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1

Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

2

Integrated Pest Management for Turfgrass and Ornamentals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Problems encountered in controlling pests with chemical toxicants; Benefits of an integrated pest management approach to turfgrass and ornamentals; Current research towards understanding the pest and the site; State of the art research on contro...

A. R. Leslie R. L. Metcalf

1989-01-01

3

Integrated Pest Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Academy of Science's NOVA Online (discussed in the March 3, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has added a report on integrated pest management. After 25 years, Western Australia's Ord River valley is making a comeback in cotton cultivation. This area was once abandoned because of "an uncontrollable infestation" of two native caterpillars. The article discusses integrated pest management and how it can be used to control persistent pests.

4

Comparison of toxicological impacts of integrated and chemical pest management in Mediterranean greenhouses.  

PubMed

The goal of this paper is to assess the relative impacts of pest-control methods in greenhouses, based on current LCA tools. As a case study, the relative impacts of two tomato production methods, chemical pest management (CPM) and integrated pest management (IPM), are assessed. The amount of the active ingredients applied, the fate of the ingredients in the various greenhouse and environmental compartments, the human exposure routes via the various compartments and the inherent toxicity of the ingredients were taken into account in the relative impact calculations. To assess the importance of model selection in the assessment, pesticide-specific fate and exposure factors for humans and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, used to aggregate pesticide emissions, were calculated with two different models: (1) the USES-LCA model, adapted in order to calculate the pesticide transfer from greenhouse air and soil to fruits, and (2) the empirical model critical surface time (CST). Impact scores have in general shown a higher level of potential contamination in greenhouses treated with CPM compared to IPM (a factor of 1.4 to 2.3). Relative impacts have been shown highly dependent on the selection of specific pesticides and crop stage development at the moment of pesticide application. This means that both CPM and IPM could be improved by a careful selection of pesticides. In order to improve the relative impact calculations, future research in pesticide transfer to food will be necessary. PMID:14664852

Antón, A; Castells, F; Montero, J I; Huijbregts, M

2004-02-01

5

Insect pests of pigeonpea and their management.  

PubMed

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an important crop in semi-arid tropical and subtropical farming systems, providing high quality vegetable protein, animal feed, and firewood. Insect pests feeding on flowers, pods, and seeds are the most important biotic constraint affecting pigeonpea yields. This review summarizes the biology and ecology of the three most important groups of pests: flower- and pod-feeding Lepidoptera, pod-sucking Hemiptera, and seed-feeding Diptera and Hymenoptera. Recent research investigating the complex interactions among pigeonpea, its key pests, and their natural enemies is also reviewed. These relationships have implications on the pest status of individual species and on possible control strategies. Pigeonpea pest management research has focused until recently on the identification and development of resistant cultivars and on chemical control. Future research must focus on environmentally sound pest management strategies that are compatible with the needs and limitations of pigeonpea farmers. Several priority areas for research are suggested. PMID:15012370

Shanower, T G; Romeis, J; Minja, E M

1999-01-01

6

Monitoring in banana pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring in banana pest management is an important activity for commercial and\\/or smallholder banana production. It is required to detect the occurrence of newly introduced pest species, those which have previously been of minor importance, and for new variants which pose particular threats. Monitoring is important strategically in providing early warning of problems that may arise, and in some cases

M. J. Jeger; J. M. Waller; A. Johanson; S. R. Gowen

1996-01-01

7

Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.  

PubMed

The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control. PMID:23156158

Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

2012-10-01

8

Insect pest management in African agriculture: Challenges in the current millenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management on a global scale experienced a total revolution after World War II when synthetic organic compounds were in agriculture and public health. However, it soon became apparent that there were many limitations in the use of chemicals for pest management. In agriculture, problems of pest resurgence, secondary pest outbreaks, pest resistance and adverse effects of pesticides on the

O. O. Banwo; R. S. Adamu

2003-01-01

9

Hanford site integrated pest management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

Giddings, R.F.

1996-04-09

10

Challenges of Integrated Pest Management in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a response to the negative side effects of chemical control in the developed world, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) developed\\u000a with an emphasis on reducing the role of pesticides. Later the role of natural enemies was recognized as being the cornerstone\\u000a for sustainable pest management strategies. The IPM concept initially stressed the combination of control tactics while afterwards\\u000a the empowerment

Arnold van Huis

2008-01-01

11

Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.  

PubMed

The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests. PMID:23057183

Gay, Hannah

2012-07-01

12

Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels  

PubMed Central

Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops.

Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2013-01-01

13

Integrated Pest Management Research Symposium: The Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-seven papers are presented that summarize the findings from research and development work conducted as part of the Integrated Pest Management RD&A Program for Bark Beetles of Southern Pines during the 5-year period 1980-85. Presentations cover the ...

S. J. Branham R. C. Thatcher

1985-01-01

14

Insect Pests of Tea and Their Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to

Lakshmi K. Hazarika; Mantu Bhuyan; Budhindra N. Hazarika

2009-01-01

15

Integrated pest management models and their dynamical behaviour.  

PubMed

Two impulsive models of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies are proposed, one with fixed intervention times and the other with these unfixed. The first model allows natural enemies to survive but under some conditions may lead to extinction of the pest. We use a simple prey-dependent consumption model with fixed impulsive effects and show that there exists a globally stable pest-eradication periodic solution when the impulsive period is less than certain critical values. The effects of pest resistance to pesticides are also studied. The second model is constructed in the light of IPM practice such that when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL), a combination of biological, cultural, and chemical tactics that reduce pests to tolerable levels is invoked. Using analytical methods, we show that there exists an orbitally asymptotically stable periodic solution with a maximum value no larger than the given Economic Threshold (ET). The complete expression for this periodic solution is given and the ET is evaluated for given parameters. We also show that in some cases control costs can be reduced by replacing IPM interventions at unfixed times with periodic interventions. Further, we show that small perturbations of the system do not affect the existence and stability of the periodic solution. Thus, we provide the first demonstration using mathematical models that an IPM strategy is more effective than classical control methods. PMID:15691542

Tang, Sanyi; Xiao, Yanni; Chen, Lansun; Cheke, Robert A

2005-01-01

16

Insect Pests of Lentil and Their Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lentil is one of the world’s most important food plants and is particularly so in North Africa and South Asia and parts of\\u000a North America, Europe and Australia. Consequently the crop is exposed to a broad spectrum of insect species in a wide variety\\u000a of locations. The management of insect pests of the crop is crucial to optimizing production. The

Philip C. Stevenson; M. K. Dhillon; H. C. Sharma; M. El Bouhssini

17

Inspect, Detect, Correct: Structural Integrated Pest Management Strategies at School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a model integrated pest management (IPM) program for schools used in Monroe County, Indiana. Addresses how to implement an IPM program, specific school problem areas, specific pest problems and solutions, and common questions. (EV)

Jochim, Jerry

2003-01-01

18

Insecticide-induced hormesis and arthropod pest management.  

PubMed

Ecological backlashes such as insecticide resistance, resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks are frequent problems associated with insecticide use against arthropod pest species. The last two have been particularly important in sparking interest in the phenomenon of insecticide-induced hormesis within entomology and acarology. Hormesis describes a biphasic dose-response relationship that is characterized by a reversal of response between low and high doses of a stressor (e.g. insecticides). Although the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis often does not receive sufficient attention, or has been subject to semantic confusion, it has been reported in many arthropod pest species and natural enemies, and has been linked to pest outbreaks and potential problems with insecticide resistance. The study of hormesis remains largely neglected in entomology and acarology. Here, we examined the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis in arthropods, its functional basis and potential fitness consequences, and its importance in arthropod pest management and other areas. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24155227

Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Cutler, G Christopher

2014-05-01

19

Pest Management in Traditional Tropical Agroecosystems: Lessons for Pest Prevention Research and Extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on current agroecological theory and IPM practices, this review explores the role of traditional practices, involving\\u000a site selection, soil management, timing of planting and harvesting, crop resistance, intercropping, weed management, harvest\\u000a residue management, post-harvest management, natural enemies management, mechanical control, repellents and traps in the natural\\u000a regulation of potential pests. In synthesis, the literature suggests that although pest management

Helda Morales

2002-01-01

20

Insect pest management in forest ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

1983-01-01

21

Integrated pest management in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of pests are associated with groundnut but not all are economically important. The distribution of, losses and damage caused by groundnut pests are discussed, along with a variety of control measures and methods for their integration for effective pest management. Disease resistant\\/tolerant varieties, including Girnar 1, ALR 1, ICGV 87160, ICGV 86590, DH 8, TG 3, MH

M. P. GHEWANDE; V. NANDAGOPAL

1997-01-01

22

[Risk assessment and control strategies of pests in Lycium barbarum fields under different managements].  

PubMed

In the risk assessment of pests, both the community structure and the environmental factors should be considered at the same time, because of their mutual effects on the outbreak of disaster pests. This paper established a comprehensive assessment system, including 2 sub-systems, 5 respects, and 14 indices. In the meanwhile, risk assessment indices and experience formula were used to analyze the risk degree of pests in Lycium barbarum fields under different managements. It was found that using risk assessment indices and experience formula could obtain similar results. In abandoned field, Aceria palida, Aphis sp., and Paratrioza sinica were the frequent disaster pests, Lema decempunctata, Neoceratitis asiatica, Jaapiella sp., and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests, and Psylliodes obscurofaciata and Phthorimaea sp. were general pests. In organic field, the frequent disaster pests were the same species as those in abandoned field, while P. indicus, Jaapiella sp. and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests. In chemical control field, A. palida, Aphis sp., P. sinica, and P. indicus were the frequent disaster pests, while Jaapiella sp. and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests. Optimal 5 separations most fitted the division of pest sub-communities in L. barbarum fields, which were infancy period (from March 28 to April 15), outbreak I period (from April 15 to July 18), dormancy period (from July 18 to September 8), outbreak II period (from September 8 to October 15), and recession period (after October 15). The matrix of correlation coefficient showed that the dynamics of pests in L. barbarum fields under different managements were significantly correlated with each other, suggesting that the dynamics of pest populations was similar in different L. barbarum fields, which had two population establishment stages and one exponential growth stage in every year. The optimal controlling stages were from late infancy period to early and middle outbreak I periods, and from late dormancy period to early outbreak II period, which were very critical for pest control. PMID:19565765

Zhao, Zi-Hua; Zhang, Rong; He, Da-Han; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Zong-Shan

2009-04-01

23

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Krupke, Christian H.; White, Michael A.; Alexander, Corinne E.

2008-10-01

24

Ecological engineering: a new direction for agricultural pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological engineering has recently emerged as a paradigm for considering pest management approaches that are based on cultural practices and informed by ecological knowledge rather than on high technology approaches such as synthetic pesticides and genetically engineered crops (Gurr et al. 2004a). This article provides a brief summary of ecological engineering for arthropod pest management and contrasts it with its

Geoff M. Gurr; Steve D. Wratten; Miguel A. Altieri

2004-01-01

25

Radcliffe's Integrated Pest Management World Textbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, co-sponsored by the Consortium for International Crop Protection (CICP), and the National IPM Network (NIPMN), and housed at the University of Minnesota, is devoted to the ongoing production of an online IPM (Integrated Pest Management) textbook. At present, over 30 chapters are available in nine subject areas, ranging from "Biological Control: Theory and Application," to "Pesticides: Chemistries/Pesticide Resistance," to "IPM: Policy and Implementation." Over 60 chapters are in preparation, so this site will be one to keep an eye on as it grows. As its owners say, Gopher State should be a "a venue for easily maintaining and updating 'state of the art' information from the world's leading experts on all aspects of IPM."

Hutchison, William D.; Radcliffe, Edward B.

2008-12-03

26

7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard...Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard...management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not...

2009-01-01

27

7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard...Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard...management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not...

2010-01-01

28

A total system approach to sustainable pest management  

PubMed Central

A fundamental shift to a total system approach for crop protection is urgently needed to resolve escalating economic and environmental consequences of combating agricultural pests. Pest management strategies have long been dominated by quests for “silver bullet” products to control pest outbreaks. However, managing undesired variables in ecosystems is similar to that for other systems, including the human body and social orders. Experience in these fields substantiates the fact that therapeutic interventions into any system are effective only for short term relief because these externalities are soon “neutralized” by countermoves within the system. Long term resolutions can be achieved only by restructuring and managing these systems in ways that maximize the array of “built-in” preventive strengths, with therapeutic tactics serving strictly as backups to these natural regulators. To date, we have failed to incorporate this basic principle into the mainstream of pest management science and continue to regress into a foot race with nature. In this report, we establish why a total system approach is essential as the guiding premise of pest management and provide arguments as to how earlier attempts for change and current mainstream initiatives generally fail to follow this principle. We then draw on emerging knowledge about multitrophic level interactions and other specific findings about management of ecosystems to propose a pivotal redirection of pest management strategies that would honor this principle and, thus, be sustainable. Finally, we discuss the potential immense benefits of such a central shift in pest management philosophy.

Lewis, W. J.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Phatak, Sharad C.; Tumlinson, J. H.

1997-01-01

29

Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

2011-01-01

30

Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

Parker, Thomas A.

31

Evaluation of Forest Service Pest Management Programs. Analysis of Weed Management and Research. Phase II.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The overall objectives of this study are to: Evaluate Forest Service pest management activities by examining pest management policy and the effectiveness of present programs; describe options for program adjustment where appropriate. Most of the research ...

D. Cottingham F. D. Dottavio D. Dysart J. Hynson W. Reed

1980-01-01

32

Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: an African perspective.  

PubMed

African agriculture is largely traditional--characterized by a large number of smallholdings of no more than one ha per household. Crop production takes place under extremely variable agro-ecological conditions, with annual rainfall ranging from 250 to 750 mm in the Sahel in the northwest and in the semi-arid east and south, to 1500 to 4000 mm in the forest zones in the central west. Farmers often select well-adapted, stable crop varieties, and cropping systems are such that two or more crops are grown in the same field at the same time. These diverse traditional systems enhance natural enemy abundance and generally keep pest numbers at low levels. Pest management practice in traditional agriculture is a built-in process in the overall crop production system rather than a separate well-defined activity. Increased population pressure and the resulting demand for increased crop production in Africa have necessitated agricultural expansion with the concomitant decline in the overall biodiversity. Increases in plant material movement in turn facilitated the accidental introduction of foreign pests. At present about two dozen arthropod pests, both introduced and native, are recognized as one of the major constraints to agricultural production and productivity in Africa. Although yield losses of 0% to 100% have been observed on-station, the economic significance of the majority of pests under farmers' production conditions is not adequately understood. Economic and social constraints have kept pesticide use in Africa the lowest among all the world regions. The bulk of pesticides are applied mostly against pests of commercial crops such as cotton, vegetables, coffee, and cocoa, and to some extent for combating outbreaks of migratory pests such as the locusts. The majority of African farmers still rely on indigenous pest management approaches to manage pest problems, although many government extension programs encourage the use of pesticides. The current pest management research activities carried out by national or international agricultural research programs in Africa focus on classical biological control and host plant resistance breeding. With the exception of classical biological control of the cassava mealybug, research results have not been widely adopted. This could be due to African farmers facing heterogeneous conditions, not needing fixed prescriptions or one ideal variety but a number of options and genotypes to choose from. Indigenous pest management knowledge is site-specific and should be the basis for developing integrated pest management (IPM) techniques. Farmers often lack the biological and ecological information necessary to develop better pest management through experimentation. Formal research should be instrumental in providing the input necessary to facilitate participatory technology development such as that done by Farmer Field Schools, an approach now emerging in different parts of Africa. PMID:10761592

Abate, T; van Huis, A; Ampofo, J K

2000-01-01

33

A Comparative Analysis of Electronic and Chemical Pest Repellent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently it was argued by pest control manufacturer that repellents using high frequency sound for insect invasions are superior to the conventional chemical sprays and treatments. High frequency sound is known to repel certain insects and other animals, and permethrin is a common household pesticide also with repellent properties. It is important for the general public to know differences in

Lydia Ausberry

34

Farmers' perceptions of insect pests and pest management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to (1) examine the factors involved in the adoption or non-adoption of Bt cotton, (2) identify sources of Bt cotton seed acquisition, and (3) evaluate farmers' knowledge and perception of insect pests incidence and management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 150 farmers growing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein

Muhammad Arshad; Anjum Suhail; M. Dildar Gogi; M. Yaseen; M. Asghar; M. Tayyib; Haider Karar; Faisal Hafeez; Unsar Naeem Ullah

2009-01-01

35

The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management  

PubMed Central

Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry.

Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S.; Tatchell, G. Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P.

2011-01-01

36

The Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Practices among Texas Cotton Growers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes integrated pest management (IPM), a more advanced approach than chemical pesticide. Applies diffusion and farming-systems theories to create analytical model to explain IPM's adoption, use, and implications for agricultural change. Telephone surveys of Texas cotton growers on IPM practices found different sources of IPM information…

Thomas, John K.; And Others

1990-01-01

37

Sustainable agriculture and integrated pest management in China.  

PubMed

In developed countries, emphasis is being switched from high productivity through the use of high inputs to ecologically sustainable agriculture. In developing countries such as China priority must be given to increasing food production while simultaneously trying to optimize sustainability. Achievements in plant protection are being countered by continued evolution of the pest ecosystem, in part driven by application of pesticides or the introduction of new crop varieties. Future management of the agricultural ecosystem requires the development of a method of 'super-long-term' prediction to evaluate possible consequences of different strategies of plant protection. Crop plants with durable resistance to pests must be derived by conventional breeding or by using biotechnology and genetic engineering. Genetic vulnerability can also be reduced by techniques such as gene rotation and mixed cropping. Biological control of plant pests shows promise but requires ecological study of the relationships among crop, pest and natural enemy. Implementation of sustainable pest management will need training and education of farmers, extension workers and policy makers to deliver new information in the developing countries. PMID:8149824

Zeng, S

1993-01-01

38

The role of bacillus-based biological control agents in integrated pest management systems: plant diseases.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Bacillus-based biological control agents (BCAs) have great potential in integrated pest management (IPM) systems; however, relatively little work has been published on integration with other IPM management tools. Unfortunately, most research has focused on BCAs as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides or bactericides and not as part of an integrated management system. IPM has had many definitions and this review will use the national coalition for IPM definition: "A sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks." This review will examine the integrated use of Bacillus-based BCAs with disease management tools, including resistant cultivars, fungicides or bactericides, or other BCAs. This integration is important because the consistency and degree of disease control by Bacillus-based BCAs is rarely equal to the control afforded by the best fungicides or bactericides. In theory, integration of several tools brings stability to disease management programs. Integration of BCAs with other disease management tools often provides broader crop adaptation and both more efficacious and consistent levels of disease control. This review will also discuss the use of Bacillus-based BCAs in fungicide resistance management. Work with Bacillus thuringiensis and insect pest management is the exception to the relative paucity of reports but will not be the focus of this review. PMID:18944466

Jacobsen, B J; Zidack, N K; Larson, B J

2004-11-01

39

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public support for integrated pest management (IPM) is derived in part from concerns over food safety and the environment, yet few studies have assessed the economic value of health and environmental benefits of IPM. An approach is suggested for such an assessment and applied to the Virginia peanut IPM program. Effects of IPM on environmental risks posed by pesticides are

Jeffrey D. Mullen; George W. Norton; Dixie Watts Reaves

1997-01-01

40

Broadening the application of evolutionarily based genetic pest management.  

PubMed

Insect- and tick-vectored diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease cause human suffering, and current approaches for prevention are not adequate. Invasive plants and animals such as Scotch broom, zebra mussels, and gypsy moths continue to cause environmental damage and economic losses in agriculture and forestry. Rodents transmit diseases and cause major pre- and postharvest losses, especially in less affluent countries. Each of these problems might benefit from the developing field of Genetic Pest Management that is conceptually based on principles of evolutionary biology. This article briefly describes the history of this field, new molecular tools in this field, and potential applications of those tools. There will be a need for evolutionary biologists to interact with researchers and practitioners in a variety of other fields to determine the most appropriate targets for genetic pest management, the most appropriate methods for specific targets, and the potential of natural selection to diminish the effectiveness of genetic pest management. In addition to producing environmentally sustainable pest management solutions, research efforts in this area could lead to new insights about the evolution of selfish genetic elements in natural systems and will provide students with the opportunity to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the role of evolutionary biology in solving societal problems. PMID:17999722

Gould, Fred

2008-02-01

41

Microbial management of arthropod pests of tea: current state and prospects.  

PubMed

Sustainable tea cultivation will rely increasingly on alternatives to conventional chemical insecticides for pest management that are environment-friendly and reduce the amount of pesticide residues in made tea. Entomopathogens can provide effective control, conserve biodiversity, and serve as alternatives to chemical insecticides under several conditions. Due to their specificity for insects, these pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and fungi are ideal candidates for incorporation in the integrated pest management strategies for tea where their effects on other natural enemies will be minimal. Biological and ecological characteristics of several dominant natural entomopathogenic microorganisms have been well documented throughout the tea-growing countries particularly China, Japan, and India. But research to convert them to microbial insecticide formulations for tea pest control by evolving suitable techniques for production, standardization, formulation, and application has not progressed well except in Japan and China to some extent. Increased use of microbial control will depend on a variety of factors including improvements in the pathogens' virulence, formulation, delivery, etc. and an increased awareness of their attributes by growers and the general public. In this review, we provide an overview of microbial control of the key insect pests of tea and also the scope for future studies for their better utilization. PMID:24760230

Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

2014-06-01

42

Implementing Integrated Pest Management in Developing and Developed Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) systems in developed countries are largely based on substantial bodies of available information\\u000a from a number of sources, including published material, extension agents, contract crop consultants and, more recently, the\\u000a internet. Delivery systems for this information have traditionally been through extension agents in the USA but the internet\\u000a is playing a larger role. IPM in developing

B. M. Shepard; M. D. Hammig; G. R. Carner; P. A. C. Ooi; J. P. Smith; R. Dilts; A. Rauf

43

Traditional knowledge and pest management in the Guatemalan highlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adoption of integrated pest management(IPM) practices in the Guatemalan highlands has beenlimited by the failure of researchers andextensionists to promote genuine farmer participationin their efforts. Some attempts have been made toredress this failure in the diffusion-adoptionprocess, but farmers are still largely excluded fromthe research process. Understanding farmers'agricultural knowledge must be an early step toward amore participatory research process. With this

Helda Morales; Ivette Perfecto

2000-01-01

44

Botanicals in Pest Management: Current Status and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems caused by synthetic pesticides and their residues have increased the need for effective biodegradable pesticides\\u000a with greater selectivity. Alternative strategies have included the search for new types of pesticides which are often effective\\u000a against a limited number of specific target species, are biodegradable into nontoxic products and are suitable for use in\\u000a integrated pest management programs. The natural

Sanjay Guleria; A. K. Tiku

45

Integrated Pest Management in Fruits – Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management practices used in several deciduous fruit crops are discussed. The chapter begins by noting the geographic\\u000a origin and approximate date of domestication of several fruit crops and the need for more fruit breeding programs to identify\\u000a and incorporate insect resistant genes into more fruit cultivars. It is assumed that fruit production probably began as small\\u000a plantings where growers

Donn T. Johnson

46

Transgenic Bt Corn Hybrids and Pest Management in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Corn, Zea mays L., grown in many areas of the United States suffers from a variety of insect species that attack virtually all parts of\\u000a the growing plant. Many conventional pest management programs have been developed to combat these insects with varying degrees\\u000a of success. In the mid-1990s, the commercial introduction and subsequent widespread adoption of Bt transgenic hybrids has

Siddharth Tiwari; Roger R. Youngman

47

Exploitation of Natural Compounds in Eco-Friendly Management of Plant Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The intensive use of synthetic pesticides and their environmental and toxicological risks have generated increased global\\u000a interest to develop alternative sources of chemicals to be used in safe management of plant pests. Recently, in different\\u000a parts of the world, attention has been paid towards exploitation of higher plant products as novel chemotherapeutics for plant\\u000a protection because they are mostly non

N. K. Dubey; Ashok Kumar; Priyanka Singh; Ravindra Shukla

48

Optimal sterile insect release for area-wide integrated pest management in a density regulated pest population.  

PubMed

To determine optimal sterile insect release policies in area-wide integrated pest management is a challenge that users of this pest control method inevitably confront. In this note we provide approximations to best policies of release through the use of simulated annealing. The discrete time model for the population dynamics includes the effects of sterile insect release and density dependence in the pest population. Spatial movement is introduced through integrodifference equations, which allow the use of the stochastic search in cases where movement is described through arbitrary dispersal kernels. As a byproduct of the computations, an assessment of appropriate control zone sizes is possible. PMID:24506557

Gordillo, Luis F

2014-06-01

49

Insect pest management agents: hormonogen esters (juvenogens).  

PubMed

The chemical part of this investigation focused on designing structures and synthesizing a series of six new esters (juvenogens), derived from biologically active insect juvenile hormone bioanalogues (juvenoids, JHAs) and unsaturated short-chain linear and branched fatty acids for possible application as biochemically targeted insect hormonogen agents. The structures of the new compounds were assigned on the basis of a detailed NMR analysis of their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra. The biological part of this investigation focused on introductory biological screening tests with these compounds against the red firebug (Pyrrhocoris apterus), termites (Reticulitermes santonensis and Prorhinotermes simplex), and the blowfly (Neobellieria bullata). The biological activity of the juvenogens was studied in relation to the fatty acid functionality in the structures. Notable biological activity in topical tests and medium activity in peroral tests was found for the juvenogens 3 and 7 with P. apterus. The compounds 6 and 8 showed the lowest activity in both topical and oral assays with P. apterus. Considerable effect of all tested juvenogens was observed in P. simplex; however, the juvenogens 5 and 6 (derivatives of the only branched short-chain fatty acid) showed no activity against R. santonensis. The effect of the compounds 3-8 on larval hatching of N. bullata was only moderate (larval hatching 80-90%); however, the proliferation effect caused by 5, 6, and 8 is more pronounced than the effect caused by 3, 4, and 7. PMID:17691805

Wimmer, Zdenek; Jurcek, Ondrej; Jedlicka, Pavel; Hanus, Robert; Kuldová, Jelena; Hrdý, Ivan; Bennettová, Blanka; Saman, David

2007-09-01

50

What can pest management learn from laboratory animal ethics?  

PubMed

There remains a lack of a clear overarching policy framework for decision-making in pest control programmes. In comparison, ethical principles have been extensively developed for scientific procedures, such as those underlying the UK's Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. This paper assesses the extent to which the principles and methodology underlying the act and secondary guidance could be used to provide principles of rodent management. Useful principles include that any programme has a legitimate purpose; that methods are used only if the harms are outweighed by the benefits; that harms are minimised by refinement, replacement and reduction and that there is personal responsibility. The usefulness and implications for pest control of each principle and the overall approach are discussed. PMID:19890947

Yeates, James

2010-03-01

51

7. Rodenticides — Their Role in Rodent Pest Management in Tropical Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodents are serious pests of tropical agriculture. Most crops are attacked, particularly those grown for food by smallholders in the tropics. Globally, principal pest species include Sigmodon hispidus , Arvicanthis niloticus , Mastomys natalensis , Meriones spp., Bandicota spp., Rattus argentiventer and Microtus spp. Crop protection specialists usually recommend control programs based on integrated pest management (IPM) technologies involving the

Alan P. Buckle

52

Farmers’ perceptions and management practices of insect pests on stored sorghum in southwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys were undertaken in six districts of southwestern Ethiopia from July to October 2003 to investigate farmers’ perceptions and management practices of insect pests on traditionally stored sorghum. The survey involved 138 randomly selected farmers who were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Storage insect pests were perceived as the major insect pests of sorghum. The majority of the farmers estimated

Esayas Mendesil; Chemeda Abdeta; Abush Tesfaye; Zekarias Shumeta; Habte Jifar

2007-01-01

53

Farmers’ knowledge, perceptions and management of vegetable pests and diseases in Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of pests, diseases and pest management practices were investigated by interviewing 112 growers in Botswana between April and June 2004. Most of the farmers grew brassicae crops, Swiss chard and tomato, and considered arthropod pest problems as the major constraint to vegetable production. Bagrada hilaris Burm., Plutella xylostella L. and Brevicoryne barassicae L. were the

M. Obopile; D. C. Munthali; B. Matilo

2008-01-01

54

Bug Off: A Guide for Integrated Pest Management in Granville Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes options for the Granville schools when dealing with pests. It is based on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a philosophy that employs safe and practical pest control methods. The guide can be used to incorporate IPM philosophy into the school systems. The first section provides the environmental context for an interest in…

2001

55

Challenges with managing insecticide resistance in agricultural pests, exemplisfied by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci  

PubMed Central

For many key agricultural pests, successful management of insecticide resistance depends not only on modifying the way that insecticides are deployed, but also on reducing the total number of treatments applied. Both approaches benefit from a knowledge of the biological characteristics of pests that promote or may retard the development of resistance. For the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), these factors include a haplodiploid breeding system that encourages the rapid selection and fixation of resistance genes, its breeding cycle on a succession of treated or untreated hosts, and its occurrence on and dispersal from high-value crops in greenhouses and glasshouses. These factors, in conjunction with often intensive insecticide use, have led to severe and widespread resistance that now affects several novel as well as conventional control agents. Resistance-management strategies implemented on cotton in Israel, and subsequently in south-western USA, have nonetheless so far succeeded in arresting the resistance treadmill in B. tabaci through a combination of increased chemical diversity, voluntary or mandatory restrictions on the use of key insecticides, and careful integration of chemical control with other pest-management options. In both countries, the most significant achievement has been a dramatic reduction in the number of insecticide treatments applied against whiteflies on cotton, increasing the prospect of sustained use of existing and future insecticides.

Denholm, I.

1998-01-01

56

IPM: Integrated Pest Management Kit for Building Managers. How To Implement an Integrated Pest Management Program in Your Building(s).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This management kit introduces building managers to the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), and provides the knowledge and tools needed to implement an IPM program in their buildings. It discusses the barriers to implementing an IPM program, why such a program should be used, and the general guidelines for its implementation. Managerial…

Mitchell, Brad

57

Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests  

PubMed Central

Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. Abbreviation: MFR Maximum field rate

Brunner, J. F.; Beers, E. H.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

2005-01-01

58

Integrated pest management in an urban community: a successful partnership for prevention.  

PubMed Central

Pesticides, applied in large quantities in urban communities to control cockroaches, pose potential threats to health, especially to children, who have proportionately greater exposures and unique, developmentally determined vulnerabilities. Integrated pest management (IPM) relies on nonchemical tools--cleaning of food residues, removal of potential nutrients, and sealing cracks and crevices. Least toxic pesticides are used sparingly. To evaluate IPM's effectiveness, the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center, in partnership with two community health centers in East Harlem, New York City (NY, USA), undertook a prospective intervention trial. Families (n = 131) enrolled when mothers came to the centers for prenatal care. Household cockroach infestation was measured by glue traps at baseline and 6 months afterward. The intervention group received individually tailored IPM education, repairs, least-toxic pest control application, and supplies, with biweekly pest monitoring for 2 months and monthly for 4 months. The control group, residing in East Harlem and demographically and socioeconomically similar to the intervention group, received an injury prevention intervention. The proportion of intervention households with cockroaches declined significantly after 6 months (from 80.5 to 39.0%). Control group levels were essentially unchanged (from 78.1 to 81.3%). The cost, including repairs, of individually tailored IPM was equal to or lower than traditional chemically based pest control. These findings demonstrate that individually tailored IPM can be successful and cost-effective in an urban community.

Brenner, Barbara L; Markowitz, Steven; Rivera, Maribel; Romero, Harry; Weeks, Matthew; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Deych, Elena; Garg, Anjali; Godbold, James; Wolff, Mary S; Landrigan, Philip J; Berkowitz, Gertrud

2003-01-01

59

The Case of the Wild House Mouse. Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy and mix of tactics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests. These include…

Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

60

Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.  

PubMed

Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied. PMID:17523143

Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

2007-08-01

61

Olive fruit fly: managing an ancient pest in modern times.  

PubMed

Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. Various aspects of its biology, ecology, management, and impact on olive production are highlighted. With the discovery of insecticidal resistance in some populations frequently treated with organophosphates, old and new control options are being investigated. The potential of biological control is examined. Surveys suggest that a small group of braconids in the Opiinae subfamily best represent the primary parasitoids attacking olive fruit fly in its native range. These species include Psyttalia lounsburyi, P. dacicida, P. concolor, P. ponerophaga, and Utetes africanus. Bracon celer, another braconid but in the Braconinae subfamily, is also reared from the fruit fly in its native range. The potential of these and other natural enemies is discussed with respect to olive fruit fly biology, commercial olive production, and biological constraints that may limit their success. We suggest that numerous species exist that should be further investigated as control agents for olive fruit fly in the many climatic regimes where the pest is found. PMID:19961328

Daane, Kent M; Johnson, Marshall W

2010-01-01

62

Assessing Integrated Pest Management Adoption: Measurement Problems and Policy Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM—for whatever reason—and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption—weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management—and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E.

2011-11-01

63

Assessing integrated pest management adoption: measurement problems and policy implications.  

PubMed

For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM-for whatever reason-and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption-weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management-and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation. PMID:21858712

Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E

2011-11-01

64

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution

Noah S Diffenbaugh; Christian H Krupke; Michael A White; Corinne E Alexander

2008-01-01

65

Soil fertility management and insect pests: harmonizing soil and plant health in agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural methods such as crop fertilization can affect susceptibility of plants to insect pests by altering plant tissue nutrient levels. Research shows that the ability of a crop plant to resist or tolerate insect pests and diseases is tied to optimal physical, chemical and mainly biological properties of soils. Soils with high organic matter and active soil biology generally exhibit

Miguel A. Altieri; Clara I. Nicholls

2003-01-01

66

Integrated pest management in the U.S.: progress and promise.  

