Science.gov

Sample records for chemical pest management

  1. Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

  2. INTREGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integrated pest management triangle describes the need for developing a biologically based pest management strategy. Leafy spurge control tools become more expensive and less sustainable as you move from a sound biologically-based management plan....

  3. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Research Summary describes an alternative approach towards pest management--an approach that takes into account both the necessity and the danger of pesticides. Integrated pest management involves the carefully managed use of multiple pest control tactics. It is a highly eff...

  4. Comparison of toxicological impacts of integrated and chemical pest management in Mediterranean greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Antón, A; Castells, F; Montero, J I; Huijbregts, M

    2004-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to assess the relative impacts of pest-control methods in greenhouses, based on current LCA tools. As a case study, the relative impacts of two tomato production methods, chemical pest management (CPM) and integrated pest management (IPM), are assessed. The amount of the active ingredients applied, the fate of the ingredients in the various greenhouse and environmental compartments, the human exposure routes via the various compartments and the inherent toxicity of the ingredients were taken into account in the relative impact calculations. To assess the importance of model selection in the assessment, pesticide-specific fate and exposure factors for humans and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, used to aggregate pesticide emissions, were calculated with two different models: (1) the USES-LCA model, adapted in order to calculate the pesticide transfer from greenhouse air and soil to fruits, and (2) the empirical model critical surface time (CST). Impact scores have in general shown a higher level of potential contamination in greenhouses treated with CPM compared to IPM (a factor of 1.4 to 2.3). Relative impacts have been shown highly dependent on the selection of specific pesticides and crop stage development at the moment of pesticide application. This means that both CPM and IPM could be improved by a careful selection of pesticides. In order to improve the relative impact calculations, future research in pesticide transfer to food will be necessary. PMID:14664852

  5. Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

  6. Sugarcane pests and their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses sugarcane culture and history, describes arthropod biologies and injury, and identifies sugarcane pest management factors to consider for people interested in commercial sugarcane production. Arthropod groups include 10 orders and 40 families. Sugarcane pest management ...

  7. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  8. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  9. The Red Queen in a potato field: integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control.

    PubMed

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Baker, Mitchell; Snyder, William E; Menasha, Sandra; Whalon, Mark; Dively, Galen; Moarsi, Wassem F

    2015-03-01

    Originally designed to reconcile insecticide applications with biological control, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) developed into the systems-based judicious and coordinated use of multiple control techniques aimed at reducing pest damage to economically tolerable levels. Chemical control, with scheduled treatments, was the starting point for most management systems in the 1950s. Although chemical control is philosophically compatible with IPM practices as a whole, reduction in pesticide use has been historically one of the main goals of IPM practitioners. In the absence of IPM, excessive reliance on pesticides has led to repeated control failures due to the evolution of resistance by pest populations. This creates the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new compounds, known as the 'insecticide treadmill'. In evolutionary biology, a similar phenomenon is known as the Red Queen principle - continuing change is needed for a population to persevere because its competitors undergo constant evolutionary adaptation. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an insect defoliator of potatoes that is notorious for its ability to develop insecticide resistance. In the present article, a review is given of four case studies from across the United States to demonstrate the importance of using IPM for sustainable management of a highly adaptable insect pest. Excessive reliance on often indiscriminate insecticide applications and inadequate use of alternative control methods, such as crop rotation, appear to expedite evolution of insecticide resistance in its populations. Resistance to IPM would involve synchronized adaptations to multiple unfavorable factors, requiring statistically unlikely genetic changes. Therefore, integrating different techniques is likely to reduce the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new ones. PMID:24817433

  10. Pest management with natural products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2012 Philadelphia ACS Symposium on Natural Products for Pest Management introduced recent discoveries and applications of natural products from insect, terrestrial plant, microbial, and synthetic sources for the management of insects, weeds, plant pathogenic microbes, and nematodes. The symposiu...

  11. CITRUS PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses citrus culture and history, describes arthropod biologies and injury, and identifies citrus pest management factors to consider for people interested in dooryard or commercial citrus production. Life history, geographic distribution, and injury to citrus foliage, fruit, ...

  12. INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worldwide, current farm values of crop and animal production are estimated at more than $1.3 trillion. Various authors have suggested farm production losses by arthropod pests that appear to be in the range of 10% to 15% with additional losses of 10% to 40% occurring during post-harvest handling. Th...

  13. 2011 Pest Management Guide for Grapes in Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 Pest Management Guide for Grapes in Washington presents all the various chemicals and their uses against pest problems common to Washington vineyards. While the recommendations are based on eastern Washington conditions, the information may often be applied to similar pest problems found t...

  14. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Nash, David R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Wcislo, William T.

    2009-01-01

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia antibiotics are narrow-spectrum and control a fungus (Escovopsis) that parasitizes the ants' fungal symbiont, and (ii) MG secretions have broad-spectrum activity and protect ants and brood. We assessed the relative importance of these lines of defence, and their activity spectra, by scoring abundance of visible Pseudonocardia for nine species from five genera and measuring rates of MG grooming after challenging ants with disease agents of differing virulence. Atta and Sericomyrmex have lost or greatly reduced the abundance of visible bacteria. When challenged with diverse disease agents, including Escovopsis, they significantly increased MG grooming rates and expanded the range of targets. By contrast, species of Acromyrmex and Trachymyrmex maintain abundant Pseudonocardia. When challenged, these species had lower MG grooming rates, targeted primarily to brood. More elaborate MG defences and reduced reliance on mutualistic Pseudonocardia are correlated with larger colony size among attine genera, raising questions about the efficacy of managing disease in large societies with chemical cocktails versus bacterial antimicrobial metabolites. PMID:19324734

  15. 2010 Pest Management Guide for Wine Grapes in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a pest management guide developed for use by vineyard managers in Oregon. This guide represents some of the best recommendations for chemicals, formulations, and usage rates of products that are intended to prevent, manage and control vineyard diseases, insects, weeds, and vertebrate pests. ...

  16. Hanford site integrated pest management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, R.F.

    1996-04-09

    The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

  17. Adopting Integrated Pest Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, William E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of an effective Integrated Pest Management program is discussed. Provided are the common goals and procedures involved in adopting an Integrated Pest Management program for schools. (CW)

  18. ARS RESEARCH ON NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phytochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Caps...

  19. ARS RESEARCH ON NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phtyochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Capsi...

  20. Extension Has Key Role in "Pest" Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Ovid

    1972-01-01

    This article describes the Department of Agriculture's new program which provides a combination of biological and cultural pest control techniques in combination with chemicals, as well as long-range pest control research. (Author/JB)

  1. Wildlife and integrated pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, Robert H.

    1980-09-01

    A number of options are available to those professionals interested in pest management through an integrated approach. The components of this approach are manipulation of vegetation; manipulation of population structure, dynamics, and interaction; and manipulation of the values associated with animal and plant crop production. Each component has numerous methods, which when used alone or in combination, offer a nearly infinite number of alternatives to the successful use of pesticides.

  2. Urban Pest Management of Ants in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keeping pace with the dynamic and evolving landscape of invasive ants in California presents a formidable challenge to the pest management industry. Pest management professionals (PMPs) are on the frontlines when it comes to battling these exotic ant pests, and are often the first ones to intercept ...

  3. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Ruiu, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed. PMID:26463190

  4. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Ruiu, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed. PMID:26463190

  5. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts. PMID:25671793

  6. Integrated Management of Structural Pests in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    The state of Illinois is encouraging schools to better inspect and evaluate the causes of their pest infestation problems through use of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) guidelines developed by the Illinois Department of Public Health. This guide reviews the philosophy and organization of an IPM program for structural pests in schools,…

  7. Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.

    PubMed

    Gay, Hannah

    2012-07-01

    The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests. PMID:23057183

  8. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  9. ENHANCED PEST MANAGEMENT WITH COVER CROP MULCHES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Living and dead plant vegetation on the surface of soils can provide opportunities for regulating pest populations in no-tillage production systems. Cover crops generate substantial quantities of surface vegetation and residue that can be managed to enhance control of pests. Research at the Beltsv...

  10. Coccinellids and the Modern Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodek, Ivo

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the concept of integrated pest control combining chemical and biological methods. Describes many examples of the successful use of coccinellids beetles to control other insects. Cites ecological and physiological research studies related to predator prey relationships involving coccinellids. (EB)

  11. Ecology and management of arthropod pests of poultry.

    PubMed

    Axtell, R C; Arends, J J

    1990-01-01

    The worldwide spread of modern, high-density confined poultry production systems under the direction of integrators has intensified the importance of a select number of arthropod ectoparasites and habitat pests. This concentrated production of poultry provides artificial ecosystems that are sometimes ideal for the development of large populations of arthropod pests. At the same time the systems are amenable to integrated pest management involving a multipest and multimethod approach to reducing or eliminating arthropod pests. Since rodents are major pests, they should be included in an integrated pest management program to make the program most cost-effective and attractive to the integrators and producers (5). Quantitative data are scarce on economic effects, and the concept of economic thresholds is difficult to apply either to ectoparasites or to habitat pests. The risk of transporting ectoparasites among flocks is difficult to evaluate and necessitates treatment after early detection of the arthropods. Flies and litter beetles present a threat of disease transmission and the potential for lawsuits from neighbors or public health agencies that are factors not subject to easy cost estimates. The monetary losses of a flock devastated by disease or a farm forced to close are so great that the risks are unacceptable. Production losses from lowered feed conversion ratios and insulation damage are likely to be detected by the sophisticated record-keeping of the integrators. Minimal use of pesticides and other chemicals on poultry and in poultry housing is an objective of the integrators and, consequently, an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that reduces the need for pesticides is attractive. The key to further development of effective arthropod management programs for poultry is the implementation of pest and disease monitoring programs for the complete system. Improvements in arthropod sampling methods and more attention to monitoring the biosecurity systems to minimize ectoparasite dispersal are needed. The integrators have servicemen who regularly visit the production facilities and can be trained to perform monitoring functions and to instigate and supervise integrated pest management measures. With the increasing use of computers by the integrators, the prospects for utilizing the monitoring data in predictive computer simulation models for pest management decision-making justify more efforts to develop such tools (64, 102, 168). Future poultry pest management programs must be based on sound data, which presently is too limited, and must be flexible enough to adjust rapidly to evolving pest problems in rapidly changing production systems. PMID:2405769

  12. Efficient management of fruit pests by pheromone nanogels.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  13. Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  14. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    PubMed

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. PMID:26463205

  15. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. PMID:26463205

  16. A Practical Guide to Management of Common Pests in Schools. Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This 3-part manual is designed to assist school officials understand the principles of Integrated Pest Management and aid them in implementing those principles into a comprehensive pest control program in their facilities. Developed for Illinois, this guide can be applied in part or in total to other areas of the country. Part 1 explains what an…

  17. DEMONSTRATING INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF HOT PEPPERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  18. Demonstrating Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  19. Integrated Pest Management. A Curriculum Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Robert H., Ed.; And Others

    This book consists of materials prepared for a conference aimed at developing courses of study in Integrated Pest Management appropriate for use at several levels: secondary schools, MDTA programs, community colleges and technical institutions, baccalaureate programs, and master's and doctoral level programs. The first section (Background Papers)…

  20. Pest Control in the School Environment: Adopting Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    As the public becomes more aware of the health and environmental risks pesticides may pose, its interest in seeking the use of equally effective alternative pest control methods increases. School administrators and other persons who have pest control decision-making responsibilities for school buildings and grounds can use this guide to become…

  1. Comparing conventional and biotechnology-based pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management has changed dramatically during the past 15 years by the introduction of transgenes into crops for the purpose of pest management. Transgenes for herbicide resistance or for production of one or more Bt toxins are the predominant pest management traits currently available. These two ...

  2. A quest for ecologically based pest management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, M. A.; Martin, P. B.; Lewis, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The article presents a holistic approach to studying and applying crop protection in agricultural systems A theoretical framework of integrated pest management (IPM) is presented that allows an understanding of pest population processes on a whole-agroecological-system basis The need for and emergence of holistic research on agroecosystems is discussed, as are the current trends in ecological theory and pest management

  3. Inspect, Detect, Correct: Structural Integrated Pest Management Strategies at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Describes a model integrated pest management (IPM) program for schools used in Monroe County, Indiana. Addresses how to implement an IPM program, specific school problem areas, specific pest problems and solutions, and common questions. (EV)

  4. Remote Sensing and GIS Applications for Precision Areawide Pest Management: Implications for Homeland Security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Areawide pest management represents coordinated adoption of integrated pest management to conduct preventive suppression of a pest species throughout its geographic distribution. Scientists in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies an...

  5. IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Jon L.

    2005-03-01

    For years the pest Management Professional has relied on visual and manual inspections to locate insect pest infestations. As building materials have improved, the ability to locate pest problems has become more difficult since building materials are often able to mask the existence of pest infestation. Additionally, these improved building materials have contributed to the pest problem by providing a convenient food and nesting source. Within the past five years, the Pest Management Industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestation by detecting evidence of latent moisture within structures. This paper discusses the use of thermal imaging to detect thermal patterns associated with insect infestation, verification of data and special challenges associated with the inspection process.

  6. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Krupke, Christian H.; White, Michael A.; Alexander, Corinne E.

    2008-10-01

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  7. Insecticide Resistance: Challenge to Pest Management and Basic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brattsten, L. B.; Holyoke, C. W.; Leeper, J. R.; Raffa, K. F.

    1986-03-01

    The agricultural use of synthetic insecticides usually protects crops but imposes strong selection pressures that can result in the development of resistance. The most important resistance mechanisms are enhancement of the capacity to metabolically detoxify insecticides and alterations in target sites that prevent insecticides from binding to them. Insect control methods must incorporate strategies to minimize resistance development and preserve the utility of the insecticides. The most promising approach, integrated pest management, includes the use of chemical insecticides in combination with improved cultural and biologically based techniques.

  8. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  9. History and ecological basis for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The traditional approach to pest management is to treat the crop or commodity in a particular management unit before an economically significant infestation of the pest has developed. Determining the need to take corrective action is based on the economic threshold concept, which forms the basis of...

  10. IMPROVING PEST MANAGEMENT WITH REMOTE SENSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the sporadic nature of pest occurrence in crop fields, SSPM is a logical approach to dealing with pests, both from environmental and economic perspectives. With the technological advances of the past decade, this is an exciting time for SSPM. Remote sensing is being commercially used in weed...

  11. Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

  12. Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

  13. Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Thomas A.

    This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

  14. The Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pests attacking soft fruits worldwide. The Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management (AWPM) Program was initiated in 1999 to suppress fruit flies below economic thresholds while reducing the use of organophosphate insect...

  15. SPUR: Moving San Diego, California Schools toward Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    The preparation of a report, slide show, and brochure to promote awareness of the hazards of toxic pest control for school pest management personnel in the San Diego Unified School District is discussed. The future plans of the coalition are proposed. (CW)

  16. Insect pest management for raw commodities during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides an overview of the pest management decision-making process during grain storage. An in-depth discussion of sampling methods, cost-benefit analysis, expert systems, consultants and the use of computer simulation models is provided. Sampling is essential to determine if pest...

  17. Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: an African perspective.

    PubMed

    Abate, T; van Huis, A; Ampofo, J K

    2000-01-01

    African agriculture is largely traditional--characterized by a large number of smallholdings of no more than one ha per household. Crop production takes place under extremely variable agro-ecological conditions, with annual rainfall ranging from 250 to 750 mm in the Sahel in the northwest and in the semi-arid east and south, to 1500 to 4000 mm in the forest zones in the central west. Farmers often select well-adapted, stable crop varieties, and cropping systems are such that two or more crops are grown in the same field at the same time. These diverse traditional systems enhance natural enemy abundance and generally keep pest numbers at low levels. Pest management practice in traditional agriculture is a built-in process in the overall crop production system rather than a separate well-defined activity. Increased population pressure and the resulting demand for increased crop production in Africa have necessitated agricultural expansion with the concomitant decline in the overall biodiversity. Increases in plant material movement in turn facilitated the accidental introduction of foreign pests. At present about two dozen arthropod pests, both introduced and native, are recognized as one of the major constraints to agricultural production and productivity in Africa. Although yield losses of 0% to 100% have been observed on-station, the economic significance of the majority of pests under farmers' production conditions is not adequately understood. Economic and social constraints have kept pesticide use in Africa the lowest among all the world regions. The bulk of pesticides are applied mostly against pests of commercial crops such as cotton, vegetables, coffee, and cocoa, and to some extent for combating outbreaks of migratory pests such as the locusts. The majority of African farmers still rely on indigenous pest management approaches to manage pest problems, although many government extension programs encourage the use of pesticides. The current pest management research activities carried out by national or international agricultural research programs in Africa focus on classical biological control and host plant resistance breeding. With the exception of classical biological control of the cassava mealybug, research results have not been widely adopted. This could be due to African farmers facing heterogeneous conditions, not needing fixed prescriptions or one ideal variety but a number of options and genotypes to choose from. Indigenous pest management knowledge is site-specific and should be the basis for developing integrated pest management (IPM) techniques. Farmers often lack the biological and ecological information necessary to develop better pest management through experimentation. Formal research should be instrumental in providing the input necessary to facilitate participatory technology development such as that done by Farmer Field Schools, an approach now emerging in different parts of Africa. PMID:10761592

  18. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies. PMID:26466733

  19. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies. PMID:26466733

  20. Crop pest management with an aerial imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  1. Integrated pest management for certified organic production in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...

  2. Pesticide-Induced Stress in Arthropod Pests for Optimized Integrated Pest Management Programs.

    PubMed

    Guedes, R N C; Smagghe, G; Stark, J D; Desneux, N

    2016-03-11

    More than six decades after the onset of wide-scale commercial use of synthetic pesticides and more than fifty years after Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, pesticides, particularly insecticides, arguably remain the most influential pest management tool around the globe. Nevertheless, pesticide use is still a controversial issue and is at the regulatory forefront in most countries. The older generation of insecticide groups has been largely replaced by a plethora of novel molecules that exhibit improved human and environmental safety profiles. However, the use of such compounds is guided by their short-term efficacy; the indirect and subtler effects on their target species, namely arthropod pest species, have been neglected. Curiously, comprehensive risk assessments have increasingly explored effects on nontarget species, contrasting with the majority of efforts focused on the target arthropod pest species. The present review mitigates this shortcoming by hierarchically exploring within an ecotoxicology framework applied to integrated pest management the myriad effects of insecticide use on arthropod pest species. PMID:26473315

  3. Managing nematode pests in Midsouth soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean producers must contend with nematode pests, several species of which may inhabit a single field. Significant yield losses caused by soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines), southern root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita), reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and other nematodes were estimated at 2.6% (...

  4. Pest management update on sunflower midge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi) is a serious insect pest of sunflower, causing bud and head deformation that lead to poor seed development, and in many cases no seed development. This presentation describes the life cycle of the sunflower midge and shows images of infested sunflower heads. ...

  5. Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Childcare Health Program, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early care and…

  6. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S.; Tatchell, G. Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

  7. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S; Tatchell, G Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P

    2011-07-12

    Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

  8. Stored Grain Insect Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When wheat is mixed with wheat from other locations as it moves through the grain-marketing system, insect infestation can be spread to larger quantities of wheat, which increases the overall cost of insect pest management. In Kansas and Oklahoma, insect infestations currently are managed primarily...

  9. Building Blocks for School IPM: A Least-Toxic Pest Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Becky, Ed.; Owens, Kagan, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of original and republished materials from numerous individuals and organizations working on pesticide reform and integrated pest management (IPM)--using alternatives to prevailing chemical-intensive practices. The manual provides comprehensive information on implementing school IPM, including a practical guide to…

  10. The Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Practices among Texas Cotton Growers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes integrated pest management (IPM), a more advanced approach than chemical pesticide. Applies diffusion and farming-systems theories to create analytical model to explain IPM's adoption, use, and implications for agricultural change. Telephone surveys of Texas cotton growers on IPM practices found different sources of IPM information…

  11. he land manager’s handbook on integrated pest management of Melaleuca quinquenervia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adventive Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake is an invasive pest plant in the greater Everglades region of Florida. Public agencies and organizations responsible for natural areas management have developed effective chemical and mechanical strategies for treating infestati...

  12. The Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Practices among Texas Cotton Growers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes integrated pest management (IPM), a more advanced approach than chemical pesticide. Applies diffusion and farming-systems theories to create analytical model to explain IPM's adoption, use, and implications for agricultural change. Telephone surveys of Texas cotton growers on IPM practices found different sources of IPM information…

  13. Safer Schools: Achieving a Healthy Learning Environment through Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is a program of prevention, monitoring, and control that offers the opportunity to eliminate or drastically reduce hazardous pesticide use. IPM is intended to establish a program that uses cultural, mechanical, biological, and other non-toxic practices, and only introduces least-hazardous chemicals as a last…

  14. Cockroach Clean-Up Tour . Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy/mix of tatics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests, including human…

  15. Cockroach Clean-Up Tour . Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy/mix of tatics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests, including human…

  16. Measuring integrated pest management programs for public buildings.

    PubMed

    Greene, Albert; Breisch, Nancy L

    2002-02-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) tends to be perceived by different stakeholder groups either as a methodology for effective pest control or as an ideology of responsible environmental stewardship. The IPM process has never been subjected to a rigorous empirical test as a control methodology in buildings; published studies have either tested isolated program components or have presented uncontrolled, sequential descriptions of IPM replacing traditional pest control service procedures. Because ideological measurement is simpler, cheaper, and more relevant than methodological testing to evaluate structural IPM performance in the public sector, data on pesticide use/risk and customer satisfaction, rather than control efficacy, are used by the General Services Administration (GSA) IPM program to demonstrate success compatible with Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) guidelines. Implementation of IPM in 1989 resulted in significant decreases both in quantities of insecticide applied indoors and requests for pest control service by building occupants throughout the first decade of the program. Although these results do not provide an empirical test of structural IPM methodological superiority as a means of reducing pest populations, they indicate that replacing sprayed insecticide formulations with baits and using client reporting as the primary pest surveillance method can successfully achieve the policy goals of a large-scale IPM program for public buildings. PMID:11942743

  17. The Ohio Schools Pest Management Survey: A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    In 2001, the Environmental Studies Senior Capstone Seminar class at Denison University helped the state of Ohio work to prevent harmful pesticide use in schools. In cooperation with Ohio State University's Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Schools Program, Denison conducted a statewide survey of school districts to determine current pest…

  18. INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS (IGRS) IN PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation is part of the symposium "Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Stored Product Entomology", presented at the 5th National IPM Conference. The use of IGRs as grain protectants, contact insecticides, and aerosols will be described and discussed using examples from current research proj...

  19. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS...

  20. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.271 Facility pest management practice standard. (a) The producer or handler of an organic... habitat, food sources, and breeding areas; (2) Prevention of access to handling facilities; and...

  1. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.271 Facility pest management practice standard. (a) The producer or handler of an organic... habitat, food sources, and breeding areas; (2) Prevention of access to handling facilities; and...

  2. Broadening the application of evolutionarily based genetic pest management.

    PubMed

    Gould, Fred

    2008-02-01

    Insect- and tick-vectored diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease cause human suffering, and current approaches for prevention are not adequate. Invasive plants and animals such as Scotch broom, zebra mussels, and gypsy moths continue to cause environmental damage and economic losses in agriculture and forestry. Rodents transmit diseases and cause major pre- and postharvest losses, especially in less affluent countries. Each of these problems might benefit from the developing field of Genetic Pest Management that is conceptually based on principles of evolutionary biology. This article briefly describes the history of this field, new molecular tools in this field, and potential applications of those tools. There will be a need for evolutionary biologists to interact with researchers and practitioners in a variety of other fields to determine the most appropriate targets for genetic pest management, the most appropriate methods for specific targets, and the potential of natural selection to diminish the effectiveness of genetic pest management. In addition to producing environmentally sustainable pest management solutions, research efforts in this area could lead to new insights about the evolution of selfish genetic elements in natural systems and will provide students with the opportunity to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the role of evolutionary biology in solving societal problems. PMID:17999722

  3. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  4. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  6. On impulsive integrated pest management models with stochastic effects

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D.; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We extend existing impulsive differential equation models for integrated pest management (IPM) by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. Based on our model, we propose an approach that incorporates various competing stochastic components. This approach enables us to select a model with optimally determined weights for maximum accuracy and precision in parameter estimation. This is significant in the case of IPM because the proposed model accommodates varying unknown environmental and climatic conditions, which affect the resources needed for pest eradication. PMID:25954144

  7. SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN CORN AND SOYBEAN INSECT PESTS: PRECISION FARMING AND INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT FOR THE FUTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public and private research effort is being invested in site-specific insect pest management but progress in this area lags behind other aspects of site-specific agriculture. The existence of field-level spatial variability in populations of key pests of soybean and corn suggests that a site-specif...

  8. Optimizing pyramided transgenic Bt crops for sustainable pest management.

    PubMed

    Carrière, Yves; Crickmore, Neil; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2015-02-01

    Transgenic crop pyramids producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins that kill the same insect pest have been widely used to delay evolution of pest resistance. To assess the potential of pyramids to achieve this goal, we analyze data from 38 studies that report effects of ten Bt toxins used in transgenic crops against 15 insect pests. We find that compared with optimal low levels of insect survival, survival on currently used pyramids is often higher for both susceptible insects and insects resistant to one of the toxins in the pyramid. Furthermore, we find that cross-resistance and antagonism between toxins used in pyramids are common, and that these problems are associated with the similarity of the amino acid sequences of domains II and III of the toxins, respectively. This analysis should assist in future pyramid design and the development of sustainable resistance management strategies. PMID:25599179

  9. Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

  10. Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan

    2002-01-01

    This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…

  11. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  12. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  13. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  14. Natural Toxins for Use in Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Stephen O.; Cantrell, Charles L.; Meepagala, Kumudini M.; Wedge, David E.; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Schrader, Kevin K.

