the visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) ranges for the PIT fibers whereas background losses reach 0.5 dB/m in the VIS range for IDC fibers. The introduction of ytterbium ions into the core of PIT fibers, directly in the first chemical step, leads to a laser emission (between 1050 and 1100 nm) according to the fiber length under 850 nm wavelength pumping. Luminescence studies have demonstrated the influence of the tin oxide on the rare earth optical properties especially by the modification of the absorption (850 to 1000 nm) and emission (950 to 1100 nm) by discretization of the bands, as well as on the IR emission lifetime evaluated to 10 ?s.

  5. Evaluation of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for support of in vitro drug discovery assays: increasing scope, robustness and throughput of the LDTD technique for use with chemically diverse compound libraries.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Iain; Smith, Aaron; Weston, Daniel J; White, Peter; Szwandt, Simon; Sealey, Laura

    2012-02-01

    Within the drug discovery environment, the key process in optimising the chemistry of a structural series toward a potential drug candidate is the design, make and test cycle, in which the primary screens consist of a number of in vitro assays, including metabolic stability, cytochrome P450 inhibition, and time-dependent inhibition assays. These assays are often carried out using multiple drug compounds with chemically diverse structural features, often in a 96 well-plate format for maximum time-efficiency, and are supported using rapid liquid chromatographic (LC) sample introduction with a tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) endpoint, taking around 6.5 h per plate. To provide a faster time-to-decision at this critical point, there exists a requirement for higher sample throughput and a robust, well-characterized analytical alternative. This paper presents a detailed evaluation of laser diode thermal desorption (LDTD), a relatively new ambient sample ionization technique, for compound screening assays. By systematic modification of typical LDTD instrumentation and workflow, and providing deeper understanding around overcoming a number of key issues, this work establishes LDTD as a practical, rapid alternative to conventional LC-MS/MS in drug discovery, without need for extensive sample preparation or expensive, scope-limiting internal standards. Analysis of both the five and three cytochrome P450 competitive inhibition assay samples by LDTD gave improved sample throughput (0.75 h per plate) and provided comparable data quality as the IC?? values obtained were within 3 fold of those calculated from the LC-MS/MS data. Additionally when applied generically to a chemically diverse library of over 250 proprietary compounds from the AstraZeneca design, make and test cycle, LDTD demonstrated a success rate of 98%. PMID:22071442

  6. Pulsed excimer laser processing for cost-effective solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, David C.

    1985-01-01

    The application of excimer laser in the fabrication of photovoltaic devices was investigated extensively. Processes included junction formation, laser assisted chemical vapor deposition metallization, and laser assisted chemical vapor deposition surface passivation. Results demonstrated that implementation of junction formation by laser annealing in production is feasible because of excellent control in junction depth and quality. Both metallization and surface passivation, however, were found impractical to be considered for manufacturing at this stage.

  7. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. The beam from the excitation light source is split with a portion of it going to the ignitor laser and a second portion of it being recombined with the first portion after a delay before injection into the ignitor laser. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones.

  8. Laser Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Dopant level analysis is important to the laser system designer because it allows him to model the laser's performance. It also allows the end user to determine what went wrong when a laser fails to perform as expected. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Scientific Materials Corporation has developed a process for producing uniform laser rods in which the amount of water trapped in the crystal during growth is reduced. This research led to the formation of a subsidiary company, Montana Analytical Services, which conducts analysis of laser rods for dopant ion concentrations. This is a significant advance in laser technology.

  9. Laser propulsion option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humes, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    The use of laser thrusters with exhaust powers in the 25 MW to 250 MW range can reduce the fuel that would be needed to transport the lunar outpost equipment to low-lunar orbit with a chemical OTV by 57000 Kg to 105000 Kg with no significant penalty in trip time. This would save one or two launches of the heavy-load launch vehicle. Nuclear-electric OTVs would take 40 to 120 times as long to get to the moon and would spend 100 to 1700 times as long in the Van Allen radiation belts as OTVs that have laser thrusters.