PubMed Central

In the U.S., where heavy use of insecticides has been commonplace for years, the development of proper integrated insect pest control cannot get underway unless there is a changed use pattern for such chemicals. A changed use pattern, however, cannot be accomplished without much study to establish the requirements for integrated control for each major crop situation. In this paper recent developments in a number of crop areas in the U.S. in which the necessary study has been begun are reviewed. Important phases in the development of integrated control programs include: the single tactics phase, the multitactic phase, phase, the biological monitoring phase, the modeling phase, the management and optimization phase, and the implementation phase. Several crops are discussed in relation to how far along we are in the development of practical programs of insect pest control. These are cotton, apples, alfalfa, soybeans, citrus, corn, cereal grains, tobacco and pine forests. Several of these programs have already made substantial headway, e.g., those for cotton, alfalfa, apples, tobacco, and soybeans, although the accomplishments have not been even or parellel with respect to the phases of development where progress has been good. The review of developments in these crops suggests that programs of control for individual crops and perhaps for complexes of associated crops will be developed according to specific needs of the crop, the geographic area and the pests, the technologies available and the socioeconomic and political factors of relevance. The tendency will be toward greater use of science in pest control decision-making, with extensive use of biological monitoring to establish realistic levels of threatened damage to the crop, and greater concern given to possible profit reductions and environmental disturbances of applying an insecticide, as well as the possible gain from doing so.

Huffaker, C B; Croft, B A

1976-01-01

67

Insect pest problems in tropical agroforestry systems: Contributory factors and strategies for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some

M. R. Rao; M. P. Singh; R. Day

2000-01-01

68

Integrated management of insect pests, diseases and weeds of cotton in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated pest management systems were developed originally in response to the appearance of insect populations with resistance to common insecticides. Cotton with its heavy dependence on insecticidal sprays was one of the first crops in which the effectiveness of control declined due to resistance in the target pests. Although insecticide resistance is more of a problem in large scale production

R. J. Hillocks

1995-01-01

69

Pest Management and Environmental Quality. Course 181. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture, Family Living and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…

Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others

70

Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.  

SciTech Connect

Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

2005-01-01

71

Methyl Bromide: Effective Pest Management Tool and Environmental Threat  

PubMed Central

Methyl bromide is used extensively on a global basis as a pesticide against nematodes, weeds, insects, fungi, bacteria, and rodents. As a soil fumigant, it is used in significant quantities in the production of strawberry and tomato, as well as other agriculture commodities. Grain, fresh fruit, forestry products, and other materials are fumigated with methyl bromide to control pest infestations during transport and storage. Structures also are treated with this chemical to control wood-destroying insects and rodents. However, methyl bromide has been identified as a significant ozone-depleting substance, resulting in regulatory actions being taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the United Nations Environment Program (Montreal Protocol). The science linking methyl bromide to ozone depletion is strong and was reinforced by the 1994 UNEP Montreal Protocol Science Assessment on Ozone Depletion, which states, "Methyl bromide continues to be viewed as a significant ozone-depleting compound." Identifying efficacious and viable alternatives in the near term is critical.

Thomas, W. B.

1996-01-01

72

Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.  

PubMed

Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

2014-03-11

73

Who Wants To Be an IPM Super Sleuth? Integrated Pest Management Educational Activities & Resources for Kids of All Ages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents games and activities on integrated pest management (IPM) for home targeting grades 1-7. The activities and games use a problem-solving approach based on pest knowledge to develop an understanding of pest management. Three cases are presented: (1) "Inspection is the Key to IPM Success" includes two activities--"Word Searches"…

Walejko, Gina K.; Colon, Joseph L.

74

The Applicability of Remote Sensing to Earth Biological Problems. Part 2: The Potential of Remote Sensing in Pest Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subj...

J. T. Polhemus

1980-01-01

75

Determination of pesticide residues in integrated pest management and nonintegrated pest management samples of apple (Malus pumila Mill.).  

PubMed

Studies were undertaken to analyze the residues of commonly used pesticides viz. chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, propargite, malathion, phorate, carbendazim, carbosulfan, thiamethoxam, and mancozeb in apple of integrated pest management (IPM) and non-IPM samples collected from the IPM and non-IPM fields of Shimla. We also present a method for the determination of these pesticides in apple samples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and propargite were analyzed by gas chromatography, while residues of carbendazim, carbosulfan, and thiamethoxam were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Residues of mancozeb were determined by a colorimetric method. Recoveries of all of the pesticides ranged from 61.30 to 95.46% at 0.1, 0.2, and 1.0 microg g(-1) levels of fortification with relative standard deviations ranging between 0.8 and 8.7. Apples from IPM and non-IPM orchards were analyzed for these pesticides using a developed method. Except for carbendazim and chlorpyrifos, the residues of all of the pesticides analyzed were below detectable limits. Although residues of carbendazim and chlorpyrifos were below the prescribed limits of maximum residue levels in both IPM and non-IPM orchards, residues were lower in apples from IPM orchards. PMID:19904932

Singh, Shashi Bala; Mukherjee, Irani; Maisnam, Jaya; Kumar, Praveen; Gopal, Madhuban; Kulshrestha, Gita

2009-12-01

76

Pest management of a prey-predator model with sexual favoritism.  

PubMed

Although sex of prey is an important factor for the risk of predating, few articles consider the consequences of sexual favoritism and the corresponding effects on the impulsive predator-prey dynamics and its utility in biological control. This paper investigates the pest management strategy of a prey-predator system model with sexual favoritism. An impulsive differential equation which models the process of periodically releasing natural enemies and spraying pesticides at different fixed time for pest control is proposed and investigated. It is proved that the pest-eradication periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is greater than some critical value. Permanent conditions are established under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is less than another critical value. In particular, two single control strategies are proposed. Furthermore, we compare three pest control strategies and find that if we choose narrow-spectrum pesticides that targeted to a specific pest's life cycle to kill the pest, then the combined strategy is preferable. Finally, the corresponding system with no sexual favoritism is investigated. The results indicate that we can release fewer amount of the predators to eliminate the preys with sexual favoritism than without and any strong sexual favoritism will drive the pest towards extinction. In view of the biological meaning, the sexual favoritism plays a more active role in suppressing insect pests. PMID:19015368

Pei, Yongzhen; Yang, Yong; Li, Changguo; Chen, Lansun

2009-06-01

77

Three years monitoring survey of pesticide residues in Sardinia wines following integrated pest management strategies.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of a pesticide monitoring survey on wine grapes from the 2008-2010 vintage from vineyards grown according to integrated pest management strategies. A multi-residue gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method in electron ionization and chemical ionization mode has been used for the determination of 30 pesticides in wine samples. The analytical method showed good recoveries and allowed a good separation of the selected pesticides. Repeatability and intermediate precision showed good results with CV < 20 %. The instrumental method limits of determination (LOD) and of quantification (LOQ) were below the maximum residue levels set in wine. The analysis of the wines showed that pesticide residues were below the instrumental LOQ, and most of them were undetectable (

Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio

2013-05-01

78

Insect pests of millets and their management: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

About a hundred insect pests attack millets in the field and during storage. Some are common throughout the millet growing areas. Stem borers and grain midge are of regular occurrence. White grubs are important in India. Spike worms have recently become serious in the sub?Sahelian zone of West Africa. Sporadic attacks of blister beetles, armyworms, grasshoppers, chinch bugs, leaf beetles,

R. T. Gahukar

1989-01-01

79

LANDSCAPE PEST MONITORING METHODS AND TRAINING MANAGERS TO USE THEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring is the systematic collection and re- cording of information on pests and damage. Scale insects and aphids, respectively, can be efficiently monitored using sticky tape traps and water sensitive paper. We describe these monitoring techniques, present examples of their use in con- trolling citricola scale infesting Chinese hackberry and painted maple aphid infesting silver maple, and discuss our methods

Steve H. Dreistadt; Mary Louise Flint

1995-01-01

80

The dynamical behaviors of a Lotka–Volterra predator–prey model concerning integrated pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the fact integrated pest management, a Lotka–Volterra predator-prey model with impulsive effect at fixed moment is proposed and investigated. We analyze such system from two cases: general case (taking IPM strategy) and special case (only choosing pesticides). In the first case, we show that there exists a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution when the period of impulsive

Bing Liu; Yujuan Zhang; Lansun Chen

2005-01-01

81

Integrated Agricultural Pest Management Through Remote Sensing And Spatial Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern agriculture is influenced by both the pressure for increased productivity and increased stresses caused by plant pests.\\u000a Geographical Information Systems and Global Positioning Systems are currently being used for variable rate application of\\u000a pesticides, herbicide and fertilizers in Precision Agriculture applications, but the comparatively lesser-used tools of Remote\\u000a Sensing and Spatial Analyses can be of additional value in integrated

Maggi Kelly; Qinghua Guo

82

Physical Control: An Important Tool in Pest Management Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Various methods of physically controlling arthropod pests are simultaneously both the oldest techniques and a current source\\u000a of innovation. Unlike pesticides, there is no need for governmental regulation\\/registration with the concomitant need to spend\\u000a millions of dollars satisfying environmental and animal toxicology, food safety and efficacy requirements. The focus of this\\u000a discussion will be on pre-harvest agricultural practices (Table 1)

Phyllis G. Weintraub

83

Integrated pest management with stochastic birth rate for prey species.  

PubMed

Song and Xiang (2006) developed an impulsive differential equations model for a two-prey one-predator model with stage structure for the predator. They demonstrate the conditions on the impulsive period for which a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution exists, as well as conditions on the impulsive period for which the prey species is permanently maintained under an economically acceptable threshold. We extend their model by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. As in Song and Xiang (2006), we find the conditions under which a globally asymptotically stable pest eradication periodic solution exists. In addition, we numerically show the relationship between the stochastically varying birth rate of the prey and the necessary efficacy of the pesticide for which the probability of eradication of the prey species is above 90%. This is significant because the model recognizes varying environmental and climatic conditions which affect the resources needed for pest eradication. PMID:23964194

Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D; Hrozencik, Daniel

2013-01-01

84

Integrated pest management with stochastic birth rate for prey species  

PubMed Central

Song and Xiang (2006) developed an impulsive differential equations model for a two-prey one-predator model with stage structure for the predator. They demonstrate the conditions on the impulsive period for which a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution exists, as well as conditions on the impulsive period for which the prey species is permanently maintained under an economically acceptable threshold. We extend their model by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. As in Song and Xiang (2006), we find the conditions under which a globally asymptotically stable pest eradication periodic solution exists. In addition, we numerically show the relationship between the stochastically varying birth rate of the prey and the necessary efficacy of the pesticide for which the probability of eradication of the prey species is above 90%. This is significant because the model recognizes varying environmental and climatic conditions which affect the resources needed for pest eradication.

Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D.; Hrozencik, Daniel

2013-01-01

85

Invertebrate community richness in New Zealand kiwifruit orchards under organic or integrated pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the effects of two different forms of sustainable agriculture on native taxa, this study assessed invertebrate communities in ten matched pairs of kiwifruit orchards managed under either organic or integrated pest management (IPM) systems in New Zealand. Three types of trap were used to collect as many different invertebrate taxa as possible in three trapping periods spread over

Jacqui H. Todd; Louise A. Malone; Brian H. McArdle; Jayson Benge; Joanne Poulton; Stephen Thorpe; Jacqueline R. Beggs

2011-01-01

86

BARRIERS TO WIDESPREAD CONVERSION FROM CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL TO NON-CHEMICAL METHODS IN U.S. AGRICULTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbicides and fungicides are widely used to kill weeds and plant pathogens in agricultural crops. CropLife Foundation assessed the value of herbicides and fungicides to U.S. farmers by evaluating crop losses to weeds and diseases and quantifying the cost and effectiveness of chemical and alternative control methods. These studies clearly identify barriers to the adoption of non-chemical methods of pest

Leonard Gianessi; Nathan Reigner

87

Assessing the efficacy of spray-delivered 'eco-friendly' chemicals for the control and eradication of marine fouling pests.  

PubMed

Despite its frequent use in terrestrial and freshwater systems, there is a lack of published experimental research examining the effectiveness of spray-delivered chemicals for the management of non-indigenous and/or unwanted pests in marine habitats. This study tested the efficacy of spraying acetic acid, hydrated lime and sodium hypochlorite for the control of marine fouling assemblages. The chemicals are considered relatively 'eco-friendly' due to their low toxicity and reduced environmental persistence compared to synthetic biocides, and they were effective in controlling a wide range of organisms. Pilot trials highlighted acetic acid as the most effective chemical at removing fouling cover, therefore it was selected for more comprehensive full-scale trials. A single spray of 5% acetic acid with an exposure time of 1 min effectively removed up to 55% of the invertebrate species present and 65% of the cover on fouled experimental plates, while one application of 10% acetic acid over 30 min removed up to 78% of species present and 95% of cover. Single-spray treatments of 5% acetic acid reduced cover of the tunicate pest species Didemnum vexillum by up to 100% depending on the exposure duration, while repeat-spraying ensured that even short exposure times (1 min) achieved approximately 99% mortality. Both 5 and 10% acetic acid solutions appeared equally effective at removing the majority of algal species. This technique could be used for controlling the introduction of unwanted species or preventing the spread of pests, and is applicable to use on a variety of natural and artificial substrata, or for the treatment of structures that can be removed from the water. PMID:19937489

Piola, Richard F; Dunmore, Robyn A; Forrest, Barrie M

2010-01-01

88

The ABCs of Non-Toxic Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pest management approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…

Cooper, Susan

1990-01-01

89

Sex pheromones and their impact on pest management.  

PubMed

The idea of using species-specific behavior-modifying chemicals for the management of noxious insects in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, stored products, and for insect vectors of diseases has been a driving ambition through five decades of pheromone research. Hundreds of pheromones and other semiochemicals have been discovered that are used to monitor the presence and abundance of insects and to protect plants and animals against insects. The estimated annual production of lures for monitoring and mass trapping is on the order of tens of millions, covering at least 10 million hectares. Insect populations are controlled by air permeation and attract-and-kill techniques on at least 1 million hectares. Here, we review the most important and widespread practical applications. Pheromones are increasingly efficient at low population densities, they do not adversely affect natural enemies, and they can, therefore, bring about a long-term reduction in insect populations that cannot be accomplished with conventional insecticides. A changing climate with higher growing season temperatures and altered rainfall patterns makes control of native and invasive insects an increasingly urgent challenge. Intensified insecticide use will not provide a solution, but pheromones and other semiochemicals instead can be implemented for sustainable area-wide management and will thus improve food security for a growing population. Given the scale of the challenges we face to mitigate the impacts of climate change, the time is right to intensify goal-oriented interdisciplinary research on semiochemicals, involving chemists, entomologists, and plant protection experts, in order to provide the urgently needed, and cost-effective technical solutions for sustainable insect management worldwide. PMID:20108027

Witzgall, Peter; Kirsch, Philipp; Cork, Alan

2010-01-01

90

Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.  

PubMed Central

Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique.

Carde, R T

1976-01-01

91

Genetically Engineered Crops for Pest Management in U.S. Agriculture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adoption of genetically engineered crops with traits for pest management has risen dramatically since their commercial introduction in the mid-1990's. The farm-level impacts of such crops on pesticide use, yields, and net returns vary with the crop and te...

J. Fernandez-Cornejo W. D. McBride

2000-01-01

92

ISSUES RELATING TO THE PRACTICAL USE OF TRANSGENIC CROPS FOR INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of transgenic plants for insect pest management requires a thorough evaluation of the risks, costs and benefits. Currently, all commercialised transgenic crops for insect control contain genes expressing specific Bt toxins. Excluding environmental and human health concerns, the most apparent risk for these Bt-plants is development of resistance to Bt toxins. The high dose\\/refuge strategy is accepted as

D. A. J. TEULON; J. E. LOSEY

93

PREDICTING WILLINGNESS-TO-PAY A PREMIUM FOR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PRODUCE: A LOGISTIC APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide residue has repeatedly been documented as a leading source of food safety concern among consumers. While many studies have presented aggregate, descriptive illustrations of consumer response to Integrated Pest Management (IPM), consumer willingness-to-pay a premium for IPM produce and the factors that determine such willingness have received relatively little research attention. Such information is critical in the marketing of

Ramu Govindasamy; John Italia; Adesoji O. Adelaja

2001-01-01

94

General rules for managing and surveying networks of pests, diseases, and endangered species  

PubMed Central

The efficient management of diseases, pests, or endangered species is an important global issue faced by agencies constrained by limited resources. The management challenge is even greater when organisms are difficult to detect. We show how to prioritize management and survey effort across time and space for networks of susceptible–infected–susceptible subpopulations. We present simple and robust rules of thumb for protecting desirable, or eradicating undesirable, subpopulations connected in typical network patterns (motifs). We further demonstrate that these rules can be generalized to larger networks when motifs are combined in more complex formations. Results show that the best location to manage or survey a pest or a disease on a network is also the best location to protect or survey an endangered species. The optimal starting point in a network is the fastest motif to manage, where line, star, island, and cluster motifs range from fast to slow. Managing the most connected node at the right time and maintaining the same management direction provide advantages over previously recommended outside–in strategies. When a species or disease is not detected and our belief in persistence decreases, our results recommend shifting resources toward management or surveillance of the most connected nodes. Our analytic approximation provides guidance on how long we should manage or survey networks for hard-to-detect organisms. Our rules take into account management success, dispersal, economic cost, and imperfect detection and offer managers a practical basis for managing networks relevant to many significant environmental, biosecurity, and human health issues.

Chades, Iadine; Martin, Tara G.; Nicol, Samuel; Burgman, Mark A.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

2011-01-01

95

[Sustainable rice pest management and its economic benefits].  

PubMed

With rice varieties Jiahua 1 (resistant to the white backed plant hopper Sogatella furcifera) and Shanyou 63 (susceptible) as test materials, this paper studied the effects of different insecticide treatments on the pest population and quality and yield of rice grain, and evaluated their actual economic benefits (AEB). The results indicated that in the control plot, the peak density of S. furcifera on Jiahua 1 was only 1/10 of that on Shanyou 63. Throughout the whole rice growth period, the S. furcifera population on Jiahua 1 kept below economic injury level, while Shanyou 63 suffered heavy infestation by S. furcifera. The spider density in the control plot was 3 -7 times higher than that in the plots treated with insecticide following farmers' practice. No application of insecticide decreased the grain yield of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 by 11. 8% and 43.4% , respectively. Compared with the control, spraying with insecticide one time decreased the AEB of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63 by 0.9% - 2.6% and 2.6% - 4.7% , respectively. Without insecticide application, the AEB of Shanyou 63 decreased by 32.9% - 36.1% , while that of Jiahua 1 increased by 2.2% - 4.8%. The income of planting Jiahua 1 without insecticide application was 9403 yuan x hm(-2) , which was remarkably higher than that (8632 yuan hm (-2)) of Shanyou 63 protected by spraying insecticide 3 times. It was worthwhile to point out that insecticide treatment did not affect the processing of rice grain and its commercial and edible quality, but decreased its protein content of Jiahua 1 and Shanyou 63. PMID:17209398

Liu, Guangjie; Sogawa, Kazushige; Chen, Shigao; Pu, Zhengguo; Shen, Junhui; Shi, Dungui; Qiao, Qingchun; Liu, Xianggui

2006-10-01

96

History and contemporary perspectives of the integrated pest management of soybean in Brazil.  

PubMed

The integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean developed and implemented in Brazil was one of the most successful programs of pest management in the world. Established during the 1970s, it showed a tremendous level of adoption by growers, decreasing the amount of insecticide use by over 50%. It included outstanding approaches of field scouting and decision making, considering the economic injury levels (EILs) for the major pests. Two main biological control programs were highly important to support the soybean IPM program in Brazil, i.e., the use of a NPVAg to control the major defoliator, the velvet bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and the use of egg parasitoids against the seed-sucking stink bugs, in particular, the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). These two biological control programs plus pests scouting, and the use of more selective insecticides considering the EILs supported the IPM program through the 1980s and 1990s. With the change in the landscape, with the adoption of the no-tillage cultivation system and the introduction of more intense multiple cropping, and with the lower input to divulge and adapt the IPM program to this new reality, the program started to decline during the years 2000s. Nowadays, soybean IPM is almost a forgotten control technology. In this mini-review article, suggestions are made to possibly revive and adapt the soybean IPM to contemporary time. PMID:23949744

Panizzi, A R

2013-04-01

97

Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

98

Integrated pest management in practice — pathways towards successful application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples from perennial and annual crops in temperate and tropical conditions are used to illustrate the research and development approaches that have contributed to use and integration of host plant resistance and biological, cultural and chemical controls. The evidence shows how successes in IPM have depended upon classical experimental approaches continually responding to changing constraints and to novel discoveries, which

H. F van Emden

2000-01-01

99

A multiple-paradigm system for rangeland pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycultural agroecosystems, such as rangelands, are too complex and poorly understood to permit precise numerical simulation. Management decisions that depend on behavioral predictions of such ecosystems therefore require a variety of knowledge sources and reasoning techniques. Our approach to designing a computer system that provides advice concerning such ecosystems is to incorporate various reasoning paradigms and apply whatever paradigm is

John D. Hastings; L. Karl Branting; Jeffrey A. Lockwood

1996-01-01

100

Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests  

PubMed Central

The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

2012-01-01

101

Diffusion of Innovation Theory and Integrated Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Diffusion of Innovation Theory dominated the theory and practice of agricultural extension system all over the world for\\u000a almost half a century. It came under criticism too during the period. The theory was not considered adequate to manage the\\u000a process of dissemination of IPM technology. The inadequacies may be due to the attributes of IPM innovation as well as

Rajinder Peshin; J. Vasanthakumar; Rajinder Kalra

102

Bridging Disciplines, Knowledge Systems and Cultures in Pest Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of research in integrated environmental and natural resource management relies on the participation and involvement of different disciplines and stakeholders. This can be difficult to achieve in practice because many initiatives fail to address the underlying social processes required for successful engagement and social learning. We used an action research approach to support a research-based group with a range of disciplinary and stakeholder expertise to critically reflect on their engagement practice and identify lessons around how to collaborate more effectively. This approach is provided here as a guide that can be used to support reflective research practice for engagement in other integration-based initiatives. This paper is set in the context of an integrated wildlife management research case study in New Zealand. We illustrate how multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches can provide a framework for considering the different conversations that need to occur in an integrated research program. We then outline rubrics that list the criteria required in inter- and trans-disciplinary collaborations, along with examples of effective engagement processes that directly support integration through such efforts. Finally, we discuss the implications of these experiences for other researchers and managers seeking to improve engagement and collaboration in integrated science, management and policy initiatives. Our experiences reaffirm the need for those involved in integrative initiatives to attend to the processes of engagement in both formal and informal settings, to provide opportunities for critical reflective practice, and to look for measures of success that acknowledge the importance of effective social process.

Allen, Will; Ogilvie, Shaun; Blackie, Helen; Smith, Des; Sam, Shona; Doherty, James; McKenzie, Don; Ataria, James; Shapiro, Lee; MacKay, Jamie; Murphy, Elaine; Jacobson, Chris; Eason, Charles

2014-02-01

103

Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal\\u000a activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant–herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes\\u000a in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat–aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types\\u000a of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating

Xin Ke; Stefan Scheu

2008-01-01

104

Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.  

PubMed

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2013-01-01

105

Two decades of bottom-up, ecologically based pest management in a small commercial apple orchard in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the outset, a bottom-up, ecologically based approach to apple pest management was applied to a small commercial apple orchard in Conway, MA (USA). This approach was maintained throughout the first 20 years (1981–2000) of commercial production. It consisted of maximizing genetic-based resistance to pests through the planting of cultivars resistant to apple scab, designing the orchard and managing the

Ronald J. Prokopy

2003-01-01

106

Pest and Disease Management: Why We Shouldn't Go against the Grain  

PubMed Central

Given the wide range of scales and mechanisms by which pest or disease agents disperse, it is unclear whether there might exist a general relationship between scale of host heterogeneity and spatial spread that could be exploited by available management options. In this model-based study, we investigate the interaction between host distributions and the spread of pests and diseases using an array of models that encompass the dispersal and spread of a diverse range of economically important species: a major insect pest of coniferous forests in western North America, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae); the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, one of the most-widespread and best-studied bacterial plant pathogens; the mosquito Culex erraticus, an important vector for many human and animal pathogens, including West Nile Virus; and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Our model results reveal an interesting general phenomenon: a unimodal (‘humpbacked’) relationship in the magnitude of infestation (an index of dispersal or population spread) with increasing grain size (i.e., the finest scale of patchiness) in the host distribution. Pest and disease management strategies targeting different aspects of host pattern (e.g., abundance, aggregation, isolation, quality) modified the shape of this relationship, but not the general unimodal form. This is a previously unreported effect that provides insight into the spatial scale at which management interventions are most likely to be successful, which, notably, do not always match the scale corresponding to maximum infestation. Our findings could provide a new basis for explaining historical outbreak events, and have implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness.

Skelsey, Peter; With, Kimberly A.; Garrett, Karen A.

2013-01-01

107

Pest and disease management: why we shouldn't go against the grain.  

PubMed

Given the wide range of scales and mechanisms by which pest or disease agents disperse, it is unclear whether there might exist a general relationship between scale of host heterogeneity and spatial spread that could be exploited by available management options. In this model-based study, we investigate the interaction between host distributions and the spread of pests and diseases using an array of models that encompass the dispersal and spread of a diverse range of economically important species: a major insect pest of coniferous forests in western North America, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae); the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, one of the most-widespread and best-studied bacterial plant pathogens; the mosquito Culex erraticus, an important vector for many human and animal pathogens, including West Nile Virus; and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Our model results reveal an interesting general phenomenon: a unimodal ('humpbacked') relationship in the magnitude of infestation (an index of dispersal or population spread) with increasing grain size (i.e., the finest scale of patchiness) in the host distribution. Pest and disease management strategies targeting different aspects of host pattern (e.g., abundance, aggregation, isolation, quality) modified the shape of this relationship, but not the general unimodal form. This is a previously unreported effect that provides insight into the spatial scale at which management interventions are most likely to be successful, which, notably, do not always match the scale corresponding to maximum infestation. Our findings could provide a new basis for explaining historical outbreak events, and have implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness. PMID:24098739

Skelsey, Peter; With, Kimberly A; Garrett, Karen A

2013-01-01

108

Exploitation of Insect Vibrational Signals Reveals a New Method of Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems.

Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

2012-01-01

109

Farmers' perceptions, knowledge, and management of coffee pests and diseases and their natural enemies in Chiapas, Mexico.  

PubMed

Small farmers' perceptions of coffee Coffea arabica L. herbivores and their natural enemies, how those perceptions relate to field infestation levels, and pest management practices being implemented by members from two organic and nonorganic coffee grower organizations in the Soconusco region, southeastern Mexico, were analyzed through an interview survey, diagnostic workshops, and field sampling. The terms pest, disease, and damage were commonly used as synonyms. The major phytophagous species, as perceived by the interviewees, were Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to a lesser extent the fungi Corticium koleroga Cooke (Höhnel) and Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley & Broome. Among the nonorganic farmers, other nonpest-related constraints were regarded as more important. Awareness of the existence of natural enemies was low, despite more organic farmers have used the ectoparasitoid bethylid Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem against H. hampei. Labor supplied by household members was most frequent for pest control; only organic farmers exchanged labor for this purpose. The levels of infestation by H. hampei, Leucoptera coffeella Guérin-Méneville, and C. koleroga were lower within the organic coffee stands. However, a low effectiveness for pest control was commonly perceived, probably due to a feeling, among the organic farmers, of a low impact of their pest management extension service, whereas a lack of motivation was prevalent among the nonorganic farmers, shown by a concern with their low coffee yields and the emigration of youth. The importance of understanding farmers' perceptions and knowledge of pests and their natural enemies and the need for participatory pest management approaches, are discussed. PMID:15568334

Segura, H R; Barrera, J F; Morales, H; Nazar, A

2004-10-01

110

Pests in and Around the Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Knowledgebase of urban, structure, lawn and landscape pests. Includes sections on pest management theory; biting and stinging insects; pests of food, fabric and wood; occasional invaders; lawn pests; landscape pests, and some vertebrate pests. Includes pest identification keys. This is an excellent resource, although much of the material is specific to Florida. Vertebrate pest management sections are also of high quality and interesting. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser. $25.

0002-11-30

111

Integrated pest management concepts for red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  

PubMed

Management of imported fire ant species has evolved since their accidental introduction into the United States and currently uses integrated pest management concepts to design, implement, and evaluate suppression programs. Although eradication is the management goal in certain isolated infestation sites, localized goals vary dramatically in larger infestations where reinvasion of treated areas is likely. These goals are influenced by regulatory policies, medical liabilities, ecological impact, and/or economic considerations. Tactics employed in fire ant management programs presented here include cultural and biological control options along with judicious use of site-specific insecticide products. In addition, program design considerations that include management goal(s), action level(s), ant form (monogyne or polygyne), presence of nontarget ant species, size of treatment area, seasonality, implementation cost, and environmental impact are also presented. Optimally, elegant IPM programs are target specific, threshold driven, environmentally friendly and cost-effective. PMID:23955939

Drees, Bastiaan M; Calixto, Alejandro A; Nester, Paul R

2013-08-01

112

Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004–2008), China’s forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36%\\u000a of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country\\u000a with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects,\\u000a plant

Lanzhu JiZhen; Zhen Wang; Xiaowei Wang; Linli An

113

Reduced-risk pest management programs for eastern U.S. peach orchards: effects on arthropod predators, parasitoids, and select pests.  

PubMed

We developed new integrated pest management programs for eastern U.S. peaches with minimal use of organophosphates. From 2002-2005, we assessed the ecological impacts of these reduced-risk programs versus grower standard conventional programs that still relied primarily on the use of organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides. Using a split-plot design replicated at four commercial Pennsylvania peach orchards, we quantified pesticide rates, environmental impact, and arthropod community response. We used Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) analysis based on the growers' pesticide records from each orchard to calculate seasonal cumulative EIQ field ratings for all years. Ecological effects of the reduced-risk and conventional program were also measured as the abundance and diversity of nontarget arthropod predators, parasitoids, and selected pest taxa. Pesticide inputs and EIQ values were substantially lower in reduced-risk programs compared with conventional spray programs. Arthropod arrays differed significantly between pest management programs: most beneficial predator and parasitoid taxa were positively associated with the reduced-risk program and negatively associated with the standard grower program. Regardless of the pest management program, we observed significant differences in species arrays in the peach tree canopy compared with the ground cover of the orchards, but the arthropod community did not differ among the field sites or based on distance from the edge of the orchard. We conclude that reduced-risk programs not only provide control comparable with that of conventional programs, but they also reduce negative environmental effects while conserving key arthropod biological control agents within eastern U.S. peach orchards. PMID:25026668

Biddinger, David J; Leslie, Timothy W; Joshi, Neelendra K

2014-06-01

114

DIARES-IPM: a diagnostic advisory rule-based expert system for integrated pest management in Solanaceous crop systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a DIagnostic Advisory Rule-based Expert System for Integrated Pest Management (DIARES-IPM) in Solanaceous crops. DIARES-IPM is an operational automatic identification tool that helps non-experts to identify pests (insects, diseases, nutritional deficiencies and beneficial insects) and suggest the appropriate treatments. The objective of this expert system was to serve as a diagnostic, extension and educational tool in vegetable

B. D. Mahaman; H. C. Passam; A. B. Sideridis; C. P. Yialouris

2003-01-01

115

Impulsive ecological control of a stage-structured pest management system.  

PubMed

The dynamics of a stage-structured pest management system is studied by means of autonomous piecewise linear systems with impulses governed by state feedback control. The sufficient conditions of existence and stability of periodic solutions are obtained by means of the sequence convergence rule and the analogue of the Poincare criterion. The attractive region of periodic solutions is investigated theoretically by qualitative analysis. The bifurcation diagrams of periodic solutions are obtained by using the Poincare map, as well as the chaotic solution generated via a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations. The superiority of the state feedback control strategy is also discussed. PMID:20369926

Jiang, Guirong; Lu, Qishao; Peng, Linping

2005-04-01

116

Can juvenogens, biochemically targeted hormonogen compounds, assist in environmentally safe insect pest management?  

PubMed

Two different types of juvenogens, biochemically targeted hormonogen compounds were tested for their potency to act as insect pest management agents. In the performed biological screening, wax-like esteric juvenogens (3-10) proved to be convenient agents for controlling blowfly and termites, and displayed species selectivity: cis-N-{2-[4-(2-butanoyloxycyclohexyl)methyl]phenoxy}ethyl carbamate (3) was highly active on blowfly (Neobellieria bullata), while trans-N-{2-[4-(2-hexadecanoyloxycyclohexyl)methyl]-phenoxy}ethyl carbamate (6) showed high activity on termite (Prorhinotermes simplex). Glycosidic juvenogens, isomeric N-{2-{4-{[2-(beta-D-galactopyranosyloxy)cyclohexyl]methyl}phenoxy}ethyl carbamates (13 and 14), were proved to act as systemic agents, suitable for protecting plants against phytophagous insects (e.g. aphids). Due to the prolonged action of juvenogens, which is connected with the sequential liberating of the biologically active molecule of the insect juvenile hormone bioanalog from the juvenogen molecule by means of enzymic systems of target insects and/or their host plants, more insect individuals can be treated by juvenogens, which are species-targeted structures due to their different physicochemical properties. The results achieved with both types of juvenogens were promising, concerning their final effect on the tested insect species, and the compounds 3-6, 9 (cis-(9Z)-N-{2-[4-(2-(octadec-9-enoyl)oxycyclohexyl)methyl]phenoxy}ethyl carbamate), 13 and 14 proved to represent convenient insect pest management agents for potential practical applications against different insect pests. PMID:16731341

Wimmer, Zdenek; Kuldová, Jelena; Hrdý, Ivan; Bennettová, Blanka

2006-06-01

117

Comparative study of integrated pest management and baiting for German cockroach management in public housing.  