    2010-01-01

    Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There are highly successful products based on natural compounds in the major pesticide classes. These include the herbicide glufosinate (synthetic phosphinothricin), the spinosad insecticides, and the strobilurin fungicides. These and other examples of currently marketed natural product-based pesticides, as well as natural toxins that show promise as pesticides from our own research are discussed. PMID:22069667

  15. Microbial management of arthropod pests of tea: current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable tea cultivation will rely increasingly on alternatives to conventional chemical insecticides for pest management that are environment-friendly and reduce the amount of pesticide residues in made tea. Entomopathogens can provide effective control, conserve biodiversity, and serve as alternatives to chemical insecticides under several conditions. Due to their specificity for insects, these pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and fungi are ideal candidates for incorporation in the integrated pest management strategies for tea where their effects on other natural enemies will be minimal. Biological and ecological characteristics of several dominant natural entomopathogenic microorganisms have been well documented throughout the tea-growing countries particularly China, Japan, and India. But research to convert them to microbial insecticide formulations for tea pest control by evolving suitable techniques for production, standardization, formulation, and application has not progressed well except in Japan and China to some extent. Increased use of microbial control will depend on a variety of factors including improvements in the pathogens' virulence, formulation, delivery, etc. and an increased awareness of their attributes by growers and the general public. In this review, we provide an overview of microbial control of the key insect pests of tea and also the scope for future studies for their better utilization. PMID:24760230

  16. Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knipling, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

  17. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) integrated pest management programs for fruiting vegetables in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) resulted in the worldwide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. Efforts to control the pest and the thrips-vectored tospoviruses with calendar applicat...

  18. A systems approach for management of pests and pathogens of nursery crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horticultural nurseries are heterogeneous and spatially complex agricultural systems, which present formidable challenges to management of diseases and pests. Moreover, nursery plants shipped interstate and internationally can serve as important vectors for pathogens and pests that threaten both ag...

  19. Challenges with managing insecticide resistance in agricultural pests, exemplisfied by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Denholm, I.

    1998-01-01

    For many key agricultural pests, successful management of insecticide resistance depends not only on modifying the way that insecticides are deployed, but also on reducing the total number of treatments applied. Both approaches benefit from a knowledge of the biological characteristics of pests that promote or may retard the development of resistance. For the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), these factors include a haplodiploid breeding system that encourages the rapid selection and fixation of resistance genes, its breeding cycle on a succession of treated or untreated hosts, and its occurrence on and dispersal from high-value crops in greenhouses and glasshouses. These factors, in conjunction with often intensive insecticide use, have led to severe and widespread resistance that now affects several novel as well as conventional control agents. Resistance-management strategies implemented on cotton in Israel, and subsequently in south-western USA, have nonetheless so far succeeded in arresting the resistance treadmill in B. tabaci through a combination of increased chemical diversity, voluntary or mandatory restrictions on the use of key insecticides, and careful integration of chemical control with other pest-management options. In both countries, the most significant achievement has been a dramatic reduction in the number of insecticide treatments applied against whiteflies on cotton, increasing the prospect of sustained use of existing and future insecticides.

  20. Developing trap cropping systems for effective organic management of key insect pests of cucurbit crops (IPM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trap cropping is a behaviorally-based pest management approach that functions by planting highly attractive plants next to a higher value crop so as to attract the pest to the trap crop plants, thus preventing or making less likely the arrival of the pest to the main crop (= cash crop). In 2012, a s...

  1. Bug Off: A Guide for Integrated Pest Management in Granville Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide describes options for the Granville schools when dealing with pests. It is based on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a philosophy that employs safe and practical pest control methods. The guide can be used to incorporate IPM philosophy into the school systems. The first section provides the environmental context for an interest in…

  2. IPM: Integrated Pest Management Kit for Building Managers. How To Implement an Integrated Pest Management Program in Your Building(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Brad

    This management kit introduces building managers to the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), and provides the knowledge and tools needed to implement an IPM program in their buildings. It discusses the barriers to implementing an IPM program, why such a program should be used, and the general guidelines for its implementation. Managerial…

  3. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions). PMID:25582991

  4. Integrated pest management in an urban community: a successful partnership for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Barbara L; Markowitz, Steven; Rivera, Maribel; Romero, Harry; Weeks, Matthew; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Deych, Elena; Garg, Anjali; Godbold, James; Wolff, Mary S; Landrigan, Philip J; Berkowitz, Gertrud

    2003-01-01

    Pesticides, applied in large quantities in urban communities to control cockroaches, pose potential threats to health, especially to children, who have proportionately greater exposures and unique, developmentally determined vulnerabilities. Integrated pest management (IPM) relies on nonchemical tools--cleaning of food residues, removal of potential nutrients, and sealing cracks and crevices. Least toxic pesticides are used sparingly. To evaluate IPM's effectiveness, the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center, in partnership with two community health centers in East Harlem, New York City (NY, USA), undertook a prospective intervention trial. Families (n = 131) enrolled when mothers came to the centers for prenatal care. Household cockroach infestation was measured by glue traps at baseline and 6 months afterward. The intervention group received individually tailored IPM education, repairs, least-toxic pest control application, and supplies, with biweekly pest monitoring for 2 months and monthly for 4 months. The control group, residing in East Harlem and demographically and socioeconomically similar to the intervention group, received an injury prevention intervention. The proportion of intervention households with cockroaches declined significantly after 6 months (from 80.5 to 39.0%). Control group levels were essentially unchanged (from 78.1 to 81.3%). The cost, including repairs, of individually tailored IPM was equal to or lower than traditional chemically based pest control. These findings demonstrate that individually tailored IPM can be successful and cost-effective in an urban community. PMID:14527845

  5. Bacterial endophytic communities in the grapevine depend on pest management.

    PubMed

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

  6. Bacterial Endophytic Communities in the Grapevine Depend on Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

  7. Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

    2007-08-01

    Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied. PMID:17523143

  8. The Case of the Wild House Mouse. Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy and mix of tactics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests. These include…

  9. The Case of the Wild House Mouse. Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy and mix of tactics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests. These include…

  10. Coupled Information Diffusion–Pest Dynamics Models Predict Delayed Benefits of Farmer Cooperation in Pest Management Programs

    PubMed Central

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' “diffusion of innovation theory”. In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations. PMID:22022258

  11. Olive fruit fly: managing an ancient pest in modern times.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Johnson, Marshall W

    2010-01-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. Various aspects of its biology, ecology, management, and impact on olive production are highlighted. With the discovery of insecticidal resistance in some populations frequently treated with organophosphates, old and new control options are being investigated. The potential of biological control is examined. Surveys suggest that a small group of braconids in the Opiinae subfamily best represent the primary parasitoids attacking olive fruit fly in its native range. These species include Psyttalia lounsburyi, P. dacicida, P. concolor, P. ponerophaga, and Utetes africanus. Bracon celer, another braconid but in the Braconinae subfamily, is also reared from the fruit fly in its native range. The potential of these and other natural enemies is discussed with respect to olive fruit fly biology, commercial olive production, and biological constraints that may limit their success. We suggest that numerous species exist that should be further investigated as control agents for olive fruit fly in the many climatic regimes where the pest is found. PMID:19961328

  12. Role of soil microbial processes in integrated pest management

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Soil microorganisms play a significant role in the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycles in nature and are critical to the functioning of ecosystems. Microorganisms affect plant growth directly by regulating the availability of plant nutrients in soil, or indirectly by affecting the population dynamics of plant pathogens in soil. Any adverse effect on soil microorganisms or on the microbial processes will affect the soil fertility, availability of plant nutrients and the overall biogeochemical cycling of elements in nature. Soil microorganisms are responsible for the degradation and detoxification of pesticides; they control many insect pests, nematodes, and other plant pathogenic microorganisms by parasitism, competition, production of antibiotics and other toxic substances. Also, they regulate the availability of major and minor nutrients as well as essential elements. The long-term effects of continuous and, in some instances, excessive application of pesticides on soil fertility is not fully understood. Although much information is available on the integrated pest management (IPM) system, we have very little understanding of the extent of soil microbial processes which modulate the overall effectiveness of various strategies employed in IPM. The purpose of this paper is to review briefly the key microbial processes and their relationship to the IPM system.

  13. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system. PMID:26462829

  14. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system. PMID:26462829

  15. Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Child Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Abbey; Kalmar, Evie; Leonard, Victoria; Flint, Mary Louise; Kuo, Devina; Davidson, Nita; Bradman, Asa

    2012-01-01

    Young children and early care and education (ECE) staff are exposed to pesticides used to manage pests in ECE facilities in the United States and elsewhere. The objective of this pilot study was to encourage child care programs to reduce pesticide use and child exposures by developing and evaluating an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Toolkit for…

  16. Assessing Integrated Pest Management Adoption: Measurement Problems and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM—for whatever reason—and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption—weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management—and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

  17. Possible impact of radar on pest management operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainey, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Radar in making and maintaining contact with the most important populations of major pests in different stages of flight is presented. The desert locust and the African armyworm are discussed in understanding problems and developing a more effective control of pests.

  18. Manipulation of arthropod pathogens for integrated pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms and nematodes has been developed for microbial biological control of insect and other arthropod pests. These control agents have many characteristics that determine their capacities to provide reliable pest control, and these characteristics must be ta...

  19. Integrated pest management in the U.S.: progress and promise.

    PubMed Central

    Huffaker, C B; Croft, B A

    1976-01-01

    In the U.S., where heavy use of insecticides has been commonplace for years, the development of proper integrated insect pest control cannot get underway unless there is a changed use pattern for such chemicals. A changed use pattern, however, cannot be accomplished without much study to establish the requirements for integrated control for each major crop situation. In this paper recent developments in a number of crop areas in the U.S. in which the necessary study has been begun are reviewed. Important phases in the development of integrated control programs include: the single tactics phase, the multitactic phase, phase, the biological monitoring phase, the modeling phase, the management and optimization phase, and the implementation phase. Several crops are discussed in relation to how far along we are in the development of practical programs of insect pest control. These are cotton, apples, alfalfa, soybeans, citrus, corn, cereal grains, tobacco and pine forests. Several of these programs have already made substantial headway, e.g., those for cotton, alfalfa, apples, tobacco, and soybeans, although the accomplishments have not been even or parellel with respect to the phases of development where progress has been good. The review of developments in these crops suggests that programs of control for individual crops and perhaps for complexes of associated crops will be developed according to specific needs of the crop, the geographic area and the pests, the technologies available and the socioeconomic and political factors of relevance. The tendency will be toward greater use of science in pest control decision-making, with extensive use of biological monitoring to establish realistic levels of threatened damage to the crop, and greater concern given to possible profit reductions and environmental disturbances of applying an insecticide, as well as the possible gain from doing so. PMID:789064

  20. Potential of ‘lure and kill’ in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Lure and kill’ technology has been used for several decades in pest management and eradication of invasive species. In ‘lure and kill’, the insect pest attracted by a semiochemical lure is not ‘entrapped’ at the source of the attractant as in mass trapping, but instead the insect is subjected to a ...

  1. Pest Management and Environmental Quality. Course 181. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture, Family Living and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others

    This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…

  2. Integrating augmentative biocontrol and inherited sterility for management of lepidopteran pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pest management can benefit from the integration of biological control agents and the release of sterile insect pests (hosts). Released sterile or semi-sterile insects and their sterile progeny may augment natural enemies by serving as hosts for build-up of the natural enemies prior to the t...

  3. Bird cherry-oat aphid (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Aphidinae): Biology, pest status, and management in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a worldwide pest of wheat and other small grains. This paper provides an overview of BCOA life history, reviews its pest status in wheat, synthesizes and integrates information on different management strategies, and gives up-to-date inf...

  4. Sampling Plans, Selective Insecticides and Sustainability: The Case for IPM as ‘informed pest management’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IPM is considered the central paradigm of insect pest management and is often characterized as a comprehensive use of multiple control tactics to reduce pest status while minimizing economic and environmental costs. As the principal precursor of IPM, the integrated control concept formulated the ec...

  5. Pest Management and Environmental Quality. Course 181. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture, Family Living and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others

    This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…

  6. Effectiveness of Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Areawide Pest Management in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence and D. v. virgifera virgifera LeConte are serious pests of maize (Zea mays L.). The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service implemented a five year (1997-2001) areawide pest management program in five geographic locations, including one in S...

  7. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  8. Chemical Management System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-10-30

    CMS provides an inventory of all chemicals on order or being held in the laboratory, to provide a specific location for all chemical containers, to ensure that health and safety regulatory codes are being upheld, and to provide PNNL staff with hazardous chemical information to better manage their inventories. CMS is comprised of five major modules: 1) chemical purchasing, 2) chemical inventory, 3) chemical names, properties, and hazard groups, 4) reporting, and 5) system administration.

  9. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-03-11

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  10. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C. B.; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L. A.; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N.; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G.; Vanek, Steven J.; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A.; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was “insufficient training and technical support to farmers.” Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated “IPM requires collective action within a farming community” as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the “shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists.” Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  11. Sirex woodwasp: a model for evolving management paradigms of invasive forest pests.

    PubMed

    Slippers, Bernard; Hurley, Brett P; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The Sirex woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, and its fungal mutualist, Amylostereum areolatum, together constitute one of the most damaging invasive pests of pine. Despite a century of research and well-established management programs, control remains unpredictable and spread continues to new areas. Variable success in managing this pest has been influenced by complex invasion patterns, the multilayered nature of biological interactions, the varying local ecologies, and microevolutionary population processes in both the biocontrol organisms and in the wasps. Recent research findings are challenging the historical perspectives on methods to manage the Sirex woodwasp, calling for management programs to incorporate the variable local dynamics affecting this pest complex. In this regard, the Sirex woodwasp provides a superb model to illustrate the need for a different approach to develop efficient and sustainable management tools to deal with the growing and global nature of pest invasions in forests and plantations. PMID:25386723

  12. [Comprehensive assessment on management measures of rice insect pests].

    PubMed

    Luo, Shu-ping; Huang, Shou-shan; Liang, Guang-wen; Yuan, Wei; Liu, Jia-li; Zhang, Qing-wen; Liu, Xiao-xia

    2008-12-01

    Based on the investigation of arthropods biodiversity and insect pests controlling effect in the paddy fields of demonstration area of organic rice production in Guangzhou, a comprehensive assessment on the economic, social, and ecological profits and costs of organic rice production in study area was conducted by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The results indicated that among all insect pests controlling measures, organic rice planting had the best comprehensive benefits, with a weight value of 0.5355. Ecological cost played a dominant role in comprehensive costs, and that of traditional pesticide-based insect pests control was most cruel, with a weight value of comprehensive costs being 0.6252. From the viewpoint of the ratio of comprehensive profits to comprehensive costs (RPC), organic rice planting was better than any other insect pests controlling modes, whose RPC was 2.4776, being accorded with the requirement of sustainable development of agriculture. PMID:19288731

  13. Determination of pesticide residues in integrated pest management and nonintegrated pest management samples of apple (Malus pumila Mill.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Shashi Bala; Mukherjee, Irani; Maisnam, Jaya; Kumar, Praveen; Gopal, Madhuban; Kulshrestha, Gita

    2009-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to analyze the residues of commonly used pesticides viz. chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, propargite, malathion, phorate, carbendazim, carbosulfan, thiamethoxam, and mancozeb in apple of integrated pest management (IPM) and non-IPM samples collected from the IPM and non-IPM fields of Shimla. We also present a method for the determination of these pesticides in apple samples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and propargite were analyzed by gas chromatography, while residues of carbendazim, carbosulfan, and thiamethoxam were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Residues of mancozeb were determined by a colorimetric method. Recoveries of all of the pesticides ranged from 61.30 to 95.46% at 0.1, 0.2, and 1.0 microg g(-1) levels of fortification with relative standard deviations ranging between 0.8 and 8.7. Apples from IPM and non-IPM orchards were analyzed for these pesticides using a developed method. Except for carbendazim and chlorpyrifos, the residues of all of the pesticides analyzed were below detectable limits. Although residues of carbendazim and chlorpyrifos were below the prescribed limits of maximum residue levels in both IPM and non-IPM orchards, residues were lower in apples from IPM orchards. PMID:19904932

  14. Who Wants To Be an IPM Super Sleuth? Integrated Pest Management Educational Activities & Resources for Kids of All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walejko, Gina K.; Colon, Joseph L.

    This guide presents games and activities on integrated pest management (IPM) for home targeting grades 1-7. The activities and games use a problem-solving approach based on pest knowledge to develop an understanding of pest management. Three cases are presented: (1) "Inspection is the Key to IPM Success" includes two activities--"Word Searches"…

  15. Integrated pest management is the lucrative bridge connecting the ever emerging knowledge islands of genetics and ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management has long been considered a profit- and product (or technology)-driven multidisciplinary research field that maximizes crop yield and minimizes pest-inflicted economic losses. The introduction of transgenic crops has revolutionized crop protection and pest management by com...

  16. Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  17. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  18. Incorporating pest management into the design of multiple goal-oriented cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Suggestions are offered to facilitate efforts to incorporate pest management goals into the design of crop production systems. The scope of research programs should be expanded to ensure broad multidisciplinary cooperation. Inclusion of farmers, production specialists and researchers from discipli...

  19. Use of Airborne Multi-Spectral Imagery in Pest Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  20. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    PubMed

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-01

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants. PMID:26458882

  1. Pest management of a prey-predator model with sexual favoritism.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yongzhen; Yang, Yong; Li, Changguo; Chen, Lansun

    2009-06-01

    Although sex of prey is an important factor for the risk of predating, few articles consider the consequences of sexual favoritism and the corresponding effects on the impulsive predator-prey dynamics and its utility in biological control. This paper investigates the pest management strategy of a prey-predator system model with sexual favoritism. An impulsive differential equation which models the process of periodically releasing natural enemies and spraying pesticides at different fixed time for pest control is proposed and investigated. It is proved that the pest-eradication periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is greater than some critical value. Permanent conditions are established under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is less than another critical value. In particular, two single control strategies are proposed. Furthermore, we compare three pest control strategies and find that if we choose narrow-spectrum pesticides that targeted to a specific pest's life cycle to kill the pest, then the combined strategy is preferable. Finally, the corresponding system with no sexual favoritism is investigated. The results indicate that we can release fewer amount of the predators to eliminate the preys with sexual favoritism than without and any strong sexual favoritism will drive the pest towards extinction. In view of the biological meaning, the sexual favoritism plays a more active role in suppressing insect pests. PMID:19015368

  2. Insect ryanodine receptors: molecular targets for novel pest control chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sattelle, David B; Cordova, Daniel; Cheek, Timothy R

    2008-09-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated calcium channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. They are located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle and the endoplasmic reticulum of neurons and many other cell types. Ryanodine, a plant alkaloid and an important ligand used to characterize and purify the receptor, has served as a natural botanical insecticide, but attempts to generate synthetic commercial analogues of ryanodine have proved unsuccessful. Recently two classes of synthetic chemicals have emerged resulting in commercial insecticides that target insect RyRs. The phthalic acid diamide class has yielded flubendiamide, the first synthetic ryanodine receptor insecticide to be commercialized. Shortly after the discovery of the phthalic diamides, the anthranilic diamides were discovered. This class has produced the insecticides Rynaxypyr and Cyazypyr. Here we review the structure and functions of insect RyRs and address the modes of action of phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides on insect ryanodine receptors. Particularly intersting is the inherent selectivity both chemical classes exhibit for insect RyRs over their mammalian counterparts. The future prospects for RyRs as a commercially-validated target site for insect control chemicals are also considered. PMID:18696132

  3. Integrated Pest Management, Preliminary. Curriculum Guide and Instructional Materials for a Secondary School Vo-Ag Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady County Board of Education, Cairo, GA.

    This curriculum guide presents methods to disseminate information to students interested in dealing with pests, or who have concerns about the environmental impacts of modern pest control methods. Options are encouraged for pest control methods using a combination of natural, biological, cultural, and chemical means of control. Specifically…

  4. Integrated Pest Management, Preliminary. Curriculum Guide and Instructional Materials for a Secondary School Vo-Ag Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady County Board of Education, Cairo, GA.

    This curriculum guide presents methods to disseminate information to students interested in dealing with pests, or who have concerns about the environmental impacts of modern pest control methods. Options are encouraged for pest control methods using a combination of natural, biological, cultural, and chemical means of control. Specifically…

  5. Insect Pest Management in Food Legumes: Future Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food legumes such as chickpea, pigeonpea, cowpea, field pea, lentil, faba bean, blackgram, greengram, grasspea, and Phaseolus beans play an important role in the daily diets of people worldwide. A large number of insect pests attack these crops and cause extensive losses, namely Helicoverpa pod bo...

  6. Mendel’s legacy lives through management of sugarcane pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomology and classical Mendelian genetics have had a long association and Mendel’s legacy continues to live through sugarcane pests. In this paper, we discuss examples of that legacy as applied to conventional and molecular approaches to breeding for insect resistance. We also discuss the applicat...

  7. Collaborating with wheat producers in demonstrating areawide integrated pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the fall of 2001, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) initiated a five-year areawide demonstration program for suppression of two significant pests of winter wheat, the Russian wheat aphid and greenbug. A cooperative research team was assembled from five universities—the University...

  8. Integrated pest management policies in America's schools: is federal legislation needed?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrea Kidd; Esdaille, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    America's school children are at risk of developing asthma and other respiratory illnesses as a result of exposure to hazardous pesticides. Integrated pest management (IPM) policies are being implemented in states and school districts across the country; however, the content and regulation of these policies vary. The need for standardization of such policies and a federal IPM law is the only way to ensure that children in America's schools are adequately protected from exposure to hazardous pesticides used to control pests. PMID:20359992

  9. Farm operator perceptions of water quality protective pest management practices: Selected survey findings

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.; Blair, J.; Webb, B.

    1995-12-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture often poses a tension between water quality and environmental protection goals on the one hand and the viability of food supplies on the other hand. Pesticides used for field crops (e.g., corn, soy beans and wheat) have been detected in waterbodies, and according to some studies, are apparently finding their way into water supplies. A considerable amount of discretion is allowed in farm operator`s choice of pest management practices, and voluntary behavior becomes an important factor in promoting environmentally protective practices. Thus, it is important to know the attitudes of farmers who make pest management decisions including pesticide choices, toward the use of various water quality protective pest management practices. A number of studies show that more general environmental attitudes reflect a general world view that shapes attitudes toward particular environmental issues. This paper addresses the relationship between the more general environmental attitudes of farmers to their attitudes toward water quality issues and pest management practices which are protective of water quality. Some of the personal tradeoffs farmers are willing to make to enhance environmental controls on pesticides are also explored. Results are based on preliminary findings from a survey of farm operators who grow corn, soybeans and other field crops in three eastern states. The survey was conducted via a mail questionnaire to 2,700 farmers with telephone follow-up during the Fall of 1994. Implications of the findings for pest management in general are discussed.

  10. MICROBIAL CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pathogens are an alternative to chemical insecticides in an integrated pest management program. This chapter gives details on how to employ insect pathogens to manage insect pests of corn. Techniques for selection, formulation, application, and efficacy evaluation are given for viruses, mic...

  11. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Bustillo, Alex E; Arthurs, Steven P

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers' conditions. PMID:26848690

  12. Concepts of sustainability, motivations for pest management approaches, and implications for communicating change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective communication with farmers is an essential component of impacting their decision processes and encouraging changes in pest management practices, but requires a system of research and extension management that differs from that to which most biological scientists are accustomed. We present...

  13. Sex pheromones and their impact on pest management.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Kirsch, Philipp; Cork, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The idea of using species-specific behavior-modifying chemicals for the management of noxious insects in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, stored products, and for insect vectors of diseases has been a driving ambition through five decades of pheromone research. Hundreds of pheromones and other semiochemicals have been discovered that are used to monitor the presence and abundance of insects and to protect plants and animals against insects. The estimated annual production of lures for monitoring and mass trapping is on the order of tens of millions, covering at least 10 million hectares. Insect populations are controlled by air permeation and attract-and-kill techniques on at least 1 million hectares. Here, we review the most important and widespread practical applications. Pheromones are increasingly efficient at low population densities, they do not adversely affect natural enemies, and they can, therefore, bring about a long-term reduction in insect populations that cannot be accomplished with conventional insecticides. A changing climate with higher growing season temperatures and altered rainfall patterns makes control of native and invasive insects an increasingly urgent challenge. Intensified insecticide use will not provide a solution, but pheromones and other semiochemicals instead can be implemented for sustainable area-wide management and will thus improve food security for a growing population. Given the scale of the challenges we face to mitigate the impacts of climate change, the time is right to intensify goal-oriented interdisciplinary research on semiochemicals, involving chemists, entomologists, and plant protection experts, in order to provide the urgently needed, and cost-effective technical solutions for sustainable insect management worldwide. PMID:20108027

  14. Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.

    PubMed Central

    Cardé, R T

    1976-01-01

    Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

  15. The applicability of remote sensing to Earth biological problems. Part 2: The potential of remote sensing in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhemus, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.

  16. The Rise and Demise of Integrated Pest Management in Rice in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia’s 11-year (1989–1999) National Integrated Pest Management Program was a spectacularly successful example of wide-scale adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) principles and practice in a developing country. This program introduced the innovative Farmer Field School model of agro-ecosystem-based experiential learning, subsequently adapted to different crops and agricultural systems in countries throughout the world. Since the termination of the program in 1999, Indonesia has undergone profound changes as the country enters a new era of democratic reform. Government support for the national IPM program has wavered during this period, and pesticide producers and traders have taken advantage of the policy vacuum to mount an aggressive marketing campaign in the countryside. These factors have contributed to a reappearance of the pesticide-induced resurgent pest problems that led to the establishment of the National IPM Program in the first place.