  10. Lasers of All Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcou, Philippe; Forget, Sébastien Robert-Philip, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    * Introduction * The Laser in All Its Forms * Gas lasers * Dye lasers * Solid-state lasers * Lasers for Every Taste * The rise of lasers * Lasers of all sizes * The colors of the rainbow... and beyond * Shorter and shorter lasers * Increasingly powerful lasers * Lasers: A Universal Tool? * Cutting, welding, and cleaning * Communicating * Treating illnesses * Measuring * Supplying energy? * Entertaining * Understanding * Conclusion

  11. Development of selective laser treatment techniques using mid-infrared tunable nanosecond pulsed laser.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Katsunori; Saiki, Masayuki; Hazama, Hisanao; Awazu, Kunio

    2010-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) laser with a specific wavelength can excite the corresponding biomolecular site to regulate chemical, thermal and mechanical interactions to biological molecules and tissues. In laser surgery and medicine, tunable MIR laser irradiation can realize the selective and less-invasive treatments and the special diagnosis by vibrational spectroscopic information. This paper showed a novel selective therapeutic technique for a laser angioplasty of atherosclerotic plaques and a laser dental surgery of a carious dentin using a MIR tunable nanosecond pulsed laser. PMID:21096133

  12. Laser microphone

    DOEpatents

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2000-11-14

    A microphone for detecting sound pressure waves includes a laser resonator having a laser gain material aligned coaxially between a pair of first and second mirrors for producing a laser beam. A reference cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors for transmitting a reference portion of the laser beam between the mirrors. A sensing cell is disposed between the laser material and one of the mirrors, and is laterally displaced from the reference cell for transmitting a signal portion of the laser beam, with the sensing cell being open for receiving the sound waves. A photodetector is disposed in optical communication with the first mirror for receiving the laser beam, and produces an acoustic signal therefrom for the sound waves.

  13. [Chemical peel treatments in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Wiest, L G; Habig, J

    2015-10-01

    Chemical peel treatments, which utilize a number of chemical peeling solutions subject to patient indication, are an easy to learn therapeutic technique suited for, in particular, various types of acne, acne scars, actinic keratosis and "sun-damaged skin". Especially the positive and long-lasting results of deep peels in the area of skin rejuvenation are deemed the gold standard against which other techniques, including lasers, must compare themselves. Other benefits of chemical peels include the flexibility to mix and match chemical solutions to custom design the treatment best suited for the desired degree of skin penetration, as well as the relatively low cost. PMID:26373295

  14. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2004-01-13

    Sequenced pulses of light from an excitation laser with at least two resonator cavities with separate output couplers are directed through a light modulator and a first polarzing analyzer. A portion of the light not rejected by the first polarizing analyzer is transported through a first optical fiber into a first ignitor laser rod in an ignitor laser. Another portion of the light is rejected by the first polarizing analyzer and directed through a halfwave plate into a second polarization analyzer. A first portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer passes through the second polarization analyzer to a second, oscillator, laser rod in the ignitor laser. A second portion of the output of the second polarization analyzer is redirected by the second polarization analyzer to a second optical fiber which delays the beam before the beam is combined with output of the first ignitor laser rod. Output of the second laser rod in the ignitor laser is directed into the first ignitor laser rod which was energized by light passing through the first polarizing analyzer. Combined output of the first ignitor laser rod and output of the second optical fiber is focused into a combustible fuel where the first short duration, high peak power pulse from the ignitor laser ignites the fuel and the second long duration, low peak power pulse directly from the excitation laser sustains the combustion.

  15. Laser sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatenko, A. A.; Revina, E. I.

    2015-10-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references.