PubMed

This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of a building-wide cockroach integrated pest management (IPM) program compared with bait alone treatment in public housing. In total, 12 buildings (66 apartments) were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over 7 mo. The buildings were divided into two groups: bait treatment and IPM. Apartments in the bait alone group were treated with Maxforce FC Select (0.01% fipronil) during the first 12 wk and Maxforce Roach Killer Bait Gel (2.15% hydramethylnon) from 16 wk when necessary. For the IPM group, cockroaches were flushed and vacuumed at the beginning of the study; sticky traps were placed in all apartments to monitor and reduce cockroach numbers; educational materials were delivered to the residents; and Maxforce FC Select and Maxforce Roach Killer Bait Gel were applied to kill cockroaches. Two seminars were presented to the manger, and Community Service Program staff of the Gary Housing Authority to help gain tenant cooperation in the program. Effects of the treatments were monitored using sticky traps (six per apartment) at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 29 wk after treatment. More treatments were applied during each monitoring visit when necessary. Those apartments with high levels of infestations (> or =12 cockroaches in six traps) before treatment were used to compare the IPM and bait only treatments. IPM resulted in significantly greater trap catch reduction than the bait treatment. The IPM (n=12) and bait only treatment (n=11) resulted in 100.0 and 94.6%, respectively, reduction in trap catch after 16 wk. At 29 wk, only one apartment in the IPM group had a high level (>12 cockroaches) of cockroach infestation. In contrast, five apartments in the bait treatment group had high level infestations at 29 wk based on overnight trapping counts; thus, IPM is a more sustainable method of population reduction. Sanitation levels in the IPM group significantly improved at 29 wk (n=11) compared with that at the beginning of the study. The sanitation levels in the bait treatment group remained similar throughout the experiment (n=9). The cumulative cost of IPM was significantly higher than that of the bait treatment. The median costs per apartment during 29 wk were 64.8 dollars and 35.0 dollars for the IPM and bait treatment, respectively. The median amount of bait used per apartment in the IPM and bait treatment was 45.0 and 50.0 g, respectively. The cost of the IPM group for the 29 wk service was similar to that of the bait treatment group. We expect that IPM will provide better control at similar cost compared with bait treatment beyond 29 wk. PMID:16813325

Wang, Changlu; Bennett, Gary W

2006-06-01

118

Evaluation of the effectiveness of Bacillus thuringiensis var. entomocidus as a pest control agent to replace chemical pesticides in alfalfa fields in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Egyptian cotton leafworm,Spodoptera littoralis Boisd., is the main important pest of alfalfa in Israel. Population levels of other pests usually do not reach the economic threshold. Nine chemical insecticide applications (7 spray applications and 2 granular fluorosilicate baits) were required to controlS. littoralis during the season of 1984 (in which infestation level was high) whereas only 5 applications of

Meir Broza; Baruch Sneh; Mario Levi

1986-01-01

119

Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales.  

PubMed

Portions of two commercial citrus orchards were treated for two consecutive years with buprofezin or three consecutive years with pyriproxyfen in a replicated plot design to determine the long-term impact of these insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the San Joaquin Valley California integrated pest management program. Pyriproxyfen reduced the target pest, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, to nondetectable levels on leaf samples approximately 4 mo after treatment. Pyriproxyfen treatments reduced the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach to a greater extent than the parasitoid Comperiella bifasciata Howard collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 33% direct mortality of the parasitoid, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Three years of pyriproxyfen treatments did not maintain citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), below the treatment threshold and cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, was slowly but incompletely controlled. Buprofezin reduced California red scale to very low but detectable levels approximately 5 mo after treatment. Buprofezin treatments resulted in similar levels of reduction of the two parasitoids A. melinus and C. bifasciata collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 7% mortality of the parasitoids, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Citricola scale was not present in this orchard, and cottony cushion scale was slowly and incompletely controlled by buprofezin. These field plots demonstrated that IGRs can act as organophosphate insecticide replacements for California red scale control; however, their narrower spectrum of activity and disruption of coccinellid beetles can allow other scale species to attain primary pest status. PMID:16813306

Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Stewart, J R; Olsen, K D

2006-06-01

120

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

121

Evaluation of a commercially available beneficial insect habitat for management of lepidoptera pests.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted in 2003 and 2004 at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, NC, to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially available beneficial insect habitat in decreasing pest caterpillar populations in organically managed tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., plots. Six pairs of tomato plots were established and a commercial beneficial insect habitat seed mix (Peaceful Valley's Good Bug Blend) transplanted around the perimeter of treatment plots, whereas a brown-top millet, Brachiaria ramose (L.) Stapf., border was planted around control plots. Egg predation, egg parasitism by trichogrammatid wasps, and larval parasitism by braconid wasps was monitored throughout the growing season to determine whether habitat increased their activity. In both years of this study, the density of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Manduca spp. eggs was not significantly different between treatment and control plots. Although parasitism was the most important component of egg mortality (19-49%), parasitism was not significantly different between habitat types. Identifiable predation was a minor component (3-9%) of egg fate; it is possible that unidentified predation may be part of the approximately 35-52% of eggs that met unknown fates. Larval parasitism levels ranged from approximately 10 to 90% but was not significantly influenced by the presence of beneficial insect habitat in either year of the study. These results demonstrate that natural enemy activity in organic tomatoes was not amplified, and pest populations were not reduced by the presence of a commercially available beneficial insect habitat. PMID:16813293

Forehand, L M; Orr, D B; Linker, H M

2006-06-01

122

An impulsively controlled pest management model with n predator species and a common prey.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the dynamics of a competitive single-prey n-predators model of integrated pest management, which is subject to periodic and impulsive controls, from the viewpoint of finding sufficient conditions for the extinction of prey and for prey and predator permanence. The per capita death rates of prey due to predation are given in abstract, unspecified forms, which encompass large classes of death rates arising from usual predator functional responses, both prey-dependent and predator-dependent. The stability and permanence conditions are then expressed as balance conditions between the cumulative death rate of prey in a period, due to predation from all predator species and to the use of control, and to the cumulative birth rate of prey in the same amount of time. These results are then specialized for the case of prey-dependent functional responses, their biological significance being also discussed. PMID:23123675

Georgescu, Paul; Zhang, Hong

2012-12-01

123

New dispenser types for integrated pest management of agriculturally significant insect pests: an algorithm with specialized searching capacity in electronic data bases.  

PubMed

Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pest management efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks. PMID:23885431

Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G

2012-01-01

124

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.  

PubMed

Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption of biosafety protocol is necessary to protect human health and environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of genetic engineering. The debate between proponents and opponents of GM technology has created major obstacles in hamessing benefits of the technology It has now become clear that transgenics willbe accepted by the public only when doubts related with general risks and environmental safety are adequately dispelled. Thus, there is need to organize public awareness and present the benefits of Bt transgenic crops to improve social attitude for their rational deployment. In this review, an attempt has been made to discuss social and environmental safety issues of Bt transgenic crops. PMID:19295059

Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

2008-09-01

125

The Adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand as an Example of Change Management Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated pest management (IPM) is a well-known innovation that accords with modern environmental management's (EMs) ‘best practice’. In this paper, it is examined in two ways. First, a recent IPM knowledge diffusion project in a region of Thailand, where durian is extensively grown, is described and analysed in relation to the adoption of both its philosophy and methods by growers.

Barry Elsey; Kittipong Sirichoti

2001-01-01

126

Cross-cultural management of pest animal damage: a case study of feral buffalo control in Australia's Kakadu National Park.  

PubMed

Government agencies responsible for pest animal management often assume that their views and assumptions about the benefits of control are widely shared, especially if these pests are exotics. This was certainly the case when tens of thousands of feral Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) were to be culled in Australia's Kakadu National Park as part of a national Brucellosis and Tuberculosis Eradication Campaign (BTEC). Implementation of the campaign sparked considerable dispute between officials and aboriginal and non-aboriginal interests about the risks posed by buffalo relative to their value as a potential resource. Drawing upon a variety of written and oral sources relating to the era of buffalo control in Kakadu, this paper critically analyzes the way in which detriment caused by buffalo was appraised and managed under the BTEC program. In particular, the paper focuses the ways in which the BTEC program affected aboriginal people in Kakadu, who view buffalo as a source of customary and economic benefit as well as a source of change on their lands. The paper then considers what lessons can be learned from the BTEC for the development of sensible feral management objectives and strategies. It is argued that effective management of feral animals such as buffalo will require environmental managers to engage with local people and involve them in the definition and management of pest animal damage and methods of control. PMID:14986894

Robinson, Cathy J; Whitehead, Peter

2003-10-01

127

Current control methods for diamondback moth and other brassica insect pests and the prospects for improved management with lepidopteran-resistant Bt vegetable brassicas in Asia and Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), remains a major pest of brassica crops worldwide. DBM has been estimated globally to cost US$ 1 billion in direct losses and control costs. Chemical control of this pest remains difficult due to the rapid development of resistance to insecticides and to their effect on natural enemies. These problems are especially severe in

D. Grzywacz; A. Rossbach; A. Rauf; D. A. Russell; R. Srinivasan; A. M. Shelton

2010-01-01

128

Invasive Forest Pests: Lessons Learned from Three Recent Infestations May Aid in Managing Future Efforts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Invasive forest pests have seriously harmed our environment and imposed significant costs upon our economy. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is the lead agency for responding to forest pests. This report evaluates the federal response to three in...

2006-01-01

129

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

130

Integration of botanicals and microbials for management of crop and human pests.  

PubMed

Insect pests inflict damage to humans, farm animals, and crops. Human and animal pests put more than 100 million people and 80 million cattle at risk worldwide. Plant pests are the main reason for destroying one fifth of the world's total crop production annually. Anopheles stephensi is the major vector of human malaria in Middle East and South Asian regions. Spodoptera litura is a polyphagous pest of vegetables and field crops. Because of its broad host range, this insect is also known as cluster caterpillar, common cutworm, cotton leafworm, tobacco cutworm, tobacco caterpillar, and tropical armyworm. The toxic effects of methanolic extract of Senna alata and microbial insecticide, Bacillus sphericus, were tested against the polyphagous crop pest, S. litura (Fab.), and the malarial vector, A. stephensi. Results from the present study states that B. sphericus is more toxic than S. alata to both the crop pest and mosquito. The malarial vector, A. stephensi, was found to be susceptible than the crop pest, S. litura. Both the botanical and microbial insecticide showed excellent larvicidal, pupicidal, longevity, fecundity, and growth regulatory activities. Median lethal concentrations of B. sphericus and methanolic extract of S. alata observed to kill the third instar of S. litura were 0.52 and 193.09 ppm and A. stephensi were 0.40 and 174.64 ppm, respectively. PMID:23052771

Naresh Kumar, A; Murugan, K; Madhiyazhagan, P

2013-01-01

131

Effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Controlling Cockroaches, Mice, and Allergens in New York City Public Housing  

PubMed Central

Background Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. Objectives We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. Methods We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Results Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. Conclusions In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences.

Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

2009-01-01

132

Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.  

PubMed

A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry. PMID:24665711

Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

2014-02-01

133

Evaluation of water quality in an agricultural watershed as affected by almond pest management practices.  

PubMed

In the last decade, the detection of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in the San Joaquin River watershed has raised concerns about water quality. This study examined the influences of almond pest management practices (PMPs) on water quality. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was employed to simulate pesticide concentration in water as affected by different PMPs. California Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) data were used to investigate PMP use trends. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to test the correlation between specific PMP use and pesticide concentrations in surface water and sediment. Our results showed an increasing use of reduced risk pesticides and pyrethroids on almonds. SWAT simulation over the period of 1992-2005 showed decreases in OP concentrations in surface water. High OP and pyrethroid use in dormant sprays was associated with high pesticide concentrations in water and sediment. Almond pesticide use was proved to have significant impacts on the pesticide load in the San Joaquin River watershed. The PMP which combines the use of reduced risk pesticides with no dormant spray was recommended for almond orchard use. This paper presented a novel method of studying the environmental impacts of different agricultural PMPs. By combining pesticide use surveys with watershed modeling, we provided a quantitative foundation for the selection of PMPs to reduce pesticide pollution in surface water. PMID:18672261

Zhang, Xuyang; Liu, Xingmei; Luo, Yuzhou; Zhang, Minghua

2008-08-01

134

Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches.  

PubMed

Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place. PMID:22878217

Vreysen, Marc J B; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

2013-03-01

135

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

136

Proceedings: Integrating Cultural Tactics into the Management of Bark Beetle and Reforestation Pests. (Conference) Held in Vallombrosa, Italy on September 1-3, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication contains 31 research papers aobut forest insect biology, ecology, and physiology as they relate to the integration of cultural tactics into the management of bark beetle and reforestration pests. These papers were presented at a joint mee...

A. M. Liebhold F. M. Stephen J. C. Gregoire K. R. Day S. M. Salom

1997-01-01

137

Management of Plum Curculio and Catfacing Insects on Peaches in Central Alabama: Standard Crop Stage–Based vs. Integrated Pest Management–Based Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plum curculio, tarnished plant bug, brown stink bug, and green stink bug are the major insect pests causing fruit damage on peaches grown in the southeastern United States. Insect management aids, monitoring techniques, predictive models, and action thresholds for southeastern peaches are either lacking or they are not robust enough to facilitate industry acceptance of as-needed insecticide applications during the

Wheeler G. Foshee III; Robert T. Boozer; Eugene K. Blythe; Dan L. Horton; Jason Burkett

2008-01-01

138

Adaptation of soil solarization to the integrated management of soilborne pests of tomato under humid conditions.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Soil solarization was shown to be cost effective, compatible with other pest management tactics, readily integrated into standard production systems, and a valid alternative to preplant fumigation with methyl bromide under the tested conditions. Solarization using clear, photoselective, or gas-impermeable plastic was evaluated in combination with metham sodium, 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin, methyl bromide + chloropicrin, pebulate, or cabbage residue. Strip solarization, applied to 20-cm-high, 0.9-m-wide beds, was conducted to achieve compatibility with standard production practices and resulted in soil temperatures 2 to 4 degrees C above those temperatures resulting when using conventional flatbed solarization. Soil temperatures were 1 to 2 degrees C higher at the edges of the raised beds, eliminating any border effects associated with solarization. Following a 40- to 55-day solarization period, the plastic was painted white and used as a production mulch for a subsequent tomato crop. The incidence of Southern blight and the density of Paratrichodorus minor and Criconemella spp. were lower (P < 0.05) in solarized plots. No differences (P < 0.05) in the incidence of Fusarium wilt and the density of nutsedge and Helicotylenchus spp. were observed between plots receiving solarization and plots fumigated with a mixture of methyl bromide + chloropicrin. The severity of root galling was lower (P < 0.05) when soil solarization was combined with 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin (16.2 + 3.4 g/m(2)) and a gas-impermeable film. The incidence of bacterial wilt was not affected by soil treatments. Marketable yields in plots using various combinations of soil solarization and other tactics were similar (P < 0.05) to yields obtained in plots fumigated with methyl bromide + chloropicrin. The results were validated in several large scale field experiments conducted by commercial growers. PMID:18945167

Chellemi, D O; Olson, S M; Mitchell, D J; Secker, I; McSorley, R

1997-03-01

139

Community-based participatory research helps farmers and scientists to manage invasive pests in the Ecuadorian Andes.  

PubMed

Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants collected data from the PTM invasion front, which revealed clear connection between the abundance of one of the species (Tecia solanivora) and the remoteness to the main market place. This suggests that mechanisms structuring invasive populations at the invasion front are different from those occurring in areas invaded for longer period. Participatory monitoring with local people may serve as a cost-effective early warning system to detect and control incipient invasive pest species in countries where the daily management of biological resources is largely in the hands of poor rural people. PMID:20799682

Dangles, O; Carpio, F C; Villares, M; Yumisaca, F; Liger, B; Rebaudo, F; Silvain, J F

2010-06-01

140

Farmers' management of cabbage and cauliflower pests in India and their approaches to crop protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cabbage (Brassica olearaceae var. capitata) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) are two major vegetables produced and consumed in India. Over the years, they have been cultivated more intensively. This has resulted in higher rates of pest infestation, especially by the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and higher pesticide use. This, in turn, has contributed to insecticide resistance, environmental degradation, and

Katinka Weinberger; R. Srinivasan

2009-01-01

141

Zonocerus and Chromolaena in West Africa A chemoecological approach towards pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (L.) (Pyrgomorphidae), is a polyphagous African grasshopper. In parts of West Africa its dry-season population has reached pest status, apparently in coincidence with the spread of the introduced Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (L.) K. & R. (Asteraceae: Eupatoriae), which, however, is not a food plant for Zonocerus. Knowledge of pharmacophagous utilisation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids

M. Boppré; O. W. Fischer

142

Relevance of traditional integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for commercial corn producers in a transgenic agroecosystem: a bygone era?  

PubMed

The use of transgenic Bt maize hybrids continues to increase significantly across the Corn Belt of the United States. In 2009, 59% of all maize planted in Illinois was characterized as a "stacked" gene variety. This is a 40% increase since 2006. Stacked hybrids typically express one Cry protein for corn rootworm control and one Cry protein for control of several lepidopteran pests; they also feature herbicide tolerance (to either glyphosate or glufosinate). Slightly more than 50 years has passed since Vernon Stern and his University of California entomology colleagues published (1959) their seminal paper on the integrated control concept, laying the foundation for modern pest management (IPM) programs. To assess the relevance of traditional IPM concepts within a transgenic agroecosystem, commercial maize producers were surveyed at a series of meetings in 2009 and 2010 regarding their perceptions on their use of Bt hybrids and resistance management. Special attention was devoted to two insect pests of corn, the European corn borer and the western corn rootworm. A high percentage of producers who participated in these meetings planted Bt hybrids in 2008 and 2009, 97 and 96.7%, respectively. Refuge compliance in 2008 and 2009, as mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was 82 and 75.7%, respectively, for those producers surveyed. A large majority of producers (79 and 73.3% in 2009 and 2010, respectively) revealed that they would, or had, used a Bt hybrid for corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) or European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) control even when anticipated densities were low. Currently, the EPA is evaluating the long-term use of seed blends (Bt and non-Bt) as a resistance management strategy. In 2010, a large percentage of producers, 80.4%, indicated they would be willing to use this approach. The current lack of integration of management tactics for insect pests of maize in the U.S. Corn Belt, due primarily to the escalating use of transgenic Bt hybrids, may eventually result in resistance evolution and/or other unforeseen consequences. PMID:20873716

Gray, Michael E

2011-06-01

143

Risk Management in Chemical Industry Supply Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present literature review of risk management. Then we develop a conceptual model for risk management in chemical industry supply chain. Finally a case study is presented. In this case, we study a chemical industry supply chain, which consists of palm plantation, oils Corporation, fine chemical plant, daily chemical plant, distributor, retailer, and customer. After visiting a

Liping Liu; Jianhua Ji; Tijun Fan; Lili Qi; Zhe Wu

2006-01-01

144

Forest Pest Conditions in California, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The California Forest Pest Council, a 501(3)c non-profit organization, was founded in 1951 as the California Forest Pest Control Action Council. Membership is open to public and private forest managers, foresters, silviculturists, entomologists, pathologi...

2001-01-01

145

Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control. PMID:21882700

Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

2011-08-01

146

Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus haroldi: role of (Z)-9-pentacosene.  

PubMed

Oplostomus haroldi Witte belongs to a unique genus of afro-tropical scarabs that have associations with honey bee colonies, from which they derive vital nutrients. Although the attributes of the honey bee nest impose barriers to communication among nest invaders, this beetle still is able to detect conspecific mates for reproduction. Here, we show, through behavioral studies, that cuticular lipids serve as mate discrimination cues in this beetle. We observed five steps during mating: arrestment, alignment, mounting, and copulation, and a post-copulatory stage, lasting ~40-70 % of the total mating duration, that suggested mate guarding. Chemical analysis identified the same nine straight-chain alkanes (C(23)-C(31)), six methyl-branched alkanes (6), and five mono-unsaturated alkenes in the cuticular lipids of both sexes. Methyl alkanes constituted the major component (46 %) of male cuticular lipids, while mono-unsaturated alkenes were most abundant (53 %) in females. (Z)-9-Pentacosene was twice as abundant in females than in males, and ~20 fold more concentrated in beetles than in worker bees. In mating assays, (Z)-9-pentacosene elicited arrestment, alignment, and mounting, but not copulation, by male beetles. These results represent the first evidence of a contact sex pheromone in a scarab beetle. Such contact pheromones may be an essential, cryptic mechanism for arthropods associated with eusocial insects. PMID:23149473

Fombong, Ayuka T; Teal, Peter E A; Arbogast, Richard T; Ndegwa, Paul N; Irungu, Lucy W; Torto, Baldwyn

2012-12-01

147

Relationships among soilborne bean seedling diseases, Lablab purpureus L. and maize stover residue management, bean insect pests, and soil characteristics in Trans Nzoia district, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smallholder farmers who practice continuous maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivation in the highlands of eastern African have been introduced to new leguminous crops for soil fertility enhancement. However, little is known about the impact these crops may have on farmers’ pre-existing crop pest problems. We investigated the cumulative effects of 7 years of differential management

Beth A. Medvecky; Quirine M. Ketterings; Eric B. Nelson

2007-01-01

148

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.  

PubMed

The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated during the final year of the areawide program. Based on data from 533 bins, SGA Pro accurately predicted which bins were at low, moderate or high risk. Only in two out of 533 bins did SGA Pro incorrectly predict bins as being low risk and, in both cases, insect density was only high (> two insects kg(-1)) at the surface, which suggested recent immigration. SGA Pro is superior to calendar-based management because it ensures that grain is only treated when insect densities exceed economic thresholds (two insects kg(-1)). This approach will reduce the frequency of fumigation while maintaining high grain quality. Minimizing the use of fumigant improves worker safety and reduces both control costs and harm to the environment. PMID:12846311

Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

2003-01-01

149

Soil fertility management and pest responses: a comparison of organic and synthetic fertilization.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of fertilization (organic or synthetic) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., cultivars ('K-Y cross' and 'Summer Summit') on the chemistry of cabbage and on the responses of a cabbage specialist Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval. Cabbages were grown from seeds in the greenhouse with either organic, synthetic, or no fertilizer treatments. Trials of ovipositional preference and larval feeding were conducted to evaluate the effect of foliage quality on insect responses. In addition, the foliar chemistry (water, nitrogen, total nonstructural carbohydrates, sinigrin, and anthocyanin) was measured during the insect bioassays. The results indicated that butterflies preferred to lay eggs on foliage of fertilized plants. The larvae grew faster on plants fertilized with synthetic fertilizer, but there was no evidence that contents of sinigrin delayed the developmental time of the larvae. However, plants that received organic fertilizer had higher biomass. In summary, the results of this study suggested that proper organic treatment can increase a plant's biomass production and may have a lower pest occurrence. PMID:19253632

Hsu, Yu-Tzu; Shen, Tse-Chi; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

2009-02-01

150

Pest Control: An Assessment of Present and Alternative Technologies. Volume IV. Forest Pest Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this volume, forest pest control policy is viewed as part of the broader policies of forest management principles and objectives. The text discusses the nature of forest pest problems involving the pathological stress of abiotic and biotic disease agen...

1976-01-01

151

Tick pests and vectors (Acari: Ixodoidea) in European towns: Introduction, persistence and management.  

PubMed

Ticks have always been a part of fauna in and around human settlements, and their significance changed concurrently with the enlargement of settlements and their transformation into towns. The increased rate of urbanization during the last decades has created a new reality for tick existence. Two groups of ticks are of major concern for modern towns: those living under natural conditions of urban surroundings and those well-adapted to urban conditions. During the process of urbanization, encroachment into forested and uncultivated areas as well as protection of existing green spaces create opportunities for ticks living in nature to also exist under urban and suburban conditions. Conditions of modern urban and especially suburban environment in developed European countries adequately meet tick requirements. Tick species having an advantage in urban areas are those that can use one and the same host at all parasitic stages, can starve for a prolonged time, can use either urban pests or domesticated animals as hosts, and can live in man-made buildings. The ticks of the Argas reflexus group (Argasidae) and the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae) comply with practically all conditions necessary for successful survival in urban areas. The ability of ticks to transmit numerous human and animal pathogens and the presence of many reservoir hosts in urban and suburban areas create persistent danger for human populations and domestic animals. Impact on urban ticks should be directed against the two major requirements of tick existence: reducing populations of potential tick hosts (feral pigeons, stray dogs and cats, and urban rodents), and changing other environmental conditions to make them less suitable for ticks. It is especially important that urban inhabitants be properly informed about the danger posed by ticks, the sites of possible tick attacks, and basic self-protection techniques. PMID:24183576

Uspensky, Igor

2014-02-01

152

Habitat Management to Conserve Natural Enemies of Arthropod Pests in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many agroecosystems are unfavorable environments for natural ene- mies due to high levels of disturbance. Habitat management, a form of conservation biological control, is an ecologically based approach aimed at favoring natural ene- mies and enhancing biological control in agricultural systems. The goal of habitat management is to create a suitable ecological infrastructure within the agricultural landscape to provide resources

Douglas A. Landis; Stephen D. Wratten; Geoff M. Gurr

2000-01-01

153

Control of invasive marine invertebrates: an experimental evaluation of the use of low salinity for managing pest corals (Tubastraea spp.).  

PubMed

This study investigated the use of low salinity as a killing agent for the invasive pest corals Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis (Dendrophylliidae). Experiments investigated the efficacy of different salinities, the effect of colony size on susceptibility and the influence of length of exposure. Experimental treatments of colonies were carried out in aquaria. Colonies were then fixed onto experimental plates and monitored in the field periodically over a period of four weeks. The killing effectiveness of low salinity depended on the test salinity and the target species, but was independent of colony size. Low salinity was fast acting and prejudicial to survival: discoloration, necrosis, fragmenting and sloughing, exposure of the skeleton and cover by biofoulers occurred post treatment. For T. tagusensis, 50% mortality (LC50) after three days occurred at eight practical salinity units (PSU); for T. coccinea the LC50 was 2 PSU. Exposure to freshwater for 45-120 min resulted in 100% mortality for T. tagusensis, but only the 120 min period was 100% effective in killing T. coccinea. Freshwater is now routinely used for the post-border management of Tubastraea spp. This study also provides insights as to how freshwater may be used as a routine biosecurity management tool when applied pre-border to shipping vectors potentially transporting non-indigenous marine biofouling species. PMID:24735126

Moreira, Patrícia L; Ribeiro, Felipe V; Creed, Joel C

2014-01-01

154

Pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis: Case studies of ecological crop assessment for Bt gene incorporation and strategies of management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological assessment is made of the suitability of apples and kiwi fruit in New Zealand for transformation with genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The assessment focuses on the risk of pests of these crops developing resistance to the Bt toxins expressed in the plants or in Bt used as a biopesticide. The key target pests which were assessed were

C. H. Wearing; H. M. T. Hokkanen

1994-01-01

155

Environmental Assessment Integrated Pest Management of Invasive Plants on Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge and Vicinity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Environmental Assessment (EA) addresses management of invasive plant species by Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge (NRW). An invasive speices is an alien spcies whose introduction does or is likely to cause economic or enviornmental harm or harm to huma...

2010-01-01

156

Keys to the Increased Use of Host Plant Resistance in Integrated Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-plant resistance as a management tactic involves both the exploitation of intraspecific variation in genetically\\u000a based plant resistance to breed crop varieties that support lower populations of herbivores or that better tolerate injury\\u000a by herbivores and the integration of said varieties with other management tactics such as insecticide applications and biological\\u000a control. There are several barriers to the increased development

Michael Stout; Jeffrey Davis

157

The potential efficiency of irrigation management and propargyl bromide in controlling three soil pests: Tylenchulus semipenetrans, Fusarium oxysporum and Echinochloa crus-galli.  

PubMed

Propargyl bromide (3-bromopropyne, 3BP) is a potential alternative for methyl bromide. Little information is available about its efficiency in controlling pests. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the 3BP dose required for killing three pests and to compare the efficiency of water management approaches to that of fumigation. The pests, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht (fungus), Echinochloa crus-galli (L) Beauv (grass) and Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb (nematode) were exposed to different 3BP concentrations in a sandy loam at 30 degrees C in a closed system. The lethal dose for killing 90% of the population (LD90) was calculated from the total applied mass, and varied from 0.3 microg g(-1) soil for the nematode, 3 microg g(-1) for the grass, and 9 microg g(-1) for the fungus. The concentration-time index for killing 90% of the population (CT90) was 11 microg g(-1) h for the nematode, 112 microg g(-1) h for the grass and 345 microg g(-1) h for the fungus. 3BP seems as efficient as other fumigant alternatives in controlling these pests. Using an open system, it was shown that the volume of soil in which the pests were controlled varied for different irrigation managements. Even 96 h after fumigation (with a concentration 10 times higher than would potentially be applied in the field), more than 20% of the soil volume had not reached the fungus and grass CT90 of the non-irrigated soil. The soil underneath the furrow and the bed reached CT90 only slowly in all irrigated treatments even though techniques for increasing efficiency were used (tarping, surface sealing with water and high application rate). PMID:15912563

Allaire, Suzanne E; Yates, Scott R; Zhang, Ping; Ernst, Fred F

2005-08-01

158

Integration of elements of a farming system for sustainable weed and pest management in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversification of agricultural activities that links farm-based enterprises with cultivation of field crops helps the resource-poor farmers in tropics to generate additional income, gainful employment and improve their dietary standards. A farming system approach has been found to be a resource management strategy for achieving economic and sustainable agricultural production, catering to the diverse needs of tropical farm household while

R. M. Kathiresan

2007-01-01

159

Monitoring insect pests in retail stores by trapping and spatial analysis.  

PubMed

Stored-product insects are a perennial problem in retail stores, where they damage and contaminate susceptible merchandise such as food products and animal feed. Historically, pest management in these stores has relied heavily on chemical insecticides, but environmental and health issues have dictated use of safer methods, and these require better monitoring. A monitoring procedure that employs an array of moth and beetle traps combined with spatial (contour) analysis of trap catch was tested in three department stores and two pet stores. The rate of capture increased with the level of infestation but was essentially constant over 4- to 5-d trapping periods. Contour analysis effectively located foci of infestation and reflected population changes produced by applications of the insect growth regulator (S)-hydroprene. The most abundant insects were Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner), Lasioderma serricorne (F.), Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr). The results indicate that contour analysis of trap counts provides a useful monitoring tool for management of storage pests in retail stores. It identifies trouble spots and permits selection, timing, and precision targeting of control measures to achieve maximum pest suppression with minimum pesticide risk. It permits managers and pest control operators to visualize pest problems over an entire store, to monitor changes over time, and to evaluate the effectiveness of control intervention. The contour maps themselves, along with records of control applications and stock rotation, provide permanent documentation of pest problems and the effectiveness of pest management procedures. PMID:11057728

Arbogast, R T; Kendra, P E; Mankin, R W; McGovern, J E

2000-10-01

160

Development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Strategies for Whitefly ( Bemisia tabaci )Transmissible Geminiviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Worldwide outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci whiteflies, especially biotype B, have facilitated the emergence of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (WTG). These viruses\\u000a cause economically important diseases of vegetable and fiber crops, especially in tropical and subtropical regions of the\\u000a world. Because small populations of whiteflies can efficiently spread WTGs, management of these diseases is more challenging\\u000a than for whiteflies alone. In this chapter,

Robert L. Gilbertson; Maria Rojas; Eric Natwick

161

Comparative efficacy of various chemical stabilizers on the thermostability of a live-attenuated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermostability of a live-attenuated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine recently developed at Indian Veterinary Research Institute was studied using conventional lyophilization conditions. A total of four stabilizers viz., lactalbumin hydrolysate–sucrose (LS), Weybridge medium (WBM), buffered gelatin-sorbitol (BUGS) and trehalose dihydrate (TD) were used to prepare the lyophilized vaccine. The study revealed that the PPR vaccine lyophilized with either LS

J. Sarkar; B. P. Sreenivasa; R. P. Singh; P. Dhar; S. K. Bandyopadhyay

2003-01-01

162

Homeland Security: Management and Coordination Problems Increase the Vulnerability of U.S. Agriculture to Foreign Pests and Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. agriculture generates over $1 trillion in annual economic activity, but concerns exist about the sector's vulnerability to a natural or deliberate introduction of foreign livestock, poultry, and crop pests and disease. Under the Agricultural Quaranti...

2006-01-01

163

Pesticide compatibility with natural enemies for pest management in greenhouse gerbera daisies.  

PubMed

Pesticides commonly used in commercial greenhouse management were evaluated for compatibility with two biological control agents: a leafminer parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea [Walker]), and a predatory mite (Neoseiulus californicus [McGregor]). These natural enemies were exposed to miticides, fungicides, and insecticides targeting leafminers, thrips, and whiteflies, according to label directions in laboratory vial assays, after which mortality at 12, 24, and 48 h was recorded. Greater mortality of predatory mites than leafminer parasitoids was observed overall, illustrating that fewer pesticides were compatible with predatory mites compared with the parasitoid. However, some commonly used pesticides were found to cause high mortality to both the leafminer parasitoid and predatory mites. Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestations often disrupt leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii [Burgess]) biocontrol programs. Therefore, potentially compatible miticides (bifenazate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, acequinocyl, etoxazole, and clofentezine) identified in laboratory trials were also evaluated in a greenhouse study and found to be compatible with leafminer biocontrol. PMID:24020270

Abraham, Cheri M; Braman, S K; Oetting, R D; Hinkle, N C

2013-08-01

164

Cost-effectiveness of integrated pest management compared with insecticidal spraying against the German cockroach in apartment buildings.  

PubMed

This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using hydramethylnon gel baits compared with conventional spraying for controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), in two residential buildings in Yasuj, Iran. The IPM approach was based on educational programs using pamphlets, posters and lectures, sanitation using vacuuming and application of hydramethylnon gel baits. Conventional approach used cypermethrin (10% EC) on baseboard and cracks-and-crevices. Sticky traps were used as tools for monitoring cockroach population densities. The IPM approach reduced (943%) the rate of insecticide application compared to the conventional spray. Cockroach populations in the IPM treatment were significantly reduced from an average of 12.2 ± 3.01 cockroaches per unit before treatment to zero cockroach per unit by week four and thereafter. Cockroach populations in the conventional spray treatment were reduced from an average of 11.5 ± 4.43 cockroaches per unit before treatment to an average of 3.4 ± 0.99 cockroach per unit after 11 weeks of post treatment. The IPM treatment improved 100% of infested units compared to 78% for spray treatment to obtain a clean level of infestation (< 1cockroach per trap per unit). The results suggest that the intervention by IPM using hydramethylnon gel baits significantly reduced cockroach infestation compared to cypermethrin spray throughout the 11 weeks of post-treatment period. However, within the study period, the IPM system involving gel baits, educational program and sanitation was 363.2% more expensive than the conventional method. PMID:22068948

Shahraki, Gholam H; Hafidzi, M N; Khadri, M S; Rafinejad, J; Ibrahim, Y B

2011-10-01

165

Incorporation of intraguild predation into a pest management decision-making tool: the case of thrips and two pollen-feeding predators in strawberry.  