  17. The ABCs of Non-Toxic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pest management approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…

  18. The ABCs of Non-Toxic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pest management approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…

  19. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research in application technology for pest management.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A; Thomson, S J

    2003-01-01

    A research summary is presented that emphasizes ARS achievements in application technology over the past 2-3 years. Research focused on the improvement of agricultural pesticide application is important from the standpoint of crop protection as well as environmental safety. Application technology research is being actively pursued within the ARS, with a primary focus on application system development, drift management, efficacy enhancement and remote sensing. Research on application systems has included sensor-controlled hooded sprayers, new approaches to direct chemical injection, and aerial electrostatic sprayers. For aerial application, great improvements in on-board flow controllers permit accurate field application of chemicals. Aircraft parameters such as boom position and spray release height are being altered to determine their effect on drift. Other drift management research has focused on testing of low-drift nozzles, evaluation of pulsed spray technologies and evaluation of drift control adjuvants. Research on the use of air curtain sprayers in orchards, air-assist sprayers for row crops and vegetables, and air deflectors on aircraft has documented improvements in application efficacy. Research has shown that the fate of applied chemicals is influenced by soil properties, and this has implications for herbicide efficacy and dissipation in the environment. Remote sensing systems are being used to target areas in the field where pests are present so that spray can be directed to only those areas. Soil and crop conditions influence propensity for weeds and insects to proliferate in any given field area. Research has indicated distinct field patterns favorable for weed growth and insect concentration, which can provide further assistance for targeted spraying. PMID:12846320

  20. Integrated pest management and weed management in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Owen, Micheal D K; Beckie, Hugh J; Leeson, Julia Y; Norsworthy, Jason K; Steckel, Larry E

    2015-03-01

    There is interest in more diverse weed management tactics because of evolved herbicide resistance in important weeds in many US and Canadian crop systems. While herbicide resistance in weeds is not new, the issue has become critical because of the adoption of simple, convenient and inexpensive crop systems based on genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant crop cultivars. Importantly, genetic engineering has not been a factor in rice and wheat, two globally important food crops. There are many tactics that help to mitigate herbicide resistance in weeds and should be widely adopted. Evolved herbicide resistance in key weeds has influenced a limited number of growers to include a more diverse suite of tactics to supplement existing herbicidal tactics. Most growers still emphasize herbicides, often to the exclusion of alternative tactics. Application of integrated pest management for weeds is better characterized as integrated weed management, and more typically integrated herbicide management. However, adoption of diverse weed management tactics is limited. Modifying herbicide use will not solve herbicide resistance in weeds, and the relief provided by different herbicide use practices is generally short-lived at best. More diversity of tactics for weed management must be incorporated in crop systems. PMID:25346235

  1. Social Capital and Geography of Learning: Roles in Accelerating the Spread of Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Florencia G.; Morin, Stephen; Hossain, Mahabub

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to show the relevance of spatial proximity and social capital in accelerating the spread of agricultural technologies such as integrated pest management (IPM). The research was done in response to the problem of slow diffusion of agricultural technologies. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in investigating the…

  2. Can Pesticide Delivery Methods Play a Role in Sustainable Pest Management?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional insecticides continue to play an important role in greenhouse pest management programs. Penetrating a dense plant canopy can be difficult with a handgun, and there is some evidence that boom sprayers or broadcast applications result in a more uniform deposition than handguns. A large-...

  3. RNA interference: Applications and advances in insect toxicology and insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ho; Soumaila Issa, Moustapha; Cooper, Anastasia M W; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-05-01

    Since its discovery, RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized functional genomic studies due to its sequence-specific nature of post-transcriptional gene silencing. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature and summarize the current knowledge and advances in the applications of RNAi technologies in the field of insect toxicology and insect pest management. Many recent studies have focused on identification and validation of the genes encoding insecticide target proteins, such as acetylcholinesterases, ion channels, Bacillus thuringiensis receptors, and other receptors in the nervous system. RNAi technologies have also been widely applied to reveal the role of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases in insecticide detoxification and resistance. More recently, studies have focused on understanding the mechanism of insecticide-mediated up-regulation of detoxification genes in insects. As RNAi has already shown great potentials for insect pest management, many recent studies have also focused on host-induced gene silencing, in which several RNAi-based transgenic plants have been developed and tested as proof of concept for insect pest management. These studies indicate that RNAi is a valuable tool to address various fundamental questions in insect toxicology and may soon become an effective strategy for insect pest management. PMID:25987228

  4. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  5. Emerging issues in Integrated Pest Management implementation and adoption in the North Central USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a long tradition of integrated pest management (IPM) in the North Central region of the U.S. IPM is difficult to define, and it means different things to different people. But in general it is a philosophy based on multiple tactics to prevent a population from building up to unacceptable da...

  6. Organic fruit production needs and pest management practices in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2004, client-based focus groups identified several needs for organic fruit production in the Southeastern USA: establish “go-to” personnel to increase interaction between researchers and organic producers; conduct more science-based research on soil, pest and nutrient management; develop informat...

  7. Directional flow of aeration to manage insect pests in stored wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using low-volume ambient air to cool stored grain is a common management practice in the southern plains, but little research has been done recently to determine if the direction of airflow makes a difference regarding the cooling and insect pest populations. We conducted a study by using suction ae...

  8. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. 205.206 Section 205.206 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  9. Effect of pest management system on 'Empire' apple leaf phyllosphere populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phyllosphere of plant tissues is varied and dynamic. Pest management, time of sampling, proximity to immigration sources, tissue and tissue status such as leaf/fruit age and location within the canopy, and other environmental and biological factors interact to influence the composition and abun...

  10. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  11. Social Capital and Geography of Learning: Roles in Accelerating the Spread of Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Florencia G.; Morin, Stephen; Hossain, Mahabub

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to show the relevance of spatial proximity and social capital in accelerating the spread of agricultural technologies such as integrated pest management (IPM). The research was done in response to the problem of slow diffusion of agricultural technologies. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in investigating the…

  12. Initiation of a USDA, ARS Area-Wide Methyl Bromide Alternatives Pest Management Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In March, 2006 USDA, ARS decided to establish a 5-year AW Pest Management Project on alternatives to MB. The work will focus on pre-plant alternatives to MB for soil fumigation and occur in the most severely impacted agricultural production systems in South Atlantic and Pacific regions of the U.S.,...

  13. LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY ACTIONS AFFECTING INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT FOR POST-HARVEST SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) has resulted in policy interpretations and regulatory decisions that have severely impacted insect pest management programs for stored products in the United States. The food safety aspects of this law, especially as targeted to children and other vulnerab...

  14. Manipulation of parasitoids for aphid pest management: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Powell, Wilf; Pickett, John A

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes research at IACR-Rothamsted on aphid parasitoid responses to semiochemical foraging stimuli, aimed at developing novel ways of manipulating these behaviours to overcome ecological constraints to biological and integrated pest control. Female parasitoids respond both to aphid sex pheromones acting as kairomones, and to aphid-induced plant volatiles, acting as synomones. A range of economically important parasitoid species respond to aphid sex pheromones, and their potential for enhancing parasitization of aphid populations has been demonstrated in the field. Commercial production of the pheromone from the plant Nepeta cataria L has been developed and strategies for its use in arable crops are being investigated. Aphid-induced plant volatiles are released systemically throughout the plant and are aphid species specific, probably induced by elicitors in aphid saliva. Aphid-infested plants can induce uninfested neighbours to release damage-related volatiles, plant-to-plant communication occurring via the rhizosphere. The plant compound cis-jasmone has been identified as a plant signal with potential for aphid control, inducing plant defence mechanisms that both deter colonising aphids and attract parasitoids and predators. Such compounds may represent a new generation of crop protectants and their further investigation and development will be aided by the tools generated by genomic and post-genomic biology. PMID:12587868

  15. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Brazilian Populations of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Implications for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Santos, Thiago V; Cônsoli, Fernando L; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is the main pest of sugarcane in Brazil. Genetic variability and gene flow among 13 Brazilian populations of the species were evaluated based on mitochondrial DNA sequences to estimate the exchange of genetic information within and among populations. We found high genetic structure among sampled localities (?ST=0.50923), and pairwise genetic distances were significantly correlated to geographic distances. Demographic analysis and genealogical network of mitochondrial sequences indicate population growth and admixture of D. saccharalis populations, events likely related to the sequential expansion of the corn and sugarcane crops in Brazil. The implications of these findings for pest management are discussed. PMID:26470135

  16. Fitness trade-offs in pest management and intercropping with colour: an evolutionary framework and potential application

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    An important modern goal of plant science research is to develop tools for agriculturalists effective at curbing yield losses to insect herbivores, but resistance evolution continuously threatens the efficacy of pest management strategies. The high-dose/refuge strategy has been employed with some success to curb pest adaptation, and has been shown to be most effective when fitness costs (fitness trade-offs) of resistance are high. Here, I use eco-evolutionary reasoning to demonstrate the general importance of fitness trade-offs for pest control, showing that strong fitness trade-offs mitigate the threat of pest adaptation, even if adaptation were to occur. I argue that novel pest management strategies evoking strong fitness trade-offs are the most likely to persist in the face of unbridled pest adaptation, and offer the manipulation of crop colours as a worked example of one potentially effective strategy against insect herbivores. PMID:26495038

  17. Fitness trade-offs in pest management and intercropping with colour: an evolutionary framework and potential application.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Timothy E

    2015-10-01

    An important modern goal of plant science research is to develop tools for agriculturalists effective at curbing yield losses to insect herbivores, but resistance evolution continuously threatens the efficacy of pest management strategies. The high-dose/refuge strategy has been employed with some success to curb pest adaptation, and has been shown to be most effective when fitness costs (fitness trade-offs) of resistance are high. Here, I use eco-evolutionary reasoning to demonstrate the general importance of fitness trade-offs for pest control, showing that strong fitness trade-offs mitigate the threat of pest adaptation, even if adaptation were to occur. I argue that novel pest management strategies evoking strong fitness trade-offs are the most likely to persist in the face of unbridled pest adaptation, and offer the manipulation of crop colours as a worked example of one potentially effective strategy against insect herbivores. PMID:26495038

  18. An impulsive predator-prey model with disease in the prey for integrated pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ruiqing; Chen, Lansun

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, an impulsive predator-prey model with disease in the prey is investigated for the purpose of integrated pest management. In the first part of the main results, we get the sufficient condition for the global stability of the susceptible pest-eradication periodic solution. This means if the release amount of infective prey and predator satisfy the condition, then the pest will be doomed. In the second part of the main results, we also get the sufficient condition for the permanence of the system. This means if the release amount of infective prey and predator satisfy the condition, then the prey and the predator will coexist. In the last section, we interpret our mathematical results. We also point out some possible future work.

  19. Reducing the risk of invasive forest pests and pathogens: Combining legislation, targeted management and public awareness.

    PubMed

    Klapwijk, Maartje J; Hopkins, Anna J M; Eriksson, Louise; Pettersson, Maria; Schroeder, Martin; Lindelöw, Åke; Rönnberg, Jonas; Keskitalo, E Carina H; Kenis, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Intensifying global trade will result in increased numbers of plant pest and pathogen species inadvertently being transported along with cargo. This paper examines current mechanisms for prevention and management of potential introductions of forest insect pests and pathogens in the European Union (EU). Current European legislation has not been found sufficient in preventing invasion, establishment and spread of pest and pathogen species within the EU. Costs associated with future invasions are difficult to estimate but past invasions have led to negative economic impacts in the invaded country. The challenge is combining free trade and free movement of products (within the EU) with protection against invasive pests and pathogens. Public awareness may mobilise the public for prevention and detection of potential invasions and, simultaneously, increase support for eradication and control measures. We recommend focus on commodities in addition to pathways, an approach within the EU using a centralised response unit and, critically, to engage the general public in the battle against establishment and spread of these harmful pests and pathogens. PMID:26744056

  20. MONITORING FOR PEST ACTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management programs for food processing and storage facilities depend on an effective pest-monitoring program. In turn, the foundation of a pest-monitoring program is an understanding of pest behavior and ecology. In this presentation, I will cover issues related to determining pes...

  1. General rules for managing and surveying networks of pests, diseases, and endangered species

    PubMed Central

    Chadès, Iadine; Martin, Tara G.; Nicol, Samuel; Burgman, Mark A.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    The efficient management of diseases, pests, or endangered species is an important global issue faced by agencies constrained by limited resources. The management challenge is even greater when organisms are difficult to detect. We show how to prioritize management and survey effort across time and space for networks of susceptible–infected–susceptible subpopulations. We present simple and robust rules of thumb for protecting desirable, or eradicating undesirable, subpopulations connected in typical network patterns (motifs). We further demonstrate that these rules can be generalized to larger networks when motifs are combined in more complex formations. Results show that the best location to manage or survey a pest or a disease on a network is also the best location to protect or survey an endangered species. The optimal starting point in a network is the fastest motif to manage, where line, star, island, and cluster motifs range from fast to slow. Managing the most connected node at the right time and maintaining the same management direction provide advantages over previously recommended outside–in strategies. When a species or disease is not detected and our belief in persistence decreases, our results recommend shifting resources toward management or surveillance of the most connected nodes. Our analytic approximation provides guidance on how long we should manage or survey networks for hard-to-detect organisms. Our rules take into account management success, dispersal, economic cost, and imperfect detection and offer managers a practical basis for managing networks relevant to many significant environmental, biosecurity, and human health issues. PMID:21536884

  2. Duality in Phase Space and Complex Dynamics of an Integrated Pest Management Network Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Baoyin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    Fragmented habitat patches between which plants and animals can disperse can be modeled as networks with varying degrees of connectivity. A predator-prey model with network structures is proposed for integrated pest management (IPM) with impulsive control actions. The model was analyzed using numerical methods to investigate how factors such as the impulsive period, the releasing constant of natural enemies and the mode of connections between the patches affect pest outbreak patterns and the success or failure of pest control. The concept of the cluster as defined by Holland and Hastings is used to describe variations in results ranging from global synchrony when all patches have identical fluctuations to n-cluster solutions with all patches having different dynamics. Heterogeneity in the initial densities of either pest or natural enemy generally resulted in a variety of cluster oscillations. Surprisingly, if n > 1, the clusters fall into two groups one with low amplitude fluctuations and the other with high amplitude fluctuations (i.e. duality in phase space), implying that control actions radically alter the system's characteristics by inducing duality and more complex dynamics. When the impulsive period is small enough, i.e. the control strategy is undertaken frequently, the pest can be eradicated. As the period increases, the pest's dynamics shift from a steady state to become chaotic with periodic windows and more multicluster oscillations arise for heterogenous initial density distributions. Period-doubling bifurcation and periodic halving cascades occur as the releasing constant of the natural enemy increases. For the same ecological system with five differently connected networks, as the randomness of the connectedness increases, the transient duration becomes smaller and the probability of multicluster oscillations appearing becomes higher.

  3. The Argentine ant: challenges in managing an invasive unicolonial pest.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jules; Brightwell, Robert John

    2008-01-01

    The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, has invaded urban, agricultural, and natural habitats worldwide, causing economic damage and disrupting ecosystem processes. Introduced populations of L. humile and those of many other invasive ants tend to be unicolonial, forming expansive, multiqueened supercolonies that dominate native ant communities and challenge control practices in managed habitats. Argentine ant management typically entails the application of residual insecticide liquids, granules, or baits to only a portion of the colony, resulting in fairly rapid reinfestation. We suggest that prevailing control methodologies are incomplete and not compatible with the behavior, nesting habits, and population structure of this ant, and therefore, more aggressive management strategies are required. Successful eradication efforts against other invasive unicolonial ant species can provide useful insights for local-scale L. humile eradication. PMID:17877449

  4. Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

  5. REMOTE SENSING AND SITE SPECIFIC MANAGEMENT OF COTTON PESTS IN EXPERIMENTALAND FARM FIELDS IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect and mite pests frequently cause major crop losses in cotton and often require expensive whole-field applications of pesticides. Site specific management of insect pests has recently been successfully practiced at the farm level using remote sensing to direct variable rate insecticide applicat...

  6. 'Predator-In-First’: A novel bioControl strategy for managing thrips and other key pests in pepper crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management in the vegetable and ornamental plant industries in Florida is facing great challenges due to the recent introduction of several invasive pests. Among them, chilli thrips is causing major problems due to its polyphagous nature, lack of effective residual insecticides, and limited ava...

  7. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  8. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  9. The role of databases in areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A database is a comprehensive collection of related data organized for convenient access, generally in a computer. The evolution of computer software and the need to distinguish the specialized computer systems for storing and manipulating data, stimulated development of database management systems...

  10. Evaluating environmental and economic consequences of alternative pest management strategies: results of modeling workshops

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Richard L.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.L.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.; McNamee, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The model conceptualized at the first workshop simulates the effect of corn agrecosystem decisions on crop production, economic returns, and environmental indicators. The model is composed of five interacting submodels: 1) a Production Strategies submodel which makes decisions concerning tillage, planting, fertilizer and pesticide applications, and harvest; 2) a Hydrology/Chemical Transport submodel which represents soil hydrology, erosion, and concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides in the soil, runoff, surface waters, and percolation; 3) a Vegetation submodel which simulates growth of agricultural crops (corns and soybeans) and weeds; 4) a Pests submodel which calculates pest population levels and resulting crop damage; and 5) an Environmental Effects submodel which calculates indicators of potential fish kills, human health effects, and wildlife habitat. The most persistent data gaps encountered in quantifying the model were coefficients to relate environmental consequences to alternative pest management strategies. While the model developed in the project is not yet accurate enough to be used for real-world decisions about the use of pesticides on corn, it does contain the basic structure upon which such a model could be built. More importantly at this stage of development, the project has shown that very complex systems can be modeled in short periods of time and that the process of building such models increases understanding among disciplinary specialists and between diverse institutional interests. This process can be useful to EPA as the agency cooperates with other institutions to meet its responsibilities in less costly ways. Activities at the second 2 1/2-day workshop included a review of the model, incorporation of necessary corrections, simulation of policy scenarios, and examination of techniques to address remaining institutional conflicts. Participants were divided into three groups representing environmental, production or industry, and regulatory interests. Each group developed scenarios that would be most appealing to their particular interest and the scenarios were simulated by the agroecosystem computer model. Negotiators from each of the interest groups decided whether a hypothetical herbicide should be relabeled and if certain restrictions should be imposed on its use. Other participants functioned as experts and consultants on caucus teams. A solution to the hypothetical problem was successfully negotiated. Workshop participants and project staff agreed that the model and processes developed during the project should be used in training students, extension specialists, farmers, researchers, and chemical producers in collaborative problem solving methods. More productive research can be planned, and more realistic models of complex systems can be built in this way. More importantly, greater trust of decisionmakers in computer models, better understanding by technical experts about disciplines other than their own, and improved cooperation between institutional interests can be achieved. This trust, understanding, and cooperation are critical ingredients in solving problems that are too complex to be resolved by independent disciplinary activity and unilateral decision authority.

  11. Bridging Disciplines, Knowledge Systems and Cultures in Pest Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Will; Ogilvie, Shaun; Blackie, Helen; Smith, Des; Sam, Shona; Doherty, James; McKenzie, Don; Ataria, James; Shapiro, Lee; MacKay, Jamie; Murphy, Elaine; Jacobson, Chris; Eason, Charles

    2014-02-01

    The success of research in integrated environmental and natural resource management relies on the participation and involvement of different disciplines and stakeholders. This can be difficult to achieve in practice because many initiatives fail to address the underlying social processes required for successful engagement and social learning. We used an action research approach to support a research-based group with a range of disciplinary and stakeholder expertise to critically reflect on their engagement practice and identify lessons around how to collaborate more effectively. This approach is provided here as a guide that can be used to support reflective research practice for engagement in other integration-based initiatives. This paper is set in the context of an integrated wildlife management research case study in New Zealand. We illustrate how multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches can provide a framework for considering the different conversations that need to occur in an integrated research program. We then outline rubrics that list the criteria required in inter- and trans-disciplinary collaborations, along with examples of effective engagement processes that directly support integration through such efforts. Finally, we discuss the implications of these experiences for other researchers and managers seeking to improve engagement and collaboration in integrated science, management and policy initiatives. Our experiences reaffirm the need for those involved in integrative initiatives to attend to the processes of engagement in both formal and informal settings, to provide opportunities for critical reflective practice, and to look for measures of success that acknowledge the importance of effective social process.

  12. General Biology and Current Management Approaches of Soft Scale Pests (Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Ernesto Robayo; Chong, Juang-Horng

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the economic importance, biology, and management of soft scales, focusing on pests of agricultural, horticultural, and silvicultural crops in outdoor production systems and urban landscapes. We also provide summaries on voltinism, crawler emergence timing, and predictive models for crawler emergence to assist in developing soft scale management programs. Phloem-feeding soft scale pests cause direct (e.g., injuries to plant tissues and removal of nutrients) and indirect damage (e.g., reduction in photosynthesis and aesthetic value by honeydew and sooty mold). Variations in life cycle, reproduction, fecundity, and behavior exist among congenerics due to host, environmental, climatic, and geographical variations. Sampling of soft scale pests involves sighting the insects or their damage, and assessing their abundance. Crawlers of most univoltine species emerge in the spring and the summer. Degree-day models and plant phenological indicators help determine the initiation of sampling and treatment against crawlers (the life stage most vulnerable to contact insecticides). The efficacy of cultural management tactics, such as fertilization, pruning, and irrigation, in reducing soft scale abundance is poorly documented. A large number of parasitoids and predators attack soft scale populations in the field; therefore, natural enemy conservation by using selective insecticides is important. Systemic insecticides provide greater flexibility in application method and timing, and have longer residual longevity than contact insecticides. Application timing of contact insecticides that coincides with crawler emergence is most effective in reducing soft scale abundance. PMID:26823990

  13. Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

  14. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

  15. Exploitation of insect vibrational signals reveals a new method of pest management.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726

  16. Exploitation of Insect Vibrational Signals Reveals a New Method of Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726

  17. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    PubMed Central

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2012-01-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

  18. Integrated Pest Management for the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) - a Potato Pest of Global Importance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato tuber moth, which originated in tropical mountainous regions of South America, is the most economically important pest of potato in developing tropical and subtropical countries. Today, it is distributed worldwide and is established in more than 90 countries including countries in tempera...

  19. Pest and Disease Management: Why We Shouldn't Go against the Grain

    PubMed Central

    Skelsey, Peter; With, Kimberly A.; Garrett, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Given the wide range of scales and mechanisms by which pest or disease agents disperse, it is unclear whether there might exist a general relationship between scale of host heterogeneity and spatial spread that could be exploited by available management options. In this model-based study, we investigate the interaction between host distributions and the spread of pests and diseases using an array of models that encompass the dispersal and spread of a diverse range of economically important species: a major insect pest of coniferous forests in western North America, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae); the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, one of the most-widespread and best-studied bacterial plant pathogens; the mosquito Culex erraticus, an important vector for many human and animal pathogens, including West Nile Virus; and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Our model results reveal an interesting general phenomenon: a unimodal (‘humpbacked’) relationship in the magnitude of infestation (an index of dispersal or population spread) with increasing grain size (i.e., the finest scale of patchiness) in the host distribution. Pest and disease management strategies targeting different aspects of host pattern (e.g., abundance, aggregation, isolation, quality) modified the shape of this relationship, but not the general unimodal form. This is a previously unreported effect that provides insight into the spatial scale at which management interventions are most likely to be successful, which, notably, do not always match the scale corresponding to maximum infestation. Our findings could provide a new basis for explaining historical outbreak events, and have implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness. PMID:24098739

  20. Current status of non-chemical methods for control of insect pests in dried fruits and nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regulatory agencies and consumers have no tolerance for live insects in dried fruit and tree nut commodities; consequently, successful marketing of these products requires postharvest treatments designed to kill any pest insects. Recent regulatory actions have severely limited the use of chemical fu...

  1. Bioeconomics of managing the spread of exotic pest species with barrier zones.

    PubMed

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2004-08-01

    Exotic pests are serious threats to North American ecosystems; thus, economic analysis of decisions about eradication, stopping, or slowing their spread may be critical to ecosystem management. The proposed bioeconomic model assumes that the rate of population expansion can be reduced (even to negative values in a case of eradication) if certain management actions are taken along the population front. The area of management can be viewed as a dynamic barrier zone that moves together with the population front. The lower is the target rate of spread, the higher would be both benefits and costs of the project. The problem is to find the optimal target rate of spread at which the present value of net benefits from managing population spread reaches its maximum value. If a population spreads along an infinite habitat strip, the target rate of spread is optimal if the slope of the cost function versus the rate of spread is equal to the ratio of the average pest-related damage per unit time and unit area to the discount rate. In a more complex model where the potential area of expansion is limited, two local maxima of net benefits may exist: one for eradication and another for slowing the spread. If both maxima are present, their heights are compared and the strategy that corresponds to a higher value of net benefits is selected. The optimal strategy changes from eradication to slowing the spread and finally to doing nothing as the area occupied by the species increases. The model shows that slowing the spread of pest species generates economic benefits even if a relatively small area remains uninfested. The cost of slowing the spread can be estimated from a model of population expansion via establishment of isolated colonies beyond the moving front. The model is applied to managing the spread of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) populations in the United States. PMID:15357807

  2. Integrated pest management concepts for red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Drees, Bastiaan M; Calixto, Alejandro A; Nester, Paul R

    2013-08-01

    Management of imported fire ant species has evolved since their accidental introduction into the United States and currently uses integrated pest management concepts to design, implement, and evaluate suppression programs. Although eradication is the management goal in certain isolated infestation sites, localized goals vary dramatically in larger infestations where reinvasion of treated areas is likely. These goals are influenced by regulatory policies, medical liabilities, ecological impact, and/or economic considerations. Tactics employed in fire ant management programs presented here include cultural and biological control options along with judicious use of site-specific insecticide products. In addition, program design considerations that include management goal(s), action level(s), ant form (monogyne or polygyne), presence of nontarget ant species, size of treatment area, seasonality, implementation cost, and environmental impact are also presented. Optimally, elegant IPM programs are target specific, threshold driven, environmentally friendly and cost-effective. PMID:23955939

  3. The novel ABC transporter ABCH1 is a potential target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests cause serious crop damage and develop high-level resistance to chemical insecticides and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal Cry toxins. A new promising approach for controlling them and overcoming this resistance is RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi-based insect control strategy depends on the selection of suitable target genes. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel ABC transporter gene PxABCH1 in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that PxABCH1 is closely related to ABCA and ABCG subfamily members. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that PxABCH1 was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in head and male adult. Midgut sequence variation and expression analyses of PxABCH1 in all the susceptible and Bt-resistant P. xylostella strains and the functional analysis by sublethal RNAi demonstrated that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of this gene. Silencing of PxABCH1 by a relatively high dose of dsRNA dramatically reduced its expression and resulted in larval and pupal lethal phenotypes in both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella strains. To our knowledge, this study provides the first insight into ABCH1 in lepidopterans and reveals it as an excellent target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management. PMID:26333918

  4. Impact of combining planting date and chemical control to reduce larval densities of stem-infesting pests of sunflower in the central plains.