  16. Laser space propulsion overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude; Luke, James; Helgeson, Wesley

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we review the history of laser space propulsion from its earliest theoretical conceptions to modern practical applicatons. Applications begin with the "Lightcraft" flights of Myrabo and include practical thrusters for satellites now completing development as well as proposals for space debris removal and direct launch of payloads into orbit. We consider laser space propulsion in the most general sense, in which laser radiation is used to propel a vehicle in space. In this sense, the topic includes early proposals for pure photon propulsion, laser ablation propulsion, as well as propulsion using lasers to detonate a gas, expel a liquid, heat and expel a gas, or even to propagate power to a remote conventional electric thruster. We also discuss the most recent advances in LSP. For the first time, it is possible to consider space propulsion engines which exhibit thrust of one to several newtons while simultaneously delivering 3,000 seconds, or greater, specific impulse. No other engine concept can do both in a compact format. These willl use onboard, rather than remote, lasers. We will review the concept of chemically augmented electric propulsion, which can provide overall thrust efficiency greater than unity while maintaining very low mass to power ratio, high mean time to failure and broad operating range. The main advantage of LSP is exhaust velocity which can be instantaneously varied from 2km/s to 30km/s, simply by varying laser pulsewidth and focal spot size on target. The laser element will probably be a diode-pumped, fiber master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) system. Liquid fuels are necessary for volumetric efficiency and reliable performance at the multi-kW optical power levels required for multi-N thrust.

  17. Development of mid-IR lasers for Laser Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soibel, Alexander; Mansour, Kamjou; Spiers, Gary; Forouhar, Siamak

    2005-01-01

    There is an existing need in JPL and in NASA for development of mid-IR lasers, such as Quantum Cascade (QC) lasers, for in-situ and remote laser spectrometers. Mid-IR, compact, low power consumption laser spectrometers have a great potential for detection and measurements of planetary gases and biological important biomarker molecules such as H20, H202, CH4, and many additional chemical species on Mars and other Solar system planets. Another potential application of QC lasers for future NASA mission is in high power remote Laser Reflectance Spectrometers (LRS). In LSR instrument, mid-infrared lasers will act as the illumination source for conducting active mid-IR reflectance spectroscopy of solid-surfaced objects in the outer Solar System. These spectrometers have the potential to provide an incredible amount of information about the compositions of surfaces in the outer Solar System. In this work, we will discuss our current effort at JPL to advance QC lasers to a level that the laser performance, operational requirements and reliability be compatible with the instruments demands for space exploration applications.

  18. Highly sensitive chemical detection in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2010-11-10

    Optical sensing methods, in particular infrared absorption spectroscopy combined with quantum cascade lasers (QCLs), are highly suited for the detection of chemicals since they enable rapid detection and are amenable for autonomous operation in a compact and rugged package.

  19. Laser-assisted solar cell metallization processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, S.; Palaschak, P. A.

    1984-10-01

    Laser assisted processing techniques for producing high quality solar cell metallization patterns were developed and characterized. A comprehensive literature search initially yielded information on state of the art laser assisted techniques for metal deposition such as laser chemical vapor deposition and laser photolysis of organometallics, as well as laser enhanced electroplating. A compact system for the laser assisted photolysis of gas phase compounds was designed and constructed. Initial experiments on laser enhanced electroplating yielded very promising results with linewidths as narrow as 25 micro m and local plating speeds as high as 12 micro m/s being achieved. Metal deposition experiments werre carried out utilizing laser assisted pyrolysis of a variety of metal bearing polymer films and metallo-organic inks spun onto silicon substrates.