PubMed

Action thresholds are traditionally based on the density of pests and the economic damage they cause to crops. Pest damage assessments are usually made in a "sterile" environment, devoid of extenuating factors such as predators, parasitoids, and alternative food sources. Recently, the effects of a predator or parasitoid species have been considered. However, interactions between natural enemy species (intraguild predation and interference), which are common in agricultural fields, have not been incorporated yet into decision-making tools. We conducted a series of leaf disc and potted plant trials to evaluate the effects of two predator species, the anthocorid Orius laevigatus (Fieber) and the phytoseiid Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) on the density of and fruit damage inflicted by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). We then used the obtained results to develop a pest management decision-making tool for the control of western flower thrips. Because strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) flower in cycles, pollen, a food source for both predators and the pest, is periodically available in the system and has also been incorporated in our decision-making tool. The developed new management tool would allow the relaxation of the economic threshold (ET) for western flower thrips in strawberry flowers. The presence of an average of a single O. laevigatus per flower for example, may allow that relaxation of the ET by 40% (from 10 to 14 western flower thrips per flower) when pollen is available during the winter. Because field monitoring shows that O. laevigatus populations in Israeli strawberry often reach mean densities of three to four per flower, the new approach promises to drastically reduce the employment of toxic insecticides. PMID:20857715

Shakya, Sulochana; Coll, Moshe; Weintraub, Phyllis G

2010-08-01

166

Increasing the adoption of sustainable, integrated management strategies for soilborne diseases of high-value annual crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 30 years, integrated pest management (IPM) has been widely accepted as a desirable pest control strategy. The\\u000a concept has been embraced by all pest management disciplines and the term ’pest’ now encompasses weeds, rodents, nematodes,\\u000a plant pathogens and arthropods. However, despite attempts to increase adoption of IPM, there are situations where calendar-based\\u000a application of chemicals remains the

Graham R. Stirling

1999-01-01

167

Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

NONE

1996-02-01

168

Role of hedgerows and ground cover management on arthropod populations in pear orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the failure of conventional chemical control against the pear tree psyllid Cacopsylla pyri (L.) (Homoptera: Psyllidae), strategies have been developed to enhance natural arthropod enemies of this pest. Modifying the vegetation adjacent to pear orchards is one integrated pest management (IPM) practice that can increase the agroecosystem plant diversity, thus favoring a natural balance between pest arthropods and their

R Rieux; S Simon; H Defrance

1999-01-01

169

Pest Control Section Biochemical Group, Progress Report 1982-86.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reserch efforts in the Pest Control Section, BARC, a continuator of insect sterilization and pest control section of the erstwhile Biology and Agriculture Division, were continued to develop integrated management practices for the control of important ins...

1988-01-01

170

Resource concentration dilutes a key pest in indigenous potato agriculture.  

PubMed

Modern restructuring of agricultural landscapes, due to the expansion of monocultures and the resulting elimination of non-crop habitat, is routinely blamed for rising populations of agricultural insect pests. However, landscape studies demonstrating a positive correlation between pest densities and the spatial extent of crop monocultures are rare. We test this hypothesis with a data set from 140 subsistence farms in the Andes and find the inverse correlation. Infestations by the Andean potato weevil (Premnotrypes spp.), the most important pest in Andean potato agriculture, decrease with increasing amounts of potato in the landscape. A statistical model predicts that aggregating potato fields may outperform the management of Andean potato weevils by IPM and chemical control. We speculate that the strong pest suppression generated by aggregating potato fields may partly explain why indigenous potato farmers cluster their potato fields under a traditional rotation system common in Andean agriculture (i.e., "sectoral fallow"). Our results suggest that some agricultural pests may also respond negatively to the expansion of monocultures, and that manipulating the spatial arrangement of host crops may offer an important tool for some IPM programs. PMID:21563583

Parsa, Soroush; Ccanto, Raul; Rosenheim, Jay A

2011-03-01

171

Winter cover crops in a vegetable cropping system: Impacts on nitrate leaching, soil water, crop yield, pests and management costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-soil relationships in the surface soil layer affect other processes in agroecosystems, including crop productivity, nitrate leaching and plant-pest interactions. This study investigated the effect of altering surface soil dynamics, using a winter cover crop rotation, on biotic and abiotic characteristics of the soil profile. Two cover crop treatments, phacelia and Merced rye (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. ‘Phaci’, and Secale cereale

L. J. Wyland; L. E. Jackson; W. E. Chaney; K. Klonsky; S. T. Koike; B. Kimple

1996-01-01

172

Integration of Demographic Analyses and Decision Modeling in Support of Management of Invasive Monk Parakeets, an Urban and Agricultural Pest  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated from 2003 to 2006 the population dynamics of Monk Parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus), an invasive, exotic, pest species inhabiting north- eastern Spain. Our study focused on several colonies of parakeets in Barcelona. Starting in 2003, we trapped and marked birds at the main Barcelona colony in Ciutadella Park during 2 annual periods: winter (pre-nesting) and late summer (post- nesting),

Michael J. Conroy; Juan Carlos Senar

173

An integrated approach to the management of the major diseases and insect pests of peas in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prophylactic fungicidal seed treatment, foliar fungicidal sprays and insecticidal sprays were compared in different combinations against the major pea pest complex. The severity of powdery mildew (Erysiphe polygoni) rust (Uromyces vinciae?fabae) and leaf blight (Ascochyta pisi) and damage caused by pod borer (Etiella zlnckenella) and leaf miner (Chromatomyia horticola) were recorded at their lowest level in treatments where fungicidal and

S. K. Singh; S. J. Rahman; B. R. Gupta; C. S. Kalha

1992-01-01

174

Impact of insecticide efficacy on developing action thresholds for pest management: a case study of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.  

PubMed

An action threshold (AT) is one of the most important decision-making elements in integrated pest management. Unlike economic thresholds, ATs are not typically derived from an economic injury level model, but they are more commonly used. ATs may be identified from research-based, pest-crop relationships, but they also may be based on experience. ATs may be adjusted depending on, e.g., weather and plant variety, but modifying ATs to accommodate differences in insecticide efficacy has received little attention. To examine this point, several combinations of ATs and insecticides were evaluated against onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a major pest of onion (Allium cepa L.). Studies were conducted in New York onion fields from 2006 to 2008 by using registered insecticides for T. tabaci on onions. We hypothesized that the most efficacious insecticides would provide acceptable control of thrips populations regardless of AT (one, three, and five thrips per leaf), whereas less effective products would only control populations using the lowest AT (one thrips per leaf). Results indicated that T. tabaci infestations were managed effectively when spinetoram was applied after a three larvae per leaf threshold, but not when using lambda-cyhalothrin, methomyl or formetanate hydrochloride. However, T. tabaci infestations were managed well when methomyl and formetanate hydrochloride were applied after a one larva per leaf threshold. T. tabaci infestations were never controlled using lambda-cyhalothrin, regardless of the AT used. None of the products reduced T. tabaci populations to an acceptable level when applied at a five larvae per leaf threshold. Implications of adjusting ATs based on efficacy of different insecticides are discussed. PMID:20857743

Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

2010-08-01

175

A review of the natural enemies of beetles in the subtribe Diabroticina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): implications for sustainable pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabroticina is a speciose subtribe of New World Chrysomelidae (Subfamily Galerucinae: Tribe Luperini) that includes pests such as corn rootworms, cucumber beetles and bean leaf beetles (e.g. Diabrotica, Acalymma, Cerotoma species). The evolution and spread of pesticide resistance, the European invasion of Diabrotica v. virgifera LeConte, and possible development of resistance due to the large-scale deployment of Diabrotica-active Bt maize

S. Toepfer; T. Haye; M. Erlandson; M. Goettel; J. G. Lundgren; R. G. Kleespies; D. C. Weber; G. Cabrera Walsh; A. Peters; R.-U. Ehlers; H. Strasser; D. Moore; S. Keller; S. Vidal; U. Kuhlmann

2009-01-01

176

Community-Based Participatory Research Helps Farmers and Scientists to Manage Invasive Pests in the Ecuadorian Andes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing\\u000a threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses\\u000a on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote\\u000a mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants

O. Dangles; F. C. Carpio; M. Villares; F. Yumisaca; B. Liger; F. Rebaudo; J. F. Silvain

2010-01-01

177

Congenital Chylothorax - Successful management with chemical pleurodesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital Chylothorax is a rare entity which is characterized by abnormal accumulation of chyle in pleural cavity. Chylothorax\\u000a presenting as non-immune hydrops is even rarer. We report a case of congenital bilateral chylothorax presenting as non immune\\u000a hydrops and managed successfully with chemical pleurodesis. A term male baby presented at birth with bilateral pleural effusions\\u000a and subcutaneous edema. It was

Srinivas Murki; Pramod Gaddam

2010-01-01

178

On the impulsive controllability and bifurcation of a predator-pest model of IPM.  

PubMed

From a practical point of view, the most efficient strategy for pest control is to combine an array of techniques to control the wide variety of potential pests that may threaten crops in an approach known as integrated pest management (IPM). In this paper, we propose a predator-prey (pest) model of IPM in which pests are impulsively controlled by means of spraying pesticides (the chemical control) and releasing natural predators (the biological control). It is assumed that the biological and chemical control are used with the same periodicity, but not simultaneously. The functional response of the predator is allowed to be predator-dependent, in the form of a Beddington-DeAngelis functional response, rather than to have a perhaps more classical prey-only dependence. The local and global stability of the pest-eradication periodic solution, as well as the permanence of the system, are obtained under integral conditions which are shown to have biological significance. In a certain limiting case, it is shown that a nontrivial periodic solution emerges via a supercritical bifurcation. Finally, our findings are confirmed by means of numerical simulations. PMID:18467020

Zhang, Hong; Georgescu, Paul; Chen, Lansun

2008-09-01

179

The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand.  

PubMed

The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m < 0.100) across the buffer zones between the flies in the control areas and flies captured outside. In addition, no genetic admixture was revealed from the mass-reared colony flies from the flies within the control area, which supports the effectiveness of SIT. The control pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area. PMID:21052785

Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Thanaphum, Sujinda

2011-01-01

180

Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

181

Dispersal Behavior of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae on Tomato at Several Spatial Scales and Densities: Implications for Integrated Pest Management.  

PubMed

Studying distribution is necessary to understand and manage the dynamics of species with spatially structured populations. Here we studied the distribution in Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae, two mite pests of tomato, in the scope of evaluating factors that can influence the effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management strategies. We found greater positive density-dependent distribution with T. evansi than T. urticae when assayed on single, detached tomato leaves. Indeed, T. evansi distribution among leaflets increased with initial population density while it was high even at low T. urticae densities. Intensity and rate of damage to whole plants was higher with T. evansi than T. urticae. We further studied the circadian migration of T. evansi within plant. When T. evansi density was high the distribution behavior peaked between 8 am and 3 pm and between 8 pm and 3 am local time of Kenya. Over 24 h the total number of mites ascending and descending was always similar and close to the total population size. The gregarious behavior of T. evansi combined with its rapid population growth rate, may explain why few tomato plants can be severely damaged by T. evansi and how suddenly all the crop can be highly infested. However the localisation and elimination of the first infested plants damaged by T. evansi could reduce the risk of outbreaks in the entire crop. These findings suggest also that an acaricide treated net placed on the first infested plants could be very effective to control T. evansi. Moreover circadian migration would therefore accentuate the efficiency of an acaricide treated net covering the infested plants. PMID:24743580

Azandémè-Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Fiaboe, Komi K M; Subramanian, Sevgan; Kungu, Miriam; Martin, Thibaud

2014-01-01

182

Integrated chemical management system: A tool for managing chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Chemical Management System is a computer-based chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Chemical containers are identified by bar code labels and information on the type, quantity and location of chemicals are tracked on individual data bases in separate buildings. Chemical inventories from multiple buildings are uploaded to a central sitewide chemical data base where reports are available from Product, Waste, and Chemical Use modules. Hazardous chemical information is provided by a separate Material Safety Data Sheet module and excess chemicals are traded between chemical owners and users with the aid of the Chemical Exchange Module.

Costain, D. [Kaiser-Hill Co., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-07-01

183

Biorational Pest Control – An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fifty years ago, Stern et al. (1959) introduced the concept of “Integrated Control” during a time when insect pest control\\u000a was mostly based on broad-spectrum, conventional insecticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates (OPs), and carbamates,\\u000a all neurotoxic. Their work on economic thresholds and economic injury levels implemented within an ecological framework where\\u000a chemical and biological controls could thrive together is the

A. Rami Horowitz; Peter C. Ellsworth; Isaac Ishaaya

184

Sandia National Laboratories, California Chemical Management Program annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL\\/CA) Chemical Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL\\/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Chemical Management Program, one of

Brynildson; Mark E

2012-01-01

185

A Tin Pest Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study details a tin pest failure that occurred on plated electrical connectors exposed to low temperatures during\\u000a storage. Analysis indicated that the bismuth additives specified to combat tin pest were not present in sufficient quantities,\\u000a and the degradation suffered by the connectors was confirmed as tin pest. New regulations (Restriction of Hazardous Substances\\u000a Directive, ROHS) are limiting the

Neil Douglas Burns

2009-01-01

186

Mission Area Overview: Project Manager - Chemical Stockpile Elimination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Project Manager Chemical Stockpile Elimination (PM-CSE) PM-CSE is an acquisition PM responsible for the safe destruction of the nation's unitary chemical agents and weapons. The destruction technologies used by PM- CSE include incineration and neutral...

2008-01-01

187

Chemical management system at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Argonne Chemical Management System (CMS) is comprised of several applications and the Infrastructure Modules. The Infrastructure Modules, which provide the integrated computing software foundation, include a security processor, common tables, reporting framework, utilities, and other facilities common to applications processing chemical information. The MSDS Sheets were scanned and the images stored for automated faxing to the requester. User searches are accomplished based on ``search`` data keyed into the Oracle Tables; the desired MSDS is subsequently faxed. The system has been designed as an ``open`` system and is totally portable. During development and production the CMS has operated in VAX, VMS, Sun Unix, and Hewlett-Packard HP-UX environments. The only restrictions are that the MSDS Faxing Server must operate under Unix and the bar code scanning processes are accomplished using a portable PC. The current system consists of 20 Oracle Tables, over 350 columns of data, 25 Standard reports, 45 screens, and a number of utilities. With the Oracle RDBMS the computing platform may be sized to the volume of data and processing activity. The Laboratory`s implementation is on an HP 9000 Model H50 with 256 megabytes of memory, 32 concurrent users, and 8 gigabytes of disk storage that is primarily for the MSDS images.

Morss, H.S.; Hischier, R.C.; Keto, D.N.; Woodring, J.L.; Davis, J.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sherva, B. [Management Consultant, Lombard, IL (United States)

1995-07-01

188

Sandia National Laboratories, California Chemical Management Program Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Chemical Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program ...

M. E. Brynildson

2012-01-01

189

Extending integrated pest management to the golden apple snail: examining a community centre approach in northeast Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has been carried out on effective ways of managing the golden apple snail (GAS), little research has examined how to best extend these practices to farmers. This paper offers recommendations for successful extension strategies of GAS management, based on an investigation of a community centre in northeast Thailand. Data from 107 interviews with farmers, government officers and shop

Stephanie D. Greene

2008-01-01

190

Using Aesthetic Assessments of Azalea Lace Bug (Heteroptera: Tingidae) Feeding Injury to Provide Thresholds for Pest Management Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on consumer, grower, and landscape manager perception of azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott), feeding and on plant productivity parameters, including gas exchange and growth, has increased our understanding of the nature of feeding injury. These studies made it possible to develop decision-making guidelines for cost-effective maintenance of aesthetically pleasing azaleas. Criteria were considered for three management situations: a

W. E. Klingeman; G. D. Buntin; S. K. Braman

2001-01-01

191

Parasitism Performance and Fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): Implications in Integrated Pest Management Strategy  

PubMed Central

The diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM) strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hym., Braconidae) can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1) and their progeny (F2) had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control.

Kermani, Nadia; Abu Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Suhaimi, Amalina; Abuzid, Ismail; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Ghani, Idris Abd

2014-01-01

192

Structural Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

193

Sandia National Laboratories, California Chemical Management Program annual report.  

SciTech Connect

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Chemical Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Chemical Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. SNL/CA is responsible for tracking chemicals (chemical and biological materials), providing Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and for regulatory compliance reporting according to a variety of chemical regulations. The principal regulations for chemical tracking are the Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the California Right-to-Know regulations. The regulations, the Hazard Communication/Lab Standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are also key to the CM Program. The CM Program is also responsible for supporting chemical safety and information requirements for a variety of Integrated Enabling Services (IMS) programs primarily the Industrial Hygiene, Waste Management, Fire Protection, Air Quality, Emergency Management, Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Prevention programs. The principal program tool is the Chemical Information System (CIS). The system contains two key elements: the MSDS library and the chemical container-tracking database that is readily accessible to all Members of the Sandia Workforce. The primary goal of the CM Program is to ensure safe and effective chemical management at Sandia/CA. This is done by efficiently collecting and managing chemical information for our customers who include Line, regulators, DOE and ES and H programs to ensure compliance with regulations and to streamline customer business processes that require chemical information.

Brynildson, Mark E.

2012-02-01

194

Integrated control of date palm pests in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of efforts to develop an integrated control program for successful pest management of date palms in\\u000a Israel. Work has been concentrated on biological control of the key pestP. blanchardi, and on alternative control operations for the remaining pests. The fact that date fruit is concentrated in bunches was used\\u000a successfully to enable efficient control of fruit

M. Kehat; E. Swirski; D. Blumberg; S. Greenberg

1974-01-01

195

On-farm assessment of organic matter and tillage management on vegetable yield, soil, weeds, pests, and economics in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

In intensive vegetable production, low organic matter (OM) inputs and leaching of nitrate (NO3?-N) decrease soil quality with time. Four management regimes were compared for their effects on soils and on production issues in a cooperative research project with a commercial vegetable grower in the Salinas Valley, California, USA, on an 8.3ha field: minimum tillage with OM (+OM) inputs; minimum

L. E. Jackson; I. Ramirez; R. Yokota; S. A. Fennimore; S. T. Koike; D. M. Henderson; W. E. Chaney; F. J. Calderón; K. Klonsky

2004-01-01

196

Pest Insect Olfaction in an Insecticide-Contaminated Environment: Info-Disruption or Hormesis Effect  

PubMed Central

Most animals, including pest insects, live in an “odor world” and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests.

Tricoire-Leignel, Helene; Thany, Steeve Herve; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

2012-01-01

197

[Management of a nuclear, biological and chemical mass casualties event].  

PubMed

The management of a nuclear, biological or chemical mass casualties event (MCE) is a great challenge for emergency medical services and the hospitals of the region. Planing, exactly prepared protocols, adequate resources, instructions and extended training are the most important elements for successfull management of the MCE. This review presents a concept of managing a MCE including recognizing the threat, personal protection, evacuation, lifesaving procedures, decontamination, treatment, transport, hospital management, as well as procedures to avoid further contamination and panic. PMID:17786862

Schmidbauer, Willi; Bubser, Hanspeter; Cwojdzinski, Detlef; Beneker, Jörg; Grüneisen, Ulrich; Kerner, Thoralf

2007-09-01

198

Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

Burkhardt, Chris C.

199

Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

200

Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.  

PubMed

The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia. PMID:22080590

Anderson, Peter D

2012-02-01

201

Congenital chylothorax--successful management with chemical pleurodesis.  

PubMed

Congenital chylothorax is a rare entity which is characterized by abnormal accumulation of chyle in pleural cavity. Chylothorax presenting as non-immune hydrops is even rarer. We report a case of congenital bilateral chylothorax presenting as non immune hydrops and managed successfully with chemical pleurodesis. A term male baby presented at birth with bilateral pleural effusions and subcutaneous edema. It was initially managed with ventilation and intercostals drainage (ICD). After the initiation of feeds, re-accumulation of pleural fluid led to the diagnosis of congenital chylothorax. Management with ICD and octreotide was unsuccessful but responded to chemical pleurodesis with 4% povidine iodine done on 3 separate occasions. PMID:20140768

Murki, Srinivas; Faheemuddin, Md; Gaddam, Pramod

2010-03-01

202

Farmers’ cultural practices and their effects on pest control in sweetpotato in South Nyanza, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis (Bohe.) and C. brunneus (Fabr.) Coteoptera: Apionidae) are the most important insect pests in South Nyanza, Kenya's principal sweetpotato?growing district. A pest of secondary importance is the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata (Hew.) Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Cultural control is currently the most promising component of an integrated pest management strategy for subsistence sweetpotato farmers in Kenya. A survey

N. E. J. M. Smit; L. O. Matengo

1995-01-01

203

The importance of economic injury levels in the development of integrated pest control programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although economic injury levels have long been considered of importance in determining the needs for pest control measures, they take on added significance in integrated pest control programs. The designation of damage tolerance levels defines the goals of the integrated control effort. These management goals should be defined in terms of damage not numbers of pests. Although insect numbers

Ray F. Smith

1969-01-01

204

Integrated Pest Management Guide: Arizona Five-Spined Ips, 'Ips lecontei' Swaine, and Pine Engraver, 'Ips pini' (Say) in Ponderosa Pine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arizona five-spined ips, 'Ips lecontei' Swaine, and the pine engraver, 'Ips pini' (Say), are common and destructive bark beetles that attack pole-size ponderosa pines in Arizona and New Mexico. The Arizona five-spined ips is mostly a pest in low eleva...

D. L. Parker

1991-01-01

205

First Record of Armyworm, Mythimna separata (Haworth) as a serious pest of maize in Kullu (HP) India and recommendations for its integrated management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1983 a serious outbreak of armyworm (Mythimna separata) occurred in maize seedlings, almost completely destroying the crop. In 1982 caterpillars were only seen at a few places (not as a pest) feeding on wild grasses. There were more caterpillars in maize near ripened wheat suggesting migration from wheat to maize. The damage averaged 80%, resulting in resowing. At some

J. N. Thakur; A. D. Pawar

1987-01-01

206

Sources of wheat resistance to Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton, in Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton, is the most damaging insect pest of wheat in West and Central Asia and East Europe. Host plant resistance has been\\u000a investigated as one component of a total integrated pest management program for the control of this pest. In Syria, field\\u000a screening of artificially infested wheat accessions from the International Center for Agricultural Research in

Mustapha El Bouhssini; Abdallah Joubi; Zakaria Ibrahim; Fawzi Rihawi

2009-01-01

207

The War Against Pests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

Smith, Ray F.

1973-01-01

208

Public Health Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

209

European experience in chemicals management: integrating science into policy.  

PubMed

The European Union (EU) adopted the first legislation on chemicals management in 1967 with the Dangerous Substances Directive (DSD). Over time the underlying concepts evolved: from hazard identification over risk assessment to safety assessment. In 1981 a premarketing notification scheme was introduced. Approximately 10 years later a risk assessment program started for existing substances following a data collection and prioritization exercise. Integration of science into EU chemicals legislation occurred via several technical committees managed by the European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) and resulted in the Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment (TGD), which harmonized the risk assessment methodology. The TGD was revised several times to adapt to scientific developments. The revision process, and the risk assessments for new and existing substances, led to scientific research on chemical risk assessment and thus increased in complexity. The new EU chemicals policy REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of CHemicals) builds on previous experiences and aims to further enhance health and safety. REACH places the burden of proof for chemical safety on industry focusing on managing risks. REACH formalizes the precautionary principle. Furthermore, it underlines a continued scientific underpinning in its implementation, also via stakeholder involvement, and a focus on aligning with international fora. PMID:20958022

Christensen, Frans M; Eisenreich, Steven J; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Sintes, Juan Riego; Sokull-Kluettgen, Birgit; Van de Plassche, Erik J

2011-01-01

210

Aquatic Models, Genomics and Chemical Risk Management§  

PubMed Central

The 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease meeting follows four previous meetings (Hinton et al., 2009; Schmale et al., 2007; Schmale, 2004; Nairn et al., 2001) in which advances in aquatic animal models for human disease research were reported, and community discussion of future direction was pursued. At this meeting, discussion at a workshop entitled Bioinformatics and Computational Biology with Web-based Resources (20 September 2010) led to an important conclusion: Aquatic model research using feral and experimental fish, in combination with web-based access to annotated anatomical atlases and toxicological databases, yield data that advance our understanding of human gene function, and can be used to facilitate environmental management and drug development. We propose here that the effects of genes and environment are best appreciated within an anatomical context - the specifically affected cells and organs in the whole animal. We envision the use of automated, whole-animal imaging at cellular resolution and computational morphometry facilitated by high-performance computing and automated entry into toxicological databases, as anchors for genetic and toxicological data, and as connectors between human and model system data. These principles should be applied to both laboratory and feral fish populations, which have been virtually irreplaceable sentinals for environmental contamination that results in human morbidity and mortality. We conclude that automation, database generation, and web-based accessibility, facilitated by genomic/transcriptomic data and high-performance and cloud computing, will potentiate the unique and potentially key roles that aquatic models play in advancing systems biology, drug development, and environmental risk management.

Cheng, Keith C.; Hinton, David E.; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Planchart, Antonio

2013-01-01

211

Aquatic models, genomics and chemical risk management.  

PubMed

The 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease meeting follows four previous meetings (Nairn et al., 2001; Schmale, 2004; Schmale et al., 2007; Hinton et al., 2009) in which advances in aquatic animal models for human disease research were reported, and community discussion of future direction was pursued. At this meeting, discussion at a workshop entitled Bioinformatics and Computational Biology with Web-based Resources (20 September 2010) led to an important conclusion: Aquatic model research using feral and experimental fish, in combination with web-based access to annotated anatomical atlases and toxicological databases, yields data that advance our understanding of human gene function, and can be used to facilitate environmental management and drug development. We propose here that the effects of genes and environment are best appreciated within an anatomical context - the specifically affected cells and organs in the whole animal. We envision the use of automated, whole-animal imaging at cellular resolution and computational morphometry facilitated by high-performance computing and automated entry into toxicological databases, as anchors for genetic and toxicological data, and as connectors between human and model system data. These principles should be applied to both laboratory and feral fish populations, which have been virtually irreplaceable sentinals for environmental contamination that results in human morbidity and mortality. We conclude that automation, database generation, and web-based accessibility, facilitated by genomic/transcriptomic data and high-performance and cloud computing, will potentiate the unique and potentially key roles that aquatic models play in advancing systems biology, drug development, and environmental risk management. PMID:21763781

Cheng, Keith C; Hinton, David E; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Planchart, Antonio

2012-01-01

212

DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR EVALUATING RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) risk management (RM) is to minimize the release of EDCs into the environment or to minimize the exposure of humans or wildlife to EDCs already present in the environment. RM research projects may involve: substituting more innocuous...

213

Sustainability management beyond organizational boundaries–sustainable supplier relationship management in the chemical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable supplier relationship management (SSRM) has become crucial in companies’ sustainability efforts. A firm’s corporate image, in terms of economical, environmental and social behavior, heavily depends on its supply chain and the sustainability performance of each and every chain link, including suppliers and sub-suppliers. In a multiple case study of seven European chemical companies, we investigate how firms manage their

Thomas Leppelt; Kai Foerstl; Carsten Reuter; Evi Hartmann

214

Pest Ants and Cockroaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pest ants and cockroaches. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers acrobat ant, Argentine ant, bigheaded ant, crazy ant, Florida carpenter ant, ghost ant, imported fire ant, little fire ant, native fire ant and Pharaoh ant, American cockroach, Australian cockroach, brown cockroach, brownbanded cockroach, Cuban cockroach, Florida woods cockroaches, German cockroach, oriental cockroach, smokybrown cockroach and Surinam cockroach. Requires Windows. program must be downloaded on to hardrive, but once installed is intuitive. many of the species depicted in these tutorials are restricted to Florida and the extreme southern U.S. $15. Part number SW 157.

0002-11-30

215

The potential of botanical essential oils for insect pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today,Insect Pest management (IPM) has to face up to the economic andecological consequences of the use of pest control measures.Fifty years of sustained struggle against harmful insects usingsynthetic and oil-derivative molecules has produced perversesecondary effects (mammalian toxicity, insect resistance andecological hazards). The diversification of the approachesinherent in IPM is necessary for better environmental protection.Among the alternative strategies, the use of

CATHERINE REGNAULT-ROGER

1997-01-01

216

Chemical Waste Management for the Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of hazardous chemical wastes generated as a part of the curriculum poses a significant task for the individual responsible for maintaining compliance with all rules and regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation while maintaining the principles of OSHA's Lab Standard and the Hazard Communication Standard. For schools that generate relatively small quantities of waste, an individual can effectively manage the waste program without becoming overly burdened by the EPA regulations required for those generating large quantities of waste, if given the necessary support from the institution.

Zimmer, Steven W.

1999-06-01

217

NSF-Sponsored Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem research projects are inherently interdisciplinary and benefit from improved access to well-documented data. Improved data sharing practices are important to the continued exploration of research themes that are a central focus of the ocean science community and are essential to interdisciplinary and international collaborations that address complex, global research themes. In 2006, the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to serve the data management requirements of scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to manage marine biogeochemical, ecological, and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research. These valuable data sets are documented, stored, disseminated, and protected over short and intermediate time frames. One of the goals of the BCO-DMO is to facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange through improved data discovery, access, display, downloading, and interoperability. In May 2010, NSF released a statement to the effect that in October 2010, it is planning to require that all proposals include a data management plan in the form of a two-page supplementary document. The data management plan would be an element of the merit review process. NSF has long been committed to making data from NSF-funded research publicly available and the new policy will strengthen this commitment. BCO-DMO is poised to assist in creating the data management plans and in ultimately serving the data and information resulting from NSF OCE funded research. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: geospatial and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data export and download utilities; and strategic use of controlled vocabularies to facilitate data integration and improve interoperability.

Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Glover, D. M.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Work, T. T.; Biological; Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

2010-12-01

218

Natural compounds for pest and weed control.  

PubMed

The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeedants, and prostaglandins, as well as growth regulators for plants and insects. Synthetic analogues of natural substances have been prepared to explore the relationships between chemical structure and observed biological activity. Recent scientific advances have resulted from better methods for the chemical synthesis of target compounds and better analytical methods. The capability of analytical instrumentation continues to advance rapidly, enabling new insights. PMID:19719128

Petroski, Richard J; Stanley, David W

2009-09-23

219

Sugarcane Pests and Their Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over 100 species of insects, besides non-insect pests like mites, nematodes, jackals, rats, squirrels, and birds have been identified as damaging the sugarcane crop in India. Of these, about 25 species of insects are considered as major pests. These inclu...

A. N. Kalra

1982-01-01

220

Chemical constraints of groundwater management in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two critical objectives of water management in the Yucatan are: (1) to develop regional groundwater supplies for an expanding population and tourism based on the Mayan archeological sites and excellent beaches; and (2) to control groundwater pollution in a chemically sensitive system made vulnerable by geologic conditions. The Yucatan peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and has an annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm. Such a setting should provide abundant supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that decrease the amount of available fresh water. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed by extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water-oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supplies by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution resulting from the use of a sewage disposal well adjacent to each supply well. The modern phase of water management began in 1959 when the Secretaría de Recursos Hidráulicos (S.R.H.) was charged with the responsibility for both scientific investigations and development programmes for water-supply and sewage-disposal systems for cities, villages and islands.

Back, W.; Lesser, J. M.

1981-05-01

221

Keep Pests from Becoming a Problem in Your School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the use of pesticides in an integrated pest management (IPM) program. The three steps to creating an IPM are discussed along with IPM personnel communication requirements, and the need for written policies managed by a knowledgeable coordinator. Additional resources for information about IPMs are included. (GR)

James, Allen

2000-01-01

222

Pest Risk Maps for Invasive Alien Species: A Roadmap for Improvement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pest risk maps are powerful visual communication tools to describe where invasive alien species might arrive, establish, spread, or cause harmful impacts. These maps inform strategic and tactical pest management decisions, such as potential restrictions on international trade or the design of pest surveys and domestic quarantines. Diverse methods are available to create pest risk maps, and can potentially yield different depictions of risk for the same species. Inherent uncertainties about the biology of the invader, future climate conditions, and species interactions further complicate map interpretation. If multiple maps are available, risk managers must choose how to incorporate the various representations of risk into their decisionmaking process, and may make significant errors if they misunderstand what each map portrays. This article describes the need for pest risk maps, compares pest risk mapping methods, and recommends future research to improve such important decision-support tools.

Robert Venette (USDA;Forest Service)

2010-05-03

223

Assessment and management of chemical coping in patients with cancer.  

PubMed

Chemical coping is a working definition that describes patients' intake of opioids on a scale that spans the range between normal nonaddictive opioid use for pain all the way to opioid addiction. Most patients will fall somewhere between the two extremes in using opioid analgesics to cope with their psychological or spiritual distress. The degree to which patients use their medications in a maladaptive manner will determine their susceptibility to drug toxicity and harm. When there are no obvious cancer-related causes for increased pain intensity, chemical coping and other patient-related factors such as delirium, somatization, and depression should be considered. As part of the initial evaluation of patients with cancer-related pain, a brief screening tool such as the CAGE questionnaire should be used to identify patients who may be at risk for chemical coping. Identifying patients at risk will allow clinicians to avoid unnecessary opioid toxicity, control pain, and improve quality of life. A structured approach for managing opioid use should be adopted, including standardized documentation, opioid treatment agreements, urine drug screens, frequent visits, and restricted quantities of breakthrough opioids. All patients at risk should receive brief motivational interviewing with an objective, nonjudgmental, and empathic style that includes personalized feedback, particularly about markers of risk or harm. For chemical copers approaching the addiction end of the spectrum, with evidence of compulsive use and destructive behavior, referral should be made to substance abuse specialists. PMID:24799476

Del Fabbro, Egidio

2014-06-01

224

Managing the challenge of chemically reactive metabolites in drug development.  

PubMed

The normal metabolism of drugs can generate metabolites that have intrinsic chemical reactivity towards cellular molecules, and therefore have the potential to alter biological function and initiate serious adverse drug reactions. Here, we present an assessment of the current approaches used for the evaluation of chemically reactive metabolites. We also describe how these approaches are being used within the pharmaceutical industry to assess and minimize the potential of drug candidates to cause toxicity. At early stages of drug discovery, iteration between medicinal chemistry and drug metabolism can eliminate perceived reactive metabolite-mediated chemical liabilities without compromising pharmacological activity or the need for extensive safety evaluation beyond standard practices. In the future, reactive metabolite evaluation may also be useful during clinical development for improving clinical risk assessment and risk management. Currently, there remains a huge gap in our understanding of the basic mechanisms that underlie chemical stress-mediated adverse reactions in humans. This review summarizes our views on this complex topic, and includes insights into practices considered by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:21455238

Park, B Kevin; Boobis, Alan; Clarke, Stephen; Goldring, Chris E P; Jones, David; Kenna, J Gerry; Lambert, Craig; Laverty, Hugh G; Naisbitt, Dean J; Nelson, Sidney; Nicoll-Griffith, Deborah A; Obach, R Scott; Routledge, Philip; Smith, Dennis A; Tweedie, Donald J; Vermeulen, Nico; Williams, Dominic P; Wilson, Ian D; Baillie, Thomas A

2011-04-01

225

Application of the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls to prioritize and promote safer methods of pest control: a case study.  