    PubMed

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Meyer, Ron F; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa

    2007-08-01

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Dectes texanus texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The incidence of a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also has increased. Experiments were conducted in three locations in Colorado and Kansas during 2001-2003 to investigate the potential of combining planting date and foliar and seed treatment insecticide applications to lower insect stalk densities of these three pests. The impact of these strategies on weevil larval parasitoids also was studied. Eight sunflower stem weevil larval parasitoid species were identified. All were Hymenoptera and included the following (relative composition in parentheses): Nealiolus curculionis (Fitch) (42.6%), Nealiolus collaris (Brues) (3.2%) (Braconidae), Quadrastichus ainsliei Gahan (4.2%) (Eulophidae), Eurytoma tylodermatis Ashmead (13.1%) (Eurytomidae), Neocatolaccus tylodermae (Ashmead) (33.7%), Chlorocytus sp. (1.6%), Pteromalus sp. (0.5%) (Pteromalidae), and Eupelmus sp. (1.0%) (Eupelmidae). The results from this 3-yr study revealed that chemical control was often reliable in protecting the sunflower crop from stem pests and was relatively insensitive to application timing. Although results in some cases were mixed, overall, delayed planting can be a reliable and effective management tool for growers in the central Plains to use in reducing stem-infesting pest densities in sunflower stalks. Chemical control and planting date were compatible with natural mortality contributed by C. adspersus larval parasitoids. PMID:17849877

  5. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  6. A three-year field validation study to improve the integrated pest management of hot pepper.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2013-09-01

    To improve the integrated pest management (IPM) of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control). The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper. PMID:25288956

  7. A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Guoping; Chen, Lansun; Xu, Weijian; Fu, Gang

    2015-06-01

    A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control is investigated. We get the sufficient condition for the existence of the order-1 periodic solution by differential equation geometry theory and successor function. Further, we obtain a new judgement method for the stability of the order-1 periodic solution of the semi-continuous systems by referencing the stability analysis for limit cycles of continuous systems, which is different from the previous method of analog of Poincarè criterion. Finally, we analyze numerically the theoretical results obtained.

  8. Introduction to 2009 Symposium on Alternative Methods of Controlling Pests and Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous pests and diseases limit potato productivity, and control of weeds, insects and pathogens remains a costly part of potato production. Although conventional agrichemical pest control is amazingly effective, interest in non-synthetic chemical and integrated methods of pest management is drive...

  9. Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat (Triticum aestivum) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi).

    PubMed

    Ke, Xin; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat-aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating mulching), litter patch deeper in soil (simulating ploughing) and litter homogeneously mixed into soil (simulating disk cultivation). The litter was labelled with (15)N to follow the mineralization and uptake of nutrients by the plants. Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and Collembola (Protaphorura armata) were included as representatives of major functional groups of decomposers. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was planted and aphids (Rhophalosiphum padi) were introduced to leaves as one of the most important pests. Earthworms, Collembola and litter distribution affected plant growth, N acquisition and aphid development in an interactive way. Earthworms and Collembola increased biomass of seeds, shoots and roots of wheat. Increased plant growth by earthworms and Collembola was mainly due to increased transfer of N from soil (rather than litter) into plants. Despite increasing plant growth, earthworms reduced aphid reproduction. Aphid reproduction was not correlated closely with plant N concentrations, but rather with the concentration of litter N in wheat. Unexpectedly, both Collembola and earthworms predominantly affected the mobilization of N from soil organic matter, and by altering the distribution of litter earthworms reduced infestation of crops by aphids via reducing plant capture of litter N, in particular if the litter was concentrated deeper in soil. The results suggest that management practices stimulating a continuous moderate increase in nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter rather than nutrient flushes from decomposing fresh organic matter result in maximum plant growth with minimum plant pest infestation. PMID:18654802

  10. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Peter; Kindvall, Oskar; Björkman, Christer

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a general belief that insect outbreak risk is higher in plant monocultures than in natural and more diverse habitats, although empirical studies investigating this relationship are lacking. In this study, using density data collected over seven years at 40 study sites, we compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural willow habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in 1999–2005. The density of adult P. vulgatissima was estimated in the spring every year by a knock-down sampling technique. We used two measures of population variability, CV and PV, to compare temporal variations in leaf beetle density between plantation and natural habitat. Relationships between density and variability were also analyzed to discern potential underlying processes behind stability in the two systems. The results showed that the leaf beetle P. vulgatissima had a greater temporal population variability and outbreak risk in willow plantations than in natural willow habitats. We hypothesize that the greater population stability observed in the natural habitat was due to two separate processes operating at different levels of beetle density. First, stable low population equilibrium can be achieved by the relatively high density of generalist predators observed in natural stands. Second, stable equilibrium can also be imposed at higher beetle density due to competition, which occurs through depletion of resources (plant foliage) in the natural habitat. In willow plantations, competition is reduced mainly because plants grow close enough for beetle larvae to move to another plant when foliage is consumed. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study confirming that insect pest outbreak risk is higher in monocultures. The study suggests that comparative studies of insect population dynamics in different habitats may improve our ability to predict insect pest outbreaks and could facilitate the development of sustainable pest control in managed systems. PMID:19424439

  11. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  12. EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION AND COVER CROPPING ON PESTS, BENEFICIALS AND PEPPER YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices that maintain soil health are becoming increasingly importatnt as non-chemical alternatives to methyl bromide. Objectives of this research were to examine effects of non-chemical pest management strategies on several key soil-borne pests and beneficial soil organisms using nemat...

  13. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique. PMID:23342117

  14. Provisioning floral resources to attract aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) useful for pest management in central Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Uña, A; Martín, J M; Fernández-Quintanilla, C; Dorado, J

    2013-12-01

    Noncrop plant communities present on the boundaries or within crop fields are essential for the maintenance of functional biodiversity, affecting beneficial insect numbers and ecological fitness. Habitat manipulation is an increasingly studied strategy aimed at enhancing natural enemies of agricultural pests by providing feeding and shelter resources. In this study, six plant species selected from preliminary work were tested for their potential attractiveness to four common aphidophagous hoverflies species. Potential attractiveness was evaluated through observation of hoverfly feeding visits to replicated flower plots distributed in a randomized design. The combination of the selected species covered a 2-mo full-bloom period. Sphaerophoria scripta L. and Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedeman) were the dominant hoverflies present throughout the sampling period, whereas Eupeodes corollae (F.) and Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer) visits were less abundant and appeared only in the early season. Potential attractiveness varied among plant species. Calendula arvensis L. and Coriandrum sativum L. were the most visited species. C. arvensis received a high number of visits throughout a long period, whereas the visits to Co. sativum were concentrated in a short blooming period. These results suggest that habitat management by using these plant species may increase the abundance of hoverflies and could improve the biological control of aphid pests typical of spring-summer crops in open Mediterranean environments. PMID:24498730

  15. Population Genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: Implications for Dispersal and Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique. PMID:23342117

  16. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pretty, Jules; Pervez Bharucha, Zareen

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4–$19 (€3–15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM’s impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move. PMID:26463073

  17. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    PubMed Central

    Damos, Petros; Escudero Colomar, Lucía-Adriana; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains. PMID:26463407

  18. The IUPAC International Congresses of Pesticide Chemistry (1963-2014) and Pest Management Science: a half-century of progress.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Gerald T

    2014-08-01

    As we approach the 2014 San Francisco IUPAC Pesticide Chemistry Congress, we reflect on the 51 years of such congresses every 4 years since 1963. Meanwhile, our journal, Pesticide Science/Pest Management Science, has in parallel continually published relevant science for nearly as long (44?years from 1970). PMID:24852234

  19. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  20. Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

  1. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

  2. Principles and practices of integrated pest management on cotton in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable agriculture is ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just, and humane. These four goals for sustainability can be applied to all aspects of any agricultural system, from production and marketing, to processing and consumption. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) may be conside...

  3. 76 FR 12959 - Promoting Community Integrated Pest Management To Prevent Tick-Borne Diseases; Notice of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ...EPA will host a National Community Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Preventing Tick-Borne Diseases Conference on March 30 and 31, 2011, under the auspices of EPA's Pesticide Program Dialog Committee (Public Health Work Group). The objectives of the conference are to identify knowledge gaps and barriers to effective community-wide tick control; propose the next steps in addressing knowledge......

  4. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN POST-HARVEST MAIZE: A CASE STUDY FROM THE REPUBLIC OF TOGO (WEST AFRICA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large-scale experiment on maize storage systems was carried out in Atakpamé (Plateaux region of Togo), between autumn 1996 and spring 1997. An integrated pest management (IPM) approach, based on research findings at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and intended to control...

  5. Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  6. Incorporating carbon storage into the optimal management of forest insect pests: a case study of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Rebecca M; Lutz, David A; Howarth, Richard B

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal. PMID:24938795

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: an environment friendly insect-pest management strategy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Chandra, Amaresh; Pandey, K C

    2008-09-01

    Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption of biosafety protocol is necessary to protect human health and environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of genetic engineering. The debate between proponents and opponents of GM technology has created major obstacles in hamessing benefits of the technology It has now become clear that transgenics willbe accepted by the public only when doubts related with general risks and environmental safety are adequately dispelled. Thus, there is need to organize public awareness and present the benefits of Bt transgenic crops to improve social attitude for their rational deployment. In this review, an attempt has been made to discuss social and environmental safety issues of Bt transgenic crops. PMID:19295059

  8. Approaches and incentives to implement integrated pest management that addresses regional and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Goodell, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural, environmental, and social and policy interests have influenced integrated pest management (IPM) from its inception. The first 50 years of IPM paid special attention to field-based management and market-driven decision making. Concurrently, IPM strategies became available that were best applied both within and beyond the bounds of individual fields and that also provided environmental benefits. This generated an incentives dilemma for farmers: selecting IPM activities for individual fields on the basis of market-based economics versus selecting IPM activities best applied regionally that have longer-term benefits, including environmental benefits, that accrue to the broader community as well as the farmer. Over the past several decades, public-supported incentives, such as financial incentives available to farmers from conservation programs for farms, have begun to be employed to encourage use of conservation techniques, including strategies with IPM relevance. Combining private investments with public support may effectively address the incentives dilemma when advanced IPM strategies are used regionally and provide public goods such as those benefiting resource conservation. This review focuses on adaptation of IPM to these broader issues, on transitions of IPM from primarily individual field-based decision making to coordinated community decision making, and on the form of partnerships needed to gain long-lasting regional and environmental benefits. PMID:21888519

  9. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  10. Recent developments and applications of bait stations for integrated pest management of tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attract-and-kill approach involves the behavioral manipulation of pest insects through the integration of long-distance olfactory/visual stimuli to attract a particular pest and a killing agent and/or a collection device. Bait stations, an element of an attract-and-kill system, can be defined as...

  11. Training Childcare Center Administrators about Integrated Pest Management through Greener Environmental Communication Venues and Collecting Pesticide Use Data in the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Many people assume that schools and childcare centers are environmentally safe places for children to learn. However, adverse health effects from pest allergy related illnesses or pesticide exposure incidents can demonstrate the need for safer and more effective pest management strategies. The goal of this research is to measure the efficacy of…

  12. Training Childcare Center Administrators about Integrated Pest Management through Greener Environmental Communication Venues and Collecting Pesticide Use Data in the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Many people assume that schools and childcare centers are environmentally safe places for children to learn. However, adverse health effects from pest allergy related illnesses or pesticide exposure incidents can demonstrate the need for safer and more effective pest management strategies. The goal of this research is to measure the efficacy of…

  13. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  14. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY AND GENETIC STRUCTURE OF THE INVASIVE WHEAT STEM SAWFLY, CEPHUS CINCTUS NORTON, (HYMENOPTERA: CEPHIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL MANAGEMENT OF THIS PEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) was originally recovered from wild grasses but has become a chronic pest of wheat in the northern region of the North American Great Plains. Effective and economical pest management practices remain elusive, therefore biological co...

  15. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested. PMID:26463064

  16. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested. PMID:26463064

  17. Teacher Characteristics and Perceptions of Pest Management Curricula: Clues to Adoption and Continuation

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Makena; Aihara-Sasaki, Maria; Grace, J. Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Educate to Eradicate is a K-12 curriculum project using termite biology and control as the basis for science education that has been implemented in over 350 Hawaii public school classrooms. To encourage sustained implementation of the project, we aimed to identify factors that influence the adoption and continuation of pest management curricula in public school classrooms. Regression analysis of teacher survey data were used to create predictive models of teacher continuation. Teachers motivated by “exciting students about science”, who perceived increases in “student understanding and comprehension of major termite knowledge concepts” and/or students as “more interested in termites after participating in this project” were more likely to continue curriculum. Teachers who had worked at their current school over 21 years at the time of curriculum adoption, and/or who identified having subject specialties not listed on the survey were less likely to continue curriculum. Additionally, teachers servicing lower socioeconomic level students were less likely to continue the curricula. PMID:26464383

  18. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry. PMID:24665711

  19. Effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Controlling Cockroaches, Mice, and Allergens in New York City Public Housing

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. Objectives We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. Methods We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Results Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. Conclusions In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences. PMID:19672400

  20. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

  1. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... practices that enhance crop health, including selection of plant species and varieties with regard to... natural enemies of pests; (3) Nonsynthetic controls such as lures, traps, and repellents. (c)...

  2. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants. PMID:26779220

  3. Adaptation of soil solarization to the integrated management of soilborne pests of tomato under humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Chellemi, D O; Olson, S M; Mitchell, D J; Secker, I; McSorley, R

    1997-03-01

    ABSTRACT Soil solarization was shown to be cost effective, compatible with other pest management tactics, readily integrated into standard production systems, and a valid alternative to preplant fumigation with methyl bromide under the tested conditions. Solarization using clear, photoselective, or gas-impermeable plastic was evaluated in combination with metham sodium, 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin, methyl bromide + chloropicrin, pebulate, or cabbage residue. Strip solarization, applied to 20-cm-high, 0.9-m-wide beds, was conducted to achieve compatibility with standard production practices and resulted in soil temperatures 2 to 4 degrees C above those temperatures resulting when using conventional flatbed solarization. Soil temperatures were 1 to 2 degrees C higher at the edges of the raised beds, eliminating any border effects associated with solarization. Following a 40- to 55-day solarization period, the plastic was painted white and used as a production mulch for a subsequent tomato crop. The incidence of Southern blight and the density of Paratrichodorus minor and Criconemella spp. were lower (P < 0.05) in solarized plots. No differences (P < 0.05) in the incidence of Fusarium wilt and the density of nutsedge and Helicotylenchus spp. were observed between plots receiving solarization and plots fumigated with a mixture of methyl bromide + chloropicrin. The severity of root galling was lower (P < 0.05) when soil solarization was combined with 1,3-dichloropropene + chloropicrin (16.2 + 3.4 g/m(2)) and a gas-impermeable film. The incidence of bacterial wilt was not affected by soil treatments. Marketable yields in plots using various combinations of soil solarization and other tactics were similar (P < 0.05) to yields obtained in plots fumigated with methyl bromide + chloropicrin. The results were validated in several large scale field experiments conducted by commercial growers. PMID:18945167

  4. Practical Pest Management Strategies to Reduce Pesticide Runoff for Argentine Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Control.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Les; Rust, Michael K; Richards, Jaben; Wu, Xiaoqin; Kabashima, John; Wilen, Cheryl; Gan, Jay; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to involve pest management professionals in the design of application techniques and strategies that would be efficacious and also reduce insecticide runoff. Our study involved measuring both the efficacy of treatments for the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the concurrent runoff of fipronil and pyrethroids. Two collaborating companies used low-impact protocols for controlling ants while minimizing runoff. Protocol 1 involved bimonthly treatments, while Protocol 2 was monthly. Both protocols involved an initial treatment with a fipronil spray around the foundation. At the garage door-driveway interface, the fipronil application was done as a pin stream for Protocol 1, and as a crack and crevice application in the expansion joint near the garage for Protocol 2. Protocol 1 replaced most pyrethroid sprays with bifenthrin granules placed around bushes and away from the driveway. For the next treatment on day 63, Protocol 1 also included cyfluthrin spray treatments around the house foundation and crack and crevice applications around the edge of the driveway. For the first treatment in Protocol 2, the fipronil spray was supplemented with spot treatments of cyfluthrin. For subsequent Protocol 2 treatments, botanical insecticides were applied. For weeks 1 and 2 posttreatment combined, Protocol 1 had significantly higher reductions in ant numbers compared with Protocol 2. Thereafter there were no significant differences between the protocols. Runoff of bifenthrin from the granules used with Protocol 1 was much lower than in previous trials involving bifenthrin sprays. Day 1 fipronil runoff for Protocol 2 was significantly lower than that for Protocol 1. This difference may be because of the crack and crevice application applied in Protocol 2. Cyfluthrin runoff was minimal for Protocol 2, which involved spot treatments to supplement the fipronil on day 1, or the botanical insecticides for subsequent treatments. Protocol 1 had a large peak of cyfluthrin runoff at day 63 corresponding to their house and driveway treatments. PMID:26470080

  5. Insect Pest Management in Postharvest Ecosystems in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest entomology can involve grain and grain-based commodities, tree fruits and nuts, citrus fruits, pome fruits, and vegetables. The insect pests and associated control strategies can vary depending on the specific host commodity, and the quarantine aspects associated with export of fresh fru...

  6. Predator in First: A prophylactic biological control strategy for management of multiple pests of pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of biocontrol agents is critical for success of biological control strategies. Predator-In-First (PIF) is a prophylactic control strategy that aims to establish predators before the appearance of pests in an agro-ecosystem. Predator-In-First uses the characteristics of generalist p...

  7. Update on pest management of the banded sunflower moth in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth has been a consistent pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Adults begin to emerge from the soil about mid-July and are present in the field until mid-August. Larvae feed in the florets, developing seed, and also destroy mature seeds. The goal of this project was to inv...

  8. Integrated pest management of the Pyralid stalkborers, Eoreuma loftini and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane represents an important commodity crop in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The primary insect pest of sugarcane is the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini followed by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera) which cause substantial economic damage. We quantified the re...

  9. Improved quality management to enhance the efficacy of the sterile insect technique for lepidopteran pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidoptera are among the most severe pests of food and fibre crops in the world and are mainly controlled using broad spectrum insecticides. This does not lead to sustainable control and farmers are demanding alternative control tools which are both effective and friendly to the environment. The st...

  10. Field Evaluation of Application Variables and Plant Spacing for Bell Pepper Pest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepper production in Ohio is affected by several insect and disease pests. Previous studies have documented that higher plant population densities usually result in greater pepper yields; however, there is little information on the interaction between pesticide efficacy and yield. The objective of...

  11. Impact of Kairomones on Moth Pest Management: Pear Ester and the Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM) is the major pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Our focus is to develop novel, species-specific monitoring and control systems based on host-plant odors, kairomones. In 1998 ‘pear ester’ (PE), ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, was identified as a powerful kairomonal attra...

  12. Companion and refuge plants to enhance control of insect pests in vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies and aphids are important insect pests in vegetable crops. To mitigate the use of chemical insecticides, “push-pull” strategies can be used as components of sustainable or cultural pest management. We conducted laboratory olfactometer or odor detecting tests to measure the effects of arug...

  13. Potential for microbial biological control of coleopteran and hemipteran pests of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous insects in the orders Coleoptera and Hemiptera are major pests of potato, Solanum tuberosum, worldwide. Although these pests are currently managed almost exclusively with chemical insecticides, there is continuing demand for alternative controls that pose lower environmental and health ris...

  14. ICMS. Chemical Tracking, Management, and Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Bramlette, J.; Miles, R.; Carlson, M.; Bargelski, C.

    1997-10-10

    The ICMS provides: management and system users a cost-effective method for identifying, reporting, and tracking chemicals from identifying the chemical when it is received until it enters a waste stream for a facility or area.

  15. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea crops are widely cultivated and a major nutritional source of protein for indigenous human populations in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include Anoplocnemis curvipes, Aphis craccivora, Cl...

  16. User`s guide for SeedCalc: A decision-support system for integrated pest management in slash pine seed orchards. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Fatzinger, C.W.; Dixon, W.N.

    1996-03-01

    SeedCalc, a decision-support system designed for use on personal computers, evaluates the consequences of different pest management strategies in slash pine (Pinus elliotti Engelm. var. elliottii) seed orchards. This interactive program allows managers to enter orchard survey data and manipulate pesticides applied, application equipment costs, insect damage rates, strobilus development rates and beginning population, and pesticide efficacy rates to develop a pest management program that best fits their needs. This guide provides user instructions for SeedCalc, presents screen and printer examples, and describes the structure, assumptions, default values and flow charts of the system.

  17. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

  18. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Gent, David H; De Wolf, Erick; Pethybridge, Sarah J

    2011-06-01

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect tactical management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease risk and thus assist in accurately targeting events critical for management. However, in many instances adoption of these systems for use in routine disease management has been perceived as slow. The under-utilization of some decision support systems is likely due to both technical and perception constraints that have not been addressed adequately during development and implementation phases. Growers' perceptions of risk and their aversion to these perceived risks can be reasons for the "slow" uptake of decision support systems and, more broadly, integrated pest management (IPM). Decision theory provides some tools that may assist in quantifying and incorporating subjective and/or measured probabilities of disease occurrence or crop loss into decision support systems. Incorporation of subjective probabilities into IPM recommendations may be one means to reduce grower uncertainty and improve trust of these systems because management recommendations could be explicitly informed by growers' perceptions of risk and economic utility. Ultimately though, we suggest that an appropriate measure of the value and impact of decision support systems is grower education that enables more skillful and informed management decisions independent of consultation of the support tool outputs. PMID:21117876

  19. New Miticides for Integrated Pest Management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Honey Bee Colonies on the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Vandervalk, L P; Nasr, M E; Dosdall, L M

    2014-12-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (Acari: Varroidae) is an ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Honey bee colonies require extensive management to prevent mortality caused by varroa mites and the viruses they vector. New miticides (Thymovar and HopGuard) to manage varroa mites were evaluated during the spring and fall treatment windows of the Canadian prairies to determine their effectiveness as part of an integrated management strategy. Thymovar and HopGuard were evaluated alongside the currently used industry standards: Apivar and formic acid. Results demonstrated that Apivar and formic acid remain effective V. destructor management options under spring and fall conditions. Applications of Thymovar during spring were associated with a reduction in brood area, and therefore should be limited to the fall season. The miticide HopGuard was not effective in managing V. destructor, and alteration of the current delivery system is necessary. This study demonstrates the potential for new effective treatment options to supplement currently used V. destructor integrated pest management systems. PMID:26470066

  20. The integrated control concept and its relevance to current integrated pest management in California fresh market grapes.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Walter J

    2009-12-01

    The foundation of an integrated pest management program involves valid treatment thresholds, accurate and simple monitoring methods, effective natural controls, selective pesticides and trained individuals who can implement the concept. The Integrated Control Concept written by Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen elucidated each of these points in an alfalfa ecosystem. Alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) has a low per acre value, requires little hand labor and is primarily marketed in the USA. In contrast, fresh market table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has a high per acre value, requires frequent hand labor operations, suffers unacceptable cosmetic damage and is marketed throughout both the USA and the world. Each of the components of a working IPM program is present in table grape production. Marketing grapes to foreign countries presents special problems with pests considered invasive and where residue tolerances for some selective insecticides are lacking. However, fresh market grape farmers are still able to deal with these special problems and utilize an IPM program that has resulted in a 42% reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use from 1995 to 2007. PMID:19731261

  1. Temperature-activity relationships in Meligethes aeneus: implications for pest management

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Andrew W; Nevard, Lucy M; Clark, Suzanne J; Cook, Samantha M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) management in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) has become an urgent issue in the light of insecticide resistance. Risk prediction advice has relied upon flight temperature thresholds, while risk assessment uses simple economic thresholds. However, there is variation in the reported temperature of migration, and economic thresholds vary widely across Europe, probably owing to climatic factors interacting with beetle activity and plant compensation for damage. The effect of temperature on flight, feeding and oviposition activity of M. aeneus was examined in controlled conditions. RESULTS Escape from a release vial was taken as evidence of flight and was supported by video observations. The propensity to fly followed a sigmoid temperature–response curve between 6 and 23 °C; the 10, 25 and 50% flight temperature thresholds were 12.0–12.5 °C, 13.6–14.2 °C and 15.5–16.2 °C, respectively. Thresholds were slightly higher in the second of two flight bioassays, suggesting an effect of beetle age. Strong positive relationships were found between temperature (6–20 °C) and the rates of feeding and oviposition on flower buds of oilseed rape. CONCLUSION These temperature relationships could be used to improve M. aeneus migration risk assessment, refine weather-based decision support systems and modulate damage thresholds according to rates of bud damage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:25052810

  2. Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

    2011-08-01

    Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control. PMID:21882700

  3. Interacting Agricultural Pests and Their Effect on Crop Yield: Application of a Bayesian Decision Theory Approach to the Joint Management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ilai N.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Weaver, David K.; Robison-Cox, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of accounting for direct and indirect biological interactions occurring within agroecosystems and propagating this information from the statistical analysis stage to the management stage. PMID:25692673

  4. Interacting agricultural pests and their effect on crop yield: application of a Bayesian decision theory approach to the joint management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus.

    PubMed

    Keren, Ilai N; Menalled, Fabian D; Weaver, David K; Robison-Cox, James F

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of accounting for direct and indirect biological interactions occurring within agroecosystems and propagating this information from the statistical analysis stage to the management stage. PMID:25692673

  5. Perspectives on why digital ecologies matter: combining population genetics and ecologically informed agent-based models with GIS for managing dipteran livestock pests.

    PubMed

    Peck, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    It is becoming clear that handling the inherent complexity found in ecological systems is an essential task for finding ways to control insect pests of tropical livestock such as tsetse flies, and old and new world screwworms. In particular, challenging multivalent management programs, such as Area Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM), face daunting problems of complexity at multiple spatial scales, ranging from landscape level processes to those of smaller scales such as the parasite loads of individual animals. Daunting temporal challenges also await resolution, such as matching management time frames to those found on ecological and even evolutionary temporal scales. How does one deal with representing processes with models that involve multiple spatial and temporal scales? Agent-based models (ABM), combined with geographic information systems (GIS), may allow for understanding, predicting and managing pest control efforts in livestock pests. This paper argues that by incorporating digital ecologies in our management efforts clearer and more informed decisions can be made. I also point out the power of these models in making better predictions in order to anticipate the range of outcomes possible or likely. PMID:24680756

  6. Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

  7. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated Pest Managment Program to control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using contingent valuation, the perceived value of an area-wide, integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, was estimated. The residents’ maximum willingness-to-pay (WTP) and payment modality was estimat...

  8. NONTARGET ARTHROPODS CAPTURED IN CUE-LURE-BAITED BUCKET TRAPS AT AREA-WIDE PEST MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION SITES IN KAMUELA AND KULA, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy and 2,371 specimens or about 1.1 and 34.4 individuals per day were captured in melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), cue-lure monitoring/suppression traps at two area-wide integrated pest management implementation sites in Kula (Maui Island) and Kamuela (Hawaii Island), respectively...

  9. Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

  10. Perceived Consequences of Herbicide-Tolerant and Insect-Resistant Crops on Integrated Pest Management Strategies in the Western United States: Results of an Online Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted an online survey to assess the potential effects of herbicide-tolerant (HT) and insect-resistant (IR) crops on integrated pest management (IPM) practices in the Western United States. For HT crops, participants perceived a decrease in several IPM practices, including crop and herbicide ...