  20. Fs-laser processing of polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect

    Atanasov, Petar A. Nedyalkov, Nikolay N.; Valova, Eugenia I.; Georgieva, Zhenya S.; Armyanov, Stefan A.; Kolev, Konstantin N.; Amoruso, Salvatore; Wang, Xuan; Bruzzese, Ricardo; Sawczak, Miroslaw; ?liwi?ski, Gerard

    2014-07-14

    We present an experimental analysis on surface structuring of polydimethylsiloxane films with UV (263?nm) femtosecond laser pulses, in air. Laser processed areas are analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, and ?-Raman spectroscopy. The laser-treated sample shows the formation of a randomly nanostructured surface morphology. ?-Raman spectra, carried out at both 514 and 785?nm excitation wavelengths, prior and after laser treatment allow evidencing the changes in the sample structure. The influence of the laser fluence on the surface morphology is studied. Finally, successful electro-less metallization of the laser-processed sample is achieved, even after several months from the laser-treatment contrary to previous observation with nanosecond pulses. Our findings address the effectiveness of fs-laser treatment and chemical metallization of polydimethylsiloxane films with perspective technological interest in micro-fabrication devices for MEMS and nano-electromechanical systems.

  1. Laser polishing of niobium for SRF applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Liang; Klopf, J. Michael; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Smooth interior surfaces are desired for niobium SRF cavities, now obtained by buffered chemical polish (BCP) and/or electropolish (EP). Laser polishing is a potential alternative, having advantages of speed, freedom from chemistry and in-process inspection. Here we show that laser polishing can produce smooth topography with Power Spectral Density (PSD) measurements similar to that obtained by EP. We studied the influence of the laser power density and laser beam raster rate on the surface topography. These two factors need to be combined carefully to smooth the surface without damaging it. Computational modeling was used to simulate the surface temperature and explain the mechanism of laser polishing.

  2. CW laser pumped emerald laser

    SciTech Connect

    Shand, M.L.; Lai, S.T.

    1984-02-01

    A CW laser-pumped emerald laser is reported. A 34 percent output power slope efficiency is observed with longitudinal pumping by a krypton laser in a nearly concentric cavity. The laser has been tuned from 728.8 to 809.0 nm. Losses in emerald are larger than those of alexandrite determined in a similar cavity. The present data also indicate that the excited state absorption minimum is shifted from that of alexandrite. 13 references.

  3. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  4. Laser device

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2004-11-23

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  5. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2003-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In a third embodiment, alternating short and long pulses of light from the excitation light source are directed into the ignitor laser. Each of the embodiments of the invention can be multiplexed so as to provide laser light energy sequentially to more than one ignitor laser.

  6. Methods for determining optical power, for power-normalizing laser measurements, and for stabilizing power of lasers via compliance voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S; Phillips, Mark C

    2015-04-07

    A method is disclosed for power normalization of spectroscopic signatures obtained from laser based chemical sensors that employs the compliance voltage across a quantum cascade laser device within an external cavity laser. The method obviates the need for a dedicated optical detector used specifically for power normalization purposes. A method is also disclosed that employs the compliance voltage developed across the laser device within an external cavity semiconductor laser to power-stabilize the laser mode of the semiconductor laser by adjusting drive current to the laser such that the output optical power from the external cavity semiconductor laser remains constant.

  7. Laser machinable glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyo, Hirotaka; Shojiya, Masanori; Tsunetomo, Keiji

    2004-10-01

    Recently we found that titanium ions in glass are effective to reduce the ablation threshold in the UV laser irradiation. In case of Nd:YAG fourth harmonic generation (FHG, wavelength: 266 nm) irradiation, glass containing titanium ions showed 1/10 times smaller threshold compared with conventional one used for optics or windows. We named this Ti-containing glass Laser Machinable Glass (LMG). In this paper we present some applications made of LMG, a 4x4 planar micro hole array (PMH) for optical fibers alignment, a micro well array for reaction of a small amount of chemicals, and a micro channel used in the bio-chemical field. Using LMG for laser machining, all samples were fabricated precisely without cracking and chipping. We also successfully synthesized new Ti-containing laser machinable glass with thermal expansion coefficient below 40x10-7 K-1. The ablation threshold of this low-thermal-expansion glass was about 1.4 times lower than that of Pyrex. Moreover, this glass showed 25 times higher durability to NaOH (pH=10) than Pyrex.