PubMed

In 2005, the California Department of Public Health, Occupational Health Branch (OHB) investigated an incident of pesticide exposure and identified 27 vineyard workers who became ill due to drift of cyfluthrin, a pesticide being applied to a neighboring orange field to control katydids. Another pest, citrus thrips, was also present in the field. We investigated safer alternatives for katydid and thrips control to prevent illness due to pesticide exposure and used the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls to prioritize the control methods. OHB evaluated factors that contributed to pesticide exposure and identified safer alternatives by conducting literature reviews on katydid and thrips control, drift prevention technology, and other relevant topics, and by interviewing integrated pest management advisors, conventional and organic growers, equipment manufacturers, county agricultural commissioners, pest control advisors, regulatory agencies, and others. We prioritized methods using the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls. We identified safer pest control practices that incorporated hazard elimination, chemical substitution, engineering controls, and administrative controls, including employer policies and government regulations. PMID:19618807

Weinberg, Justine Lew; Bunin, Lisa J; Das, Rupali

2009-01-01

226

Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) thermal management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has been studied at the Phillips Laboratory since its invention in 1978. One of the most difficult challenges in COIL technology is to produce constant power for more than a few seconds; an essential feature for most applications. The key to developing a laser with these operational characteristics is management of the heat released during the production of singlet delta oxygen. Approximately 10 joules is deposited into the singlet delta oxygen generator (SOG) for every joule extracted as laser power. A recent test series demonstrated run times of 120 seconds at 9 kW by controlling the SOG reaction temperature with a flowing aqueous solution of cold hydroperoxide (BHP). This method of managing the energy released is quite effective but requires a large reservoir of cold BHP.

Truesdell, Keith A.; Helms, Charles A.; Longergan, Thomas; Wisniewski, Charles F.; Scott, Joseph E.; Healey, Keith P.

1995-03-01

227

Chemical constraints of groundwater management in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two critical objectives of water management in the Yucatan are: (1) to develop regional groundwater supplies for an expanding population and tourism based on the Mayan archeological sites and excellent beaches; and (2) to control groundwater pollution in a chemically sensitive system made vulnerable by geologic conditions. The Yucatan peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and has an annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm. Such a setting should provide abundant supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that decrease the amount of available fresh water. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed by extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water-oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supplies by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution resulting from the use of a sewage disposal well adjacent to each supply well. The modern phase of water management began in 1959 when the Secretari??a de Recursos Hidra??ulicos (S.R.H.) was charged with the responsibility for both scientific investigations and development programmes for water-supply and sewage-disposal systems for cities, villages and islands. ?? 1981.

Back, W.; Lesser, J. M.

1981-01-01

228

A New Data Management System for Biological and Chemical Oceanography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created to serve PIs principally funded by NSF to conduct marine chemical and ecological research. The new office is dedicated to providing open access to data and information developed in the course of scientific research on short and intermediate time-frames. The data management system developed in support of U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs is being modified to support the larger scope of the BCO-DMO effort, which includes ultimately providing a way to exchange data with other data systems. The open access system is based on a philosophy of data stewardship, support for existing and evolving data standards, and use of public domain software. The DMO staff work closely with originating PIs to manage data gathered as part of their individual programs. In the new BCO-DMO data system, project and data set metadata records designed to support re-use of the data are stored in a relational database (MySQL) and the data are stored in or made accessible by the JGOFS/GLOBEC object- oriented, relational, data management system. Data access will be provided via any standard Web browser client user interface through a GIS application (Open Source, OGC-compliant MapServer), a directory listing from the data holdings catalog, or a custom search engine that facilitates data discovery. In an effort to maximize data system interoperability, data will also be available via Web Services; and data set descriptions will be generated to comply with a variety of metadata content standards. The office is located at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and web access is via http://www.bco-dmo.org.

Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C.; Allison, D.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.

2007-12-01

229

Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

230

Method for treating aquatic pests  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A novel method for eliminating or reducing, or otherwise treating, aquatic pests using juglone or juglone analogs is described. The methods are useful for removing zebra mussels and quagga mussels from water intake pipes and various other underwater hard surfaces. In addition, the methods are useful for treating dinoflaggellates, algae and amphipods, among other pests, from ballast water. A great advantage that these methods have over current protocols is that they have low environmental risk.

2000-12-26

231

Insect Pheromones: Mastering Communication to Control Pests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Web site contains an interesting, in-depth article on the use of insect pheromones in pest management. The article is one of many from Beyond Discovery: The Path from Research to Human Benefit; a NAS-sponsored series designed to demonstrate "how science works by illustrating how basic research produces knowledge that can lead to practical results of human benefit." No formal lesson plans are provided, but the article comes with a helpful glossary, related Web links, and a timeline of events.

232

HOUSEHOLD PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION FROM INDOOR PEST CONTROL APPLICATIONS IN URBAN LOW-INCOME PUBLIC HOUSING DWELLINGS: A COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH  

PubMed Central

We designed this community-based participatory research (CBPR) project aiming to generate evidence-based research results in order to encourage residents living in urban low-income public housing dwellings engaging in a community-wide integrated pest management (IPM) program with the intention to improve their health and quality of life, as well as household conditions. We enrolled 20 families and their children in this study in which we utilized environmental exposure assessment (surface wipe and indoor air) tools to quantitatively assessing residential pesticide exposure in young children before the implementation of an IPM program. We analyzed those samples for 19 organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticides were pyrethroids, particularly permethrin and cypermethrin with average concentrations of 2.47 and 3.87 µg/m2, respectively. In many dwellings, we detected OPs, which are no longer available on the market, however, their levels are significantly lower than those of pyrethroids. None of the 20 families was free from pesticide contamination in their households, and pesticides were commonly detected in living room and children’s bedroom. The correlation among household hygienic conditions, the sighting of live pests/pest debris, and the degree of indoor pesticide contamination highlights the failure of conventional chemical-based applications for pest controls. The results from the current study, as well as other recent studies, conducted in low-income public housing, child care centers, and randomly selected homes in the U.S. should accentuate the need for alternative pest management programs that incorporate safer and more sustainable protocols for pest controls.

Adamkiewicz, Gary; Attfield, Kathleen; Kapp, Michaela; Spengler, John D; Tao, Lin; Xie, Shao Hua

2013-01-01

233

Pests, pesticide use and alternative options in European maize production: current status and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political efforts are made in the European Union (EU) to reduce pesticide use and to increase the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM). Within the EU project ENDURE, research priorities on pesticide reduction are defined. Using maize, one of the most important crops in Europe, as a case study, we identified the most serious weeds, arthropod pests, and fungal diseases

M. Meissle; P. Mouron; T. Musa; Weide van der R. Y; J. A. M. Groten

2010-01-01

234

Microbial Control of Insect Pests in Temperate Orchard Systems: Potential for Incorporation into IPM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their selectivity and safety, microbial control agents (MCAs) appear to be ready-made components of integrated pest management (IPM) systems that do not pose a threat to applica- tors or the environment and allow other natural enemies to func- tion. Control of several orchard pest insects using MCAs, including viruses, Bacillus thuringiensis, fungi, and entomopathogenic nema- todes (EPNs), have

Lawrence A. Lacey; David I. Shapiro-Ilan

2008-01-01

235

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors,

Stephen Richards; Richard A. Gibbs; George M. Weinstock; Susan J. Brown; Robin Denell; Richard W. Beeman; G. Bucher; M. Friedrich; C. J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen; M. Klingler; M. D. Lorenzen; S. Roth; R. Schroder; D. Tautz; E. M. Zdobnov; D. Muzny; T. Attaway; S. Bell; C. J. Buhay; M. N. Chandrabose; D. Chavez; K. P. Clerk-Blankenburg; A. Cree; M. Dao; C. Davis; J. Chacko; H. Dinh; S. Dugan-Rocha; G. Fowler; T. T. Garner; J. Garnes; A. Gnirke; A. Hawes; J. Hernandez; S. Hines; M. Holder; J. Hume; S. N. Jhangiani; V. Joshi; Z. M. Khan; L. Jackson; C. Kovar; A. Kowis; S. Lee; L. R. Lewis; J. Margolis; M. Morgan; L. V. Nazareth; N. Nguyen; G. Okwuonu; D. Parker; S. J. Ruiz; J. Santibanez; J. Savard; S. E. Scherer; B. Schneider; E. Sodergren; S. Vattahil; D. Villasana; C. S. White; R. Wright; J. Lord; B. Oppert; S. Brown; L. J. Wang; Y. Liu; K. Worley; C. G. Elsik; J. T. Reese; E. Elhaik; G. Landan; D. Graur; P. Arensburger; P. Atkinson; J. Beidler; J. P. Demuth; D. W. Drury; Y. Z. Du; H. Fujiwara; V. Maselli; M. Osanai; H. M. Robertson; Z. Tu; J. J. Wang; S. Z. Wang; H. Song; L. Zhang; D. Werner; M. Stanke; B. Morgenstern; V. Solovyev; P. Kosarev; G. Brown; H. C. Chen; O. Ermolaeva; W. Hlavina; Y. Kapustin; B. Kiryutin

2008-01-01

236

Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

1999-05-07

237

History and use of heat in pest control: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the history and use of heat in the management of a wide range of agricultural and structural pests. Definitions and concepts used in heat treatments are discussed as well as possible mechanisms of thermal lethality. Factors used in determining treatments are availability, costs, complexity, and other constraints. Heat can be used separately in multiple forms or in

J. D. Hansen; J. A. Johnson; D. A. Winter

2011-01-01

238

Timber import and the risk of forest pest introductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Many invasive species are introduced by trade, and there is a need for studies of pre-emptive measures to lower the risk of introductions, as post-establishment management is often extremely costly or nearly impossible. 2. In this study, we present a generic model for the first step of the invasion process for trade- imported pests, and further develop this

Olav Skarpaas; Bjørn Økland

2009-01-01

239

Forest Pest Control and Timber Treatment Category Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The document is a compilation of pamphlets and circulars which discuss forest management, control of undesirable woody plants, herbicides in forestry, diseases and insect pests, and equipment for pesticide application. (CS)

Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

240

Pest management plan for the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, based on the natural occurrence of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus in strawberries  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed and validated a management plan for Tetranychus urticae in strawberries, based on the natural control exerted by Neoseiulus californicus and on acaricide applications made only when necessary. The plan has two components: a sampling protocol and a decision chart. Systematic presence–absence sampling of active T. urticae and N. californicus was used to predict prey and predator densities relying

N. M. Greco; G. G. Liljesthröm; M. F. Gugole Ottaviano; N. Cluigt; M. F. Cingolani; J. C. Zembo; N. E. Sánchez

2011-01-01

241

Utilizing the assassin bug, Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), as a biological control agent within an integrated pest management programme for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Creontiades spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) in cotton.  

PubMed

Helicoverpa spp. and mirids, Creontiades spp., have been difficult to control biologically in cotton due to their unpredictable temporal abundance combined with a cropping environment often made hostile by frequent usage of broad spectrum insecticides. To address this problem, a range of new generation insecticides registered for use in cotton were tested for compatibility with the assassin bug, Pristhesancus plagipennis (Walker), a potential biological control agent for Helicoverpa spp. and Creontiades spp. Indoxacarb, pyriproxifen, buprofezin, spinosad and fipronil were found to be of low to moderate toxicity on P. plagipennis whilst emamectin benzoate, abamectin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and omethaote were moderate to highly toxic. Inundative releases of P. plagipennis integrated with insecticides identified as being of low toxicity were then tested and compared with treatments of P. plagipennis and the compatible insecticides used alone, conventionally sprayed usage practice and an untreated control during two field experiments in cotton. The biological control provided by P. plagipennis nymphs when combined with compatible insecticides provided significant (P<0.001) reductions in Helicoverpa and Creontiades spp. on cotton and provided equivalent yields to conventionally sprayed cotton with half of the synthetic insecticide input. Despite this, the utilization of P. plagipennis in cotton as part of an integrated pest management programme remains unlikely due to high inundative release costs relative to other control technologies such as insecticides and transgenic (Bt) cotton varieties. PMID:17524159

Grundy, P R

2007-06-01

242

An index method to evaluate growers' pesticide use for identifying on-farm innovations and effective alternative pest management strategies: a case study of winegrape in Madera County, California*  

PubMed Central

Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUI and PUIM. It was found that both PUI and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI?10 and 34 with 1060, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds, which indicated that their pest controls heavily depended on pesticides rather than on-farm management. Through the case study, the proposed approach proved to be useful for analyzing the growers’ pesticide use intensities and interpreting their pesticide use behaviors, which led to a new start point for further investigation of searching ways to reduce pesticide environmental risk.

Li, Wen-juan; Qin, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Browde, Joe

2011-01-01

243

An index method to evaluate growers' pesticide use for identifying on-farm innovations and effective alternative pest management strategies: a case study of winegrape in Madera County, California.  

PubMed

Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUI and PUIM. It was found that both PUI and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI?10 and 34 with 1060, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds, which indicated that their pest controls heavily depended on pesticides rather than on-farm management. Through the case study, the proposed approach proved to be useful for analyzing the growers' pesticide use intensities and interpreting their pesticide use behaviors, which led to a new start point for further investigation of searching ways to reduce pesticide environmental risk. PMID:21370508

Li, Wen-juan; Qin, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Browde, Joe

2011-03-01

244

New Pest Response Guidelines: Temperate Terrestrial Gastropods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use New Pest Response Guidelines: Temperate Terrestrial Gastropods as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of temperate climate pest snails and slugs in the United States and collaborating terr...

2008-01-01

245

Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pests of ornamentals. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers spider mites, broad mites, thrips, lace bugs, mealybugs, aphids and whiteflies. Requires Windows. $15. Tutorials are easy to use once loaded on the hard drive. Images are of high quality. Part number SW 162.

0002-11-30

246

Synergistic pest-control compositions  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Pest control compositions, blends, and formulations are disclosed. The blends contain, in a synergistic combinations, at least two ingredients such as Lilac Flower Oil, D-Limonene, Thyme Oil, Lime Oil, Black Seed Oil, Wintergreen Oil, Linalool, Tetrahydrolinalool, Vanillin, Isopropyl myristate, Piperonal (aldehyde), Geraniol, Geraniol 60, Triethyl Citrate, and Methyl Salicylate.

2014-05-27

247

Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

248

Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

Coleman, V. Rodney

249

Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a global pest of increasing concern in onion.  

PubMed

During the past two decades, onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a global pest of increasing concern in commercial onion (Allium cepa L.), because of its development of resistance to insecticides, ability to transmit plant pathogens, and frequency of producing more generations at high temperatures. T. tabaci feeds directly on leaves, causing blotches and premature senescence as well as distorted and undersized bulbs. T. tabaci can cause yield loss > 50% but can be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). IYSV was identified in 1981 in Brazil and has spread to many important onion-producing regions of the world, including several U.S. states. IYSV symptoms include straw-colored, dry, tan, spindle- or diamond-shaped lesions on the leaves and scapes of onion plants and can cause yield loss up to 100%. Here, we review the biology and ecology of T. tabaci and discuss current management strategies based on chemical, biological, and cultural control as well as host resistance. Future directions for research in integrated pest management are examined and discussed. PMID:21404832

Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Fail, József; Shelton, Anthony M

2011-02-01

250

Major Arthropod Pests of North Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive listing of arthropod pests arranged and searchable by commodity type. The listing includes pests of small fruits, ornamental plants, flowers, forests, corn, tobacco, turf, peanuts, cotton, and much more. Pests are listed by common and species name with life history data, images, and control strategies.

0002-11-30

251

Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

252

Chemical ecology and management of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).  

PubMed

The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) feeds on grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), reducing yield and increasing susceptibility to fungal infections. L. botrana is among the most economically important insects in Europe and has recently been found in vineyards in Chile, Argentina, and California. Here, we review L. botrana biology and behavior in relation to its larval host (the grapevine) and its natural enemies. We also discuss current and future control strategies in light of our knowledge of chemical ecology, with an emphasis on the use of the sex pheromone-based strategies as an environmentally safe management approach. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is the most promising technique available on grapes and is currently implemented on approximately 140,000 ha in Europe. Experience from several growing areas confirms the importance of collaboration between research, extension, growers, and pheromone-supply companies for the successful implementation of the mating disruption technique. In the vineyards where mating disruption has been successfully applied as an areawide strategy, the reduction in insecticide use has improved the quality of life for growers, consumers, as well as the public living near wine-growing areas and has thereby reduced the conflict between agricultural and urban communities. PMID:21882674

Ioriatti, C; Anfora, G; Tasin, M; De Cristofaro, A; Witzgall, P; Lucchi, A

2011-08-01

253

Evaluation of chemical, botanical and cultural managements of termites control.  

PubMed

The study was conducted at Bojdi Dirmaji District, Wollega Zone (Western Ethiopia) using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Eight different treatments of chemical, botanical and cultural control methods independently and in combinations were evaluated to identify the most effective method which is environmentally sustainable and economically feasible in controlling the termite problems. The data were collected over 12 weeks and analysis of variance showed significant difference among the treatments for all parameters. Maesa lanceolata 100 g alone showed lower percent damage between 2-8 weeks (33.3%), later on after 9-12 weeks it become non significant and the destructed mound was recovered. Mound treated with Diazinon 60% EC at the rate of 25 and 20 mL alone and Diazinon 60% EC combination with queen removal at rate of 15 and 10 mL showed significant control overall the treatment. From the results of the study the lower rate of Diazinon 60% EC (10 mL per mound) and queen removal could be better option to manage the termite problem and could be more sustainable and integrated manner in the study area. PMID:24783813

Dufera, Jiregna Tasisa; Fufa, Tena Gobena

2014-01-15

254

Pathogenicity of Fusarium semitectum against crop pests and its biosafety to non-target organisms.  

PubMed

Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no influence on the composting ability and growth of E. foetida. F. semitectum, in general, expressed its selectivity against sucking pests and proved its eco-friendly characteristics to the beneficial organisms and especially safe to Sericulture, Apiculture and Vermiculture industries in Karnataka, India. This novel fungus can be well incorporated as a viable tactics into the integrated management programmes of crop pests. PMID:17385514

Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

2006-01-01

255

FLEX: AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR REVIEWING THE CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A computerized, expert system (FLEX) has been developed that will assess the chemical resistance of flexible membrane liners (FML) used at waste management facilities. hese FML's must be chemically resistant to the waste, its leachates, or both. o demonstrate chemical resistancy,...

256

Adaptive management of pest resistance by Helicoverpa species (Noctuidae) in Australia to the Cry2Ab Bt toxin in Bollgard II(R) cotton  

PubMed Central

In Australia, monitoring Helicoverpa species for resistance to the Cry2Ab toxin in second generation Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton has precisely fulfilled its intended function: to warn of increases in resistance frequencies that may lead to field failures of the technology. Prior to the widespread adoption of two-gene Bt cotton, the frequency of Cry2Ab resistance alleles was at least 0.001 in H. armigera and H. punctigera. In the 5 years hence, there has been a significant and apparently exponential increase in the frequency of alleles conferring Cry2Ab resistance in field populations of H. punctigera. Herein we review the history of deploying and managing resistance to Bt cotton in Australia, outline the characteristics of the isolated resistance that likely impact on resistance evolution, and use a simple model to predict likely imminent resistance frequencies. We then discuss potential strategies to mitigate further increases in resistance frequencies, until the release of a third generation product. These include mandating larger structured refuges, applying insecticide to crops late in the season, and restricting the area of Bollgard II® cotton. The area planted to Bt-crops is anticipated to continue to rise worldwide; therefore the strategies being considered in Australia are likely to relate to other situations.

Downes, Sharon; Mahon, Rodney J; Rossiter, Louise; Kauter, Greg; Leven, Tracey; Fitt, Gary; Baker, Geoff

2010-01-01

257

Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests  

PubMed Central

Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture.

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C.

2013-01-01

258

Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests.  

PubMed

Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B; Narva, Kenneth E; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C

2013-05-21

259

A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

To date, research on suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has focused on determining health effects in humans and wildlife and on occurrence of these chemicals in the environment. There is strong evidence that certain chemicals are causing endocrine-related effects in...

260

Bt sweet corn and selective insecticides: impacts on pests and predators.  

PubMed

Sweet corn, Zea mays L., is attacked by a variety of insect pests that can cause severe losses to the producer. Current control practices are largely limited to the application of broad-spectrum insecticides that can have a substantial and deleterious impact on the natural enemy complex. Predators have been shown to provide partial control of sweet corn pests when not killed by broad-spectrum insecticides. New products that specifically target the pest species, while being relatively benign to other insects, could provide more integrated control. In field trials we found that transgenic Bt sweet corn, and the foliar insecticides indoxacarb and spinosad are all less toxic to the most abundant predators in sweet corn (Coleomegilla maculate [DeGeer], Harmonia axyridis [Pallas], and Orius insidiosus [Sav]) than the pyrethroid lambda cyhalothrin. Indoxacarb, however, was moderately toxic to coccinellids and spinosad and indoxacarb were somewhat toxic to O. insidiosus nymphs at field rates. Bt sweet corn and spinosad were able to provide control of the lepidopteran pests better than or equal to lambda cyhalothrin. The choice of insecticide material made a significant impact on survival of the pests and predators, while the frequency of application mainly affected the pests and the rate applied had little effect on either pests or predators. These results demonstrate that some of the new products available in sweet corn allow a truly integrated biological and chemical pest control program in sweet corn, making future advances in conservation, augmentation and classical biological control more feasible. PMID:12650347

Musser, Fred R; Shelton, Anthony M

2003-02-01

261

Termites as Pests of Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While pest species of termites are thought to belong predominantly to four families comprising the lower termites, the species\\u000a causing the most damage to tropical agriculture belong to three of the four subfamilies of higher termites, lacking protist\\u000a symbionts. A wide range of crops are affected, including trees in plantations and orchards, coconuts, palms, sugar cane, rice,\\u000a maize, wheat, sorghum,

Corinne Rouland-Lefèvre

262

Corporate crisis management managing a major crisis in a chemical facility.  

PubMed

Chemical sites should have well trained and organized emergency response plans to manage an incident within the plant or during transport. The implementation of an incident command system utilizing either internal resources or external response through mutual aid agreements is generally sufficient to address the direct impact of an event on the site. When the site resources become overwhelmed in addressing resulting issues such as press releases, medical advice/support, employees and family support, Agency notifications, etc, Corporate should be ready and able to respond. This paper, taken from an in-depth CCPS workshop led by the author, describes an outline for corporate assistance in the event of a major incident at a site or during transportation. PMID:18054433

Marwitz, Steve; Maxson, Neil; Koch, Bill; Aukerman, Todd; Cassidy, Jim; Belonger, David

2008-11-15

263

THE IMPORTANCE OF SPATIAL ACCURACY FOR CHEMICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Information about chemicals can be critical to making timely decisions. The results of these decisions may not be realized for many years. In order to increase the value of chemical information and to create and utilize meaningful environmental models, the Environmental Prote...

264

Understanding heliothine (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) pests: what is a host plant?  

PubMed

Heliothine moths (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) include some of the world's most devastating pest species. Whereas the majority of nonpest heliothinae specialize on a single plant family, genus, or species, pest species are highly polyphagous, with populations often escalating in size as they move from one crop species to another. Here, we examine the current literature on heliothine host-selection behavior with the aim of providing a knowledge base for research scientists and pest managers. We review the host relations of pest heliothines, with a particular focus on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the most economically damaging of all heliothine species. We then consider the important question of what constitutes a host plant in these moths, and some of the problems that arise when trying to determine host plant status from empirical studies on host use. The top six host plant families in the two main Australian pest species (H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren) are the same and the top three (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae) are ranked the same (in terms of the number of host species on which eggs or larvae have been identified), suggesting that these species may use similar cues to identify their hosts. In contrast, for the two key pest heliothines in the Americas, the Fabaceae contains approximately 1/3 of hosts for both. For Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the remaining hosts are more evenly distributed, with Solanaceae next, followed by Poaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, and Rosaceae. For Heliothis virescens (F.), the next highest five families are Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Again there is considerable overlap in host use at generic and even species level. H. armigera is the most widely distributed and recorded from 68 plant families worldwide, but only 14 families are recorded as a containing a host in all geographic areas. A few crop hosts are used throughout the range as expected, but in some cases there are anomalies, perhaps because host plant relation studies are not comparable. Studies on the attraction of heliothines to plant odors are examined in the context of our current understanding of insect olfaction, with the aim of better understanding the connection between odor perception and host choice. Finally, we discuss research into sustainable management of pest heliothines using knowledge of heliothine behavior and ecology. A coordinated international research effort is needed to advance our knowledge on host relations in widely distributed polyphagous species instead of the localized, piecemeal approaches to understanding these insects that has been the norm to date. PMID:25026644

Cunningham, John Paul; Zalucki, Myron P

2014-06-01

265

Prospects of using Metarhizium anisopliae to check the breeding of insect pest, Oryctes rhinoceros L. in coconut leaf vermicomposting sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

During vermicomposting of coconut leaves by the earthworm Eudrilus sp., Oryctes rhinoceros L. (rhinoceros beetle), an insect pest of palms, was found to breed in the decomposing organic material. Metarhizium anisopliae var. major was tried as a biocontrol agent for management of this pest. The effect of pathogen at spore loads of 103, 104 and 105 per 10g of substrate

Murali Gopal; Alka Gupta; George V. Thomas

2006-01-01

266

Precautionary Defaults—A New Strategy for Chemical Risk Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to give adequate support to risk managers, new risk assessment methods should be developed that are (1) scientifically sound, (2) simplified, and (3) suited for precautionary risk management. In this Perspective we propose that the notion of a precautionary default can be a useful tool in the development of such methods. A precautionary default is a cautious or

Per Sandin; Bengt-Erik Bengtsson; Åke Bergman; Ingvar Brandt; Lennart Dencker; Per Eriksson; Lars Förlin; Per Larsson; Agneta Oskarsson; Christina Rudén; Anders Södergren; Per Woin; Sven Ove Hansson

2004-01-01

267

77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OSHA-2012-0039] The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...requirements specified in the Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly...

2012-11-06

268

Endophytic Fungi for Pest and Disease Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytes are microorganisms that inhabit the interior of a healthy plants. They offer great-untapped potentials, which can\\u000a be exploited to maintain healthy crops. Many cultivated and wild type plants have been investigated for endophytic fungal\\u000a metabolites which include guanidine and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, indole derivatives, sesquiterpenes, isocoumarin derivatives.\\u000a These metabolites show beneficial effects to crop plants and many of them also

Susheel Kumar; Nutan Kaushik; RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel; Rainer Ebel; Peter Proksch

269

Assessing and Managing Risks Arising from Exposure to Endocrine-Active Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing risks to human health and the environment produced by endocrine-active chemicals (EAC) is dependent on sound principles of risk assessment and risk management, which need to be adapted to address the uncertainties in the state of the science of EAC. Quantifying EAC hazard identification, mechanisms of action, and dose-response curves is complicated by a range of chemical structure\\/toxicology classes,

Karen P. Phillips; Warren G. Foster; William Leiss; Vanita Sahni; Nataliya Karyakina; Michelle C. Turner; Sam Kacew; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

270

Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

Not Available

1994-09-01

271

Pest Control: An Assessment of Present and Alternative Technologies. Volume II. Corn/Soybeans Pest Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study of current and prospective pest control strategies focuses on the problems involving commercial corn and soybean production for feed purposes. It examines current pest control practices, direct and indirect benefits and costs, and future implic...

1976-01-01

272

Field Guide to Common Insect Pests of Urban Trees in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For each insect, the following information is presented: host plant, photographs, damage information, life cycle, and management recommendations. This is an excellent collection of tree pests, and the species accounts are accurate, well-laid out, informative, and well illustrated. However, in the table of contents, white pine aphid and white pine weevil are mis-placed under "sawflies," and the heading for "Honeylocust Insect Pests" and the link for "Honeylocust Plant Bug" are transposed.

0002-11-30

273

Risk Management Persuasive Technologies: The case of a Technologically Advanced, High-Risk Chemical Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study focuses on applications of persuasive technologies (Fogg, 2002) as a means to manage risks in technologically advanced industrial sites. An analysis of the production processes of a chemical plant allowed us to identify two risk scenarios where human factors are particularly relevant: in chemicals identification and in the use of personal protective equipment. Possible solutions based on persuasive

Fabiana Vernero; Roberto Montanari

2007-01-01

274

Mass casualty chemical incidents—towards guidance for public health management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is two-fold. A review of mass casualty chemical incidents occurring naturally or as a result of industrial activities or deliberate release provided an opportunity to consider the problems experienced in medical and public health response. In addition, a literature review of procedures to assist in the management of chemical incidents by medical and public health

V Murray; F Goodfellow

2002-01-01

275

Disaster management plan for chemical process industries. Case study: investigation of release of chlorine to atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first step in preparing a disaster management plan for any chemical process industry (CPI) is to identify and mitigate the conditions that might cause them. In practice, such a plan should start early in the design phase of the chemical facility, and continue throughout its life. The objective is to prevent emergencies by eliminating hazards wherever possible. In-spite of

Boppana V. Ramabrahmam; G. Swaminathan

2000-01-01

276

Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

2012-01-01

277

On the Use of Human Judgment and Physical\\/Chemical Measurements in Visual Air Quality Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of existing human judgment and physical\\/chemical measurement techniques in developing visual air quality management programs is discussed. The measurement techniques are reviewed in terms of their abilities to provide information on several important management concerns: 1) public recognition of the problem, 2) public acceptability of different levels of visual air quality, 3) the relationship between emissions and visual air

Paulette Middleton; Thomas R. Stewart; John Leary

1985-01-01

278

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Risk Management: A Growing Concern in University Chemistry Laboratories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article (1) defines risk management and discusses alternatives to treating exposures facing those operating chemical laboratories; (2) indicates how two Virginia universities did or did not apply the risk management concept to their laboratory settings; and (3) identifies potential sources of information on this subject. (JN)

Orr, Edward W.; Ghee, William K.

1985-01-01

279

New Pest Response Guidelines: Giant African Snails: Snail Pests in the Family Achatinidae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use New Pest Response Guidelines. Giant African Snails: Snail Pests in the Family Achatinidae as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of achatinids. If these pests are detected in the United St...

2007-01-01

280

Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

Not Available

1994-09-01

281

Soil-fertility management and host preference by European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), on Zea mays L.: A comparison of organic and conventional chemical farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been argued by proponents of organic agriculture that crop losses to insects and diseases are reduced by this farming method, and that reduced susceptibility to pests is a reflection of differences in plant health, as mediated by soil-fertility management. These reports although widespread are mostly anecdotal and largely without experimental foundation. In this study, the effects of

P. L. Phelan; J. F. Mason; B. R. Stinner

1995-01-01

282

Chemical healthcare waste management in small Brazilian municipalities.  

PubMed

The disposal of healthcare waste (HCW) seems to have been solved in developed countries, while in most developing countries the problem persists because the disposal methods are expensive and larger than the budget of small- and medium-sized municipalities. The current study evaluates the encapsulation process for the disposal of medical chemical waste. The experiment was developed in the Piraí municipality (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and the chemical wastes were produced in the local public hospital, as well as the 12 units of primary care health services. Chemical waste generated at health services units may include the liquid waste from cleaning materials and disinfectants, expired and unused pharmaceutical products, and cytotoxins. These are all considered hazardous waste products and they must be disposed of via an authorised system at approved sites (e.g. industrial landfills). The process of encapsulating chemical medical waste in concrete (cement, crushed stones and sand) followed by their disposal at sanitary landfills is a procedure that is not considered in Brazilian Legislation. Despite the oversight, this method of disposal was used in the municipality of Piraí, with the approval of the Rio de Janeiro State Agency for Environmental Control. The safety aspects of this method and the limits of its applicability, particularly in small municipalities, were evaluated in this study. The results indicate that, within certain parameters, this method may provide a viable solution for the disposal of HCW in small municipalities. PMID:22977125

Ferreira, João A; Bila, Danielle M; Ritter, Elisabeth; Braga, Ana Cs

2012-12-01

283

Termite Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 96.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite pest control category. The text discusses general pests, especially ants, and wood-destroying organisms such as termites, beetles, and fungi. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

284

Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

Parker, Robert C., Comp.

285

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

French, John C.; And Others

286

Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

287

Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

288

Management of Chemical Residues in Small Horticultural Enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies to reduce potential food safety risks need to start in the paddock or orchard with the horticulturalist. Although Commonwealth and State food safety legislation is not directed at regulating inside farm gate activities, the market itself is demanding that fruit and vegetable growers, packers and distributors apply the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) methodology within their quality management

Peter J Bryar

289

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

Pine, Stanley H.

1984-01-01

290

Predicting habitat distribution of five heteropteran pest species in iran.  

PubMed

Abstract In agroecosystems, potential species distribution models are extensively applied in pest management strategies, revealing species ecological requirements and demonstrating relationships between species distribution and predictive variables. The Maximum Entropy model was used to predict the potential distribution of five heteropteran key pests in Iran, namely Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), Lygus pratensis (L.), Apodiphus amygdali (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Nezara viridula (L.), and Nysius cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). A total of 663 samples were collected from different parts of Iran. The altitude and climate variable data were included in the analysis. Based on test and training data, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were above 0.80, the binomial omission test with the lowest presence threshold for all species was statistically significant (< 0.01), and the test omission rates were less than 3%. The suitability of areas in Iran for A. amygdale (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), N. cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), A. lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), L. pratensis (L.), and N. viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), ranked as 78.86%, 68.78%, 43.29%, 20%, and 15.16%, respectively. In general, central parts of Iran including salt lakes, deserts, and sand dune areas with very high temperatures and windy weather were predicted to be less suitable, while other regions, mainly northern parts, were most suitable. These new data could be applied practically for the design of integrated pest management and crop development programs. PMID:24735397

Solhjouy-Fard, Samaneh; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Minbashi Moeini, Mehdi; Ahadiyat, Ali

2013-10-01

291

Predicting Habitat Distribution of Five Heteropteran Pest Species in Iran  

PubMed Central

In agroecosystems, potential species distribution models are extensively applied in pest management strategies, revealing species ecological requirements and demonstrating relationships between species distribution and predictive variables. The Maximum Entropy model was used to predict the potential distribution of five heteropteran key pests in Iran, namely Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), Lygus pratensis (L.), Apodiphus amygdali (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Nezara viridula (L.), and Nysius cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). A total of 663 samples were collected from different parts of Iran. The altitude and climate variable data were included in the analysis. Based on test and training data, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were above 0.80, the binomial omission test with the lowest presence threshold for all species was statistically significant (< 0.01), and the test omission rates were less than 3%. The suitability of areas in Iran for A. amygdale (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), N. cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), A. lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), L. pratensis (L.), and N. viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), ranked as 78.86%, 68.78%, 43.29%, 20%, and 15.16%, respectively. In general, central parts of Iran including salt lakes, deserts, and sand dune areas with very high temperatures and windy weather were predicted to be less suitable, while other regions, mainly northern parts, were most suitable. These new data could be applied practically for the design of integrated pest management and crop development programs.