  11. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  12. Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

    2013-02-01

    We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2‒) and ozonide radical ion (*O3‒) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  13. Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Porrini, Martín P; Gende, Liesel B; Álvarez, Estefanía; Buffa, Franco; Brasesco, Constanza; Maggi, Matías D; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2014-02-01

    A diverse set of parasites and pathogens affects productivity and survival of Apis mellifera honeybees. In beekeeping, traditional control by antibiotics and molecules of synthesis has caused problems with contamination and resistant pathogens. In this research, different Laurus nobilis extracts are tested against the main honeybee pests through an integrated point of view. In vivo effects on bee survival are also evaluated. The ethanol extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 208 to 416 ?g/mL, having the best antimicrobial effect on Paenibacillus larvae among all substances tested. Similarly, this leaf extract showed a significant antiparasitic activity on Varroa destructor, killing 50 % of mites 24 h after a 30-s exposure, and on Nosema ceranae, inhibiting the spore development in the midgut of adult bees ingesting 1?×?10(4) ?g/mL of extract solution. Both ethanol extract and volatile extracts (essential oil, hydrolate, and its main component) did not cause lethal effects on adult honeybees. Thus, the absence of topical and oral toxicity of the ethanol extract on bees and the strong antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and miticidal effects registered in this study place this laurel extract as a promising integrated treatment of bee diseases and stimulates the search for other bioactive phytochemicals from plants. PMID:24288051

  14. The probabilistic economic injury level: incorporating uncertainty into pest management decision-making.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robert K D; Hunt, Thomas E

    2003-06-01

    Despite the recognition that the economic injury level (EIL) is determined by dynamic biological and economic parameters, which can be highly variable and uncertain, there has been little effort to quantify uncertainty and to use estimates of uncertainty in the determination of EILs. In this paper, we define the probabilistic EIL (PEIL) and develop PEILs for two insect pest scenarios: alfalfa weevil larvae, Hypera postica (Gyllenhal), on early bud-stage alfalfa, and bean leaf beetle adults, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster), on V1-stage soybean. The PEIL is an EIL that reflects its probability of occurrence. The probability of occurrence is determined by incorporating the uncertainty associated with the input variables used to calculate the EIL. We used Monte Carlo simulation, a random sampling technique in which each input variable in the model was sampled repeatedly from a range of possible values based on probability distributions. Each input variable's probability distribution was sampled such that the distribution's shape was reproduced. Then, the variability for each input was propagated into the output of the model so that the model output reflected the probability of values that could occur. This represents the first use of the Monte Carlo technique to determine EILs. PMID:12852585

  15. Pathogenicity of a Microsporidium Isolate from the Diamondback Moth against Noctuid Moths:Characterization and Implications for Microbiological Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Idris Abd; Dieng, Hamady; Abu Hassan, Zainal Abidin; Ramli, Norazsida; Kermani, Nadia; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Hamdan; Abang, Fatimah Bt; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to problems with chemical control, there is increasing interest in the use of microsporidia for control of lepidopteran pests. However, there have been few studies to evaluate the susceptibility of exotic species to microsporidia from indigenous Lepidoptera. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated some biological characteristics of the microsporidian parasite isolated from wild Plutella xylostella (PX) and evaluated its pathogenicity on the laboratory responses of sympatric invasive and resident noctuid moths. There were significant differences in spore size and morphology between PX and Spodoptera litura (SL) isolates. Spores of PX isolate were ovocylindrical, while those of SL were oval. PX spores were 1.05 times longer than those of SL, which in turn were 1.49 times wider than those of the PX. The timing of infection peaks was much shorter in SL and resulted in earlier larval death. There were no noticeable differences in amplicon size (two DNA fragments were each about 1200 base pairs in length). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of the two isolates shared a clade with Nosema/Vairimorpha sequences. The absence of octospores in infected spodopteran tissues suggested that PX and SL spores are closely related to Nosema plutellae and N. bombycis, respectively. Both SL and S. exigua (SE) exhibited susceptibility to the PX isolate infection, but showed different infection patterns. Tissular infection was more diverse in the former and resulted in much greater spore production and larval mortality. Microsporidium-infected larvae pupated among both infected and control larvae, but adult emergence occurred only in the second group. Conclusion/Significance The PX isolate infection prevented completion of development of most leafworm and beet armyworm larvae. The ability of the microsporidian isolate to severely infect and kill larvae of both native and introduced spodopterans makes it a valuable candidate for biocontrol against lepidopteran pests. PMID:24349104

  16. Resurgance of soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber after application of methyl bromide chemical alternatives and solarization in tomato.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted during four consectutive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-cucumber (Cucumis sativus) rotations to examine the long-term residual effects of tomato methyl bromide alternatives on soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber. Four treatments were established in tomato field...

  17. Cultural and chemical pest control methods alter habitat suitability for biological control agents: An example from Wisconsin commercial cranberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated pest control program requires an in-depth understanding of the compatibility of all control strategies used. In Wisconsin commercial cranberry production, early-season control strategies may include either a broad-spectrum insecticide application or a corresponding spring flood, along ...

  18. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

    2003-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated during the final year of the areawide program. Based on data from 533 bins, SGA Pro accurately predicted which bins were at low, moderate or high risk. Only in two out of 533 bins did SGA Pro incorrectly predict bins as being low risk and, in both cases, insect density was only high (> two insects kg(-1)) at the surface, which suggested recent immigration. SGA Pro is superior to calendar-based management because it ensures that grain is only treated when insect densities exceed economic thresholds (two insects kg(-1)). This approach will reduce the frequency of fumigation while maintaining high grain quality. Minimizing the use of fumigant improves worker safety and reduces both control costs and harm to the environment. PMID:12846311

  19. Thermal biology, population fluctuations and implications of temperature extremes for the management of two globally significant insect pests.

    PubMed

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Weldon, Christopher W; Chown, Steven L; le Roux, Peter C; Terblanche, John S

    2013-12-01

    The link between environmental temperature, physiological processes and population fluctuations is a significant aspect of insect pest management. Here, we explore how thermal biology affects the population abundance of two globally significant pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis capitata (medfly) and C. rosa (Natal fruit fly), including irradiated individuals and those expressing a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that are used in the sterile insect technique. Results show that upper and lower lethal temperatures are seldom encountered at the field sites, while critical minimum temperatures for activity and lower developmental thresholds are crossed more frequently. Estimates of abundance revealed that C. capitata are active year-round, but abundance declines markedly during winter. Temporal autocorrelation of average fortnightly trap captures and of development time, estimated from an integrated model to calculate available degree days, show similar seasonal lags suggesting that population increases in early spring occur after sufficient degree-days have accumulated. By contrast, population collapses coincide tightly with increasing frequency of low temperature events that fall below critical minimum temperatures for activity. Individuals of C. capitata expressing the tsl mutation show greater critical thermal maxima and greater longevity under field conditions than reference individuals. Taken together, this evidence suggests that low temperatures limit populations in the Western Cape, South Africa and likely do so elsewhere. Increasing temperature extremes and warming climates generally may extend the season over which these species are active, and could increase abundance. The sterile insect technique may prove profitable as climates change given that laboratory-reared tsl flies have an advantage under warmer conditions. PMID:24080125

  20. In situ assessment of pesticide genotoxicity in an integrated pest management program: II. Maize waxy mutation assay.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G S; Pimentel, D; Weinstein, L H

    1998-02-13

    The mutagenicity induced by pesticides applied in an integrated pest management (IPM) program was evaluated in situ with the maize forward waxy mutation bioassay. Three pesticide application rates were prescribed as follows: (1) Low--no field pesticide spray; (2) Medium--IPM test rate: banded cyanazine plus metolachlor (2.7 kg a.i. and 2.3 l a.i./ha of herbicides, respectively); and (3) High--a preventative pesticide application program: broadcast cyanazine plus metolachlor (same application rates as above) plus chlorpyrifos (1 kg a.i./ha of insecticide). In general, there was no significant reduction in the genotoxic effects from the high to the medium treatment levels of the IPM program. This suggests that the reduction in pesticide application rates attained with the implementation of the proposed IPM program was not sufficient to abate the genotoxicity of the pesticides. The results indicate that replacing genotoxic compounds may be the only effective remediation measure if concern about environmental mutagenesis were to result in changes in agricultural management. PMID:9600692

  1. Effectiveness of kaolin clay particle film in managing Helopeltis collaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of cacao in the Philippines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helopeltis collaris Stal, commonly known as cacao mirid or capsid bug is one of the major pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. Recent survey of cacao pests in the Philippines showed that cacao mirid bug is causing significant yield loss particularly in cacao growing areas in Luzon. Kaolin is a naturall...

  2. Review of 2008 Studies on Integrated Pest Management Strategies to Reduce Damage from the Sunflower Seed Maggot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis, is an emerging pest of cultivated sunflower in the northern Great Plains sunflower production region. It is a seed-feeding pest and infests the sunflower plant from late bud stage through flowering. There are two generations in North Dakota. Adults of...

  3. The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, a new pest threat in the Caribbean: Biology and options for management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is a serious pest of palms. RPW is native to Asia, but over the last few decades it has spread to the Middle East, Africa and Europe where it has caused major economic damage. This pest was accidentally introduced to the Caribbean (Curacao and Aru...

  4. Development of a precision areawide pest management decision system for cotton - Preliminary study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop models simulate growth and development, and provide relevant information for the routine management of the crop. Integrating crop models with other information technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS), variable rate technology, remote sensing, and global positioning systems (G...

  5. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  6. Comparative assessment of pest management practices in potato production at farmer field schools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmer field schools (FFS) and other participatory approaches are useful methods for rapid delivery of agricultural technologies in resource-constrained agro-ecosystems. Cultivar selection, weekly fungicide applications and integrated disease management (IDM) based on a disease monitoring strategy w...

  7. Adaptive management of invasive pests in natural protected areas: the case of Matsucoccus feytaudi in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Sciarretta, A; Marziali, L; Squarcini, M; Marianelli, L; Benassai, D; Logli, F; Roversi, P F

    2016-02-01

    Invasive species are a significant threat to affected ecosystems, having serious environmental, economic and social impacts. The maritime pine bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi Ducasse (Hemiptera: Matsucoccidae), causes serious damage to Pinus pinaster forests in SE France, Corsica and Italy where it has been introduced. This study illustrates the adaptive management plan implemented in the Migliarino, San Rossore, Massaciuccoli Regional Natural Park in Tuscany, Italy, where M. feytaudi arrived in 2004, leading to the decay of local P. pinaster stands. The management programme, aimed at slowing the establishment and growth of M. feytaudi, was carried out in the main sector of the park, Tenuta di San Rossore, to retard the destruction of the P. pinaster coastal strip protecting the more internal woodland from sea salt and to allow replacement of P. pinaster trees with a more stable broad-leaved wood. The combined use of mass trapping and silvicultural interventions, applied in a targeted manner according to distribution maps of pest captures and damage, helped to delay forest destruction compared with a nearby unmanaged area of the park Tenuta di Tombolo. Although M. feytaudi continued to spread during the management period, the populations remained at low levels for 6 years, showing a marked increase in 2012. During this period, the P. pinaster stands were reduced from 320 to 249 ha. The final result of this ongoing gradual conversion process will be transformation of the P. pinaster forest into Holm oak woods and Mediterranean shrub land, while P. pinaster will survive as clusters or blocks of trees. PMID:26521882

  8. Community monitoring of integrated pest management versus conventional pesticide use in a World Bank project in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ishii-Eiteman, Marcia J; Ardhianie, Nila

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA) collaborated with a local Indonesian nongovernmental organization (NGO), Yayasan Duta Awam (YDA), in monitoring impacts of the World Bank-financed Integrated Swamps Development Project (ISDP). This paper reports the results of the community-based investigation, which found wide disparities between the World Bank's policy on pest management and its implementation. Instead of reducing farmers' reliance on pesticides as required, the ISDP led to increased intensity and frequency of pesticide use and adverse health and environmental effects from pesticide exposures. YDA and PANNA presented the findings to the Indonesian government and World Bank officials, and farmers requested training in IPM among other recommendations. After NGOs undertook joint advocacy efforts to reduce pesticide dependence in the project, the World Bank withdrew hazardous pesticides from input packages, IPM training was initiated, and community monitors became local leaders in their villages. The study demonstrates the importance and efficacy of independent community-based monitoring in documenting pesticide problems and replacing pesticides with IPM in World Bank development projects. PMID:12358078

  9. Considerations in developing an integrated pest management programme for control of sea lice on farmed salmon in Pacific Canada.

    PubMed

    Brooks, K M

    2009-01-01

    In the development of integrated pest management (IPM) plans for the control of sea lice there are some components that are common to many areas. However, effective plans must be tailored to regionally varying environmental and biological factors affecting the severity of sea lice infections. This paper describes factors that would be involved in the development of an IPM plan for sea lice in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Temperature, salinity and currents affect the production, dispersion and competence of larvae of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), as they develop to the infective copepodid stage. This information can be coupled with oceanographic conditions in the Broughton Archipelago and emerging computer models to define zones of infection where infections of new hosts are most likely. Salinity and temperature depend, in part, on river discharge in estuarine systems. River discharge depends on precipitation, snow pack and ambient temperatures, which can be monitored to help forecast the intensity of sea lice infections associated with both farmed and wild hosts. One of the goals of IPM planning is to reduce reliance on pesticides to avoid development of resistance in targeted parasites and to minimize environmental residues. Recommendations for developing an IPM plan specific to the Broughton Archipelago are provided along with a discussion of the additional information needed to refine IPM plans in this and other areas. PMID:19245631

  10. Pesticide residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and organic foods: insights from three US data sets.

    PubMed

    Baker, B P; Benbrook, C M; Groth, E; Lutz Benbrook, K

    2002-05-01

    An analysis of pesticide residue data was performed to describe and quantify differences between organically grown and non-organic fresh fruits and vegetables. Data on residues in foods from three different market categories (conventionally grown, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown/no detectable residues (NDR), and organically grown) were compared using data from three test programmes: The Pesticide Data Program of the US Department of Agriculture; the Marketplace Surveillance Program of the California Department of Pesticide Regulation; and private tests by the Consumers Union, an independent testing organization. Organically grown foods consistently had about one-third as many residues as conventionally grown foods, and about one-half as many residues as found in IPM/NDR samples. Conventionally grown and IPM/NDR samples were also far more likely to contain multiple pesticide residues than were organically grown samples. Comparison of specific residues on specific crops found that residue concentrations in organic samples were consistently lower than in the other two categories, across all three data sets. The IPM/NDR category, based on data from two of the test programmes, had residues higher than those in organic samples but lower than those in conventionally grown foods. PMID:12028642

  11. Biological and chemical terrorism: recognition and management.

    PubMed

    Noeller, T P

    2001-12-01

    Primary care physicians will be on the front line in detecting and managing any future terrorist attacks that use chemical or biological agents. This article reviews how to recognize and treat disease caused by exposure to nerve agents, blistering agents, hydrogen cyanide, ricin, anthrax, smallpox, plague, and botulinum toxin. PMID:11765118

  12. The potential efficiency of irrigation management and propargyl bromide in controlling three soil pests: Tylenchulus semipenetrans, Fusarium oxysporum and Echinochloa crus-galli.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Suzanne E; Yates, Scott R; Zhang, Ping; Ernst, Fred F

    2005-08-01

    Propargyl bromide (3-bromopropyne, 3BP) is a potential alternative for methyl bromide. Little information is available about its efficiency in controlling pests. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the 3BP dose required for killing three pests and to compare the efficiency of water management approaches to that of fumigation. The pests, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht (fungus), Echinochloa crus-galli (L) Beauv (grass) and Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb (nematode) were exposed to different 3BP concentrations in a sandy loam at 30 degrees C in a closed system. The lethal dose for killing 90% of the population (LD90) was calculated from the total applied mass, and varied from 0.3 microg g(-1) soil for the nematode, 3 microg g(-1) for the grass, and 9 microg g(-1) for the fungus. The concentration-time index for killing 90% of the population (CT90) was 11 microg g(-1) h for the nematode, 112 microg g(-1) h for the grass and 345 microg g(-1) h for the fungus. 3BP seems as efficient as other fumigant alternatives in controlling these pests. Using an open system, it was shown that the volume of soil in which the pests were controlled varied for different irrigation managements. Even 96 h after fumigation (with a concentration 10 times higher than would potentially be applied in the field), more than 20% of the soil volume had not reached the fungus and grass CT90 of the non-irrigated soil. The soil underneath the furrow and the bed reached CT90 only slowly in all irrigated treatments even though techniques for increasing efficiency were used (tarping, surface sealing with water and high application rate). PMID:15912563

  13. Sequential sampling and biorational chemistries for management of lepidopteran pests of vegetable amaranth in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Clarke-Harris, Dionne; Fleischer, Shelby J

    2003-06-01

    Although vegetable amaranth, Amaranthus viridis L. and A. dubius Mart. ex Thell., production and economic importance is increasing in diversified peri-urban farms in Jamaica, lepidopteran herbivory is common even during weekly pyrethroid applications. We developed and validated a sampling plan, and investigated insecticides with new modes of action, for a complex of five species (Pyralidae: Spoladea recurvalis (F.), Herpetogramma bipunctalis (F.), Noctuidae: Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and S. eridania Stoll). Significant within-plant variation occurred with H. bipunctalis, and a six-leaf sample unit including leaves from the inner and outer whorl was selected to sample all species. Larval counts best fit a negative binomial distribution. We developed a sequential sampling plan using a threshold of one larva per sample unit and the fitted distribution with a k(c) of 0.645. When compared with a fixed plan of 25 plants, sequential sampling recommended the same management decision on 87.5%, additional samples on 9.4%, and gave inaccurate recommendations on 3.1% of 32 farms, while reducing sample size by 46%. Insecticide frequency was reduced 33-60% when management decisions were based on sampled data compared with grower-standards, with no effect on crop damage. Damage remained high or variable (10-46%) with pyrethroid applications. Lepidopteran control was dramatically improved with ecdysone agonists (tebufenozide) or microbial metabolites (spinosyns and emamectin benzoate). This work facilitates resistance management efforts concurrent with the introduction of newer modes of action for lepidopteran control in leafy vegetable production in the Caribbean. PMID:12852619

  14. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  15. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  16. The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests

    PubMed Central

    Sobhy, Islam S.; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2014-01-01

    An imminent food crisis reinforces the need for novel strategies to increase crop yields worldwide. Effective control of pest insects should be part of such strategies, preferentially with reduced negative impact on the environment and optimal protection and utilization of existing biodiversity. Enhancing the presence and efficacy of native biological control agents could be one such strategy. Plant strengthener is a generic term for several commercially available compounds or mixtures of compounds that can be applied to cultivated plants in order to ‘boost their vigour, resilience and performance’. Studies into the consequences of boosting plant resistance against pests and diseases on plant volatiles have found a surprising and dramatic increase in the plants' attractiveness to parasitic wasps. Here, we summarize the results from these studies and present new results from assays that illustrate the great potential of two commercially available resistance elicitors. We argue that plant strengtheners may currently be the best option to enhance the attractiveness of cultivated plants to biological control agents. Other options, such as the genetic manipulation of the release of specific volatiles may offer future solutions, but in most systems, we still miss fundamental knowledge on which key attractants should be targeted for this approach. PMID:24535390

  17. Pesticide compatibility with natural enemies for pest management in greenhouse gerbera daisies.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Cheri M; Braman, S K; Oetting, R D; Hinkle, N C

    2013-08-01

    Pesticides commonly used in commercial greenhouse management were evaluated for compatibility with two biological control agents: a leafminer parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea [Walker]), and a predatory mite (Neoseiulus californicus [McGregor]). These natural enemies were exposed to miticides, fungicides, and insecticides targeting leafminers, thrips, and whiteflies, according to label directions in laboratory vial assays, after which mortality at 12, 24, and 48 h was recorded. Greater mortality of predatory mites than leafminer parasitoids was observed overall, illustrating that fewer pesticides were compatible with predatory mites compared with the parasitoid. However, some commonly used pesticides were found to cause high mortality to both the leafminer parasitoid and predatory mites. Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestations often disrupt leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii [Burgess]) biocontrol programs. Therefore, potentially compatible miticides (bifenazate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, acequinocyl, etoxazole, and clofentezine) identified in laboratory trials were also evaluated in a greenhouse study and found to be compatible with leafminer biocontrol. PMID:24020270

  18. Monitoring insect pests in retail stores by trapping and spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Arbogast, R T; Kendra, P E; Mankin, R W; McGovern, J E

    2000-10-01

    Stored-product insects are a perennial problem in retail stores, where they damage and contaminate susceptible merchandise such as food products and animal feed. Historically, pest management in these stores has relied heavily on chemical insecticides, but environmental and health issues have dictated use of safer methods, and these require better monitoring. A monitoring procedure that employs an array of moth and beetle traps combined with spatial (contour) analysis of trap catch was tested in three department stores and two pet stores. The rate of capture increased with the level of infestation but was essentially constant over 4- to 5-d trapping periods. Contour analysis effectively located foci of infestation and reflected population changes produced by applications of the insect growth regulator (S)-hydroprene. The most abundant insects were Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner), Lasioderma serricorne (F.), Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr). The results indicate that contour analysis of trap counts provides a useful monitoring tool for management of storage pests in retail stores. It identifies trouble spots and permits selection, timing, and precision targeting of control measures to achieve maximum pest suppression with minimum pesticide risk. It permits managers and pest control operators to visualize pest problems over an entire store, to monitor changes over time, and to evaluate the effectiveness of control intervention. The contour maps themselves, along with records of control applications and stock rotation, provide permanent documentation of pest problems and the effectiveness of pest management procedures. PMID:11057728

  19. Cost-effectiveness of integrated pest management compared with insecticidal spraying against the German cockroach in apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Gholam H; Hafidzi, M N; Khadri, M S; Rafinejad, J; Ibrahim, Y B

    2011-10-01

    This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using hydramethylnon gel baits compared with conventional spraying for controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), in two residential buildings in Yasuj, Iran. The IPM approach was based on educational programs using pamphlets, posters and lectures, sanitation using vacuuming and application of hydramethylnon gel baits. Conventional approach used cypermethrin (10% EC) on baseboard and cracks-and-crevices. Sticky traps were used as tools for monitoring cockroach population densities. The IPM approach reduced (943%) the rate of insecticide application compared to the conventional spray. Cockroach populations in the IPM treatment were significantly reduced from an average of 12.2 ± 3.01 cockroaches per unit before treatment to zero cockroach per unit by week four and thereafter. Cockroach populations in the conventional spray treatment were reduced from an average of 11.5 ± 4.43 cockroaches per unit before treatment to an average of 3.4 ± 0.99 cockroach per unit after 11 weeks of post treatment. The IPM treatment improved 100% of infested units compared to 78% for spray treatment to obtain a clean level of infestation (< 1cockroach per trap per unit). The results suggest that the intervention by IPM using hydramethylnon gel baits significantly reduced cockroach infestation compared to cypermethrin spray throughout the 11 weeks of post-treatment period. However, within the study period, the IPM system involving gel baits, educational program and sanitation was 363.2% more expensive than the conventional method. PMID:22068948

  20. In situ assessment of pesticide genotoxicity in an integrated pest management program I--Tradescantia micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G S; Pimentel, D; Weinstein, L H

    1998-02-13

    The genotoxicity induced by pesticides applied in an integrated pest management (IPM) program was evaluated with the Tradescantia micronucleus assay (Trad-MCN). Three pesticide application rates were prescribed as follows: (a) Low, no field pesticide spray; (b) Medium, IPM test rate: banded cyanazine plus metolachlor (2.7 kg a.i. and 2.3 l a.i./ha of herbicides, respectively); and (c) High, a preventative pesticide application program: broadcast cyanazine plus metolachlor (same application rates as above) plus chlorpyrifos (1 kg a.i./ha of insecticide). The Trad-MCN was employed for the assessment of (a) the formulated compounds, singly and in combinations; (b) pesticide residues extracted from soils sampled before and after application, and (c) in situ exposures (14-h exposure to pesticide-sprayed field). All pesticides showed clastogenic potency at doses between 10 and 50 ppm. Aqueous extracts of the two pesticide-sprayed soils were clastogenic, but the unsprayed soil extracts were not. Plants exposed in situ to pesticide-sprayed soils (inside a chamber receiving vapors from the soil) also showed significant increases in micronuclei frequency in relation to controls exposed to unsprayed soil. In general, there was no significant reduction in the genotoxic effects from the High to the Medium treatment levels of the IPM program. This suggests that the reduction in pesticide application rates attained with the implementation of the proposed IPM program was not sufficient to abate the genotoxicity of the pesticides, as perceived with the sensitive assays employed. The results indicate that replacing genotoxic compounds may be the only effective remediation measure to eliminate the risks imposed by mutagenic compounds in the agricultural environment. PMID:9600691

  1. Total chemical management in photographic processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luden, Charles; Schultz, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    The mission of the U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center is to produce high-quality photographs of the earth taken from aircraft and Landsat satellite. In order to meet the criteria of producing research-quality photographs, while at the same time meeting strict environmental restrictions, a total photographic chemical management system was installed. This involved a three-part operation consisting of the design of a modern chemical analysis laboratory, the implementation of a chemical regeneration system, and the installation of a waste treatment system, including in-plant pretreatment and outside secondary waste treatment. Over the last ten years the result of this program has yielded high-quality photographs while saving approximately 30,000 per year and meeting all Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restrictions.

  2. Incorporation of intraguild predation into a pest management decision-making tool: the case of thrips and two pollen-feeding predators in strawberry.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Sulochana; Coll, Moshe; Weintraub, Phyllis G

    2010-08-01

    Action thresholds are traditionally based on the density of pests and the economic damage they cause to crops. Pest damage assessments are usually made in a "sterile" environment, devoid of extenuating factors such as predators, parasitoids, and alternative food sources. Recently, the effects of a predator or parasitoid species have been considered. However, interactions between natural enemy species (intraguild predation and interference), which are common in agricultural fields, have not been incorporated yet into decision-making tools. We conducted a series of leaf disc and potted plant trials to evaluate the effects of two predator species, the anthocorid Orius laevigatus (Fieber) and the phytoseiid Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) on the density of and fruit damage inflicted by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). We then used the obtained results to develop a pest management decision-making tool for the control of western flower thrips. Because strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) flower in cycles, pollen, a food source for both predators and the pest, is periodically available in the system and has also been incorporated in our decision-making tool. The developed new management tool would allow the relaxation of the economic threshold (ET) for western flower thrips in strawberry flowers. The presence of an average of a single O. laevigatus per flower for example, may allow that relaxation of the ET by 40% (from 10 to 14 western flower thrips per flower) when pollen is available during the winter. Because field monitoring shows that O. laevigatus populations in Israeli strawberry often reach mean densities of three to four per flower, the new approach promises to drastically reduce the employment of toxic insecticides. PMID:20857715

  3. Classical biological control of an invasive forest pest: a world perspective of the management of Sirex noctilio using the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae).