  8. Compact Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Wojcik, Michael D.; Krishnaswami, Kannan; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2009-04-01

    ): In this paper we present design considerations, thermal and optical modeling results, and device performance for a ruggedized, compact laser transmitter that utilizes a room temperature quantum cascade (QC) laser source. The QC laser transmitter is intended for portable mid-infrared (3-12 m) spectroscopy applications, where the atmospheric transmission window is relatively free of water vapor interference and where the molecular rotational vibration absorption features can be used to detect and uniquely identify chemical compounds of interest. Initial QC laser-based sensor development efforts were constrained by the complications of cryogenic operation. However, improvements in both QC laser designs and fabrication processes have provided room-temperature devices that now enable significant miniaturization and integration potential for national security, environmental monitoring, atmospheric science, and industrial safety applications.

  9. Development of a new multi-residue laser diode thermal desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection and quantification of pesticides and pharmaceuticals in wastewater samples.

    PubMed

    Boisvert, Michel; Fayad, Paul B; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2012-11-19

    A new solid phase extraction (SPE) method coupled to a high throughput sample analysis technique was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine selected emerging contaminants in wastewater (atrazine, desethylatrazine, 17β-estradiol, ethynylestradiol, norethindrone, caffeine, carbamazepine, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole). We specifically included pharmaceutical compounds from multiple therapeutic classes, as well as pesticides. Sample pre-concentration and clean-up was performed using a mixed-mode SPE cartridge (Strata ABW) having both cation and anion exchange properties, followed by analysis by laser diode thermal desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LDTD-APCI-MS/MS). The LDTD interface is a new high-throughput sample introduction method, which reduces total analysis time to less than 15s per sample as compared to minutes with traditional liquid-chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Several SPE parameters were evaluated in order to optimize recovery efficiencies when extracting analytes from wastewater, such as the nature of the stationary phase, the loading flow rate, the extraction pH, the volume and composition of the washing solution and the initial sample volume. The method was successfully applied to real wastewater samples from the primary sedimentation tank of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Recoveries of target compounds from wastewater ranged from 78% to 106%, the limit of detection ranged from 30 to 122ng L(-1) while the limit of quantification ranged from 90 to 370ng L(-1). Calibration curves in the wastewater matrix showed good linearity (R(2)≥0.991) for all target analytes and the intraday and interday coefficient of variation was below 15%, reflecting a good precision. PMID:23140957

  10. Diclofenac in municipal wastewater treatment plant: quantification using laser diode thermal desorption-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry approach in comparison with an established liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Lonappan, Linson; Pulicharla, Rama; Rouissi, Tarek; Brar, Satinder K; Verma, Mausam; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valero, José R

    2016-02-12

    Diclofenac (DCF), a prevalent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) is often detected in wastewater and surface water. Analysis of the pharmaceuticals in complex matrices is often laden with challenges. In this study a reliable, rapid and sensitive method based on laser diode thermal desorption/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (LDTD/APCI) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been developed for the quantification of DCF in wastewater and wastewater sludge. An established conventional LC-ESI-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry) method was compared with LDTD-APCI-MS/MS approach. The newly developed LDTD-APCI-MS/MS method reduced the analysis time to 12s in lieu of 12min for LC-ESI-MS/MS method. The method detection limits for LDTD-APCI-MS/MS method were found to be 270ngL(-1) (LOD) and 1000ngL(-1) (LOQ). Furthermore, two extraction procedures, ultrasonic assisted extraction (USE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the extraction of DCF from wastewater sludge were compared and ASE with 95.6±7% recovery was effective over USE with 86±4% recovery. The fate and partitioning of DCF in wastewater (WW) and wastewater sludge (WWS) in wastewater treatment plant was also monitored at various stages of treatment in Quebec Urban community wastewater treatment plant. DCF exhibited affinity towards WW than WWS with a presence about 60% of DCF in WW in contrary with theoretical prediction (LogKow=4.51). PMID:26805597