Solhjouy-Fard, Samaneh; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Minbashi Moeini, Mehdi; Ahadiyat, Ali

2013-01-01

292

Integrating Environmental Management in Chemical Engineering Education by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the Student's Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work we show how specific challenges related to sustainable development can be integrated into chemical engineering education by introducing an environmental management system in the laboratory where the students perform their experimental lessons. It is shown how the system has been developed and implemented in the laboratory, what role…

Montanes, Maria T.; Palomares, Antonio E.

2008-01-01

293

Rapid mortality of pest arthropods by direct exposure to a dielectric barrier discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of arthropods due to trade of agricultural commodities and travel of humans is a significant problem in many countries. Limiting the movement of pest species is commonly achieved by the use of chemical pesticides at quarantine facilities. One potential alternative to chemical pesticides is direct exposure of contaminated commodities to ambient pressure electrical discharges. The arthropods are directly

Brian Lee Bures

2004-01-01

294

Optical chemical sensors for environmental control and system management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several fiber optic based chemical sensors have been developed for use in plant growth systems and enclosed life support systems. Optical chemical sensors offer several distinct advantages in terms of sensitivity, calibration stability, immunity to biofouling and electrical interference, and ease of multiplexing sensors for multipoint/multiparameter analysis. Also, the ability to locate fiber optic sensors in close proximity to plant roots or leaves should improve the measurement reliability by obviating the need for handling and transport which can compromise sample integrity. Polestar Technologies and GEO-CENTERS have developed and tested many types of optical chemical sensors which utilize novel glass and polymeric materials as the sensor substrate. Analytes are detected using immobilized colorimetric indication systems or molecular recognition elements. Typically transduction is via wavelength specific absorption changes with multiwavelength detection for drift compensation. Sensors have been developed for solution pH, NH_3, ethylene, CO_2, and dissolved metal ions. In addition, unique PC-compatible optoelectronic interfaces, as well as distributed measurement systems, so that integrated detection systems are now available. In this paper recent efforts to develop sensors for critical nutrient ions are presented.

Tabacco, M. B.; Digiuseppe, T. G.

295

Using citizen science programs to identify host resistance in pest-invaded forests.  

PubMed

Threats to native forests from non-native insects and pathogens (pests) are generally addressed with methods such as quarantine, eradication, biological control, and development of resistant stock through hybridization and breeding. In conjunction with such efforts, it may be useful to have citizen scientists locate rare surviving trees that may be naturally pest resistant or tolerant. The degree of resistance of individual trees identified in this way can be tested under controlled conditions, and the most resistant individuals can be integrated into plant breeding programs aimed at developing pest-resistant native stock. Involving citizen scientists in programs aimed at identifying rare trees that survive colonization by pests provides a low-cost means of maximizing search efforts across wide geographic regions and may provide an effective supplement to existing management approaches. PMID:20735452

Ingwell, Laura L; Preisser, Evan L

2011-02-01

296

The risk of exotic and native plants as hosts for four pest thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripinae).  

PubMed

Interactions among insect pests, crops and weeds are well recognised. In fact, the elimination of weed hosts outside of the crop is a common practice to control many insect-vectored viruses. However, little is known about interactions among insect pests, crops and native vegetation, and whether native plants may be used to revegetate areas where weed hosts have been eliminated as part of horticultural management regimes. We used the Northern Adelaide Plains horticultural region (South Australia, Australia) as a model system to study the potential of various plant taxa in hosting four pest thrips (three exotic, one native; Frankliniella occidentalis, F. schultzei, Thrips tabaci and T. imaginis) when located adjacent to, and distant from, horticultural crops. Flower funnels were used for standardised sampling of thrips on flowers from 19 exotic weed and 12 native plant species, representing 13 and three families, respectively. Flowers were sampled monthly over a year, and statistical analyses were performed to identify significant determinants of probability of thrips occurrence and density. Plant family was found to significantly influence both measures for each thrips species. In addition, crop proximity influenced the probability of occurrence for the two Frankliniella species (but only influenced density of the key pest F. occidentalis), and season influenced density of all four pest thrips. All native plant species tested had a low likelihood of hosting the three exotic thrips species. Overall, results suggest that judicious choice of surrounding vegetation has potential to be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) while increasing biodiversity conservation. PMID:20569517

Schellhorn, N A; Glatz, R V; Wood, G M

2010-10-01

297

The Trojan female technique: a novel, effective and humane approach for pest population control.  

PubMed

Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such 'fertility control' strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. 'Trojan females' carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce 'sterile-male'-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan female technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control. PMID:24174117

Gemmell, Neil J; Jalilzadeh, Aidin; Didham, Raphael K; Soboleva, Tanya; Tompkins, Daniel M

2013-12-22

298

Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.  

PubMed

Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions. PMID:24952967

Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

2014-06-01

299

Reforming state-level chemicals management policies in the United States: status, challenges, and opportunities.  

PubMed

During the last several years there has been increasing public concern about chemicals in everyday products. Scientific studies are increasingly revealing the build-up of some substances in ecosystems and in our bodies and new findings are linking exposures to hazardous chemicals to a range of adverse human health effects. Despite these trends, there has been little federal initiative in the United States on reforming chemicals management policies for well over two decades, even though a variety of analyses have identified significant gaps in the regulatory structure. As has historically been the case, states are beginning to fill the holes in federal leadership. This article explores this emerging state leadership and establishes a vision for and elements of policies to reduce hazardous chemicals in the products we buy and the places we go. It examines international efforts to reform chemicals management policies, such as the European REACH legislation and corporate leadership in advancing safer products. Finally, it outlines specific challenges states face in developing integrated, comprehensive chemicals management policies. We conclude that while there are plenty of challenges to implementation of chemicals policy reforms, it is a propitious time for states to become leaders in policy innovation that can help achieve safer production systems and products for future generations. This article is part of a Lowell Center for Sustainable Production report entitled "Options for State Chemicals Policy Reform" that provides in-depth analysis of the pros and cons of policy options to address a range of aspects of state-level chemicals policy reform. The article has been edited slightly for use in New Solutions. The report has been widely distributed to policy-makers, advocates, and others across the United States. PMID:19447756

Geiser, Ken; Tickner, Joel; Torrie, Yve

2009-01-01

300

Emamectin, a novel insecticide for controlling field crop pests.  

PubMed

Emamectin is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide with low toxicity to non-target organisms and the environment, and is considered an important component in pest-management programmes for controlling field crop pests. It is a powerful compound for controlling the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). A spray concentration of 25 mg AI litre-1 in a cotton field resulted in over 90% suppression of H armigera larvae up to day 28 after treatment, while similar mortality of the Egyptian cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval, under the same conditions, was maintained for 3 days only. Emamectin is a potent compound for controlling the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) under both laboratory and field conditions and its activity on adults was over 10-fold greater than that of abamectin. Spray concentrations of 10 and 50 mg AI litre-1 in Ageratum houstonianum Mill flowers resulted in total suppression of adults up to day 11 and of larvae up to day 20 after treatment. Under standard laboratory conditions, emamectin exhibits a considerable activity on the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and the leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard). Further studies are required to evaluate its potential activity on the latter pests under field conditions. PMID:12449526

Ishaaya, Isaac; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Horowitz, A Rami

2002-11-01

301

Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves.  

PubMed

Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems. PMID:23904994

Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

2013-01-01

302

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated...the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for scientific purposes...

2013-04-01

303

Ecoinformatics Can Reveal Yield Gaps Associated with Crop-Pest Interactions: A Proof-of-Concept  

PubMed Central

Farmers and private consultants execute a vast, decentralized data collection effort with each cropping cycle, as they gather pest density data to make real-time pest management decisions. Here we present a proof of concept for an ecoinformatics approach to pest management research, which attempts to harness these data to answer questions about pest-crop interactions. The impact of herbivory by Lygus hesperus on cotton is explored as a case study. Consultant-derived data satisfied a ‘positive control’ test for data quality by clearly resolving the expected negative relationship between L. hesperus density and retention of flower buds. The enhanced statistical power afforded by the large ecoinformatics dataset revealed an early-season window of crop sensitivity, during which L. hesperus densities as low as 1-2 per sample were associated with yield loss. In contrast, during the mid-season insecticide use by farmers was often unnecessary, as cotton compensated fully for moderate L. hesperus densities. Because the dataset emerged from the commercial production setting, it also revealed the limited degree to which farmers were willing to delay crop harvest to provide opportunities for compensatory fruiting. Observational approaches to pest management research have strengths and weaknesses that complement those of traditional, experimental approaches; combining these methods can contribute to enhanced agricultural productivity.

Rosenheim, Jay A.; Meisner, Matthew H.

2013-01-01

304

Odorant receptors of a primitive hymenopteran pest, the wheat stem sawfly.  

PubMed

The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, is an herbivorous hymenopteran that feeds exclusively on members of the Graminae family. Synanthropically, it has become one of the most important insect pests of wheat grown in the northern Great Plains region of the USA and Canada. Insecticides are generally ineffective because of the wheat stem sawfly's extended adult flight period and its inaccessible larval stage, during which it feeds within the wheat stems, making it virtually intractable to most pest management strategies. While research towards integrated pest management strategies based on insect olfaction has proved promising, nothing is known about the molecular basis of olfaction in this important pest species. In this study we identified 28 unique odorant receptor (Or) transcripts from an antennal transcriptome. A phylogenetic analysis with the predicted Ors from the honey bee and jewel wasp genomes revealed at least four clades conserved amongst all three Hymenoptera species. Antennal expression levels were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR, and one male-biased and five female-biased Ors were identified. This study provides the basis for future functional analyses to identify behaviourally active odours that can be used to help develop olfactory-mediated pest management tools. PMID:23964849

Gress, J C; Robertson, H M; Weaver, D K; Dlaki?, M; Wanner, K W

2013-12-01

305

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: X*TRAX MODEL 200 THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEMS - CHEMICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The X*TRAX? Mode! 200 Thermal Desorption System developed by Chemical Waste Management, Inc. (CWM), is a low-temperature process designed to separate organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and other solid media. The X*TRAX? Model 200 is fully transportable and consists of thre...

306

RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS) RESEARCH PROGRAM -- TREATMENT AND DESTRUCTION BRANCH (LRPCD, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals now in and continuing to enter the environment may be causing adverse endocrine-related health ecosystem effects. Because recognized exposure of humans and ecosystems to known or highly suspected EDCs may be minimized quickly and easily by adapting existing risk manage...

307

Myco-Biocontrol of Insect Pests: Factors Involved, Mechanism, and Regulation  

PubMed Central

The growing demand for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture and increased resistance to insecticides have provided great impetus to the development of alternative forms of insect-pest control. Myco-biocontrol offers an attractive alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms which are perceived as less damaging to the environment. Their mode of action appears little complex which makes it highly unlikely that resistance could be developed to a biopesticide. Past research has shown some promise of the use of fungi as a selective pesticide. The current paper updates us about the recent progress in the field of myco-biocontrol of insect pests and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of insect pests.

Sandhu, Sardul Singh; Sharma, Anil K.; Beniwal, Vikas; Goel, Gunjan; Batra, Priya; Kumar, Anil; Jaglan, Sundeep; Sharma, A. K.; Malhotra, Sonal

2012-01-01

308

Impact of the Munitions Rule on management of military chemical warfare agents and associated waste  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), an amendment to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), was signed by President Bush on October 6, 1992. Section 107 of the FFCA amended RCRA by adding a new Section 3004(y) that required the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop, after consultation with the US Department of Defense (DOD) and appropriate state officials, regulations that identify when conventional and chemical munitions become hazardous waste and that provide for the safe transportation and storage of these wastes. The Military Munitions Rule (MMR) was proposed by EPA on November 8, 1995. The impact of the MMR on the management of military chemical warfare agents and associated waste is an important topic. There has been significant controversy regarding the disposition, under RCRA, of military chemical stockpile materials, and the MMR, in addition to issues with respect to conventional munitions, was expected to clarify the applicability of RCRA in these situations. The purpose of this paper is to review the applicability of the RCRA regulations to military chemical munitions that become waste and to discuss the impacts of the final MMR on the management of these wastes. The focus is on selected chemical agents that are part of the US chemical stockpile.

Kimmell, T.A.; Green, D.R.; Rosenblatt, D.H.

1997-07-01

309

Microbial pathogens of the coconut pest Oryctes rhinoceros : influence of weather factors on their infectivity and study of their coincidental ecology in Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros L., is an economically important pest of the coconut palm. Management of this pest has been accomplished using microbial agents viz., Oryctes virus (OrV) and an entomofungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae. Recently an opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas alcaligenes has also been noticed to cause septicaemia in the grubs when under stress. To unravel the influence of

Murali Gopal; Alka Gupta; B. Sathiamma; C. P. R. Nair

2002-01-01

310

Effects of raising frogs and putting pest-killing lamps in paddy fields on the prevention of rice pests and diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frogs in paddy fields become less and less due to applying large amounts of pesticides and human hunting for a long time, which causes the aggravation of rice pests and diseases. A field experiment was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai to study the effects of artificially raising frogs and putting frequency oscillation pest-killing lamps in paddy fields on the prevention of rice pests and diseases. The field experiment includes three treatments. Treatment I: 150 frogs, each 20 g in weight, per 100 m2 were put in the fields; Treatment II: a frequency oscillation pest-killing lamp was put in the fields; Treatment III: no frogs and pest-killing lamps were put in the fields. All the experimental fields were operated based on the organic faming system. The amount of organic manure, 7500 kg/hm2, was applied to the fields as base fertilizer before sowing in early June, 2013. No any chemical fertilizers and pesticides were used during the entire period of rice growth. Each treatment is in triplicate and each plot is 67 m2 in area. The results are as follows: (1) During the entire growth period, the incidences of rice pests and diseases with Treatment I and II are significantly lower than those with CK (Treatment III). The incidence of chilo suppressalis with Treatment I, II and III is 0, 0.46% and 1.69%, respectively; that of cnaphalocrocis medinalis is 7.67%, 6.62% and 10.10%, respectively; that of rice sheath blight is 0, 11.11% and 5.43%, respectively; that of rice planthopper is 4.25 per hill, 5.75 per hill and 11 per hill, respectively. (2) The grain yield of the three treatments is significantly different. That of Treatment I, II and III is 5157.73 kg/hm2, 4761.60 kg/hm2 and 3645.14kg/hm2 on average, respectively. (3) Affected by frog activities, the contents of NH4-N, available P and available K in the soil with Treatment I are significantly raised. All the above suggest that artificially raising frogs in paddy fields could effectively prevent rice pests and diseases, especially reduce the incidences of rice sheath blight and chilo suppressalis, and setting pest-killing lamps could also effectively control rice pests, but not rice sheath blight, which contribute to the increase of grain yield largely. Moreover, the activity of frogs in paddy fields could improve soil fertility and increase bio-diversity. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41130526).

Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Luo, Fan; Cao, Ming-Yang

2014-05-01

311

Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks  

PubMed Central

Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on.

Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

2013-01-01

312

Research achievements in plant resistance to insect pests of cool season food legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant resistance to at least 17 field and storage insect pests of cool season food legumes has been identified. For the most part, this resistance was located in the primary gene pools of grain legumes via conventional laboratory, greenhouse, and field screening methods. The use of analytical techniques (i.e., capillary gas chromatography) to characterize plant chemicals that mediate the host

S. L. Clement; N. Sharaf El-Din; S. Weigand; S. S. Lateef

1993-01-01

313

Status of insect pests of faba bean in the Mediterranean region and methods of control  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - In the Mediterranean region the faba bean crop is liable to attack by several insect pests in the field and during storage. Some of them cause extensive damage and require the development of control methods. The most important field insects are the black aphids, Aphis fabae and Aphis craccivora. Besides studies on chemical control, a laboratov screening of

S. WEIGAND; S. I. BISHARA; NADI EL-SEID

314

Are millipedes a pest in low-input crop production in north-eastern Uganda? : farmer's perception and experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: <\\/i>Crop rotation, farmers' knowledge of millipedes, host crops, integrated crop production and pest management, Ipomoea batatas, <\\/i>millipedes, no-choice feeding activity of millipedes, Omopyge sudanica, <\\/i>piecemeal harvesting, sweet potato, sweet potato weevils.<\\/div>
 <\\/div>
Between 2000 and 2003, various studies were conducted to assess the impact of millipedes as pests in the production of sweet potato and other major crops in

E. Ebregt

2007-01-01

315

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

316

Tracking the global dispersal of a cosmopolitan insect pest, the peach potato aphid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Global commerce and human transportation are responsible for the range expansion of various insect pests such as the plant sucking aphids. High resolution DNA markers provide the opportunity to examine the genetic structure of aphid populations, identify aphid genotypes and infer their evolutionary history and routes of expansion which is of value in developing management strategies. One of the

John T Margaritopoulos; Louise Kasprowicz; Gaynor L Malloch; Brian Fenton

2009-01-01

317

Chemical approaches to manage coffee leaf rust in drip irrigated trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of chemical approaches to manage coffee leaf rust (CLR) in drip-irrigated\\u000a coffee trees. Coffea arabica plants of the Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 cultivar were subjected to applications of protective and systemic fungicides from\\u000a December 2000 to June 2006. The fungicide copper oxychloride was applied preventively in December, January, February and

Antonio Fernando de Souza; Laércio Zambolim; Valdir Cintra de Jesus Júnior; Paulo Roberto Cecon

2011-01-01

318

Persuasive technologies in the interface of a high-risk chemical plant production processes management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how persuasive technologies have been introduced in the interface (HCI) of a production processes management\\u000a system (PPMS) adopted into a high-risk chemical plant, making the operators’ tasks safer and less afflicted by human errors.\\u000a The hypothesis that persuasive technologies can contribute to improve safety was empirically confirmed in a study carried\\u000a out on a real PPMS. It

Fabiana Vernero; Roberto Montanari

2010-01-01

319

Methods and compositions for controlling pests  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention is directed to pest-controlling compositions comprising as active ingredients one or more .beta.-diones, particularly .beta.-diketones and .beta.-triketones, and to the use of these compositions inter alia for preventing, eradicating, destroying, repelling or mitigating harmful, annoying or undesired pests including insects, arachnids, helminths, molluscs, protozoa and viruses. The present invention is further directed to processes of preparing .beta.-diones by de novo synthesis or from natural sources such as volatile oil-bearing plants from families including Alliaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Cannabinaceae, Lamiaceae, Pteridaceae, Myrtaceae, Myoporaceae, Proteaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae.

2010-10-26

320

The EPA's process safety management program for preventing accidental chemical releases (40 CFR 68)  

SciTech Connect

Section 304, Chemical Process Safety Management,'' of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to develop a complete integrated process safety management program regulation. In February 1992, OSHA published rule 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals''. The 1990 CAA Amendment section 112(r), Prevention of Accidental Releases'', required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish measures for owners and operators of facilities processing or handling hazardous materials to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and other extremely hazardous substances to the air. Additionally, it required the consequence of releases to be minimized by focusing preventative measures on those chemicals that pose the greatest risk. Section 112(r) begins with a general duty clause requiring owners and operators to: identify hazards that may result from releases; design and maintain a safe facility; and minimize the consequences of releases when they occur. The major difference between the two regulations concerns the areas affected by the potential release of a regulated substance. The OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 regulation limits the concern to incidents that could result in an exposure to employees within the boundaries of the facility. The proposed EPA 40 CFR regulation will address significant accidental releases that have a potential for off-site effects on humans and the environment. The provisions of the new EPA regulation would require additional resources and increase the formal documentation and record keeping requirements beyond those of the older OSHA regulation.

Brown, C.A.; Sharma, P. (Brown and Root Petroleum and Chemicals Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-04-01

321

Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

1994-09-01

322

Natural products for pest control: an analysis of their role, value and future.  

PubMed

Natural products (NPs) have long been used as pesticides and have broadly served as a source of inspiration for a great many commercial synthetic organic fungicides, herbicides and insecticides that are in the market today. In light of the continuing need for new tools to address an ever-changing array of fungal, weed and insect pests, NPs continue to be a source of models and templates for the development of new pest control agents. Interestingly, an examination of the literature suggests that NP models exist for many of the pest control agents that were discovered by other means, suggesting that, had circumstances been different, these NPs could have served as inspiration for the discovery of a great many more of today's pest control agents. Here, an attempt is made to answer questions regarding the existence of an NP model for existing classes of pesticides and what is needed for the discovery of new NPs and NP models for pest control agents. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24478254

Gerwick, B Clifford; Sparks, Thomas C

2014-08-01

323

Opinion: Improved Food Safety Requires Integration of Pest, Plant and Pesticide Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  In the real world, there is an interaction between pest, plant and pesticide that greatly affects the kinds and amounts of\\u000a potentially toxic and allergenic chemicals that we eat. These interactions are virtually ignored in food safety regulation.\\u000a Exposure to potentially toxic chemicals from crop foods comes from three principle sources: fungal toxin contamination, natural\\u000a toxicants and allergens of the

J. L. Mattsson

2008-01-01

324

When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control  

PubMed Central

Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services.

Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G.; Rundlof, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

2013-01-01

325

When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control.  

PubMed

Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services. PMID:23269852

Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G; Rundlöf, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

2013-02-22

326

Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México.  

PubMed

The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L(-1) for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for ?-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L(-1) for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices. PMID:24948956

Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J

2014-01-01

327

Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in M?xico  

PubMed Central

The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L?1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for ?-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L?1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices.

Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; Garcia-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sanchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C.; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J.

2014-01-01

328

A theoretical approach on controlling agricultural pest by biological controls.  

PubMed

In this paper we propose and analyze a prey-predator type dynamical system for pest control where prey population is treated as the pest. We consider two classes for the pest namely susceptible pest and infected pest and the predator population is the natural enemy of the pest. We also consider average delay for both the predation rate i.e. predation to the susceptible pest and infected pest. Considering a subsystem of original system in the absence of infection, we analyze the existence of all possible non-negative equilibria and their stability criteria for both the subsystem as well as the original system. We present the conditions for transcritical bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the disease free system. The theoretical evaluations are demonstrated through numerical simulations. PMID:24212833

Mondal, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Soovoojeet; Kar, T K

2014-03-01

329

Agricultural impacts: Big data insights into pest spread  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pests and diseases reduce agricultural yields and are an important wildcard in the evaluation of future climate impacts. A unique global record of pests and diseases provides evidence for poleward expansions of their distributions.

Garrett, Karen A.

2013-11-01

330

New Pest Response Guidelines: Swede Midge 'Contarinia nasturtii' (Kieffer).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use New Pest Response Guidelines: Swede Midge Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of this pest. If swede midge is detected in the United States, PPQ personnel...

2007-01-01

331

Preference and Prey Switching in a Generalist Predator Attacking Local and Invasive Alien Pests  

PubMed Central

Invasive pest species may strongly affect biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems. The ability of generalist predators to prey on new invasive pests may result in drastic changes in the population dynamics of local pest species owing to predator-mediated indirect interactions among prey. On a short time scale, the nature and strength of such indirect interactions depend largely on preferences between prey and on predator behavior patterns. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the prey preference of the generalist predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae) when it encounters simultaneously the local tomato pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the invasive alien pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). We tested various ratios of local vs. alien prey numbers, measuring switching by the predator from one prey to the other, and assessing what conditions (e.g. prey species abundance and prey development stage) may favor such prey switching. The total predation activity of M. pygmaeus was affected by the presence of T. absoluta in the prey complex with an opposite effect when comparing adult and juvenile predators. The predator showed similar preference toward T. absoluta eggs and B. tabaci nymphs, but T. absoluta larvae were clearly less attacked. However, prey preference strongly depended on prey relative abundance with a disproportionately high predation on the most abundant prey and disproportionately low predation on the rarest prey. Together with the findings of a recent companion study (Bompard et al. 2013, Population Ecology), the insight obtained on M. pygmaeus prey switching may be useful for Integrated Pest Management in tomato crops, notably for optimal simultaneous management of B. tabaci and T. absoluta, which very frequently co-occur on tomato.

Jaworski, Coline C.; Bompard, Anais; Genies, Laure; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

2013-01-01

332

Preference and prey switching in a generalist predator attacking local and invasive alien pests.  

PubMed

Invasive pest species may strongly affect biotic interactions in agro-ecosystems. The ability of generalist predators to prey on new invasive pests may result in drastic changes in the population dynamics of local pest species owing to predator-mediated indirect interactions among prey. On a short time scale, the nature and strength of such indirect interactions depend largely on preferences between prey and on predator behavior patterns. Under laboratory conditions we evaluated the prey preference of the generalist predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur (Heteroptera: Miridae) when it encounters simultaneously the local tomato pest Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the invasive alien pest Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). We tested various ratios of local vs. alien prey numbers, measuring switching by the predator from one prey to the other, and assessing what conditions (e.g. prey species abundance and prey development stage) may favor such prey switching. The total predation activity of M. pygmaeus was affected by the presence of T. absoluta in the prey complex with an opposite effect when comparing adult and juvenile predators. The predator showed similar preference toward T. absoluta eggs and B. tabaci nymphs, but T. absoluta larvae were clearly less attacked. However, prey preference strongly depended on prey relative abundance with a disproportionately high predation on the most abundant prey and disproportionately low predation on the rarest prey. Together with the findings of a recent companion study (Bompard et al. 2013, Population Ecology), the insight obtained on M. pygmaeus prey switching may be useful for Integrated Pest Management in tomato crops, notably for optimal simultaneous management of B. tabaci and T. absoluta, which very frequently co-occur on tomato. PMID:24312646

Jaworski, Coline C; Bompard, Anaïs; Genies, Laure; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Desneux, Nicolas

2013-01-01

333

Training for Certification: Aquatic Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial applicators. Weed control, vertebrate pest control, and environmental considerations and restrictions are the three major parts of the document. The weed control section discusses non-pesticide, mechanical, and biological control as…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

334

Regulatory Pest Control. Pesticide Bulletin 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives descriptions of and control methods for the imported fire ant, sweet potato pests, the white fringed beetle, the Japanese beetle, and phony peach disease. Toxicity, formulation, and application information is given for 2,4-D, methyl bromide, Chlordane, Mirex, and Mocap. Finally, environmental considerations and precautions are…

Thornton, George C.

335

1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

MacNab, A. A.; And Others

336

Right Of Way Pest Control. Manual 88.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the right-of-way pest control category. The text discusses types of vegetation, the nature of herbicides, application methods, use for specific situations, and safety precautions. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

337

Pests on commercial mushrooms in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungivorous arthropods including mites, collembolans and insects were reviewed focusing on commercial mushroom pests in each taxon. Insects collected from mushroom fruiting bodies play roles not only of fungivores but also of phoretic hosts of smaller invertebrates. Their function should be considered for sound control measures. To learn biology and ecology of fungivores in field mushrooms is crucial because it

OKABE Kimiko

2006-01-01

338

Control of Exotic Pests: Forecasting Economic Impacts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dollar losses beyond the farm gate resulting from the entry and establishment of an exotic crop pest may far exceed the direct losses farmers incur. This case study uses an econometric-simulation model to estimate the benefits to U.S. agriculture of preve...

F. Kuchler M. Duffy

1984-01-01

339

Options for the destruction of chemical weapons and management of the associated risks.  

PubMed

The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved. PMID:17119231

Manley, Ron G

2006-09-01

340

Global and regional pest insects and their antagonists in orchards: spatial dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial dynamics of herbivores gains importance when slowly acting pest-management tools are employed. The temporal pattern of the techniques to be used in an agroecosystem has received some attention, particularly with respect to the preservation of certain natural enemies (e.g. predatory mites) as well as with respect to resistance-management programs. The spatial pattern of the techniques applied in neighbouring

Silvia Dorn; Peter Schumacher; Cyrus Abivardi; Rainer Meyhöfer

1999-01-01

341

Insect Pest Control on Potato: Harmonization of Alternative and Conventional Control Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of insect pest management strategies for potato has long been based on the eventual replacement of insecticides\\u000a by alternative methods. This paper discusses the importance of moving away from this confrontational approach and toward the\\u000a harmonization of conventional and alternative insect control concepts. A harmonized set of control methods should speed up\\u000a progress towards a truly integrated management

Gilles Boiteau

2010-01-01

342

ALIAN INSECT PESTS ON INTRODUCED WOODY PLANTS IN SLOVAKIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance of woody plants to pests and diseases is one of the basic indicators of their successful introduction. In recent years, there are records of occurrence and damaging activity of new insect pests on introduced woody plants. The presence of insect pests in Slovakia has increased mainly due to arrivals from warmer European zones and other countries. The present paper

P. HRUBÍK

343

Genetic engineering of rice for resistance to homopteran insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens) is a serious pest of rice crops throughout Asia, damaging plants both through its feeding behavior and by acting as a virus vector. Like many homopteran pests of crops, it is primarily a phloem feeder, abstract- ing sap via specially adapted mouthparts. An artificial diet bioassay system for this pest was developed to

J. A. Gatehouse; K. Powell; H. Edmonds

344

NORTH AMERICA'S SOUND MANAGEMENT OF CHEMICALS INITIATIVE: APPLICATION OF SELECTION CRITERIA TO DIOXINS/FURANS, HEXACHLOROBENZENE, AND HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANES  

EPA Science Inventory

In October 1997, the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation finalized its process for identifying candidate substances for regional action under the Sound Management of Chemicals Initiative. Regional action plans will be prepared if substantive risk to human he...

345

CARPSIM: stochastic simulation modelling of wild carp ( Cyprinus carpio L.) population dynamics, with applications to pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is an important pest fish species in Australasia and North America. Carp are widely implicated in freshwater aquatic resource degradation and both the resource management and broader communities are currently seeking effective control measures. We developed CARPSIM, a simple age-based model to simulate the effects of a range of management scenarios. The model simulates change

Paul Brown; Terence I Walker

2004-01-01

346

Efficacy of essential oils of Caesulia axillaris and Mentha arvensis against some storage pests causing biodeterioration of food commodities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of Caesulia axillaris and Mentha arvensis have been tested for their fumigant activity in the management of biodeterioration of stored wheat samples by Aspergillus flavus and the insect pests, Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum, at 1300 and 600 ppm, respectively. The findings indicate the efficacy of the oils as potent fumigants for management of the biodeterioration of

Jaya Varma; N. K Dubey

2001-01-01

347

Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides.  

PubMed

Key pecan insect pests include the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several alternative insecticides including three plant extract formulations, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, and citrus extract-19.4%, and two microbial insecticides, Chromobacterium subtsugae (Martin et al.) and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize). In the laboratory, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, citrus extract-19.4%, and C. subtsugae caused M. caryaefoliae mortality (mortality was reached approximately 78, 83, and 96%, respectively). In field tests, combined applications of I. fumosorosea with eucalyptus extract were synergistic and caused up to 82% mortality in M. caryaefoliae. In laboratory assays focusing on C. caryae suppression, C. subtsugae reduced feeding and oviposition damage, eucalyptus extract and citrus extract-19.4% were ineffective, and antagonism was observed when citrus extract-19.4% was combined with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). In field tests, C. subtsugae reduced C. caryae damage by 55% within the first 3d, and caused 74.5% corrected mortality within 7 d posttreatment. In the laboratory, C. subtsugae and eucalyptus extract did not cause mortality in the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say). Applications of C. subtsugae for suppression of C. caryae, and eucalyptus extract plus I. fumosorosea for control of M. caryaefoliae show promise as alternative insecticides and should be evaluated further. PMID:23448039

Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Jackson, Mark A; Wood, Bruce W

2013-02-01

348

Pest Control on the "Fly"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

2002-01-01

349

Chemical activity as an integrating concept in environmental assessment and management of contaminants.  

PubMed

It is suggested that chemical activity in environmental media can serve as an integrating concept for holistic evaluations of contaminants, including their fate and effects. In support of this assertion, information underlying the thermodynamic principles and the relationships between monitored and modeled concentrations and activities are presented. The toxicological significance of activity is discussed, with emphasis on substances that exert baseline narcosis. Illustrations are given of the application of activity using models and monitoring data for chemical risk assessment and management. It is argued that the proximity of prevailing multimedia environmental activities to activities causing toxic effects is a particularly insightful metric of environmental contamination for both narcotics and reactive toxic substances. PMID:20836055

Mackay, Don; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Bailey, Robert E

2011-04-01

350

Risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in chemical industrial parks based on catastrophe theory.  

PubMed

According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

2012-12-01

351

Pathogens, pests, and economics: drivers of honey bee colony declines and losses.  