    PubMed

    Fischbein, D; Corley, J C

    2015-02-01

    Classical biological control is a key method for managing populations of pests in long-lived crops such as plantation forestry. The execution of biological control programmes in general, as the evaluation of potential natural enemies remains, to a large extent, an empirical endeavour. Thus, characterizing specific cases to determine patterns that may lead to more accurate predictions of success is an important goal of the much applied ecological research. We review the history of introduction, ecology and behaviour of the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides. The species is a natural enemy of Sirex noctilio, one of the most important pests of pine afforestation worldwide. We use an invasion ecology perspective given the analogy between the main stages involved in classical biological control and the biological invasion processes. We conclude that success in the establishment, a common reason of failure in biocontrol, is not a limiting factor of success by I. leucospoides. A mismatch between the spread capacity of the parasitoid and that of its host could nevertheless affect control at a regional scale. In addition, we suggest that given its known life history traits, this natural enemy may be a better regulator than suppressor of the host population. Moreover, spatial and temporal refuges of the host population that may favour the local persistence of the interaction probably reduce the degree to which S. noctilio population is suppressed by the parasitoid. We emphasize the fact that some of the biological attributes that promote establishment may negatively affect suppression levels achieved. Studies on established non-native pest-parasitoid interactions may contribute to defining selection criteria for classical biological control which may prove especially useful in integrated pest management IPM programmes of invasive forest insects. PMID:24923367

  4. Chemical-warfare techniques for insect control: insect 'pests' in Germany before and after World War I.

    PubMed

    Jansen, S

    2000-01-01

    During World War I, chemical-warfare practices were introduced into economic entomology in Germany. Fritz Haber, 'the father of chemical warfare', realized that Germany could not win the war and thus looked for 'civilian' uses for his chemical arsenal. Before the war, there was a rhetoric of dangerous 'masses' of insects but the large-scale techniques needed to deal with them had not been developed. The gap between rhetoric and practices enabled entomology to integrate chemical weapons into its working methods. This article traces transformations in the ways of seeing insects and their control from the mid-nineteenth century to after World War I. PMID:10824441

  5. Epidemiology in risk management for chemicals.

    PubMed

    Coggon, D

    2006-01-01

    Risk management is the process by which choices are made between alternative actions or policies according to the likelihood of beneficial or adverse outcomes. It entails an assessment of the potential risks and benefits associated with each possible option, and the application of value judgements to decide which option should be chosen. Informal risk management for chemicals, a distinction is made between hazard (a potential adverse effect of the substance) and risk (the probability that that a hazard will be realised given the circumstances and extent of exposure to the substance). Where there is uncertainty about the existence of a hazard or about the level of risk associated with an exposure, this must also be taken into account. Of the various measures of risk, the two that are most relevant to risk management are the individual attributable risk and the population attributable risk. Assessment of risk entails the identification and characterisation of hazards, and estimation of the risks associated with the exposure circumstances that will follow from different policy options. Examples are given of the way in which epidemiology can contribute to this process, and also to checking that the outcomes of decisions in risk management accord with what was predicted by underpinning risk assessments. The strengths and limitations of epidemiology as a tool in risk management are discussed. PMID:17017348

  6. Are naringenin and quercetin useful chemicals in pest-management strategies?

    PubMed

    Go?awska, Sylwia; Sprawka, Iwona; Lukasik, Iwona; Go?awski, Artur

    2014-01-01

    The effects of two polyphenolic flavonoids (flavanone naringenin and flavonol quercetin) on development, fecundity, and mortality of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae), were determined in vitro, on an artificial diets. Also determined in vitro (DC EPG method), on sucrose-agarose gels, were the effects of flavonoids on the probing and feeding behavior of adult apterae. When added to a liquid diet, higher concentrations of studied flavonoids increased the developmental time, the pre-reproductive period, and mortality and decreased fecundity and the intrinsic rate of natural increase of A. pisum. In most events associated with stylet activity (as indicated by EPG waveform g-C), differences in probing behavior did not statistically differ between the control gel and those with flavonoids; quercetin at 10, 100, and 1,000 µg cm(-3) prolonged the number of gel penetrations; and quercetin only at 10,000 ?g cm(-3) prolonged the time the first g-C waveform was observed. Addition of flavonoids to the gels generally reduced passive ingestion from fluids of the gels (EPG waveform g-E2). At higher concentrations (>1,000 µg cm(-3)) the flavonoids completely stopped salivation (EPG waveform g-E1) and passive ingestion from fluids of the gels (EPG waveform g-E2). In events associated with active ingestion (EPG waveform g-G), however, differences in feeding behavior did not statistically differ between the control gel and those with flavonoids. The present findings demonstrate detrimental effects of the flavanone naringenin and flavonol on the behavior of the pea aphid. This can be employed in a biotechnological projects for plant breeding resistant to herbivores, including aphids. PMID:24563648

  7. Application of Predator-in-First approach in managing thrips and other key pests in pepper crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of biocontrol agents is critical for success of a biological control strategies. Predator-In-First (PIF) is a prophylactic control strategy that aims to establish predators before the appearance of pests in an agro-ecosystem. PIF uses the characteristics of generalist phytoseiid mi...

  8. Predator-In-First: A novel biocontrol strategy for managing thrips and other key pests in pepper crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predator-In-First (PIF) is a novel biological-based approach for sustainable control of thrips and other key pests that threaten pepper production in protected and outdoor culture. In the current study pepper plants were used as a model crop system and the key component of this method involves the r...

  9. Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

  10. A Review of the Natural Enemies of Beetles in the Subtribe Diabroticina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): Implications for Sustainable Pest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabroticina is a speciose subtribe of New World Chrysomelidae (Subfamily Galerucinae: Tribe Luperini) that includes pests like corn rootworms, cucumber beetles and bean leaf beetles (e.g. Diabrotica, Acalymma, Cerotoma species). The evolution and spread of pesticide resistance, the European invasio...

  11. Genetic identification of an unknown Rhagoletis fruit fly infesting Chinese crabapple (Malus spectabilis): implications for apple pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious introduced quarantine pest in the apple-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. In August 2011, seven fly larvae of unknown origin were discovered infesting fruit of an exotic Chinese crabapple, Malus s...

  12. Large-scale deployment of seed treatments has driven rapid increase in use of neonicotinoid insecticides and preemptive pest management in US field crops.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Margaret R; Tooker, John F

    2015-04-21

    Neonicotinoids are the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide, but patterns of their use in the U.S. are poorly documented, constraining attempts to understand their role in pest management and potential nontarget effects. We synthesized publicly available data to estimate and interpret trends in neonicotinoid use since their introduction in 1994, with a special focus on seed treatments, a major use not captured by the national pesticide-use survey. Neonicotinoid use increased rapidly between 2003 and 2011, as seed-applied products were introduced in field crops, marking an unprecedented shift toward large-scale, preemptive insecticide use: 34-44% of soybeans and 79-100% of maize hectares were treated in 2011. This finding contradicts recent analyses, which concluded that insecticides are used today on fewer maize hectares than a decade or two ago. If current trends continue, neonicotinoid use will increase further through application to more hectares of soybean and other crop species and escalation of per-seed rates. Alternatively, our results, and other recent analyses, suggest that carefully targeted efforts could considerably reduce neonicotinoid use in field crops without yield declines or economic harm to farmers, reducing the potential for pest resistance, nontarget pest outbreaks, environmental contamination, and harm to wildlife, including pollinator species. PMID:25793443

  13. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Donald S; Halasa, Yara A; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A; Clark, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8. PMID:25338065

  14. Economic Evaluation of an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program to Control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Donald S.; Halasa, Yara A.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P.; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8. PMID:25338065

  15. Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mensah, Robert K.; Young, Alison; Rood-England, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp.) against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects) was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 102 to 109) of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 × 107 spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha) than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha). Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production. PMID:26463189

  16. Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Robert K; Young, Alison; Rood-England, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp.) against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects) was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 10² to 10⁸) of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 ´ 10⁷ spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha) than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha). Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production. PMID:26463189

  17. Management of plant species for controlling pests, by peasant farmers at Lagoa Seca, Paraíba state, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Andréia de Souza; Mourão, José da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Ethnoecological knowledge may be understood as spontaneous knowledge, culturally referenced of any society's members, learned and transmitted through social interactions and that are targeted at resolution of daily routine situations. The traditional knowledge in small scale economy societies as well as the non-academic knowledge in urban-industrial societies might be included in this concept. An ethnoecological approach study was performed here on people living at the communities of Alvinho, Almeida, Chã do Marinho, Floriano, and Chã de Oiti, all located in the municipality of Lagoa Seca, Paraíba state, Northeast Brazil. The general objective pursued here was to study the knowledge that peasant farmers have on management of plant species utilized for pest control. For this, the methodological instruments employed here to investigate the ethnoecological knowledge were: direct observation, structured and semi-structured interviews, and tours conducted by local peasant farmers. We analyzed the data obtained under an emic/etic view and also by comparing the local knowledge with those obtained from the literature. The results showed that people in those communities utilize management alternatives for controlling pests, which are mainly: (i) fallowing; (ii) crop rotation; (iii) destruction of crop remains and fruits attacked by pests; (iv) alternations of crops with repellent plants; and/or (v) mixed cropping; (vi) insect's larvae covered with soil; (vii) crops irrigated abundantly; and (viii) soil preparation. The recovery and comprehension we get about this knowledge as well as the farmers' savoir faire, are extremely important to the revival of ancient agricultural practices, which have been forgotten due to advances in modern agriculture. The data obtained here showed that a huge body of knowledge the farmers have on many forms or strategies of management are generally compatible with scientific knowledge. PMID:17026748

  18. Options for pest and disease control in organic pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although organic pecans typically command a higher wholesale and retail price, their production presents a unique set of challenges. Among these are issues of pest and disease management - it is not simply a modification of the conventional, pest and disease management paradigm. Despite these pest ...

  19. Current status and future perspectives on sunflower insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While occasional insect pests of cultivated sunflowers may be managed by conventional or reduced-risk insecticides, the cumulative costs and risks of relying on insecticides to suppress perennial or severe pests (common in North America) call for exploration of broader pest management strategies. Re...

  20. Genetic identification of an unknown Rhagoletis fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting Chinese crabapple: implications for apple pest management.

    PubMed

    St Jean, Gilbert; Egan, Scott P; Yee, Wee L; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2013-06-01

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious introduced quarantine pest in the apple (Malus spp.)-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. In August 2011, seven fly larvae of unknown origin were discovered infesting fruit of an exotic Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Aiton) Borkhausen, in Kennewick, Benton County, WA. If confirmed, Chinese crabapple would have represented a new host for R. pomonella in Washington and triggered quarantine measures in a surrounding three-county region of the state. Here, we establish, based on five microsatellite loci, the identity of the crabapple-infesting larvae as the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, representing a new host record for the fly. Morphological analysis of six flies reared to adulthood confirmed the genetic identification. The results demonstrate the utility of integrating rapid genetic identification methods with field surveys of economic pests, which decreased detection times by months, and avoided enacting costly quarantine measures that saved local and federal bodies > US$0.5 million in monitoring, inspection, and control costs. We discuss current ongoing efforts to develop rapid, accurate, and inexpensive on site DNA-based detection tools for R. pomonella that would have general applicability for the control of pest insects. PMID:23865221

  1. [Research progress in chemical communication among insect-resistant genetically modified plants, insect pests and natural enemies].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Song; Li, Yun-He; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2014-08-01

    Semiochemicals released by plants or insects play an important role in the communication among plants, phytophagous insects and their natural enemies. They thus form a chemical information network which regulates intra- and inter-specific behaviors and sustains the composition and structure of plant and insect communities. The application of insect-resistant genetically modified (IRGM) crops may affect the chemical communication within and among the tritrophic levels, and thus cause disturbances to the biotic community structure and the stability of the farmland ecosystem. This has raised concerns about the environmental safety of IRGM crops and triggered research worldwide. In the current article we provided a brief summary of the chemical communication among plants, herbivores and natural enemies; analyzed the potential of IRGM crops to affect the chemical communication between plants and arthropods and the related mechanisms; and discussed the current research progress and the future prospects in this field. We hope that this will promote the research in this field by Chinese scientists and increase our understanding of the potential effects of growing of IRGM crops on the arthropod community structure. PMID:25509100

  2. Chemical management system at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Morss, H.S.; Hischier, R.C.; Keto, D.N.; Woodring, J.L.; Davis, J.T.; Sherva, B.

    1995-07-01

    The Argonne Chemical Management System (CMS) is comprised of several applications and the Infrastructure Modules. The Infrastructure Modules, which provide the integrated computing software foundation, include a security processor, common tables, reporting framework, utilities, and other facilities common to applications processing chemical information. The MSDS Sheets were scanned and the images stored for automated faxing to the requester. User searches are accomplished based on ``search`` data keyed into the Oracle Tables; the desired MSDS is subsequently faxed. The system has been designed as an ``open`` system and is totally portable. During development and production the CMS has operated in VAX, VMS, Sun Unix, and Hewlett-Packard HP-UX environments. The only restrictions are that the MSDS Faxing Server must operate under Unix and the bar code scanning processes are accomplished using a portable PC. The current system consists of 20 Oracle Tables, over 350 columns of data, 25 Standard reports, 45 screens, and a number of utilities. With the Oracle RDBMS the computing platform may be sized to the volume of data and processing activity. The Laboratory`s implementation is on an HP 9000 Model H50 with 256 megabytes of memory, 32 concurrent users, and 8 gigabytes of disk storage that is primarily for the MSDS images.

  3. Formulating microbial agents for pest control applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial biological control is the use of beneficial microbes to control pests and pathogens. The development of biological control products for use in pest management requires technology to produce, handle, store, and disperse large amounts of microbial propagules. Production can be accomplished...

  4. Tin Pest in Sn-0.5Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloys: A Chemical Analysis of Trace Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leodolter-Dworak, Monika; Steffan, Ilse; Plumbridge, William J.; Ipser, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Two samples of Sn-0.5Cu solder alloys, stored at -18°C for 7 years, were chemically analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy method. One of the samples was unaffected by this exposure; the other one had completely transformed into brittle ?-Sn. Ten elements were found to exhibit statistically significant differences in their concentrations between the two samples, with the higher always associated with the untransformed sample. The highest concentrations were found for elements with an appreciable solubility in Sn, i.e., Bi, In, Pb, and Sb.

  5. Evaluation of two least toxic integrated pest management programs for managing bed bugs (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) with discussion of a bed bug intercepting device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Gibb, Timothy; Bennett, Gary W

    2009-05-01

    The cost and effectiveness of two bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) integrated pest management (IPM) programs were evaluated for 10 wk. Sixteen bed bug-infested apartments were chosen from a high-rise low-income apartment building. The apartments were randomly divided into two treatment groups: diatomaceous earth dust-based IPM (D-IPM) and chlorfenapyr spray-based IPM (S-IPM). The initial median (minimum, maximum) bed bug counts (by visual inspection) of the two treatment groups were 73.5 (10, 352) and 77 (18, 3025), respectively. A seminar and an educational brochure were delivered to residents and staff. It was followed by installing encasements on mattresses and box springs and applying hot steam to bed bug-infested areas in all 16 apartments. Diatomaceous earth dust (Mother Earth-D) was applied in the D-IPM group 2 d after steaming. In addition, bed bug-intercepting devices were installed under legs of infested beds or sofas or chairs to intercept bed bugs. The S-IPM group only received 0.5% chlorfenapyr spray (Phantom) after the nonchemical treatments. All apartments were monitored bi-weekly and retreated when necessary. After 10 wk, bed bugs were eradicated from 50% of the apartments in each group. Bed bug count reduction (mean +/- SEM) was 97.6 +/- 1.6 and 89.7 +/- 7.3% in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Mean treatment costs in the 10-wk period were $463 and $482 per apartment in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Bed bug interceptors trapped an average of 219 +/- 135 bed bugs per apartment in 10 wk. The interceptors contributed to the IPM program efficacy and were much more effective than visual inspections in estimating bed bug numbers and determining the existence of bed bug infestations. PMID:19496428

  6. Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

  7. Stratified entomological sampling in preparation for an area-wide integrated pest management program: the example of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Niayes of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Elhadji Youssou; Guerrini, Laure; Vreysen, Marc J B

    2010-07-01

    The riverine tsetse species Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) inhabits riparian forests along river systems in West Africa. The government of Senegal has embarked on a project to eliminate this tsetse species, and African animal trypanosomoses, from the Niayes area using an area-wide integrated pest management approach. A stratified entomological sampling strategy was therefore developed using spatial analytical tools and mathematical modeling. A preliminary phytosociological census identified eight types of suitable habitat, which could be discriminated from LandSat 7 ETM+ satellite images and denominated wet areas. At the end of March 2009, 683 unbaited Vavoua traps had been deployed, and the observed infested area in the Niayes was 525 km2. In the remaining area, a mathematical model was used to assess the risk that flies were present despite a sequence of zero catches. The analysis showed that this risk was above 0.05 in 19% of this area that will be considered as infested during the control operations. The remote sensing analysis that identified the wet areas allowed a restriction of the area to be surveyed to 4% of the total surface area (7,150 km2), whereas the mathematical model provided an efficient method to improve the accuracy and the robustness of the sampling protocol. The final size of the control area will be decided based on the entomological collection data. This entomological sampling procedure might be used for other vector or pest control scenarios. PMID:20695269

  8. Pest control: A modelling approach. Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by S. Petrovskii, N. Petrovskaya and D. Bearup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Rebecca C.

    2014-09-01

    Successful food production results in the delivery to market of beautiful produce, free of damage from insects. All of that produce however, is an excellent and plentiful food source, and nature has evolved a multitude of insects that compete with humans for access. There exist a number of management strategies to combat pests, including traditional crop rotation and companion planting techniques, as well as more sophisticated techniques including mating disruption using pheromones and the application of chemical sprays. Chemical sprays are extremely effective, and are in widespread use around the globe [1,12,20]. Indeed, pesticides are the dominant form of pest management in current use [10,20].

  9. Sandia National Laboratories, California Chemical Management Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2012-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Chemical Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Chemical Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. SNL/CA is responsible for tracking chemicals (chemical and biological materials), providing Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and for regulatory compliance reporting according to a variety of chemical regulations. The principal regulations for chemical tracking are the Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the California Right-to-Know regulations. The regulations, the Hazard Communication/Lab Standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are also key to the CM Program. The CM Program is also responsible for supporting chemical safety and information requirements for a variety of Integrated Enabling Services (IMS) programs primarily the Industrial Hygiene, Waste Management, Fire Protection, Air Quality, Emergency Management, Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Prevention programs. The principal program tool is the Chemical Information System (CIS). The system contains two key elements: the MSDS library and the chemical container-tracking database that is readily accessible to all Members of the Sandia Workforce. The primary goal of the CM Program is to ensure safe and effective chemical management at Sandia/CA. This is done by efficiently collecting and managing chemical information for our customers who include Line, regulators, DOE and ES and H programs to ensure compliance with regulations and to streamline customer business processes that require chemical information.

  10. Dispersal behavior of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae on tomato at several spatial scales and densities: implications for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Azandémè-Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Fiaboe, Komi K M; Subramanian, Sevgan; Kungu, Miriam; Martin, Thibaud

    2014-01-01

    Studying distribution is necessary to understand and manage the dynamics of species with spatially structured populations. Here we studied the distribution in Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae, two mite pests of tomato, in the scope of evaluating factors that can influence the effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management strategies. We found greater positive density-dependent distribution with T. evansi than T. urticae when assayed on single, detached tomato leaves. Indeed, T. evansi distribution among leaflets increased with initial population density while it was high even at low T. urticae densities. Intensity and rate of damage to whole plants was higher with T. evansi than T. urticae. We further studied the circadian migration of T. evansi within plant. When T. evansi density was high the distribution behavior peaked between 8 am and 3 pm and between 8 pm and 3 am local time of Kenya. Over 24 h the total number of mites ascending and descending was always similar and close to the total population size. The gregarious behavior of T. evansi combined with its rapid population growth rate, may explain why few tomato plants can be severely damaged by T. evansi and how suddenly all the crop can be highly infested. However the localisation and elimination of the first infested plants damaged by T. evansi could reduce the risk of outbreaks in the entire crop. These findings suggest also that an acaricide treated net placed on the first infested plants could be very effective to control T. evansi. Moreover circadian migration would therefore accentuate the efficiency of an acaricide treated net covering the infested plants. PMID:24743580

  11. Dispersal Behavior of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae on Tomato at Several Spatial Scales and Densities: Implications for Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Azandémè-Hounmalon, Ginette Y.; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Fiaboe, Komi K. M.; Subramanian, Sevgan; Kungu, Miriam; Martin, Thibaud

    2014-01-01

    Studying distribution is necessary to understand and manage the dynamics of species with spatially structured populations. Here we studied the distribution in Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae, two mite pests of tomato, in the scope of evaluating factors that can influence the effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management strategies. We found greater positive density-dependent distribution with T. evansi than T. urticae when assayed on single, detached tomato leaves. Indeed, T. evansi distribution among leaflets increased with initial population density while it was high even at low T. urticae densities. Intensity and rate of damage to whole plants was higher with T. evansi than T. urticae. We further studied the circadian migration of T. evansi within plant. When T. evansi density was high the distribution behavior peaked between 8 am and 3 pm and between 8 pm and 3 am local time of Kenya. Over 24 h the total number of mites ascending and descending was always similar and close to the total population size. The gregarious behavior of T. evansi combined with its rapid population growth rate, may explain why few tomato plants can be severely damaged by T. evansi and how suddenly all the crop can be highly infested. However the localisation and elimination of the first infested plants damaged by T. evansi could reduce the risk of outbreaks in the entire crop. These findings suggest also that an acaricide treated net placed on the first infested plants could be very effective to control T. evansi. Moreover circadian migration would therefore accentuate the efficiency of an acaricide treated net covering the infested plants. PMID:24743580

  12. Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Control and Management Materials. A Symposium Sponsored by ASTM Committee E-35 on Pesticides, American Society for Testing and Materials, Monterey, California, March 8, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, W. B., Ed.; Marsh, R. E., Ed.

    The first symposium on "Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Management" was held in March, 1976. Much of the thrust was toward explaining and defining the "state of the art." Concerns included rodents and rabbits, predators, scavengers, and large game animals, and a variety of bird species. Environments were as restricted as a laboratory cage or pen…

  13. Bioeconomic modeling in conservation pest management: effect of stoat control on extinction risk of an indigenous New Zealand passerine, Mohua ochrocephala.

    PubMed

    Choquenot, David

    2006-04-01

    Pest control is a key activity undertaken to conserve threatened and declining species. Although bioeconomic analysis has been used to contrast the relative efficiency of control strategies where pests affect economic resources, the same approaches have been adopted rarely in conservation settings. The Mohua (Mohoua ochrocephala) is an insectivorous passerine indigenous to beech (Nothofagus spp.) forests in New Zealand's south island. Mohua have undergone a 75% range contraction since stoats (Mustela erminea) (which prey on nests and nesting females) were introduced to the south island in the late 1800s. Mohua nests are particularly vulnerable when stoat abundance increases in response to eruptions in the density of introduced house mice (Mus musculus), which in turn respond to semiperiodic (4-6year) mass seeding (masting) of beech trees. Controlling stoats only when their abundance poses a threat to Mohua fledging success would theoretically maximize the efficiency with which Mohua are protected. To better synchronize stoat control with periods of high stoat density, control could be initiated according to (1) time since last control, (2) beech seedfall, (3) mouse abundance, or (4) stoat abundance. Monitoring the three environmental cues, however, incurs costs that should be taken into account when considering their relative efficiency I derived an empirically based stochastic model that links sequential change in beech seedfall, mouse, and stoat abundance to a simple demographic model for Mohua. I used the model to contrast the relative cost-efficiency of achieving conservation outcomes for Mohua (specified in a quasi-extinction framework), initiating stoat control according to these cues. The use of environmental cues reduced the frequency with which stoat control had to be undertaken to achieve Mohua conservation outcomes by more than 50%. For some cues, however the costs of monitoring outweighed the savings that could be achieved through reduced frequency of stoat control. The interplay between costs of monitoring environmental cues and the frequency with which stoat control had to be undertaken meant that the most efficient strategy was dependent on the conservation outcome specified for Mohua. My results demonstrate the utility of bioeconomic analysis in formulation of pest management strategies to achieve conservation outcomes. PMID:16903109

  14. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: An introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease r...

  15. Impact of combining planting date and chemical control to reduce larval densities of stem-infesting pests of sunflower in the Central Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Dectes texanus texanus L...