  11. Continuous wave laser irradiation of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative measurements of the levels of continuous wave (CW) laser light that can be safely applied to bare explosives during contact operations were obtained at 532 nm, 785 nm, and 1550 nm wavelengths. A thermal camera was used to record the temperature of explosive pressed pellets and single crystals while they were irradiated using a measured laser power and laser spot size. A visible light image of the sample surface was obtained before and after the laser irradiation. Laser irradiation thresholds were obtained for the onset of any visible change to the explosive sample and for the onset of any visible chemical reaction. Deflagration to detonation transitions were not observed using any of these CW laser wavelengths on single crystals or pressed pellets in the unconfined geometry tested. Except for the photochemistry of DAAF, TATB and PBX 9502, all reactions appeared to be thermal using a 532 nm wavelength laser. For a 1550 nm wavelength laser, no photochemistry was evident, but the laser power thresholds for thermal damage in some of the materials were significantly lower than for the 532 nm laser wavelength. No reactions were observed in any of the studied explosives using the available 300 mW laser at 785 nm wavelength. Tables of laser irradiance damage and reaction thresholds are presented for pressed pellets of PBX9501, PBX9502, Composition B, HMX, TATB, RDX, DAAF, PETN, and TNT and single crystals of RDX, HMX, and PETN for each of the laser wavelengths.

  12. Newer Trends in Laser Tattoo Removal

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Swapnil D; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J

    2015-01-01

    Q switched lasers are the current gold standard for laser tattoo removal. Though these systems are generally quite effective in clearing tattoos & have an established safety record, certain limitations exist while following the standard protocol. To overcome these limitation newer techniques such as multipass method, combination treatments with chemical agent and other laser have been introduced. These methods help in faster, less painful and complication free tattoo removal. PMID:25949019

  13. Laser-supported detonation waves and pulsed laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J. )

    1990-07-30

    A laser thermal rocket uses the energy of a large remote laser, possibly ground-based, to heat an inert propellant and generate thrust. Use of a pulsed laser allows the design of extremely simple thrusters with very high performance compared to chemical rockets. The temperatures, pressures, and fluxes involved in such thrusters (10{sup 4} K, 10{sup 2} atmospheres, 10{sup 7} w/cm{sup 2}) typically result in the creation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. The thrust cycle thus involves a complex set of transient shock phenomena, including laser-surface interactions in the ignition of the LSD wave, laser-plasma interactions in the LSD wave itself, and high-temperature nonequilibrium chemistry behind the LSD wave. The SDIO Laser Propulsion Program is investigating these phenomena as part of an overall effort to develop the technology for a low-cost Earth-to-orbit laser launch system. We will summarize the Program's approach to developing a high performance thruster, the double-pulse planar thruster, and present an overview of some results obtained to date, along with a discussion of the many research question still outstanding in this area.

  14. Laser-supported detonation waves and pulsed laser propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Kare, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A laser thermal rocket uses the energy of a large remote laser, possibly ground-based, to heat an inert propellant and generate thrust. Use of a pulsed laser allows the design of extremely simple thrusters with very high performance compared to chemical rockets. The temperatures, pressures, and fluxes involved in such thrusters (10{sup 4} K, 10{sup 2} atmospheres, 10{sup 7} w/cm{sup 2}) typically result in the creation of laser-supported detonation (LSD) waves. The thrust cycle thus involves a complex set of transient shock phenomena, including laser-surface interactions in the ignition if the LSD wave, laser-plasma interactions in the LSD wave itself, and high-temperature nonequilibrium chemistry behind the LSD wave. The SDIO Laser Propulsion Program is investigating these phenomena as part of an overall effort to develop the technology for a low-cost Earth-to-orbit laser launch system. We will summarize the program's approach to developing a high performance thruster, the double-pulse planar thruster, and present an overview of some results obtained to date, along with a discussion of the many research questions still outstanding in this area. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Laser propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, N. H.; Rosen, D. I.