PubMed

The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is responsible for ecosystem services (pollination) worth US$215 billion annually worldwide and the number of managed colonies has increased 45% since 1961. However, in Europe and the U.S., two distinct phenomena; long-term declines in colony numbers and increasing annual colony losses, have led to significant interest in their causes and environmental implications. The most important drivers of a long-term decline in colony numbers appear to be socioeconomic and political pressure on honey production. In contrast, annual colony losses seem to be driven mainly by the spread of introduced pathogens and pests, and management problems due to a long-term intensification of production and the transition from large numbers of small apiaries to fewer, larger operations. We conclude that, while other causal hypotheses have received substantial interest, the role of pests, pathogens, and management issues requires increased attention. PMID:24496582

Smith, Kristine M; Loh, Elizabeth H; Rostal, Melinda K; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M; Mendiola, Luciana; Daszak, Peter

2013-12-01

352

Effects of Local and Landscape Factors on Population Dynamics of a Cotton Pest  

PubMed Central

Background Many polyphagous pests sequentially use crops and uncultivated habitats in landscapes dominated by annual crops. As these habitats may contribute in increasing or decreasing pest density in fields of a specific crop, understanding the scale and temporal variability of source and sink effects is critical for managing landscapes to enhance pest control. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated how local and landscape characteristics affect population density of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus (Knight), in cotton fields of the San Joaquin Valley in California. During two periods covering the main window of cotton vulnerability to Lygus attack over three years, we examined the associations between abundance of six common Lygus crops, uncultivated habitats and Lygus population density in these cotton fields. We also investigated impacts of insecticide applications in cotton fields and cotton flowering date. Consistent associations observed across periods and years involved abundances of cotton and uncultivated habitats that were negatively associated with Lygus density, and abundance of seed alfalfa and cotton flowering date that were positively associated with Lygus density. Safflower and forage alfalfa had variable effects, possibly reflecting among-year variation in crop management practices, and tomato, sugar beet and insecticide applications were rarely associated with Lygus density. Using data from the first two years, a multiple regression model including the four consistent factors successfully predicted Lygus density across cotton fields in the last year of the study. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that the approach developed here is appropriate to characterize and test the source and sink effects of various habitats on pest dynamics and improve the design of landscape-level pest management strategies.

Carriere, Yves; Goodell, Peter B.; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Larocque, Guillaume; Dutilleul, Pierre; Naranjo, Steven E.; Ellsworth, Peter C.

2012-01-01

353

Predicting methyl iodide emission, soil concentration, and pest control in a two-dimensional chamber system.  

PubMed

Due to ever-increasing state and federal regulations, the future use of fumigants is predicted on reducing negative environmental impacts while offering sufficient pestcontrol efficacy. To foster the development of a best management practice, an integrated tool is needed to simultaneously predict fumigant movement and pest control without having to conduct elaborate and costly experiments. The objective of this study was (i) to present a two-dimensional (2-D) mathematical model to describe both fumigant movement and pestcontrol and (ii) to evaluate the model by comparing the simulated and observed results. Both analytical and numerical methods were used to predict methyl iodide (MeI) transport and fate. To predict pest control efficacy, the concentration-time index (CT) was defined and a two-parameter logistic survival model was used. Dose-response curves were experimentally determined for MeI against three types of pests (barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli] seed, citrus nematode [Tylenchulus semipenetrans], and fungi [Fusarium oxysporum]). Methyl iodide transport and pest control measurements collected from a 2-D experiimental system (60 by 60 cm) were used to test the model. Methyl iodide volatilization rates and soil gas-phase concentrations over time were accurately simulated by the model. The mass balance analysis indicates that the fraction of MeI degrading in the soil was underestimated when determined by the appearance of iodide concentration. The experimental results showed that after 24 h of MeI fumigation in the 2-D soil chamber, fungal population was not suppressed; > 90% of citrus nematodes were killed; and barnyardgrass seeds within 20-cm distance from the center were affected. These experimental results were consistent with the predicted results. The model accurately estimated the MeI movement and control of various pests and is a powerful tool to evaluate pesticides in terms of their negative environmental impacts and pest control under various environmental conditions and application methods. PMID:21488499

Luo, Lifang; Yates, Scott R; Ashworth, Daniel J

2011-01-01

354

[Evaluation of plant protectants against pest insects].  

PubMed

An interference index of population control (IIPC) was constructed for investigating the complex effects of plant protectants, including the effects of repelling insect pests away from the plant, deterring the egg laying of adults and the continuation of feeding, and causing death by toxicity. At the same time, indicated by IIPC, the alcohol extracts of some common plants, such as Eucalytus rubusta, Wedelia chinensis etc. and the neem oil gave very good results to protect the plant against Plutella xylostella. The D-C-Tron NR Petroleum Spray Oil (CALTEX) also gave an excellent effect to protect citrus against red mite. All the experiments show the important role of the repellent effect on the pests. PMID:11766564

Pang, X; Zhang, M; Hou, Y; Jiao, Y; Cen, Y

2000-02-01

355

Peste des petits ruminants in Arabian wildlife.  

PubMed

Recurrence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was diagnosed in the United Arabian Emirates in several wild ruminants confirmed by morphological, immunohistochemical, serological and molecular findings. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus strain belongs to lineage IV, which is different to some previously isolated PPR strains from the Arabian Peninsula. This study shows that wild ruminants may play an important epidemiological role as virus source for domestic small ruminants. PMID:20067659

Kinne, J; Kreutzer, R; Kreutzer, M; Wernery, U; Wohlsein, P

2010-08-01

356

Further Enhancements of the Geospatial Interface to the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created to serve scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections as a location where marine biogeochemical, ecological and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research can easily be stored, disseminated, and protected, on short and intermediate time-frames. Our main objective is to support the scientific community through improved accessibility to ocean science data. The BCO-DMO manages existing and new data sets from individual scientific investigators and collaborative groups of investigators, and makes these available via any standard Web browser. This presentation addresses the current status of our implementation of the University of Minnesota’s OGC-compliant MapServer interface to these data. Recently added features or changes include additional mapping and display options, metadata search options, and support for KML (Google Earth) output files. We have made additions to the metadata database to support these and other changes and to enhance our interoperability features. Development of the MapServer interface to the BCO-DMO data collection provides a geospatial context in which to discover data sets that are of potential interest.

Groman, R. C.; Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.; Gegg, S. R.

2009-12-01

357

Making Data Available via the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office - Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created from the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS) and the U.S. GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC) Data Management Offices. The BCO-DMO is a NSF funded project that provides support for scientists funded by either the NSF's Biological or Chemical Oceanography Program Office to facilitate making their projects' data publically accessible. To extend the domains of the U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs and to enable new capacities, the BCO-DMO formalized our metadata collection efforts and designed and created the BCO-DMO metadata database. This database, together with our new website content (http://www.bco-dmo.org) and a geospatial interface based on the University of Minnesota's MapServer software, currently provide access to information and data from nine science programs and their associated 27 projects. This presentation provides an overview and summary of the data discovery, data access, display, download options, interoperability features, and capabilities of the BCO-DMO data system.

Groman, R. C.; Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.

2008-12-01

358

Management of Meloidogyne incognita with Chemicals and Cultivars in Cotton in a Semi-Arid Environment  

PubMed Central

Management of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode) in cotton in the United States was substantially affected by the decision to stop production of aldicarb by its principle manufacturer in 2011. The remaining commercially available tools to manage M. incognita included soil fumigation, nematicide seed treatments, postemergence nematicide application, and cultivars partially resistant to M. incognita. Small plot field studies were conducted on a total of nine sites from 2011–2013 to examine the effects of each of these tools alone or in combinations, on early season galling, late-season nematode density in soil, yield, and value ($/ha = lint value minus chemical costs/ha). The use of a partially resistant cultivar resulted in fewer galls/root system at 35 d after planting in eight of nine tests, lower root-knot nematode density late in the growing season for all test sites, higher lint yield in eight of nine sites, and higher value/ha in six of nine sites. Galls per root were reduced by aldicarb in three of nine sites and by 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in two of eight sites, relative to the nontreated control (no insecticide or nematicide treatment). Soil fumigation reduced M. incognita density late in the season in three of nine sites. Value/ha was not affected by chemical treatment in four of nine sites, but there was a cultivar × chemical interaction in four of nine sites. When value/ha was affected by chemical treatment, the nontreated control had a similar value to the treatment with the highest value/ha in seven of eight cultivar-site combinations. The next “best” value/ha were associated with seed treatment insecticide (STI) + oxamyl and aldicarb (similar value to the highest value/ha in six of eight cultivar-site combinations). The lowest valued treatment was STI + 1,3-D. In a semi-arid region, where rainfall was low during the spring for all three years, cultivars with partial resistance to M. incognita was the most profitable method of managing root-knot nematode in cotton.

Wheeler, T. A.; Siders, K. T.; Anderson, M. G.; Russell, S. A.; Woodward, J. E.; Mullinix, B. G.

2014-01-01

359

Management of Meloidogyne incognita with Chemicals and Cultivars in Cotton in a Semi-Arid Environment.  

PubMed

Management of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode) in cotton in the United States was substantially affected by the decision to stop production of aldicarb by its principle manufacturer in 2011. The remaining commercially available tools to manage M. incognita included soil fumigation, nematicide seed treatments, postemergence nematicide application, and cultivars partially resistant to M. incognita. Small plot field studies were conducted on a total of nine sites from 2011-2013 to examine the effects of each of these tools alone or in combinations, on early season galling, late-season nematode density in soil, yield, and value ($/ha = lint value minus chemical costs/ha). The use of a partially resistant cultivar resulted in fewer galls/root system at 35 d after planting in eight of nine tests, lower root-knot nematode density late in the growing season for all test sites, higher lint yield in eight of nine sites, and higher value/ha in six of nine sites. Galls per root were reduced by aldicarb in three of nine sites and by 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in two of eight sites, relative to the nontreated control (no insecticide or nematicide treatment). Soil fumigation reduced M. incognita density late in the season in three of nine sites. Value/ha was not affected by chemical treatment in four of nine sites, but there was a cultivar × chemical interaction in four of nine sites. When value/ha was affected by chemical treatment, the nontreated control had a similar value to the treatment with the highest value/ha in seven of eight cultivar-site combinations. The next "best" value/ha were associated with seed treatment insecticide (STI) + oxamyl and aldicarb (similar value to the highest value/ha in six of eight cultivar-site combinations). The lowest valued treatment was STI + 1,3-D. In a semi-arid region, where rainfall was low during the spring for all three years, cultivars with partial resistance to M. incognita was the most profitable method of managing root-knot nematode in cotton. PMID:24987161

Wheeler, T A; Siders, K T; Anderson, M G; Russell, S A; Woodward, J E; Mullinix, B G

2014-06-01

360

An Introduction to the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO- DMO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BCO-DMO (http://www.bco-dmo.org) was created to serve PIs funded by the NSF Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections as a facility where marine biogeochemical and ecological data and information developed in the course of scientific research can easily be disseminated, protected, and stored on short and intermediate time-frames. The Data Management Office also strives to provide research scientists and others with the tools and systems necessary to work with marine biogeochemical and ecological data from heterogeneous sources with increased efficacy. To accomplish this, two data management offices (former- U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC) have been united and enhanced to provide a venue for contribution of electronic data/metadata and other information for open distribution via the World Wide Web. The JGOFS/GLOBEC Client/Server distributed data management system software is used to serve data and information to every investigator, regardless of computing platform. In addition, Web services are provided for data discovery, and development has begun on a machine-to-machine application programming interface (API) to allow interoperability between Web-based data systems. The BCO-DMO will manage existing and new data sets from individual scientific investigators, collaborative groups of investigators, and data management offices of larger multi-institutional projects via any standard Web browser. The office will work with principal investigators on data quality control; maintain an inventory and program thesaurus of strictly defined field names; generate metadata (e.g. Directory Interchange Format (DIF) ) records required by Federal agencies; ensure submission of data to national data centers; support and encourage data synthesis by providing new, online, Web-based display tools; facilitate interoperability among different data portals; and facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange.

Chandler, C.; Glover, D.; Groman, R.; Wiebe, P.

2007-12-01

361

Prunus persica crop management differentially promotes arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in a tropical agro-ecosystem.  

PubMed

Due to the important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystem functioning, determination of the effect of management practices on the AMF diversity in agricultural soils is essential for the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the AMF diversity in Prunus persica roots under two types of fertilisation (inorganic, with or without manure) combined with integrated or chemical pest management in a Venezuelan agro-ecosystem. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified: 15 belonged to the genus Glomus, one to Claroideoglomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. The distribution of the AMF community composition differed as a consequence of the treatment effects. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control had the highest AMF richness and the treatment combining inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest had the lowest. The real causes and effects of these differences in the AMF community are very difficult to establish, since the crop management regimes tested were composed of several interacting factors. In conclusion, the crop management practices can exert a significant influence on the populations of AMF. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable agricultural management strategy with respect to improving the AMF diversity in this crop under tropical conditions, and thus for maintaining the agricultural and environmental sustainability of this agro-ecosystem. PMID:24520389

Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldán, Antonio

2014-01-01

362

Prunus persica Crop Management Differentially Promotes Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Diversity in a Tropical Agro-Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Due to the important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystem functioning, determination of the effect of management practices on the AMF diversity in agricultural soils is essential for the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the AMF diversity in Prunus persica roots under two types of fertilisation (inorganic, with or without manure) combined with integrated or chemical pest management in a Venezuelan agro-ecosystem. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified: 15 belonged to the genus Glomus, one to Claroideoglomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. The distribution of the AMF community composition differed as a consequence of the treatment effects. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control had the highest AMF richness and the treatment combining inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest had the lowest. The real causes and effects of these differences in the AMF community are very difficult to establish, since the crop management regimes tested were composed of several interacting factors. In conclusion, the crop management practices can exert a significant influence on the populations of AMF. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable agricultural management strategy with respect to improving the AMF diversity in this crop under tropical conditions, and thus for maintaining the agricultural and environmental sustainability of this agro-ecosystem.

Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldan, Antonio

2014-01-01

363

Development of a chemical source apportionment decision support framework for catchment management.  

PubMed

EU legislation, including the Water Framework Directive, has led to the application of increasingly stringent quality standards for a wide range of chemical contaminants in surface waters. This has raised the question of how to determine and to quantify the sources of such substances so that measures can be taken to address breaches of these quality standards using the polluter pays principle. Contaminants enter surface waters via a number of diffuse and point sources. Decision support tools are required to assess the relative magnitudes of these sources and to estimate the impacts of any programmes of measures. This work describes the development and testing of a modeling framework, the Source Apportionment Geographical Information System (SAGIS). The model uses readily available national data sets to estimate contributions of a number of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), metals (copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel) and organic chemicals (a phthalate and a number of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) from multiple sector sources. Such a tool has not previously been available on a national scale for such a wide range of chemicals. It is intended to provide a common platform to assist stakeholders in future catchment management. PMID:23915347

Comber, Sean D W; Smith, Russell; Daldorph, Peter; Gardner, Michael J; Constantino, Carlos; Ellor, Brian

2013-09-01

364

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

Not Available

1994-09-01

365

Chemical characterization of ash from gasification of alfalfa stems: Implications for ash management  

SciTech Connect

Electricity generation from biomass is an attractive option from an environmental perspective. Pilot studies have indicated that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) stems are suitable feedstock for energy generation via gasification. Detailed information on chemical characteristics of the ash generated from gasification of alfalfa stem is required to develop environmentally and economically sound ash management strategies. Alfalfa fly and bottom ashes were characterized with respect to chemical properties that are important in developing ash management practices with emphasis on beneficial utilization as a soil amendment. Mean concentrations of total C, K, Ca, and Cl were 424, 120, 85, and 26 g kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively, in fly ash. In bottom ash, the mean concentrations of C, K, and Ca, were 63, 61, and 193 g kg{sup {minus}1}. Concentrations of total Pb, As, Cd, Co, and Se were below detection limits in both ash types. Naphthalene ranged from 6.2 to 74 mg kg{sup {minus}1}, but concentrations of many other polyaromatic hydrocarbons were low or below mg kg{sup {minus}1} detection limits. Available K and P in fly ash were 90 to 120 and 8 to 10 g kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Mean CaCO{sub 3} equivalent value of fly ash was 400 g kg{sup {minus}1}, its electrical conductivity (EC) and pH were 127 dS m{sup {minus}1} and 11.5, respectively. These results suggest that when managed properly, gasified alfalfa ash could potentially be utilized as a beneficial soil amendment with few potential environmental concerns.

Mozaffari, M.; Rosen, C.J.; Russelle, M.P.; Nater, E.A.

2000-06-01

366

Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets, suggesting a lack of appropriate application knowledge. Results indicate that the quantity of agrochemicals applied in plantain cultivation is less than that applied in export banana, but the absence of appropriate agrochemical application practices in plantain cultivation may pose serious risks to human and environmental health. Culturally appropriate farmer education and certification programs are needed as well as the development of safe-handling practices, regulatory infrastructure, and adequate agrochemical storage, transport, and waste disposal facilities. Long-term solutions however, are dependent on the development of policies and infrastructure that support non-chemical pest management, alternatives to pesticides, and the identification of organic plantain markets.

Polidoro, Beth A. [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, P.O. Box 442339, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Department of Agroforestry, Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE), Turrialba (Costa Rica)], E-mail: bethpolidoro@vandals.uidaho.edu; Dahlquist, Ruth M. [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, P.O. Box 442339, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Department of Agroforestry, Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE), Turrialba (Costa Rica); Castillo, Luisa E. [Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances (IRET), Universidad Nacional, Heredia (Costa Rica); Morra, Matthew J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, P.O. Box 442339, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Somarriba, Eduardo [Department of Agroforestry, Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE), Turrialba (Costa Rica); Bosque-Perez, Nilsa A. [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, P.O. Box 442339, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States)

2008-09-15

367

Chemical health risk assessment for hazardous and mixed waste management units at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The waste characterization for each treatment unit or process is based on treatment records from LLNL's computerized Hazardous Waste Management Inventory System (HWMIS). In 1990, these data were compiled into a single database comprising both hazardous waste and mixed waste data. Even though these data originate from the same source used in the previous HRA, the database was modified to set quantities and concentrations to a consistent set of units. This allowed an analysis of waste types by Hazardous Waste Management unit that was more accurate and did not rely upon many of the conservative assumptions used in the Phase II HRA waste characterization. Finally, the current waste characterizations are considered more representative of potential long-term wastes because they were developed by combining all wastes that could be treated in each unit, as opposed to the wastes treated only during 1988 to 1989. This final step more appropriately accounts for the variability in waste types likely to be seen by the Hazardous Waste Management Division. The quantities of each waste listed in the characterization tables represent the sum of all chemical quantities belonging to hazardous and mixed waste types potentially handled by each area.

Not Available

1992-09-01

368

Susceptibility of non-target invertebrates to Brazilian microbial pest control agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial pest control agents or entomopathogens have been considered an interesting alternative to use instead of chemical\\u000a insecticides. Knowledge of ecotoxicity data is very important to predict the hazard of any product released in the environment\\u000a and subsidize the regulation of these products by governmental agencies. In the present study four new Brazilian strains of\\u000a Bacillus and one fungus were

Eduardo Cyrino Oliveira-Filho; Daphne Heloisa Freitas Muniz; Ingrid Souza Freire; Felipe Rosa Ramos; Roberto Teixeira Alves; Claudio Martin Jonsson; Cesar Koppe Grisolia; Rose Gomes Monnerat

369

Characteristics of phenoloxidases in larval cuticle of the coconut pest, Oryctes rhinoceros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of cuticular phenoloxidases of the coconut pest,Oryctes rhinoceros were studied biochemically with respect to substrate specificity, pH optima, thermostability and the behaviour of the enzyme\\u000a in the presence of various chemicals. Biochemical studies indicate that the larval cuticle contains tyrosinase (EC, 1·10·3·1\\u000a Ortho diphenol: O2 oxidoreductase), and laccase type of enzymes (EC, 1·10·3·2. Para diphenol: O2 oxidoreductase). These enzymes

R Jeyaraj; T Thangaraj; C A Vasuki; M Aruchami

1986-01-01

370

Protein proteinase inhibitor genes in combat against insects, pests, and pathogens: natural and engineered phytoprotection.  

PubMed

The continual need to increase food production necessitates the development and application of novel biotechnologies to enable the provision of improved crop varieties in a timely and cost-effective way. A milestone in this field was the introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) entomotoxic proteins into plants. Despite the success of this technology, there is need for development of alternative strategies of phytoprotection. Biotechnology offers sustainable solutions to the problem of pests, pathogens, and plant parasitic nematodes in the form of other insecticidal protein genes. A variety of genes, besides (Bt) toxins that are now available for genetic engineering for pest resistance are genes for vegetative insecticidal proteins, proteinase inhibitors, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and plant lectins. This review presents a comprehensive summary of research efforts that focus on the potential use and advantages of using proteinase inhibitor genes to engineer insect- and pest-resistance. Crop protection by means of PI genes is an important component of Integrated Pest Management programmes. PMID:15464737

Haq, Soghra Khatun; Atif, Shaikh Muhammad; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

2004-11-01

371

Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

NONE

1995-02-01

372

The influence of landscape on insect pest dynamics: a case study in southeastern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing the spatial distribution of crop and non-crop habitats over landscapes could be used as a means to reduce insect\\u000a pest densities. In this study, we investigated whether or not landscape characteristics affected the number of codling moths\\u000a in commercial orchards. To do this, we collected overwintering larvae in 2006 and 2007 in 76 orchards over a 70 km² area in

Benoît Ricci; Pierre Franck; Jean-François Toubon; Jean-Charles Bouvier; Benoît Sauphanor; Claire Lavigne

2009-01-01

373

Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-04-01

374

[Health risks from pest control products].  

PubMed

According to European biocide legislation, pest control products require assessment and authorization by the responsible national or European authorities. Biocidal products can only be authorized if they have no unacceptable effects on human health. The health risk assessment performed for authorization comprises (a) the derivation of reference values for the active substances and substances of concern contained in the biocidal product and (b) an exposure assessment. These parameters are required for risk characterization. No unacceptable health risks are expected if the determined exposure is less than the relevant reference value. In addition, the toxicological information is used for classification of the biocidal product. The assessment may, where necessary, result in specific conditions for use or other restrictions aimed at minimizing risk. The risk to human health from pest control products is mainly based on the toxicological properties of their active substances. Commonly, the coformulants used in pest control products are of less concern than the active substances (e.g., food ingredients and animal feed products). For example, most rodenticides belong to the group of anticoagulants, which are also effective in humans. Regarding intoxications through insecticides, the group of pyrethroids is of particular importance. Fumigants containing metal phosphides, hydrogen cyanide, or sulfuryl difluoride are particularly toxic. This toxicity is linked to the high acute inhalation toxicity of the gaseous active substances themselves or, in the case of phosphides, of the released gas phosphane. The aim of health risk assessment for the authorization of biocidal products is to ensure their safe application for users and all other persons involved, assuming an adequate and label-compliant use. PMID:24781915

Pieper, C; Holthenrich, D; Schneider, H

2014-05-01

375

Low thrust chemical orbit to orbit propulsion system propellant management study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low thrust chemical propulsion systems were sized for transfer of large space systems from LEO to GEO. The influence of propellant combination, tankage and insulation requirements, and propellant management techniques on the LTPS mass and volume were studied. Liquid oxygen combined with hydrogen, methane or kerosene were the propellant combinations. Thrust levels of 445, 2230, and 4450 N were combined with 1, 4 and 8 perigee burn strategies. This matrix of systems was evaluated using multilayer insulation and spray-on-foam insulation systems. Various combinations of toroidal, cylindrical with ellipsoidal domes, and ellipsoidal tank shapes were investigated. Results indicate that low thrust (445 N) and single perigee burn approaches are considerably less efficient than the higher thrust level and multiple burn strategies. A modified propellant settling approach minimized propellant residuals and decreased system complexity, in addition, the toroid/ellipsoidal tank combination was predicted to be shortest.

Dergance, R. H.; Hamlyn, K. M.; Tegart, J. R.

1981-01-01

376

Comparison of Predator and Pest Communities in Washington Potato Fields Treated with Broad-Spectrum, Selective, or Organic Insecticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the northwestern United States, insect pests of potatoes (Solanumtuberosum L.) have typically been controlled using broad-spectrum insecticides. However, the loss or impending loss of many broad-spectrum chemicals is increasing the use of selective insecticides, and organic potato production is growing in the region. In the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons, we intensively sampled the arthropods in 31 (14 in

Amanda M. Koss; Andrew S. Jensen; Alan Schreiber; Keith S. Pike; William E. Snyder

2005-01-01

377

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage and reprocessing since 1953. Reprocessing of SNF has resulted in an existing inventory of 1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid waste and 3800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine, in addition to the 768 metric tons (MT) of SNF and various other fuel materials in inventory. To date, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, recent changes in world events have diminished the demand to recover and recycle this material. As a result, DOE has discontinued reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery, making the need to properly manage and dispose of these and future materials a high priority. In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, as amended, disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a geological repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will properly stored and prepared for final disposal. Program elements in support of acceptable interim storage and waste minimization include: developing and implementing improved radioactive waste treatment technologies; identifying and implementing enhanced decontamination and decommissioning techniques; developing radioactive scrap metal (RSM) recycle capabilities; and developing and implementing improved technologies for the interim storage of SNF.

NONE

1993-09-01

378

Making Data Available via the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office - Implementation Details  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created from the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS) and the U.S. GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC) Data Management Offices. The BCO-DMO is a NSF funded project that provides support for scientists funded by either the NSF's Biological or Chemical Oceanography Program Office to facilitate making their projects' data publically accessible. To extend the domains of the U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs and to enable new capabilities, the BCO-DMO formalized our metadata collection efforts and designed and created the BCO-DMO metadata database. This database, together with our new website content (http://www.bco-dmo.org) and a geospatial interface based on the University of Minnesota's MapServer software, currently provide access to information and data from nine science programs and their associated 27 projects. This poster highlights some of the details of our system's design decisions that support the data discoverability, access, display, download and interoperability features, and capabilities of the BCO-DMO data interface. Initial efforts to use existing metadata schemas were unsuccessful as they did not address our specific needs or were overly generalized and therefore more complicated than necessary. The database design has evolved over time as we have learned more about what information needs to be preserved to support multiple interfaces and to enable machine-to-machine interoperability. Our latest enhancements include database tables to store additional information about the field or variable names that further describe the experimental, at sea, and historical data in order to support our new geospatial interface. Other features will facilitate data interoperability, provide flexibility in supporting different input data formats, capture data provenance information and allow creation of metadata records that are in compliance with community adopted standards.

Allison, M. D.; Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C. L.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.

2008-12-01

379

The effects of organic farming on pest and non-pest butterfly abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butterfly transects were conducted on eight pairs of organic and conventional farms in the UK in 1994, and ten pairs of farms in 1995. Each transect included areas of conventional and organic farmland. All species seen, and the abundance of each species, were recorded separately for the uncropped field boundary and the crop edge. In both years, significantly more non-pest

R. E. Feber; L. G. Firbank; P. J. Johnson; D. W. Macdonald

1997-01-01

380

Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control  

PubMed Central

Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function.

Bianchi, F.J.J.A; Booij, C.J.H; Tscharntke, T

2006-01-01

381

COMPUTER MODELING FOR SIMULATING STORED PRODUCT INSECT PEST POPULATION DYNAMICS AND INSECTICIDE RESISTANCE POTENTIAL IN FOOD PROCESSING PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine stored product pest management strategies are practiced without valid pre and post treatment insect density estimations. Therefore, the degree and duration of insect suppression obtained are often unknown. A preliminary computer model simulating T. castaneum population growth was developed using existing biological data to understand population dynamics in food processing facilities. This model will be useful in developing efficient

S. PRABHAKARAN; B. M. SCHNEIDER; R. E. WILLIAMS; S. L. RAY

382

Seasonal occurrence of key arthropod pests and associated natural enemies in Alabama Satsuma citrus.  

PubMed

Six Alabama Satsuma mandarin orchards (four conventionally sprayed and two unsprayed) were surveyed during 2005 and 2006 to determine the population dynamics of arthropod pests and their natural enemies. Twenty-eight arthropod pest species were encountered; the major foliage pests were citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead); purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman); Glover scale, L. gloveri (Packard); and citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). Two distinct population peaks were recorded for citrus whitefly at most locations. The most important direct sources of citrus whitefly mortality were parasitism by Encarsia lahorensis (Howard) and infection by the pathogenic fungus, Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber. In general, all stages of both scale insects (purple scale and Glover scale) were present in the orchards year-round, indicative of overlapping generations; however, the highest densities were recorded during the early season. Citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale were more abundant on leaves collected from the interior of the tree canopy than in the exterior canopy. Citrus red mite densities were highest in the spring, with populations declining at the start of the summer, and were more abundant in the exterior canopy than in the interior canopy. The most important natural enemies of citrus red mite were predatory mites belonging to several families, of which Typhlodromalus peregrinus Muma (Phytoseiidae) was the predominant species. Major differences were recorded in the relative abundance of different arthropod pest species in the orchards: citrus whitefly, purple scale, and Glover scale predominated in the unsprayed orchards, whereas citrus red mite infestations were more severe in the sprayed orchards. The results are discussed in relation to the possible effect of orchard management practices on abundance of the major pests. PMID:18419929

Fadamiro, Henry Y; Xiao, Yingfang; Hargroder, Terry; Nesbitt, Monte; Umeh, Vincent; Childers, Carl C

2008-04-01

383

Transport and fate of methyl iodide and its pest control in soils.  

PubMed

For fumigants, information on transport and fate as well as pest control is needed to develop management practices with the fewest negative environmental effects while offering sufficient pest control efficacy. For this purpose, a 2-D soil chamber with a surface-mounted flux chamber was designed to determine volatilization, real-time soil gas-phase concentration, degradation, and organism survivability after methyl iodide (MeI) fumigation. Three types of pests were used to give a broad spectrum of pest control information. An infected sandy loam soil with a volumetric water content of 10.6% was packed carefully into the 2-D chamber to a bulk density of 1.34 g cm(-3). After MeI fumigation at a rate of 56.4 kg ha(-1) for 24 h, about 28.9% of MeI was emitted into air, 6.8% remained in the soil, and 43.6% degraded in the soil (based on the residual iodide concentration). The uncertainty in the measured MeI degradation using iodide concentration was thought to mainly contribute to the unrecovered MeI (about 20%). The citrus nematodes [Tylenchulus semipenetrans] were effectively eliminated even at low concentration-time (CT) values (<30 microg h mL(-1)), but all Fusarium oxysporum survived. The response of barnyardgrass seeds [Echinochloa crus-galli] spatially varied with the CT values in the chamber. To fully control barnyardgrass seeds, CT of greater than 300 microg h mL(-1) was required. Using this experimental approach, different fumigant emission reduction strategies can be tested, and mathematical models can be verified to determine which strategies produce the least emission to the atmosphere while maintaining sufficient pest control efficacy. PMID:20704226

Luo, Lifang; Ashworth, Daniel; Dungan, Robert S; Xuan, Richeng; Yates, Scott R

2010-08-15

384

Population ecology and the control of pests  

PubMed Central

An understanding of the factors responsible for the numbers of animals observed is essential for effective integrated control of pests. An ecological study need not, however, be complete for it to be useful; many incomplete such studies have led to clues that have served as important guides in control programmes. However, it is important that the study of animal numbers be undertaken with a completely general model in mind. Some ecological models suggested are too restricted to be generally applicable. The generalized model proposed by the author is based on the proposition that the chance to survive and multiply depends on environment, which may be effectively studied as having five components: resources, climate, numbers of the same species, numbers of other species, and hazards. Any of these components may be important and different components may be important at different times in the history of an animal population. Populations are most often limited by inaccessibility of resources and by the shortage of time during which the environment is favourable to an increase in numbers. An understanding of these factors suggests ways in which numbers may be further restricted. The student of pest control must determine if such ways can be economically used in a programme of integrated control.

Birch, L. C.

1963-01-01

385

A pan-European study of capabilities to manage mass casualties from the release of chemical agents: the MASH project.  

PubMed

The European Union (EU) Mass Casualties and Health (MASH) project that ran between 2008 and 2010 was designed to study the management of mass casualties from chemical and radiological releases and associated health implications. One area of study for this project concerned arrangements within EU Member States for the management of mass casualties following a chemical release. This was undertaken via a confidential online questionnaire that was sent to selected points of contact throughout the EU. Responses were obtained from 18 states from respondents holding senior positions in chemical planning and incident response. Information gathered shows a lack of uniformity within the EU about the organization of responses to chemical releases and the provision of medical care. This article presents the overall findings of the study demonstrating differences between countries on planning and organization, decontamination, prehospital emergency medical responses, clinical diagnoses, and therapy and aftercare. Although there may be an understandable reluctance from national respondents to share information on security and other grounds, the findings, nevertheless, revealed substantial differences between current planning and operational responses within the EU states for the management of mass chemical casualties. The existing international networks for response to radiation incidents are not yet matched by equivalent networks for chemical responses yet sufficient information was available from the study to identify potential deficiencies, identify common casualty management pathways, and to make recommendations for future operations within the EU. Improvements in awareness and training and the application of modern information and communications will help to remedy this situation. Specialized advanced life support and other medical care for chemical casualties appear lacking in some countries. A program of specialized training and action are required to apply the findings revealed by the MASH study into a unified cross-border emergency medical response. PMID:23716370

Baker, David J; Murray, Virginia S G; Carli, Pierre A

2013-01-01

386

Spatially variable effects of a marine pest on ecosystem function.  

PubMed

The broad spectrum of anthropogenic pressures on many of the world's coastal bays and estuaries rarely act in isolation, yet few studies have directly addressed the interactive effects of multiple pressures. Port Phillip Bay in southeastern Australia is a semi-enclosed bay in which nutrient management is a major concern. In recent years it has been heavily invaded by marine pests. We manipulated the density of one such invader, the European fanworm Sabella spallanzanii, and showed that it causes changes in the composition of macrofauna in the surrounding sediments, provides habitat for epibiota (both fauna and flora) on Sabella tubes, and reduces the biomass of microphytobenthos on the surrounding sediments. Of greatest concern, however, was the indirect impact on nutrient cycling. We suggest that the impacts on nutrient cycling are largely due to the feeding of Sabella and the epifauna on its tubes, capturing organic N before it reaches the sediment, excreting it back up into the water column as NH4, thereby bypassing sedimentary processes such as denitrification. Most notably, the efficiency of denitrification, the key ecosystem process that permanently removes N from the system, fell by 37-53 % in the presence of Sabella. Importantly though, this study also demonstrated significant spatial variability in fauna, geochemistry and the magnitude of Sabella effects. Given that the effect of Sabella is also likely to vary in time and with changes in density, all of these sources of variability need to be considered when incorporating the effects of Sabella in nutrient management strategies. PMID:23104271

Ross, D Jeff; Longmore, Andy R; Keough, Michael J

2013-06-01

387

The Role of Knowledge Artifacts in Innovation Management: The Case of a Chemical Compound Designer CoP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes how the experience we gained in the interaction with a community of professionals, the Compound Designer CoP (involved in tire production), led to the identification of the role Knowledge Artifacts can play in the definition of computational supports of innovation management in the specific domain of chemical formulation for rubber compounds. The paper reports on an experience

Stefania Bandini; Ettore Colombo; Gianluca Colombo; Fabio Sartori; Carla Simone

388

Effects of tillage and nitrogen management on soil chemical and physical properties after 23 years of continuous sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term tillage and nitrogen (N) management practices can have a profound impact on soil properties and nutrient availability. A great deal of research evaluating tillage and N applications on soil chemical properties has been conducted with continuous corn (Zea Mays L.) throughout the Midwest, but not on continuous grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The objective of this experiment was

Jose G. Guzman; Chad B. Godsey; Gary M. Pierzynski; David A. Whitney; Ray E. Lamond

2006-01-01

389

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: PO*WW*ER? WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS - LAKES CHARLES TREATMENT CENTER - CHEMICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The PO*WW*ER? system developed by Chemical Waste Management, Inc. (CWM), reduces the volume of aqueous waste and catalytically oxidizes volatile contaminants. The PO*WW*ER? system consists primarily of (1) an evaporator that reduces influent wastewater volume, (2) a catalytic o...