  16. Cotton pest management practices and the selection of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae population in Northern Benin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid insecticides, carbamate and organophosphate are the classes of insecticides commonly used in agriculture for crop protection in Benin. Pyrethroids remain the only class of insecticides recommended by the WHO for impregnation of bed nets. Unfortunately, the high level of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l., threatens to undermine the success of pyrethroid treated nets. This study focuses on the investigation of agricultural practices in cotton growing areas, and their direct impact on larval populations of An. gambiae in surrounding breeding sites. Methods The protocol was based on the collection of agro-sociological data where farmers were subjected to semi-structured questionnaires based on the strategies used for crop protection. This was complemented by bioassay tests to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to various insecticides. Molecular analysis was performed to characterize the resistance genes and the molecular forms of An. gambiae. Insecticide residues in soil samples from breeding sites were investigated to determine major factors that can inhibit the normal growth of mosquito larvae by exposing susceptible and resistant laboratory strains. Results There is a common use by local farmers of mineral fertilizer NPK at 200 kg/ha and urea at 50 kg/hectare following insecticide treatments in both the Calendar Control Program (CCP) and the Targeted Intermittent Control Program (TICP). By contrast, no chemicals are involved in Biological Program (BP) where farmers use organic and natural fertilizers which include animal excreta. Susceptibility test results confirmed a high resistance to DDT. Mean mortality of An. gambiae collected from the farms practicing CCP, TICP and BP methods were 33%, 42% and 65% respectively. An. gambiae populations from areas using the CCP and TICP programs showed resistance to permethrin with mortality of 50% and 58% respectively. By contrast, bioassay test results of An. gambiae from BP areas gave a high level of susceptibility to permethrin with an average mortality of 94%. Molecular analysis identified An. gambiae s.s, and An. arabiensis with a high predominance of An. gambiae s.s (90%). The two molecular forms, M and S, were also determined with a high frequency of the S form (96%). The Kdr gene seemed the main target- site resistance mechanism detected in CCP, TICP, and BP areas at the rates ranging from 32 to 78%. The frequency of ace-1R gene was very low (< 0.1). The presence of inhibiting factors in soil samples under insecticide treatments were found and affected negatively in delaying the development of An. gambiae larval populations. Conclusions This research shows that Kdr has spread widely in An. gambiae, mainly in CCP and TICP areas where pyrethroids are extensively used. To reduce the negative impact of pesticides use in cotton crop protection, the application of BP-like programs, which do not appear to select for vector resistance would be useful. These results could serve as scientific evidence of the spread of resistance due to a massive agricultural use of insecticides and contribute to the management of pesticides usage on cotton crops hence reducing the selection pressure of insecticides on An. gambiae populations. PMID:21489266

  17. Parasitism Performance and Fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): Implications in Integrated Pest Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Suhaimi, Amalina; Abuzid, Ismail; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Ghani, Idris Abd

    2014-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM) strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hym., Braconidae) can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1) and their progeny (F2) had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control. PMID:24968125

  18. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  19. Study of the pest community of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.).

    PubMed

    Nagy, V; Keresztes, B; Nádasy, E

    2011-01-01

    Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus 1787) is one of the most economically threatening weed plant in Hungary. Researching biological control against it, and identifying a possible and effective biocontrol agent is an important challenge, as chemical control is difficult and expensive, and there is an increasing claim to practice slight plant protection. Entomological studies were made in several parts of the world, for evaluating the species, occuring in velvetleaf, but none of these kind of experiments were assessed in Hungary. Our observations were made in field and plastic boxes, both under open field circumstances in 2008 and 2009 by visually assessing pests, netting and damage based identifying. Meanwhile 8 pest species were identified, including (Helix pomatia Linnaeus 1758--roman snale; Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood 1856)--greenhouse whitefly; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius 1787)-- lime seed bug; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus 1758)--fire bug; Rhopalus parumpunctatus Schilling 1829--common hyaline bug; Liorhyssus hyalinus--hyaline grass bug (Fabricius 1794); Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus 1758)--cabbage moth; Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner 1808)--corn earworm). On the whole the literature datas were enlarged with four new velvetleaf pests (roman scale, lime seed bug, common hyaline bug, cabbage moth). Considering the earlier literature and our results, Liorhyssus hyalinus may play an important role on biological management of velvetleaf. However this pest considered as polyphagous, but discovered to occur in great numbers on velvetleaf, this points to the fact that can be its main host plant and by sucking on the plant, can cause decreased germination rate. We suggest the "hyaline velvetleaf bug" name istead of "hyaline grass bug". Of course, additional experiments are needed on this pest to may use safety and effectively in the future. PMID:22696962

  20. Chemical Biological Emergency Management Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-06-15

    CB-EMIS is designed to provide information and analysis to transit system operators and emergency responders in the event of a chemical attack on a subway system. The software inforporates detector data, video images, train data, meteorological data, and above- and below-ground plume dispersion models, hight of the liquid level.

  1. The Management of Chemical Waste in a University Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coons, David Michael

    This thesis describes a study of the management of chemical waste at the State University of New York at Binghamton. The study revealed that the majority of chemical waste at the university is in the form of hazardous waste. It was hypothesized that the volume, related costs, and potential long-term liability associated with the disposal of…

  2. A Framework for Identifying Selective Chemical Applications for IPM in Dryland Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Umina, Paul A; Jenkins, Sommer; McColl, Stuart; Arthur, Aston; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-01-01

    Shifts to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in agriculture are assisted by the identification of chemical applications that provide effective control of pests relative to broad-spectrum pesticides but have fewer negative effects on natural enemy (beneficial) groups that assist in pest control. Here, we outline a framework for identifying such applications and apply this framework to field trials involving the crop establishment phase of Australian dryland cropping systems. Several chemicals, which are not presently available to farmers in Australia, were identified as providing moderate levels of pest control and seedling protection, with the potential to be less harmful to beneficial groups including predatory mites, predatory beetles and ants. This framework highlights the challenges involved in chemically controlling pests while maintaining non-target populations when pest species are present at damaging levels. PMID:26694469

  3. A Framework for Identifying Selective Chemical Applications for IPM in Dryland Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Umina, Paul A.; Jenkins, Sommer; McColl, Stuart; Arthur, Aston; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2015-01-01

    Shifts to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in agriculture are assisted by the identification of chemical applications that provide effective control of pests relative to broad-spectrum pesticides but have fewer negative effects on natural enemy (beneficial) groups that assist in pest control. Here, we outline a framework for identifying such applications and apply this framework to field trials involving the crop establishment phase of Australian dryland cropping systems. Several chemicals, which are not presently available to farmers in Australia, were identified as providing moderate levels of pest control and seedling protection, with the potential to be less harmful to beneficial groups including predatory mites, predatory beetles and ants. This framework highlights the challenges involved in chemically controlling pests while maintaining non-target populations when pest species are present at damaging levels. PMID:26694469

  4. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations and soil chemical treatment for managing nematodes and thrips.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Minton, N A; Brenneman, T B; Todd, J W; Herzog, G A; Gascho, G J; Baker, S H; Bondari, Y

    1998-06-01

    In the southeastern United States, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult) infested primarily with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. Continuous peanut, continuous cotton, cotton-peanut rotation, or peanut-cotton rotation were used as main plots; winter rye or fallow as sub-plots; and cotton with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha), or peanut with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha) plus flutolanil (1.12 kg a.i./ha), as sub-sub-plots. Population densities of M. incognita and B. longicaudatus declined rapidly after the first crop in continuous peanut and remained low thereafter. Neither rye nor soil chemical treatment affected M. incognita or B. longicaudatus population density on peanut or cotton. Cotton and peanut yields from the cotton-peanut rotation were 26% and 10% greater, respectively, than those from monoculmre over the 7-year study. Cotton and peanut yields were improved 9% and 4%, respectively, following rye vs. fallow. Soil chemical treatments increased yields of cotton 23% and peanut 32% over those of untreated plots. Our data demonstrate the sustainable benefits of using cotton-peanut rotations, winter rye, and soil chemical treatments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes and other pests and pathogens and improve yield of both cotton and peanut. PMID:19274213

  5. EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WORKSHOP NEWMEDIA CD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a CD-ROM version of the workshop, Effective Risk Management of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, held in January 2002, in Cincinnati, Ohio. The goal of this workshop was to introduce the science and engineering behind managing the potential risk of suspected endocri...

  6. Structural Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

    This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

  7. A Pest of Importance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN), G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes worldwide. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in Idaho (G. pallida) and Quebec and Alberta, Can...

  8. Corn Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

  9. FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

  10. Net returns and risk for cover crop use as an integrated pest management practice in Alabama cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton producers in Alabama are faced with uncertain yields and prices, as well as increasing weed management challenges such as glyphosate resistant weeds. By utilizing a production system that will reduce risk while maintaining yield, cotton production may be economically sustainable into the futu...

  11. Design and Development of Countylevel Information Management System for Diseases and Pests of Hebei Province on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xie, Fangyi

    To get a more convenience work in forest application, GIS and information system is used in forestry. GIS technology is used to build an informational management system of forest disease. For the practical requirement, the system is implemented by PDA which works outside to help completing the data collection. The major function of the system is input and output of the forest disease data and processing the report which is based on the criteria report and the assistant function of GIS. This article is aim to discuss about the theory, the process and the critical points of the information system. Besides the general information management system, GIS and PDA is introduced into the diseases system, which could combine the map and the attribute information and realize inventory data reform by PDA. The system is developed with VB and SuperMap Object (SuperMap Company).

  12. Aquatic models, genomics and chemical risk management.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Keith C; Hinton, David E; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Planchart, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease meeting follows four previous meetings (Nairn et al., 2001; Schmale, 2004; Schmale et al., 2007; Hinton et al., 2009) in which advances in aquatic animal models for human disease research were reported, and community discussion of future direction was pursued. At this meeting, discussion at a workshop entitled Bioinformatics and Computational Biology with Web-based Resources (20 September 2010) led to an important conclusion: Aquatic model research using feral and experimental fish, in combination with web-based access to annotated anatomical atlases and toxicological databases, yields data that advance our understanding of human gene function, and can be used to facilitate environmental management and drug development. We propose here that the effects of genes and environment are best appreciated within an anatomical context - the specifically affected cells and organs in the whole animal. We envision the use of automated, whole-animal imaging at cellular resolution and computational morphometry facilitated by high-performance computing and automated entry into toxicological databases, as anchors for genetic and toxicological data, and as connectors between human and model system data. These principles should be applied to both laboratory and feral fish populations, which have been virtually irreplaceable sentinals for environmental contamination that results in human morbidity and mortality. We conclude that automation, database generation, and web-based accessibility, facilitated by genomic/transcriptomic data and high-performance and cloud computing, will potentiate the unique and potentially key roles that aquatic models play in advancing systems biology, drug development, and environmental risk management. PMID:21763781

  13. Aquatic Models, Genomics and Chemical Risk Management§

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Keith C.; Hinton, David E.; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Planchart, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease meeting follows four previous meetings (Hinton et al., 2009; Schmale et al., 2007; Schmale, 2004; Nairn et al., 2001) in which advances in aquatic animal models for human disease research were reported, and community discussion of future direction was pursued. At this meeting, discussion at a workshop entitled Bioinformatics and Computational Biology with Web-based Resources (20 September 2010) led to an important conclusion: Aquatic model research using feral and experimental fish, in combination with web-based access to annotated anatomical atlases and toxicological databases, yield data that advance our understanding of human gene function, and can be used to facilitate environmental management and drug development. We propose here that the effects of genes and environment are best appreciated within an anatomical context - the specifically affected cells and organs in the whole animal. We envision the use of automated, whole-animal imaging at cellular resolution and computational morphometry facilitated by high-performance computing and automated entry into toxicological databases, as anchors for genetic and toxicological data, and as connectors between human and model system data. These principles should be applied to both laboratory and feral fish populations, which have been virtually irreplaceable sentinals for environmental contamination that results in human morbidity and mortality. We conclude that automation, database generation, and web-based accessibility, facilitated by genomic/transcriptomic data and high-performance and cloud computing, will potentiate the unique and potentially key roles that aquatic models play in advancing systems biology, drug development, and environmental risk management. PMID:21763781

  14. Alternative pest control research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the benefits of conserving natural enemies, and based on environmental and regulatory concerns, a reduced reliance on chemical pesticides in pecan management is desirable. In this paper we describe three studies directed toward alternative control: 1) Pre-emergence nematode applications for ...

  15. Obligate symbiont involved in pest status of host insect.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-08-22

    The origin of specific insect genotypes that enable efficient use of agricultural plants is an important subject not only in applied fields like pest control and management but also in basic disciplines like evolutionary biology. Conventionally, it has been presupposed that such pest-related ecological traits are attributed to genes encoded in the insect genomes. Here, however, we report that pest status of an insect is principally determined by symbiont genotype rather than by insect genotype. A pest stinkbug species, Megacopta punctatissima, performed well on crop legumes, while a closely related non-pest species, Megacopta cribraria, suffered low egg hatch rate on the plants. When their obligate gut symbiotic bacteria were experimentally exchanged between the species, their performance on the crop legumes was, strikingly, completely reversed: the pest species suffered low egg hatch rate, whereas the non-pest species restored normal egg hatch rate and showed good performance. The low egg hatch rates were attributed to nymphal mortality before or upon hatching, which were associated with the symbiont from the non-pest stinkbug irrespective of the host insect species. Our finding sheds new light on the evolutionary origin of insect pests, potentially leading to novel approaches to pest control and management. PMID:17567556

  16. Citizen participation in managing the risks of chemical releases

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, P.A.; Allison, R.C.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the extent to which an industrial association in east Harris County, Texas, is voluntarily involving citizens in managing the risks of chemical releases. In response to a rule in the Clean Air Act of 1990, industrial associations around the US are managing risks of so-called worst case and other scenarios. All the rule requires is that the risk management plans for these scenarios be made public in some way, for example, by putting them in a public library. However, on their own initiatives, these associations are involving citizens to a greater or lesser extent. Thus, the east Harris County project is not unique in that regard. Rather, it provides some measure of how some chemical companies are empowering citizens as part of the planning process for how to meet the rule. This behavior stands in contrast to the way in which these chemical companies operated as recently as ten years ago. At that time they did not pursue questions about sharing power with citizens. There were no questions and certainly no answers about citizens' role in management decisions about chemical releases. However, in the present situation, companies are committed to following through on the rule requiring risk management plans, that is, to preventing chemical accidents and to reducing risks by ways which citizens suggest and help implement. To substantiate the foregoing claim, this paper will not only review the Risk Management Program (RMP) rule of 1996, but also the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) of 1986. The paper will go on to describe what companies are doing in the east Harris County project relative to what much the same companies did about ten years ago. Finally, the paper will describe the two phases of the release of risk management plans that had taken place by the time of writing of this paper.

  17. Beta-cyclodextrins as carriers of monoterpenes into the hemolymph of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Blaise W; Boué, Stephen; De-Grandi Hoffman, Gloria; Deeby, Thomas; McCready, Holly; Loeffelmann, Kevin

    2008-09-24

    The Varroa mite ( Varroa destructor) is becoming ubiquitous worldwide and is a serious threat to honey bees. The cultivation of certain food crops are at risk. The most noted acaricides against Varroa mites are tau-fluvaninate and coumaphos, but the mites are showing resistance. Since these insecticides are used in the proximity of honey, it is desirable to use natural alternatives. Monoterpenoids such as thymol and carvacrol, that are constituents of oil of thyme and oil of origanum, show promise as acaricides against the Varroa mite ( Varroa destructor), but the delivery of these compounds remains a challenge due to the low water solubility and uncontrolled release into the colony. Beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) inclusion complexes of thymol, oil of origanum, and carvacrol were prepared on a preparative scale. Competitive binding was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy by using 6- p-toluidinylnaphthalene-2-sulfonate as a fluorescent probe. The complexes were characterized, and the competitive binding described by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy chemical shifts. The toxicity of beta-CD and the prepared complexes in enriched sucrose syrup was studied by conducting caged honey bee ( Apis mellifera) feeding trials. After the first and second weeks of feeding, hemolymph and gut tissue samples were acquired from the caged bee study. The levels of thymol and carvacrol were quantified by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectroscopy, using an optimized procedure we developed. High (mM) levels of thymol and carvacrol were detected in bee tissues without any imposed toxicity to the bees, in an effort to deter Varroa mites from feeding on honey bee hemolymph. PMID:18710247

  18. Pest Insect Olfaction in an Insecticide-Contaminated Environment: Info-Disruption or Hormesis Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Thany, Steeve Hervé; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Most animals, including pest insects, live in an “odor world” and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests. PMID:22457653

  19. Pest insect olfaction in an insecticide-contaminated environment: info-disruption or hormesis effect.

    PubMed

    Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Thany, Steeve Hervé; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Most animals, including pest insects, live in an "odor world" and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests. PMID:22457653

  20. Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

    This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

  1. Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

    This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

  2. Chemical Inventory Management at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Shirley S.; Homan, Joseph R.; Bajorek, Michael J.; Dominguez, Manuel B.; Smith, Vanessa L.

    1997-01-01

    The Chemical Management System (CMS) is a client/server application developed with Power Builder and Sybase for the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). Power Builder is a client-server application development tool, Sybase is a Relational Database Management System. The entire LeRC community can access the CMS from any desktop environment. The multiple functions and benefits of the CMS are addressed.

  3. Cross-pollination of nontransgenic corn ears with transgenic Bt corn: efficacy against lepidopteran pests and implications for resistance management.

    PubMed

    Burkness, E C; O'Rourke, P K; Hutchison, W D

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of nontransgenic sweet corn, Zea mays L., hybrids cross-pollinated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sweet corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab toxin was evaluated in both field and laboratory studies in Minnesota in 2000. Non-Bt and Bt hybrids (maternal plants) were cross-pollinated with pollen from both non-Bt and Bt hybrids (paternal plants) to create four crosses. Subsequent crosses were evaluated for efficacy in the field against European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and in laboratory bioassays against O. nubilalis. Field studies indicated that crosses with maternal Bt plants led to low levels of survival for both O. nubilalis and H. zea compared with the non-Bt x non-Bt cross. However, the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen led to survival rates of 43 and 63% for O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae, respectively. This intermediate level of survival also was reflected in the number of kernels damaged. Laboratory bioassays for O. nubilalis, further confirmed field results with larval survival on kernels from the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen reaching 60% compared with non-Bt crossed with non-Bt. These results suggest that non-Bt refuge plants, when planted in proximity to Bt plants, and cross-pollinated, can result in sublethal exposure of O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae to Bt and may undermine the high-dose/refuge resistance management strategy for corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab. PMID:22066174

  4. DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR EVALUATING RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) risk management (RM) is to minimize the release of EDCs into the environment or to minimize the exposure of humans or wildlife to EDCs already present in the environment. RM research projects may involve: substituting more innocuous...

  5. Chemical composition of cottonseed affected by cropping management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed is a valuable raw material for a range of food, animal feed, and industrial (such as adhesives) products. Chemical composition is one of the critical parameters to evaluate cottonseed's quality and potential end use. However, the information on the impacts of cropping management practices...

  6. Development of a terrestrial chemical spill management system.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Derek L; Abkowitz, Mark D

    2007-08-17

    Adequately preparing for and responding to terrestrial (land-based) chemical spills are critical to the protection of human health and the environment. To facilitate analysis and support decision-making for such events, the authors have developed an environmental risk management system that characterizes the ability of a spilled chemical to immediately impact human health, groundwater, surface water, and soil resources, and incorporates these four risk areas into an overall measure of terrestrial chemical risk. This system incorporates a risk index model, leverages geographic information systems (GIS) technology, and contains a comprehensive chemical and environmental database to assess and delineate the immediate threat posed by a terrestrial chemical spill. It is designed to serve a variety of stakeholders, including managers and policy-makers, who would benefit from generating screening-level environmental risk assessments without requiring a technical background or collection of detailed environmental and chemical data. Areas of potential application include transportation routing, industrial zoning, environmental regulatory compliance and enforcement, spill response, and security planning. PMID:17250961

  7. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  8. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  9. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  10. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  11. Are chemicals in articles an obstacle for reaching environmental goals? - Missing links in EU chemical management.

    PubMed

    Molander, Linda; Breitholtz, Magnus; Andersson, Patrik L; Rybacka, Aleksandra; Rudén, Christina

    2012-10-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the management of risks associated with chemicals in articles needs to be improved. The EU environmental policy states that environmental damage should be rectified at source. It is therefore motivated that the risk management of substances in articles also takes particular consideration to those substances identified as posing a risk in different environmental compartments. The primary aim of the present study was to empirically analyze to what extent the regulation of chemicals in articles under REACH is coherent with the rules concerning chemicals in the Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). We also analyzed the chemical variation of the organic substances regulated under these legislations in relation to the most heavily used chemicals. The results show that 16 of 24 substances used in or potentially present in articles and regulated by the SSD or the WFD are also identified under REACH either as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) or subject to some restrictions. However, for these substances we conclude that there is limited coherence between the legislations, since the identification as an SVHC does not in itself encompass any use restrictions, and the restrictions in REACH are in many cases limited to a particular use, and thus all other uses are allowed. Only a minor part of chemicals in commerce is regulated and these show a chemical variation that deviates from classical legacy pollutants. This warrants new tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals in articles. We also noted that chemicals monitored in the environment under the WFD deviate in their chemistry from the ones regulated by REACH. In summary, we argue that to obtain improved resource efficiency and a sustainable development it is necessary to minimize the input of chemicals identified as hazardous to health or the environment into articles. PMID:22858536

  12. New developments in bait stations for control of pest Tephritids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bait stations are being developed and tested as alternatives to broadcast pesticide application for control of a number of pest insects. This is an attract-and-kill pest management approach. With the development of female-targeted food-based synthetic attractants for tephritid fruit flies, a numbe...

  13. GENE STACKING FOR DURABLE PEST RESISTANCE IN SUGARBEET ROOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are exploring novel approaches for managing sugar beet root pests. Our goal is to gain new knowledge of root defense response mechanisms that could be more broadly applied for control of plant pests and pathogens. Using the sugar beet root maggot (SBRM, Tetanops myopaeformis) and sugarbeet as a...

  14. Ascochyta blight and insect pests of chickpeas in the Palouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This newsletter article informs chickpea growers in the Palouse region about current disease and insect pest problems. Ascochyta blight appeared in many chickpea fields and was severe in some fields. Insect pests including loopers and armyworms were rampant. Appropriate management practices for t...

  15. NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The topic of natural products as pesticides is reviewed, with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of adopting a natural product-based strategy for pesticide discovery. Current and past natural product and natural product-based herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, molluscicides, rodent...

  16. Natural Products for Pest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most organisms synthesize secondary products with biological activity that is useful in their defense. Defense can be against vertebrates, arthropods, mollusks, plants (both algal and higher plants), and microbes. Many of these compounds have been used from ancient times to the present as pharmace...

  17. Energy in plant nutrition and pest control

    SciTech Connect

    Helsel, Z.

    1987-01-01

    This volume concentrates on the energy involved in plant nutrition and pest control for crop production. Fossil fuel energy used to produce fertilizers and pesticides is evaluated along with the amount, distribution and use of these fertilizers and pesticides throughout the world. Alternatives to the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and specifically biological nitrogen fixation and the use of organic wastes are discussed in relation to their economic and energy replacement value. Methods for the conservation of nutrients and pesticides are considered. Finally, the energy balance of nutrients and pest control is reviewed in the light of the economic, policy and social issues of the alternative needs and uses.

  18. Dynamic models of pest propagation and pest control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ming; Lin, Zhen-Quan; Ke, Jian-Hong

    2011-08-01

    This paper proposes a pest propagation model to investigate the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates. A pest aggregate grows by self-monomer birth, and it may fragment into two smaller ones. The kinetic evolution behaviours of pest aggregates are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory. For a system with a self-birth rate kernel I(k) = Ik and a fragmentation rate kernel L(i, j) = L, we find that the total number M0A(t) and the total mass of the pest aggregates M1A(t) both increase exponentially with time if L ≠ 0. Furthermore, we introduce two catalysis-driven monomer death mechanisms for the former pest propagation model to study the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates under pesticide and natural enemy controlled pest propagation. In the pesticide controlled model with a catalyzed monomer death rate kernel J1(k) = J1k, it is found that only when I < J1B0 (B0 is the concentration of catalyst aggregates) can the pests be killed off. Otherwise, the pest aggregates can survive. In the model of pest control with a natural enemy, a pest aggregate loses one of its individuals and the number of natural enemies increases by one. For this system, we find that no matter how many natural enemies there are at the beginning, pests will be eliminated by them eventually.

  19. Environmental ethanol as an ecological constraint on the dietary breadth of the Spotted-Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Mat. (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and its implication for integrated pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spotted-wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is a recent exotic insect pest of the Americas. What makes SWD particularly destructive is the female’s double bladed and prominently serrated ovipositor, which inserts eggs below the epidermis of intact berries. Unlike the vast majority of Drosophi...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

  1. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) hold significant promise for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are being employed for various reconnaissance purposes (“eyes in the sky”), but not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Luck La...

  2. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” (0.80) < “applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times” (0.83) < “applying common insecticides 14 times” (1.08). The treatment “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China. PMID:25906199

  3. Sustainable Biocontrol of Apple Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol of insect pests is a cornerstone to sustainable production of apples and other crops. The ecology of orchards lends itself to the application of many management options which will enhance the sustainability of biocontrol. Orchards remain in place for decades, allowing for an evolution o...

  4. Insect Pests Models and Insecticide Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, the dominant approach in theoretical pest management ecology has emphasized the use of simple analytical or mathematical models and the analysis of systems in equilibrium. Recent advancements in computer technology have provided the opportunity for ecological insect modelers to move aw...

  5. Chrysomelids American diabroticines Hosts and natural enemies. Biology-feasibility for control of pest species (Crisomelidos Diabroticinos americanos Hospederos y enemigos naturales Biologia y factibili manejo especies plagas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chrysomelids in the Diabroticites include some of the most important pest species of the American continent. The chemical and management techniques used to date to control them are: crop rotation to prevent re-infection of host crops, especially in the species that display an egg diapause; insec...

  6. Management of Root Resorption Using Chemical Agents: A Review.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; C Cehreli, Zafer; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Palazzi, Flavio; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Root resorption (RR) is defined as the loss of dental hard tissues because of clastic activity inside or outside of tooth the root. In the permanent dentition, RR is a pathologic event; if untreated, it might result in the premature loss of the affected tooth. Several hypotheses have been suggested as the mechanisms of root resorption such as absence of the remnants of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and the absence of some intrinsic factors in cementum and predentin such as amelogenin or osteoprotegerin (OPG). It seems that a barrier is formed by the less-calcified intermediate cementum or the cementodentin junction that prevents external RR. There are several chemical strategies to manage root resorption. The purpose of this paper was to review several chemical agents to manage RR such as tetracycline, sodium hypochlorite, acids (citric acid, phosphoric acid, ascorbic acid and hydrochloric acid), acetazolamide, calcitonin, alendronate, fluoride, Ledermix and Emdogain. PMID:26843869

  7. Management of Root Resorption Using Chemical Agents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; C. Cehreli, Zafer; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Palazzi, Flavio; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Root resorption (RR) is defined as the loss of dental hard tissues because of clastic activity inside or outside of tooth the root. In the permanent dentition, RR is a pathologic event; if untreated, it might result in the premature loss of the affected tooth. Several hypotheses have been suggested as the mechanisms of root resorption such as absence of the remnants of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) and the absence of some intrinsic factors in cementum and predentin such as amelogenin or osteoprotegerin (OPG). It seems that a barrier is formed by the less-calcified intermediate cementum or the cementodentin junction that prevents external RR. There are several chemical strategies to manage root resorption. The purpose of this paper was to review several chemical agents to manage RR such as tetracycline, sodium hypochlorite, acids (citric acid, phosphoric acid, ascorbic acid and hydrochloric acid), acetazolamide, calcitonin, alendronate, fluoride, Ledermix and Emdogain. PMID:26843869

  8. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  9. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  10. The War Against Pests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  11. Stored raisin products pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large proportion of California grapes are dried for raisins. Insect pests of raisins can be separated into two categories; those insects attracted to drying raisins and those attacking stored raisins. Most of the insects that feed on drying raisins do not continue to feed on them when drying is c...