    1984-01-01

    An introduction to thermal laser propulsion is presented. This form of rocket propulsion uses a laser beam from a remotely-located laser to heat a propellant gas, which is then expanded in a conventional way to produce thrust. This propulsion scheme has the potential for producing high specific impulse (greater than 1000 s) at moderate to high thrust (1000 lbs). Laser propulsion can thus fill a niche in propulsion for spaceflight missions which can be filled by no other practical scheme. The system analyses and some of the experimental and theoretical studies which have been performed are briefly reviewed. Production of thrust by a pulsed laser has been demonstrated on a laboratory scale at an Isp of 1000 s in hydrogen. While more work is needed, it seems apparent that laser propulsion has an important and unique capability which should be pursued, and should be considered for space missions in the 1990's and beyond.

  16. Laser ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    2002-01-01

    In the apparatus of the invention, a first excitation laser or other excitation light source is used in tandem with an ignitor laser to provide a compact, durable, engine deployable fuel ignition laser system. Reliable fuel ignition is provided over a wide range of fuel conditions by using a single remote excitation light source for one or more small lasers located proximate to one or more fuel combustion zones. In the embodiment of the invention claimed herein, the beam from the excitation light source is split with a portion of it going to the ignitor laser and a second portion of it being combined with either the first portion after a delay before injection into the ignitor laser.

  17. Chemical Emergencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... happen underground, on railways or highways, and at manufacturing plants. They may involve fire or explosion, or ... of chemicals as only those substances used in manufacturing processes. But chemicals are found everywhere–in our ...

  18. Laser peening for reducing hydrogen embrittlement

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Zaleski, Tania M.; Chen, Hao-Lin; Hill, Michael R.; Liu, Kevin K.

    2010-05-25

    A laser peening process for the densification of metal surfaces and sub-layers and for changing surface chemical activities provides retardation of the up-take and penetration of atoms and molecules, particularly Hydrogen, which improves the lifetime of such laser peened metals. Penetration of hydrogen into metals initiates an embrittlement that leaves the material susceptible to cracking.

  19. Atomic-vapor-laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-10-01

    This paper gives a brief history of the scientific considerations leading to the development of laser isotope separation (LIS) processes. The close relationship of LIS to the broader field of laser-induced chemical processes is evaluated in terms of physical criteria to achieve an efficient production process. Atomic-vapor LIS processes under development at Livermore are reviwed. 8 figures.

  20. Laser perforator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyanitsa, Sergey N.; Bezrodny, Yury E.; Kononov, Sergey B.; Ivanova, Vita V.

    2000-02-01

    Laser equipment for the perforation of documents and securities is presented. This laser perforator (LP) differs by extended precision of perforation, high processing velocity, perfected automatic control. LP's operation is based on the preliminary theoretical and experimental research of laser irradiation and paper or/and organic tissue interaction. The results of CO2-laser irradiation action upon different materials and samples of documents allowed to determine system requirements to LP. Developed LP is destined for perforation of paper documents with jackets with total thickness from 0.5 to 4 mm. Processing document, LP makes more than 100 conical perforation holes that improve protection rate of document. LP guarantees perforation time less than 3 sec, document's blank positioning precision plus or minus 0.2 mm, laser beam positioning precision plus or minus 0.01 mm. Due to the system parameters optimization it became possible to eliminate a singeing of hole edge, that improved perforation quality. Developed LP consists of laser-module, technological module, laser cooling module and automatic control system. Laser module includes continuous Q-switched CO2-laser, scanner, power supply, controller, chopper. Technological module has X- Y-table, conveyer for blanks of documents, pneumatic block. Automatic control system, which includes two video cameras, illuminators, controller, PC, gives a possibility to control holes disposition in a matrix and to identify perforated number.