390

Important Pests of Tobacco - Their Identity and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This leaflet gives details about the pests attacking tobacco such as caterpillars and cutworms, stem borer, white flies, grass-hoppers, ground beetles, aphids, capsule borer and cigarette beetle. The natural history of the pest, the nature of injury and i...

1979-01-01

391

Pests of Coconut and Their Natural Enemies in Micronesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common pests of coconut in Micronesia include coconut hispid, Brontispa spp.; red coconut scale, Furcaspis oceanica Lindinger; coconut scale, Aspidiotus destructor Signoret; rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros L.; and New Guinea sugarcane weevil, Rhabdoscelus obscurus (Boisduval). A number of other minor pests also occur in this region. Their distribution, and the history of introduction and establishment of their natural enemies in

R. MUNIAPPAN

392

Engineering of Bt Transgenic Rice for Insect Pest Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stem borer is a serious pest that causes considerable yield losses of rice in Asia. Pesticides have been used broadly to control this pest. Transgenic Bt rice for a wide variety of cultivation conditions have been developed and reported on earlier. Wereview work done todevelop Bt rice with multiple Bt genes that have different receptor binding domains, and with a

S. K. Datta; G. Chandel; J. Tu; N. Baisakh; K. Datta

2003-01-01

393

EXOTIC FORIEST INSECT PESTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON NAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 4500 exotic organisms are now established in the United States, of which over 400 are insects that feed on trees and shrubs. While most exotic insects cause little or no damage, a few have become serious pests and have greatly altered native forest ecosystems. Three of the most recently introduced exotic forest pests are the pine shoot beetle,

Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack

394

Industrial - Institutional - Structural and Health Related Pest Control Category Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The emphasis of this document is on the identification of wood-destroying pests and the damage caused by them to the structural components of buildings. The pests discussed include termites, carpenter ants, beetles, bees, and wasps and numerous…

Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

395

76 FR 51934 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina; Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...APHIS-2010-0032] Determination of Pest-Free Areas in Mendoza Province, Argentina...recognize additional areas as pest- free areas for South American fruit fly...regulations for recognition as pest-free areas. We are making that...

2011-08-19

396

50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director...wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to prevent unacceptable loss of...

2013-10-01

397

7 CFR 319.40-11 - Plant pest risk assessment standards.  

...2014-01-01 false Plant pest risk assessment standards. 319...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...319.40-11 Plant pest risk assessment standards...to determine the plant pest risks associated with each...

2014-01-01

398

Mating compatibility among four pest members of the Bactrocera dorsalis fruit fly species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock are pest members within the B. dorsalis species complex of tropical fruit flies. The species status of these taxa is unclear and this confounds quarantine, pest management, and general research. Mating studies carried out under uniform experimental conditions are required as part of resolving their species limits. These four taxa were collected from the wild and established as laboratory cultures for which we subsequently determined levels of prezygotic compatibility, assessed by field cage mating trials for all pair-wise combinations. We demonstrate random mating among all pair-wise combinations involving B. dorsalis, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis. B. carambolae was relatively incompatible with each of these species as evidenced by nonrandom mating for all crosses. Reasons for incompatibility involving B. carambolae remain unclear; however, we observed differences in the location of couples in the field cage for some comparisons. Alongside other factors such as pheromone composition or other courtship signals, this may lead to reduced interspecific mating compatibility with B. carambolae. These data add to evidence that B. dorsalis, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis represent the same biological species, while B. carambolae remains sufficiently different to maintain its current taxonomic identity. This poses significant implications for this group's systematics, impacting on pest management, and international trade. PMID:23786057

Schutze, M K; Jessup, A; Ul-Haq, I; Vreysen, M J B; Wornoayporn, V; Vera, M T; Clarke, A R

2013-04-01

399

Chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments and implications for environmental management, Maricopa County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly growing Phoenix metropolitan area of Maricopa County, Arizona, showed that the inorganic component of these sediments generally reflects geologic background values. Some concentrations of metals were above background values, especially cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, indicating an anthropogenic contribution of these elements to the sediment chemistry. Concentrations, however, were not at levels that would require soil remediation according to guidelines of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic concentrations generally were above recommended values for remediation at a few sites, but these concentrations seem to reflect geologic rather than anthropogenic factors. Several organochlorine compounds no longer in use were ubiquitous in the Phoenix area, although concentrations generally were low. Chlordane, DDT and its decay products DDE and DDD, dieldrin, toxaphene, and PCBs were found at almost all sites sampled, although some of the pesticides in which these compounds are found have been banned for almost 30 years. A few sites showed exceptionally high concentrations of organochlorine compounds. On the basis of published guidelines, urban stormwater sediments do not appear to constitute a major regional environmental problem with respect to the chemical characteristics investigated here. At individual sites, high concentrations of organic compounds - chlordane, dieldrin, PCBs, and toxaphene - may require some attention. The possible environmental hazard presented by low-level organochlorine contamination is not addressed in this paper; however, high levels of toxicity in urban sediments are difficult to explain. Sediment toxicity varied significantly with time, which indicates that these tests should be evaluated carefully before they are used for management decisions.Investigations of the chemical characteristics of urban stormwater sediments in the rapidly growing Phoenix metropolitan area of Maricopa County, Arizona, showed that the inorganic component of these sediments generally reflects geologic background values. Some concentrations of metals were above background values, especially cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, indicating an anthropogenic contribution of these elements to the sediment chemistry. Concentrations, however, were not at levels that would require soil remediation according to guidelines of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Arsenic concentrations generally were above recommended values for remediation at a few sites, but these concentrations seem to reflect geologic rather than anthropogenic factors. Several organochlorine compounds no longer in use were ubiquitous in the Phoenix area, although concentrations generally were low. Chlordane, DDT and its decay products DDE and DDD, dieldrin, toxaphene, and PCBs were found at almost all sites sampled, although some of the pesticides in which these compounds are found have been banned for almost 30 years. A few sites showed exceptionally high concentrations of organochlorine compounds. On the basis of published guidelines, urban stormwater sediments do not appear to constitute a major regional environmental problem with respect to the chemical characteristics investigated here. At individual sites, high concentrations of organic compounds - chlordane, dieldrin, PCBs, and toxaphene - may require some attention. The possible environmental hazard presented by low-level organochlorine contamination is not addressed in this paper; however, high levels of toxicity in urban sediments are difficult to explain. Sediment toxicity varied significantly with time, which indicates that these tests should be evaluated carefully before they are used for management decisions.

Parker, J. T. C.; Fossum, K. D.; Ingersoll, T. L.

2000-01-01

400

Impact of urbanization on water quality and chemical flux in urban streams: implications for management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contaminant source and biogeochemical processes are altered in urban ecosystems. Given the high impervious cover and altered hydrologic cycle, contaminant mobilization is particularly important during high discharge events. Many urban systems not only receive contaminant loading from stormwater, but also receive sewage contributions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Additionally, biogeochemical processes are altered by the changing chemistry and flashier hydrology. Management of contaminant loading often ignores these temporal shifts in speciation as well as the alteration of fate processes within the receiving water body, further compounding the difficult and challenging problem that many municipalities face of assessing ecological impacts. To assess potential changes in loading and chemical speciation we have collected stream water and sediment samples in the Park River sewershed (Hartford, CT) during base flow and events to assess potential for contaminant loading and mobilization. Six events have been collected to date. Trace metal, TSS and DOC concentrations increased with discharge. However, trace metal concentrations and flux values reflected the degree of urbanization and industry present in the watersheds. All samples contained low DOC with the majority of the flux occurring in the particulate phase. Dissolved transport with DOC, particularly for Hg, decreased with urbanization; however, the dominant phase, dissolved versus particulate, varied by storm. The degree of urbanization also increased TN flux as well as the distribution among N chemical species, with urbanized systems increasing in the NOx fraction. The altered watershed processes was also evident in an analysis of dissolved organic matter binding, with stormwater contributions contributing to higher microbial organic matter fractions as determined by EEMs. This shift in DOM quality has been linked to end member source contributions including forest, stormwater and sewage. Particulate fraction collection and analysis during the events have demonstrated the influence of impervious cover on increasing trace metal and mercury flux. However, the association of these metals with these solids compared with forested binding remains uncertain.

Bushey, J. T.; Aragon-jose, A. T.; Perkins, C.; Lancaster, N.; Ulatowski, G.

2012-12-01

401

Solid waste management of a chemical-looping combustion plant using Cu-based oxygen carriers.  

PubMed

Waste management generated from a Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) plant using copper-based materials is analyzed by two ways: the recovery and recycling of the used material and the disposal of the waste. A copper recovery process coupled to the CLC plant is proposed to avoid the loss of active material generated by elutriation from the system. Solid residues obtained from a 10 kWth CLC prototype operated during 100 h with a CuO-Al2O3 oxygen carrier prepared by impregnation were used as raw material in the recovery process. Recovering efficiencies of approximately 80% were obtained in the process, where the final products were an eluate of Cu(NO3)2 and a solid. The eluate was used for preparation of new oxygen carriers by impregnation, which exhibited high reactivity for reduction and oxidation reactions as well as adequate physical and chemical properties to be used in a CLC plant. The proposed recovery process largely decreases the amount of natural resources (Cu and Al203) employed in a CLC power plant as well as the waste generated in the process. To determine the stability of the different solid streams during deposition in a landfill, these were characterized with respect to their leaching behavior according to the European Union normative. The solid residue finally obtained in the CLC plant coupled to the recovery process (composed by Al2O3 and CuAl2O4) can be classified as a stable nonreactive hazardous waste acceptable at landfills for nonhazardous wastes. PMID:17874801

García-Labiano, Francisco; Gayán, Pilar; Adánez, Juan; De Diego, Luis F; Forero, Carmen R

2007-08-15

402

Chemical health risk assessment for hazardous and mixed waste management units at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates three Hazardous Waste Management Facilities with 24 associated waste management units for the treatment and storage of hazardous and mixed wastes. These wastes are generated by research programs and support operations. The storage and treatment units are presently operated under interim status in accordance with the requirements of the US Envirorunental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), a division of the California Envirorunental Protection Agency (Cal/EPA). As required by the California Hazardous Waste Control Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), LLNL ha s applied for a Part B permit to continue operating the storage and waste treatment facilities. As part of this permitting process, LLNL is required to conduct a health risk assessment (HRA) to examine the potential health impacts to the surrounding community from continued storage and treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. analysis document presents the results of this risk assessment. An analysis of maximum credible chemical accidents is also included in Section 7.0. This HRA was prepared in accordance with procedures set forth by the California Air Pollution Control Officers Association (CAPCOA) Air Toxics Assessment Manual,'' CAPCOA guidelines for preparing risk assessments under the Air Toxic Hot Spots'' Act (AB 2588) and requirements of the US EPA. By following these procedures, this risk assessment presents a conservative analysis of a hypothetical Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) using many worst-case assumptions that will not apply to an actual individual. As such, the risk estimates presented should be regarded as a worst-case estimate of any actual risk that may be present.

Not Available

1992-09-01

403

The red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Acari: Tetranychidae): its status, biology, ecology and management in tea plantations.  

PubMed

Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae), the red spider mite (RSM), is a major pest of tea (Camellia sinensis) in most tea-producing countries. Nymphs and adults of RSM lacerate cells, producing minute characteristic reddish brown marks on the upper surface of mature leaves, which turn red in severe cases of infestation, resulting in crop loss. The pest is present on tea all the year round, although numbers vary depending on season. Their number increases as the weather warms up and decreases markedly once rains set in. Under optimal conditions there may be 22 overlapping generations in a year. Parthenogenesis is known to occur; consequently, all mite stages can be found at a given time. Their infestation is mainly confined to the upper surface of the mature leaves and could readily be identified by the bronzing of the leaf. There are several naturally occurring insect predators, such as coccinellid and staphylinid larvae, lacewing larvae, and mite predators, most importantly species of the families Phytoseiidae and Stigmaeidae. Integrated management has been adopted to control this mite pest, involving cultural, mechanical, physical, biological and chemical methods. This review collates the most important works carried out on biology, ecology and management of O. coffeae. Also the scope of future studies for better management of this regular mite pest of tea is discussed. PMID:24705870

Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda

2014-08-01

404

Mercury and Chemical Management in Schools: Teachers and School Administrators Participant's Manual in Southeast Asia. EPA 747-R-08-001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a "Participant's Manual" to be used as part of a "Chemical and Mercury Management in Schools Training," this document focuses on the policies and programs needed at the school and district level for safe and sustainable chemical and mercury management practices. This document is designed primarily for school administrators (principals…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008

2008-01-01

405

Analysis of management actions, human behavior, and process reliability in chemical plants. II. Near-miss management system selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Tounderstand the behavior patterns of managers, engineers, and operators, in Part II, a game-theoretic decision model isdeveloped,for a specific plant to balance the advantages and disadvantages of having ,a Near-miss Management ,System (NMMS) with different sophistication levels. Assuming ,that management ,and engineering preferences differ from those of the process operators, the tradeoffs between them are balanced. As anticipated, it

Anjana Meel; Warren D. Seider; Ulku Oktem

2008-01-01

406

From chemical risk assessment to environmental quality management: the challenge for soil protection.  

PubMed

The 40 years that have passed since the beginning of the 'environmental revolution' has seen a large increase in development of policies for the protection of environmental media and a recognition by the public of the importance of environmental quality. There has been a shift from policy in reaction to high profile events, then to control of releases to single environmental media, and to the present position of moving toward integrated management of all environmental media at present. This development has moved away from classical chemical risk assessment toward environmental holism, including recognition of the ecological value of these media. This work details how policy developments have taken place for air and water, with examples from the USA and EU, in order to compare this with policy development regarding soil. Soil, with quite different policy frameworks and distinct uses, understanding, and threats compared to other environmental media, is currently attracting attention regarding the need for its protection independent of use. Challenges for soil policy are identified and evaluated, and recommendations on how these challenges can be overcome are discussed with relevance to water and air protection policy. PMID:20735057

Bone, James; Head, Martin; Jones, David T; Barraclough, Declan; Archer, Michael; Scheib, Catherine; Flight, Dee; Eggleton, Paul; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

2011-01-01

407

A remote sensing assessment of pest infestation on sorghum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The damage caused by the pest to crop is well known. The major aspects of remote sensing are timely estimates of agriculture crop yield, prediction of pest. Therefore, in this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate the utility and potential application of microwave remote sensing for detection of pest infestation within sorghum field. The studies were made on crop sorghum (Meethi Sudan) that is a forage variety and the pest observed was a species of grasshopper. The beds of crop sorghum were specially prepared for pests as well as microwave scattering measurements. In first phase of study, dependence of occurrence of pests on sorghum plant parameters (i.e., crop covered moist soil (SM), plant height (PH), leaf area index (LAI), percentage biomass (BIO), total chlorophyll (TC)) have been observed and analyzed and it was noticed that pests were more dependent on sorghum chlorophyll than other plant parameters, while climatic conditions were taken as constant. An empirical relationship has been developed between occurrence of pests and TC with quite significant values of coefficient of determination ( r2 = 0.82). These crop parameters are easily assessable through microwave remote sensing and therefore they can form the basis for prediction of pest remotely. In the second phase of this study, several observations were carried out for various growth stages of sorghum using scatterometer for both like polarizations (i.e., HH- and VV-) and different incidence angles at X-band (9.5 GHz). Linear regression analysis was carried out to obtain the best suitable incidence angle and polarization to assess the sorghum TC. VV-pol gives better results than HH-pol and incidence angle should be more than 40° for both like polarizations for assessing the sorghum TC at X-band. A negative correlation has been obtained between TC and scattering coefficient with the r2 values (0.69 and 0.75 for HH- and VV-pol, respectively). The TC assessed by the microwave measurements was helpful to estimate the occurrence of pests on sorghum. Based on both phase of study an algorithm is proposed to estimate the number of pest on sorghum by remote sensing method. There is a quite good agreement between observed occurrence of pest and assessed occurrence of pest.

Singh, D.; Sao, R.; Singh, K. P.

408

Final Report - Chemical Industry Corrosion Management - A Comprehensive Information System (ASSET 2)  

SciTech Connect

The research sponsored by this project has greatly expanded the ASSET corrosion prediction software system to produce a world-class technology to assess and predict engineering corrosion of metals and alloys corroding by exposure to hot gases. The effort included corrosion data compilation from numerous industrial sources and data generation at Shell Oak Ridge National Laboratory and several other companies for selected conditions. These data were organized into groupings representing various combinations of commercially available alloys and corrosion by various mechanisms after acceptance via a critical screening process to ensure the data were for alloys and conditions, which were adequately well defined, and of sufficient repeatability. ASSET is the largest and most capable, publicly-available technology in the field of corrosion assessment and prediction for alloys corroding by high temperature processes in chemical plants, hydrogen production, energy conversion processes, petroleum refining, power generation, fuels production and pulp/paper processes. The problems addressed by ASSET are: determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism based upon information available to the chemical engineers designing and/or operating various processes and prediction of engineering metal losses and lifetimes of commercial alloys used to build structural components. These assessments consider exposure conditions (metal temperatures, gas compositions and pressures), alloy compositions and exposure times. Results of the assessments are determination of the likely dominant corrosion mechanism and prediction of the loss of metal/alloy thickness as a function of time, temperature, gas composition and gas pressure. The uses of these corrosion mechanism assessments and metal loss predictions are that the degradation of processing equipment can be managed for the first time in a way which supports efforts to reduce energy consumption, ensure structural integrity of equipment with the goals to avoid premature failure, to quantitatively manage corrosion over the entire life of high temperature process equipment, to select alloys for equipment and to assist in equipment maintenance programs. ASSET software operates on typical Windows-based (Trademark of Microsoft Corporation) personal computers using operating systems such as Windows 2000, Windows NT and Vista. The software is user friendly and contains the background information needed to make productive use of the software in various help-screens in the ASSET software. A graduate from a university-level curriculum producing a B.S. in mechanical/chemical/materials science/engineering, chemistry or physics typically possesses the background required to make appropriate use of ASSET technology. A training/orientation workshop, which requires about 3 hours of class time was developed and has been provided multiple times to various user groups of ASSET technology. Approximately 100 persons have been trained in use of the technology. ASSET technology is available to about 65 companies representing industries in petroleum/gas production and processing, metals/alloys production, power generation, and equipment design.

Randy C. John, Arthur L. Young, Arthur D. Pelton, William T. Thompson adn Ian G. Wright

2008-10-10

409

Implications of global climate change for the assessment and management of human health risks of chemicals in the natural environment.  

PubMed

Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. PMID:23147420

Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair B A; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

2013-01-01

410

Potential Use of a Serpin from Arabidopsis for Pest Control  

PubMed Central

Although genetically modified (GM) plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resistant transgenic plants are not compromised and to target those pests that are not susceptible. Experimental GM plants producing plant protease inhibitors have been shown to confer resistance against a wide range of agricultural pests. In this study we assessed the potential of AtSerpin1, a serpin from Arabidopsis thaliana (L). Heynh., for pest control. In vitro assays were conducted with a wide range of pests that rely mainly on either serine or cysteine proteases for digestion and also with three non-target organisms occurring in agricultural crops. AtSerpin1 inhibited proteases from all pest and non-target species assayed. Subsequently, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) were fed on artificial diets containing AtSerpin1, and S. littoralis was also fed on transgenic Arabidopsis plants overproducing AtSerpin1. AtSerpin1 supplied in the artificial diet or by transgenic plants reduced the growth of S. littoralis larvae by 65% and 38%, respectively, relative to controls. Nymphs of A. pisum exposed to diets containing AtSerpin1 suffered high mortality levels (LC50?=?637 µg ml?1). The results indicate that AtSerpin1 is a good candidate for exploitation in pest control.

Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Maharramov, Jafar; Carrillo, Laura; Vandenabeele, Steven; Vercammen, Dominique; Van Breusegem, Frank; Smagghe, Guy

2011-01-01

411

Expert System For Diagnosis Pest And Disease In Fruit Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discussed the development of an expert system to diagnose pests and diseases on fruit plants. Rule base method was used to store the knowledge from experts and literatures. Control technique using backward chain and started from the symptoms to get conclusions about the pests and diseases that occur. Development of the system has been performed using software Corvid Exsys developed by Exsys company. Results showed that the development of this expert system can be used to assist users in identifying the type of pests and diseases on fruit plants. Further development and possibility of using internet for this system are proposed.

Dewanto, Satrio; Lukas, Jonathan

2014-03-01

412

Identification of selected apple pests based on selected graphical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was a neural identification of selected apple tree orchard pests. The classification was conducted on the basis of graphical information coded in the form of selected geometric characteristics of agrofags, presented on digital images. A neural classification model is presented in this paper, optimized using learning sets acquired on the basis of information contained in digital photographs of pests. In particular, the problem of identifying 6 selected apple pests, the most commonly encountered in Polish orchards, has been addressed. In order to classify the agrofags, neural modelling methods were utilized, supported by digital analysis of image techniques.

Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Piekarska-Boniecka, H.; Nowakowski, K.; Przyby?, J.; Zaborowicz, M.; Raba, B.; Dach, J.

2013-07-01

413

Basic factors controlling pest in high temperature systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The catastrophic disintegration in air at intermediate temperatures of refractory materials which are very resistant to oxidation at high temperatures is known as pest. A study was undertaken to determine whether the mechanism proposed for pest failure in silicides might also be responsible for pest failure in NbAl3. The aim was to correlate oxidation kinetics in the range where disintegration of NbAl3 is observed with delayed failure data obtained under similar conditions. Studies were also undertaken to develop some understanding of deformation mechanisms in both silicides and aluminides.

Berkowitz-Mattuck, J.; Rossetti, M.

1971-01-01

414

Flufenerim, a novel insecticide acting on diverse insect pests: biological mode of action and biochemical aspects.  

PubMed

A new chemical compound was tested for its insecticidal activity against several major insect pests. The compound, called "flufenerim", has a core pyrimidine structure and an unknown mode of action and showed potent activity against the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the African cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval); however, it did not show any activity against two thrips species: western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and tobacco thrips Thrips tabaci (Lindeman). The compound was relatively potent against the three tested pests and caused mortality rates that reached up to 100% at concentrations under 10 mg of active ingredient (ai) L(-1). The action of the compound was very fast, and mortality was observed within 48 h after exposure of the insects to treated leaves. A unique characteristic of this compound is its very short residual activity, which approximates to 4 days after application under laboratory conditions and to 2 days under outdoor conditions for both B. tabaci and S. littoralis. Although this new compound's mode of action is yet unknown, its rapid and potent action against sap-sucking pests suggests that it acts on a very important target site in the insect body and possibly could be applied very close to harvesting. PMID:20958045

Ghanim, Murad; Lebedev, Galina; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Ishaaya, Isaac

2011-04-13

415

Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for the proposed management of contaminated water impounded at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area  

SciTech Connect

This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The US Department of Energy is responsible for cleanup activities at the site under its Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). The major goals of SFMP are to eliminate potential hazards to human health and the environment that are associated with contamination at SFMP sites and to make surplus real property available for other uses, to the extent possible. The objectives of this EE/CA report are to identify the cleanup as a removal action, document the selection of a response that will mitigate the potential release of radioactive or chemical contaminants from the impounded waters into the nearby environment, and address environmental impacts associated with the proposed action. 41 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

MacDonell, M.M.; Maxey, M.L.; Peterson, J.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Joya, I.E. (MK-Environmental Services, San Francisco, CA (USA))

1990-07-01

416

Expanding Integrated Pest Management Capacity: Rwanda Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Rwanda is developing its agricultural capacity to meet the needs of national food security while addressing food demands and requirements of regional and international markets. The Rwanda Horticultural Export Standards Initiative was developed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources in collaboration with Michigan State…

Baributsa, Dieudonne; Flores, Luis; Rukazambuga, Daniel; Wise, John C.

2014-01-01

417

Application of sex pheromones in sugarcane pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of moth borers are known to cause heavy losses in sugarcane production in different parts of the country. Because\\u000a of their concealed habits, the control of these borers becomes complex and hence a number of methods have been tried to suppress\\u000a their field population. The sex behaviour of four species of these borersviz., internode borer, stalk borer, shoot

H David; B F Nesbitt; S Easwaramoorthy; V Nandagopal

1985-01-01

418

Effect of rotation, nitrogen fertilization and management of crop residues on some chemical, microbiological and biochemical properties of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term experiment, which started in 1971 near Perugia, central Italy, was performed to investigate the effect of different\\u000a crop residue management practices and rotation systems on some soil properties. Twenty years after the beginning of the experiment,\\u000a chemical (organic C, total N, humified organic C, humic and fulvic acids), microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial\\u000a biomass, global hydrolase activity, dehydrogenase

P. Perucci; U. Bonciarelli; R. Santilocchi; A. A. Bianchi

1997-01-01

419

Phylogeographic insights into an irruptive pest outbreak.  

PubMed

Irruptive forest insect pests cause considerable ecological and economic damage, and their outbreaks have been increasing in frequency and severity. We use a phylogeographic approach to understand the location and progression of an outbreak by the MPB (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), an irruptive bark beetle that has caused unprecedented damage to lodgepole pine forests in western North America and is poised to expand its range across the boreal forest. We sampled MPB populations across British Columbia and Alberta and used phylogeographic methods to describe lineage diversification, characterize population structure, investigate expansion dynamics, and identify source populations of the outbreak. Using 1181 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence from 267 individuals, we found high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and limited lineage diversification. The overall pattern was consistent with isolation by distance at a continental scale, and with reduced diversity and population structure in the northerly, outbreak regions. Post-Pleistocene expansion was detected, however more recent expansion signals were not detected, potentially due to the size and rapid rate of range expansion. Based on the limited genetic structure, there were likely multiple source populations in southern British Columbia, although the magnitude of the demographic expansion and rate of spread have obscured the signature of these source populations. Our data highlight the need for caution in interpreting phylogeographic results for species with similar demographics. PMID:22837836

Cullingham, Catherine I; Roe, Amanda D; Sperling, Felix A H; Coltman, David W

2012-05-01

420

Vaccines against peste des petits ruminants virus.  

PubMed

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease affecting goats, sheep and wild ruminants. The disease is currently circulating in Asian and African countries, creating problems in small ruminant farming. Current control of the disease mainly includes isolation and disinfection of the contaminated environment, and administration of a live-attenuated vaccine, which provides a strong immunity. Maintenance of cold chain for vaccine efficacy has proven difficult in subtropical countries. A thermostable live-attenuated conventional or recombinant vaccine is a way to avoid cold chain-associated problems in tropical and subtropical countries. Mass vaccination of sheep and goats in endemic countries might be a pragmatic approach to control PPR in the first phase of disease eradication. In the future, the development of a marker vaccine with a robust companion test may help in serosurveillance to identify infection in vaccinated animals to control PPR disease. Here, we discuss available potent PPR vaccines and the future possibility of developing new-generation vaccines against PPR. PMID:20624051

Sen, Arnab; Saravanan, Paramasivam; Balamurugan, Vinayagamurthy; Rajak, Kaushal Kishor; Sudhakar, Shashi Bhushan; Bhanuprakash, Veerakyathappa; Parida, Satya; Singh, Raj Kumar

2010-07-01

421

Pest Susceptibility Variation in Lake States Jack Pine Seed Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Jack pine trees grown from seed collected in 26 natural stands throughout Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan were evaluated in 11 test plantations in these three States. Pest incidence five and ten years after field planting was analyzed. There were signi...

J. P. King

1971-01-01

422

New Pest Response Guidelines: Asian Longhorned Beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This New Pest Response Guideline provides guidelines and actions for an Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), eradication program. It is intended for use as a guide when an outbreak of Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) is known to e...

2008-01-01

423

Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

Khan, M. S.

424

A pest is a pest is a pest? The dilemma of neotropical leaf-cutting ants: Keystone taxa of natural ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf-cutting ants of the genera Acromyrmex and Atta are considered the principal polyphagous pests of the Neotropics Although some members of these genera are of economic importance, have a broad geographic distribution, and are extremely good colonizers, others are endemic and closely interact with native ecosystems. Control is generally practiced against any colony, irrespective of its taxonomic status. Indiscriminate control coupled with habitat destruction threatens endemic species with extinction, and, through habitat simplification, favors other pest species. As nests of Atta are large, having several square meters of nest surface, the endemic taxa can be easily used as environmental indicators for natural ecosystems Likewise, the pest species can be used to detect environmental disturbance As these ants are keystone species and easily identified by nonspecialists, efforts should be made to integrate these into viable conservation programs

Fowler, Harold G.; Pagani, Maria Inez; da Silva, Osvaldo Aulino; Forti, Luis Carlos; da Silva, Virgilio Pereira; de Vasconcelos, Heraldo Luis

1989-11-01

425

Analysis of management actions, human behavior, and process reliability in chemical plants. I. impact of management actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT While management ,and ,engineering ,actions have ,a significant ,impact ,on process reliability, these factors have received too little attention in calculating plant risks. In this work, the focus is on understanding and modeling the influence of human behavior patterns on plant safety in two settings. The first, introduced in Part I, involves a framework to estimate the impacts of

Anjana Meel; Warren D. Seider; Ulku Oktem

2008-01-01

426

EFECTIVIDAD DE EXTRACTOS BOTÁNICOS DE DIEZ PLANTAS SOBRE LA MORTALIDAD Y REPELENCIA DE LARVAS DE Rhynchophorus palmarum L., INSECTO PLAGA DEL PIJUAYO Bactris gasipaes KUNTH EN LA AMAZONÍA DEL PERÚ Effectiveness of botanical extracts from ten plants on mortality and larval repellency of Rhynchophorus palmarum L., an insect pest of the Peach palm Bactris gasipaes Kunth in Amazonian Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Pest resistance to chemical insecticides has grown in recent years, which is the motive for the search for alternative methods, such as plants with larvicidal activity. The objective of this research was to evaluate mortality and larval repellency of Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Curculionidae), a pest of the Peach palm Bactris gasipaes Kunth

427

Acute Toxicity Estimation and Operational Risk Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Exposures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To address a broad range of related issues associated with chemical risk assessment and operational risk decision making. While this report focuses on a specific group of chemical warfare agents (GA GB, GD, GF, VX and HD) and exposure routes (i.e., inhala...

2004-01-01

428

MANAGEMENT OF PAH-IMPACTED SITES VIA IN SITU CHEMICAL CONTAINMENT AND MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

On a world-wide basis the magnitude of environmental contamination problems involving polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) is unmatched by any other group of organic chemicals. Despite the recognized limitations to PAH biodegradation (e.g., intrinsic chemical stability of the h...

429

Expressed sequence tags from Atta laevigata and identification of candidate genes for the control of pest leaf-cutting ants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Leafcutters are the highest evolved within Neotropical ants in the tribe Attini and model systems for studying caste formation,\\u000a labor division and symbiosis with microorganisms. Some species of leafcutters are agricultural pests controlled by chemicals\\u000a which affect other animals and accumulate in the environment. Aiming to provide genetic basis for the study of leafcutters\\u000a and for the development of more

Cynara M Rodovalho; Milene Ferro; Fernando PP Fonseca; Erik A Antonio; Ivan R Guilherme; Flávio Henrique-Silva; Maurício Bacci Jr

2011-01-01

430

Evaluation of Humic-Pesticide Interactions on the Fate and Effects of Agricultural Chemicals; Bioremediation of Groundwater and Subsoils; Department of Environmental Quality: Information Management Support.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of water resource managers to accurately predict the toxicity of agricultural chemicals in aquatic ecosystems is essential for the development of reliable water quality standards. At present, accurate predictions are difficult due to the pauci...

W. H. Benson G. D. McGinnis D. Pope V. L. Zitta X. Zhao

1990-01-01

431

Sample Management and Chemical/Physical Properties of Products and Effluents from the University of Minnesota-Duluth, Low-Btu Gasifier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This ORNL/TM describes the sample management and chemical and physical characterization of the materials collected at the gasifier site. The feed coal, wet bottom ash, cyclone underflow, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) tar, lock hopper cyclone underflow,...

W. H. Griest B. R. Clark

1982-01-01

432

A Receding Horizon Control algorithm for adaptive management of soil moisture and chemical levels during irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity to adaptively manage irrigation and associated contaminant transport is desirable from the perspectives of water conservation, groundwater quality protection, and other concerns. This paper introduces the application of a feedback-control strategy known as Receding Horizon Control (RHC) to the problem of irrigation management. The RHC method incorporates sensor measurements, predictive models, and optimization algorithms to maintain soil moisture

Jeff S. Shamma; Thomas C. Harmon

2009-01-01

433

Arthropod Management Tests, 1999  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arthropod Management Tests publishes short reports on "preliminary and routine screening tests for management of arthropods which may be beneficial (e.g., parasitoids, predators and diseases of pests, honey bees, silkworms, etc.) or harmful (e.g., pests and disease vectors)" to plants, animals, and humans. Volume 24 (1999) of Arthropod Management Tests is now available and searchable online. The publication is organized by host type (Plants/ Animals/ Structures), Arthropod Scientific Name, and Arthropod Common Name; the resource also includes information on materials evaluated and authors.

1999-01-01

434

Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously not affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology depending on actual weather conditions and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1 % on average today to over 60 % in the future for the median climate change signal of the multi-model projections), the actual risk will critically depend on the pace of the adaptation of the codling moth with respect to the critical photoperiod. To control this additional generation, an intensification and prolongation of control measures (e.g., insecticides) will be required, implying an increasing risk of pesticide resistances. For fire blight, the projected changes in infection days are less certain due to unc