  12. Preparedness for terrorism: managing nuclear, biological and chemical threats.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Kristi L

    2009-12-01

    The management of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) terrorism events is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in the next decade; however, initial patient care considerations and protective actions for staff are unfamiliar to most front-line clinicians. High explosive events (bomb and blast) remain the most common type of terrorism and are easy to detect. Conversely, some types of terrorist attacks are more likely to be unsuspected or covert. This paper explains the current threat of terrorism and describes clues for detection that an event has occurred. Specific criteria that should lead to a high suspicion for terrorism are illustrated. The manuscript outlines initial actions and clinical priorities for management and treatment of patients exposed to nuclear/radiological, biological, chemical and combined agents (for example an explosion involving a chemical agent). Examples of terrorist events include: a nuclear explosion, an aerosolised release of anthrax (biological), dissemination of sarin in a subway (chemical), and the detonation of a radiologic dispersion device or "dirty bomb" (combined explosive and radiological). Basic principles of decontamination include potential risks to healthcare providers from secondary exposure and contamination. Unique issues may hinder clinical actions. These include coordination with law enforcement for a crime scene, public health entities for surveillance and monitoring, hazardous materials teams for decontamination, and the media for risk communications. Finally, the importance of personal preparedness is discussed. PMID:20052435

  13. Moving plants means moving pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ornamentals industry must recognize not only that it is at direct risk from invasive species and resistant pests, but also that there is increased public awareness about the movement of any pest species on ornamental plants, and increased concern that these pests will move from ornamental plants...

  14. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

  15. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  16. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  17. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

  18. Biology and management of psocids infesting stored products.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Manoj K; Collins, Patrick J; Throne, James E; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Previously regarded as minor nuisance pests, psocids belonging to the genus Liposcelis now pose a major problem for the effective protection of stored products worldwide. Here we examine the apparent biological and operational reasons behind this phenomenon and why conventional pest management seems to be failing. We investigate what is known about the biology, behavior, and population dynamics of major pest species to ascertain their strengths, and perhaps find weaknesses, as a basis for a rational pest management strategy. We outline the contribution of molecular techniques to clarifying species identification and understanding genetic diversity. We discuss progress in sampling and trapping and our comprehension of spatial distribution of these pests as a foundation for developing management strategies. The effectiveness of various chemical treatments and the availability and potential of nonchemical control methods are critically examined. Finally, we identify research gaps and suggest future directions for research. PMID:24160430

  19. Chemical risk management strategies for product stewardship and community partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, C.E. )

    1993-01-01

    With the recent enactments of the environment, health and safety statutes, the once protective walls of an industrial facility are opening to the scrutiny of an inquisitive public. Indeed, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), Process Safety Management under OSHA 1910.119, and Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments impose substantial reporting requirements under the auspices of community right to know'' and require written program plans that must be submitted to become public documents. Through these Acts, the public and industry are becoming partners in the understanding and management of human health and environmental risks posed by the chemical inventories, processes, and emissions from an industrial facility. The types of information required by the Act to be available to the public can include quantities, locations, process throughputs, environmental fates, and emissions volumes of manufacturer-specific chemicals for certain industrial facilities. With their implementation of compliance measures with these requirements, industrial facilities have an opportunity to become a public educator about the chemicals they use in the process of making their products. By proactively soliciting a partnership with communities to learn about their concerns, companies can more effectively communicate risks to the public and provide a new kind of stewardship to their products.

  20. A Dynamical Analysis of a Piecewise Smooth Pest Control SI Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Liu, Wanbo; Tao, Fennmei; Kang, Baolin; Cong, Jiguang

    In this paper, we propose a piecewise smooth SI pest control system to model the process of spraying pesticides and releasing infectious pests. We assume that the pest population consists of susceptible pests and infectious pests, and that the disease spreads horizontally between pests. We take the susceptible pest as the control index on whether to implement chemical control and biological control strategies. Based on the theory of Filippov system, the sliding-mode domain and conditions for the existence of real equilibria, virtual equilibria, pseudo-equilibrium and boundary equilibria are given. Further, we show the global stability of real equilibria (or boundary equilibria) and pseudo-equilibrium. Our results can provide theoretical guidance for the problem of pest control.

  1. Propellant management for low thrust chemical propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlyn, K. M.; Dergance, R. H.; Aydelott, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Low-thrust chemical propulsion systems (LTPS) will be required for orbital transfer of large space systems (LSS). The work reported in this paper was conducted to determine the propellant requirements, preferred propellant management technique, and propulsion system sizes for the LTPS. Propellants were liquid oxygen (LO2) combined with liquid hydrogen (LH2), liquid methane or kerosene. Thrust levels of 100, 500, and 1000 lbf were combined with 1, 4, and 8 perigee burns for transfer from low earth orbit to geosynchronous earth orbit. This matrix of systems was evaluated with a multilayer insulation (MLI) or a spray-on-foam insulation. Vehicle sizing results indicate that a toroidal tank configuration is needed for the LO2/LH2 system. Multiple perigee burns and MLI allow far superior LSS payload capability. Propellant settling, combined with a single screen device, was found to be the lightest and least complex propellant management technique.

  2. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.; Gegg, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Oceanography and marine ecosystem research are inherently interdisciplinary fields of study that generate and require access to a wide variety of measurements. In late 2006 the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Geosciences Directorate Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). In late 2010 additional funding was contributed to support management of research data from the NSF Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program. The BCO-DMO is recognized in the 2011 Division of Ocean Sciences Sample and Data Policy as one of several program specific data offices that support NSF OCE funded researchers. BCO-DMO staff members offer data management support throughout the project life cycle to investigators from large national programs and medium-sized collaborative research projects, as well as researchers from single investigator awards. The office manages and serves all types of oceanographic data and information generated during the research process and contributed by the originating investigators. BCO-DMO has built a data system that includes the legacy data from several large ocean research programs (e.g. United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and United States GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics), to which data have been contributed from recently granted NSF OCE and OPP awards. The BCO-DMO data system can accommodate many different types of data including: in situ and experimental biological, chemical, and physical measurements; modeling results and synthesis data products. The system enables reuse of oceanographic data for new research endeavors, supports synthesis and modeling activities, provides availability of "real data" for K-12 and college level use, and provides decision-support field data for policy-relevant investigations. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: map-based and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data export and download utilities; and strategic use of controlled vocabularies to facilitate data integration and to improve data system interoperability.

  3. Leaves of Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae) as a potential insecticide for the management of three species of stored grain insect pests.

    PubMed

    Rajashekar, Y; Ravindra, K V; Bakthavatsalam, N

    2014-11-01

    Insects cause extensive damage to stored grains and their value added products. Among the stored grain pests Sitophilus oryzae (L.) Callosobruchus chinensis (Fab.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) are considered as destructive pests in India. Plants may provide alternatives to currently used insect control agents as they constitute rich source in bioactive molecules. Lantana camara, an erect shrub, which grows widely in the tropics, exhibits insecticidal activity against several insects. The methanol extract from leaves of L. camara has fumigant and contact toxicity against S. oryzae, C. chinesis and T. castaneum. In fumigant assays, The LC50 for S. oryzae was 128 ?l/L(1), C. chinensis 130.3 ?l/L(1), and T. castaneum 178.7 ?l/L(1). The LD50 values for S. oryzae C. chinensis and T. castaneum in contact toxicity were 0.158, 0.140 and 0.208 mg/cm(2), respectively. For grain treatment, a concentration of 500 mg/L(1) and 7 days exposure were needed to obtain 90 - 100 % population extinction in all three insects. Probit analysis showed that C. chinensis were more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum. Gaschromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) studies for extracts indicated the presence of potent fumigant molecules in L. camara. The prospect of utilizing L. camara as potent fumigant insecticide is discussed. PMID:26396352

  4. A method of multiplex PCR for detection of field released Beauveria bassiana, a fungal entomopathogen applied for pest management in jute (Corchorus olitorius).

    PubMed

    Biswas, Chinmay; Dey, Piyali; Gotyal, B S; Satpathy, Subrata

    2015-04-01

    The fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana is a promising biocontrol agent for many pests. Some B. bassiana strains have been found effective against jute pests. To monitor the survival of field released B. bassiana a rapid and efficient detection technique is essential. Conventional methods such as plating method or direct culture method which are based on cultivation on selective media followed by microscopy are time consuming and not so sensitive. PCR based methods are rapid, sensitive and reliable. A single primer PCR may fail to amplify some of the strains. However, multiplex PCR increases the possibility of detection as it uses multiple primers. Therefore, in the present investigation a multiplex PCR protocol was developed by multiplexing three primers SCA 14, SCA 15 and SCB 9 to detect field released B. bassiana strains from soil as well as foliage of jute field. Using our multiplex PCR protocol all the five B. bassiana strains could be detected from soil and three strains viz., ITCC 6063, ITCC 4563 and ITCC 4796 could be detected even from the crop foliage after 45 days of spray. PMID:25680421

  5. Essential oils nanoformulations for stored-product pest control - characterization and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    The lethal and sublethal activity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles containing essential oils (EO), also the physicochemical characterization, were determined against Tribolium castaneum and Rhizopertha dominica. The 10% ratio EO-PEG nanoparticles showed an average diameter<235 nm (PDI<0.280) and a loading efficacy>75%; after 6 month of storage their size did not change significantly and the amount of the EOs decreased 25%, approximately. Furthermore, during this period, no chemical derivates were observed. The EOs nanoparticles produced a notable increase of the residual contact toxicity apparently due to the slow and persistent release of the active terpenes. In addition, the nanoformulation enhanced the EO contact toxicity and altered the nutritional physiology of both stored product pest. The results indicated that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for T. castaneum and R. dominica control. PMID:24359912

  6. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options. PMID:25273517

  7. Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation.

    PubMed

    Bryks, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and "expert witnesses" who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability. PMID:26467732

  8. Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Bryks, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and “expert witnesses” who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability. PMID:26467732

  9. Automatic monitoring of insect pests in stored grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manual sampling of insects in stored grain is a laborious and time consuming process. Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management. To make accurate insect management decisions, managers need to know both the insect species and numbers ...

  10. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  11. Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect

    PubMed Central

    Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  12. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  13. The effect of crop protection strategy on pest and beneficials incidence in protected crops.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, I; Rodrigues, S; Figueiredo, E; Godinho, M C; Marques, C; Amaro, F; Mexia, A

    2002-01-01

    This study took place in the Oeste region from 1996-1999 and it intended to analyse if the crop protection strategy followed by the farmer influenced the arthropod incidence and the natural control in protected vegetable crops under Mediterranean conditions. The observations were made fortnightly (Autumn/Winter) or weekly (Spring/Summer) in 30-60 plants/parcel (1 plant/35 m2) in order to evaluate incidences. Samples of pests and natural enemies were collected for systematic identification in two greenhouses for each protection strategy (traditional chemical control (TCC), integrated pest management (IPM) and pest control allowed in organic farming (OF)) in lettuce, tomato, green beans and cucumber. Data on incidence of mites, aphids, caterpillars, leafminers, whiteflies, thrips and respective natural enemies were registered as well as phytosanitary treatments performed (farmers' information and/or in loco traces). The leafminers were the pest whose incidence more often presented significant statistical differences between the studied protection strategies. In relation to this pest, the main results obtained were: a higher feeding punctures incidence in TCC than in IPM; higher incidence of adults, mines and feeding punctures in TCC than in OF; and a higher mines' incidence in IPM than in OF. Both in TCC and IPM high percentages of plants with mines were found although without an adult proportional presence. In the first case this was due to the repeatedly phytosanitary treatments applied; in the second case it was due to the natural control, since in IPM and OF greenhouses the collected larvae were mostly parasitized or dead. In spite of the fact these two strategies have as final result a similar mines and adults incidence, their production and environmental costs are quite different. Significant differences at the beneficials' population level between TCC greenhouses and IPM or OF greenhouses were found. As the farmers did no biological treatments these differences are related to different levels of beneficial populations due to different secondary effects of the pesticides applied. PMID:12696424

  14. Short-range movement of major agricultural pests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, R.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

  15. Natural compounds for pest and weed control.

    PubMed

    Petroski, Richard J; Stanley, David W

    2009-09-23

    The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeedants, and prostaglandins, as well as growth regulators for plants and insects. Synthetic analogues of natural substances have been prepared to explore the relationships between chemical structure and observed biological activity. Recent scientific advances have resulted from better methods for the chemical synthesis of target compounds and better analytical methods. The capability of analytical instrumentation continues to advance rapidly, enabling new insights. PMID:19719128

  16. Computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics for geosystems management.

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2011-09-01

    This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.

  17. Sigma Chemical's environmental management system -- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.; Takacs, J.; Olsson, P.

    1999-07-01

    Sigma Chemical Company (Sigma) is a world leader in the production of biochemicals and reagents for life science research. The Environmental Services requirement to be able to handle a wide variety of environmental data is challenging. To meet this task Sigma turned to develop in-house a state-of-the-art environmental management system. Sigma's environmental management system is a custom developed intranet web and PC-based Windows system. The system utilizes the company's intranet to allow individuals in a web application to fill out a request form to alert Environmental Services of material ready for pick-up. Environmental Services personnel collect and contain the material and use portable handheld barcode scanners to record the information. The system is then used to track material in different storage locations as well as to build and print manifests. A costing module also allows processing and disposal charges to be issued back to the various departments from which the materials were collected. The fluid integration of this system into the Environmental Services business practices has allowed this department to streamline their operation and to process and manifest more material than thought was possible. The system is also very dynamic and easily modified to incorporate new modules to help increase efficiency.

  18. Pest control in postharvest nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter discusses the impact of insect infestations on the quality of postharvest nuts. The chapter first reviews the biology of key field pests that may be found in harvested nuts, and pests found in nut storage and processing facilities. The chapter then reviews current and developing control...

  19. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in increased pesticide use, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic a...

  20. Wireworms’ Management: An Overview of the Existing Methods, with Particular Regards to Agriotes spp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Barsics, Fanny; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J.

    2013-01-01

    Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health and environmental care brought out the need for alternative management techniques. This paper summarizes the main potential tools that have been studied up to now and that could be applied together in integrated pest management systems and suggests guidelines for future research. PMID:26466799

  1. Insecticide Resistance and Management Strategies in Urban Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fang; Lavine, Laura; O'Neal, Sally; Lavine, Mark; Foss, Carrie; Walsh, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The increased urbanization of a growing global population makes imperative the development of sustainable integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for urban pest control. This emphasizes pests that are closely associated with the health and wellbeing of humans and domesticated animals. Concurrently there are regulatory requirements enforced to minimize inadvertent exposures to insecticides in the urban environment. Development of insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategies in urban ecosystems involves understanding the status and mechanisms of insecticide resistance and reducing insecticide selection pressure by combining multiple chemical and non-chemical approaches. In this review, we will focus on the commonly used insecticides and molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance in six major urban insect pests: house fly, German cockroach, mosquitoes, red flour beetle, bed bugs and head louse. We will also discuss several strategies that may prove promising for future urban IPM programs. PMID:26751480

  2. Pest toxicology: the primary mechanisms of pesticide action.

    PubMed

    Casida, John E

    2009-04-01

    Pesticides are used to control pests before they harm us or our crops. They are selective toxicants in the form and manner used. Pesticides must be effective without human or crop injury. They must also be safe relative to human and environmental toxicology. The study of how the pesticide works on the pest is referred to here as pest toxicology. About 700 pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, act on perhaps 95 biochemical targets in pest insects, weeds, and destructive fungi. Current insecticides act primarily on four nerve targets, i.e., acetylcholinesterase, the voltage-gated chloride channel, the acetylcholine receptor, and the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor, systems which are present in animals but not plants. Herbicides act mostly on plant specific pathways by blocking photosynthesis, carotenoid synthesis, or aromatic and branched chain amino acid synthesis essential in plants but not mammals. Many fungicides block ergosterol (the fungal sterol) or tubulin biosynthesis or cytochrome c reductase, while others disrupt basic cellular functions. A major limiting factor in the continuing use of almost all pesticides is the selection of strains not only resistant to the selecting or pressuring compounds but also cross-resistant to other pesticides acting at the same target. One approach to reinstating control is to shift from compounds with the resistant target site or mode of action to another set which have a sensitive target. This type of pesticide management led to the formation of Resistance Action Committees for insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides with very knowledgable experts to define resistance groups, which are in fact listings of primary target sites in pest toxicology. Continued success in pest and pesticide management requires an understanding of comparative biochemistry and molecular toxicology considering pests, people, and crops. Defining and applying the principles of pest toxicology are critical to food production and human health. PMID:19284791

  3. Keep Pests from Becoming a Problem in Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Allen

    2000-01-01

    Examines the use of pesticides in an integrated pest management (IPM) program. The three steps to creating an IPM are discussed along with IPM personnel communication requirements, and the need for written policies managed by a knowledgeable coordinator. Additional resources for information about IPMs are included. (GR)

  4. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  5. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  6. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Xia; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Ran (RanGTPase) in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan) was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1) Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2) The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control. PMID:26554926

  7. A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To date, research on suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has focused on determining health effects in humans and wildlife and on occurrence of these chemicals in the environment. There is strong evidence that certain chemicals are causing endocrine-related effects in...

  8. Application of the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls to prioritize and promote safer methods of pest control: a case study.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Justine Lew; Bunin, Lisa J; Das, Rupali

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the California Department of Public Health, Occupational Health Branch (OHB) investigated an incident of pesticide exposure and identified 27 vineyard workers who became ill due to drift of cyfluthrin, a pesticide being applied to a neighboring orange field to control katydids. Another pest, citrus thrips, was also present in the field. We investigated safer alternatives for katydid and thrips control to prevent illness due to pesticide exposure and used the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls to prioritize the control methods. OHB evaluated factors that contributed to pesticide exposure and identified safer alternatives by conducting literature reviews on katydid and thrips control, drift prevention technology, and other relevant topics, and by interviewing integrated pest management advisors, conventional and organic growers, equipment manufacturers, county agricultural commissioners, pest control advisors, regulatory agencies, and others. We prioritized methods using the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls. We identified safer pest control practices that incorporated hazard elimination, chemical substitution, engineering controls, and administrative controls, including employer policies and government regulations. PMID:19618807

  9. Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

  10. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. PMID:26100381

  11. Is Bactra bactrana (Kennel, 1901) a novel pest of sweet peppers?

    PubMed

    Roditakis, E; Morin, S; Baixeras, J

    2016-04-01

    This is the first report of Bactra bactrana (Kennel, 1901) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attacking a major solanaceous crop, sweet pepper Capsicum annuum L. The infestation was detected in two greenhouses at the area of Tympaki (Southern Crete, Greece). The moth larvae caused typical symptoms of a fruit borer with numerous small holes on the surface of the peppers and extensive damage on the inside of the fruit as a result of the feeding activity. Unknown factors facilitated this major shift in host range since B. bactrana is typically a stem borer of sedges. In addition, the pest status of B. bactrana is currently under question, as in both cases the infestations by the moth were associated with significant yield losses. B. bactrana was moderately controlled with chemicals registered for Lepidoptera management in sweet pepper due to the boring nature of the infestation. Some comparative taxonomic notes are provided to facilitate accurate pest discrimination of related Bactra species. Finally, biological attributes of the species are summarized and are discussed from pest control and ecological perspectives. Because Bactra species have been used in augmentative releases for the control of sage, the implications of our findings on the release of biocontrol agents are placed in perspective. PMID:26696371

  12. Insecticide susceptibility of three species of cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pests of grapes.

    PubMed

    Smirle, Michael J; Zurowski, Cheryl L; Lowery, D Thomas; Mostafa, Ayman M

    2013-10-01

    Climbing cutworms in the genus Abagrotis are economically important pests of grapes in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia (BC). Grapes are recently introduced into many areas of the region, and the association between crop and pest is new and still evolving. This has led to limited information being available on pest management strategies, including the evaluation of chemical controls compatible with local production practices. Few insecticides are currently registered in Canada for cutworm control on grapes, and our study was initiated to provide information on the efficacy of potential control materials. We were also interested in the relative susceptibilities of the three most common cutworm species attacking grape buds in BC--Abagrotis orbis (Grote), Abagrotis reedi Buckett, and Abagrotis nefascia (Smith). Dose-response bioassays with nine insecticides were conducted on neonate larvae using Bok Choy leaf disks, and on fourth-instar larvae using diet incorporation. There were considerable differences in the toxicity of insecticides within species for neonates and fourth instars. For some materials, the relative toxicity to neonates and fourth instars were not correlated. Response to insecticides among the three species showed variation as well, and correct identification of the species complex present in individual locations is important in choosing the best available control material. PMID:24224256

  13. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Jonathan G.; Fausti, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in altered pesticide use patterns, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic and environmental costs. Characteristics of the ecological community influence pest populations, but the nature of these interactions remains poorly understood within realistic community complexities and on operating farms. We examine how species diversity and the topology of linkages in species’ abundances affect pest abundance on maize farms across the Northern Great Plains. Our results show that increased species diversity, community evenness, and linkage strength and network centrality within a biological network all correlate with significantly reduced pest populations. This supports the assertion that reduced biological complexity on farms is associated with increased pest populations and provides a further justification for diversification of agroecosystems to improve the profitability, safety, and sustainability of food production systems. Bioinventories as comprehensive as the one conducted here are conspicuously absent for most agroecosystems but provide an important baseline for community and ecosystem ecology and the effects of food production on local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Network analyses of abundance correlations of entire communities (rather than focal interactions, for example, trophic interactions) can reveal key network characteristics, especially the importance and nature of network centrality, which aid in understanding how these communities function. PMID:26601223

  14. Trading biodiversity for pest problems.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Jonathan G; Fausti, Scott W

    2015-07-01

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in altered pesticide use patterns, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic and environmental costs. Characteristics of the ecological community influence pest populations, but the nature of these interactions remains poorly understood within realistic community complexities and on operating farms. We examine how species diversity and the topology of linkages in species' abundances affect pest abundance on maize farms across the Northern Great Plains. Our results show that increased species diversity, community evenness, and linkage strength and network centrality within a biological network all correlate with significantly reduced pest populations. This supports the assertion that reduced biological complexity on farms is associated with increased pest populations and provides a further justification for diversification of agroecosystems to improve the profitability, safety, and sustainability of food production systems. Bioinventories as comprehensive as the one conducted here are conspicuously absent for most agroecosystems but provide an important baseline for community and ecosystem ecology and the effects of food production on local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Network analyses of abundance correlations of entire communities (rather than focal interactions, for example, trophic interactions) can reveal key network characteristics, especially the importance and nature of network centrality, which aid in understanding how these communities function. PMID:26601223

  15. FLEX: AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR REVIEWING THE CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computerized, expert system (FLEX) has been developed that will assess the chemical resistance of flexible membrane liners (FML) used at waste management facilities. hese FML's must be chemically resistant to the waste, its leachates, or both. o demonstrate chemical resistancy,...

  16. A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY SPECIFIC TO GLASSYWINGED SHARPSHOOTER EGG PROTEIN: A TOOL FOR PREDATOR GUT ANALYSIS AND EARLY DETECTION OF PEST INFESTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective control of glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca coagulata, will require an integrated pest management approach. A major component of true integrated pest management is the exploitation of the pest's natural enemies, which, when utilized to their greatest potential, can increase t...

  17. The importance of arthropod pests in Belgian pome fruit orchards.

    PubMed

    Bangels, Eva; De Schaetzen, Charles; Hayen, Guy; Paternotte, Edouard; Gobin, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Located in temperate, maritime climate with frequent rainfall, crop protection in Belgian orchards is dominated by fungicides. Though, the importance of arthropod pests should not be underestimated. Pcfruit, the former Research station of Gorsem, has been maintaining a warning system for fruit pests in Belgium since 1944. Therefore, various pests and beneficial's and their life cycle stages have been monitored in Gorsem and in different observation posts across Belgium, being part of a monitoring network. Although up to 3000 arthropod species are present in pome fruit orchards, about 25% can be considered as harmful and another 25% as beneficial. Out of those species, around 100 harmful and 50 beneficial organisms are omnipresent. The list of monitored species is extended yearly for upcoming or difficult to control organisms. Integrated pest management was introduced in the eighties, with the accent on using selective pesticides and saving beneficial organisms. A shift in pesticide use affected the importance of secondary pests, together with recent exceptional climatic conditions. Following many years of monitoring insects and mites and editing warning bulletins in our station, a ranking of the economical importance of different pest species is presented. PMID:19226798

  18. Toward routine, DNA-based detection methods for marine pests.

    PubMed

    Bott, Nathan J; Ophel-Keller, Kathy M; Sierp, Michael T; Herdina; Rowling, Keith P; McKay, Alan C; Loo, Maylene G K; Tanner, Jason E; Deveney, Marty R

    2010-01-01

    Marine pest incursions can cause significant ongoing damage to aquaculture, biodiversity, fisheries habitat, infrastructure and social amenity. They represent a significant and ongoing economic burden. Marine pests can be introduced by several vectors including aquaculture, aquarium trading, commercial shipping, fishing, floating debris, mining activities and recreational boating. Despite the inherent risks, there is currently relatively little routine surveillance of marine pest species conducted in the majority of countries worldwide. Accurate and rapid identification of marine pest species is central to early detection and management. Traditional techniques (e.g. physical sampling and sorting), have limitations, which has motivated some progress towards the development of molecular diagnostic tools. This review provides a brief account of the techniques traditionally used for detection and describes developments in molecular-based methods for the detection and surveillance of marine pest species. Recent advances provide a platform for the development of practical, specific, sensitive and rapid diagnosis and surveillance tools for marine pests for use in effective prevention and control strategies. PMID:20488239

  19. The effect of transitional organic production practices on soilborne pests of tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The perceived risk of pest resurgence upon transition from conventional to organic-based farming systems remains a critical obstacle to expanding organic vegetable production, particularly where chemical fumigants have provided soilborne pest and disease control. Microplots were used to study the ef...

  20. Managing Auditory Risk from Acoustically Impulsive Chemical Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedone, Jeffrey H.; Gee, Kent L.; Vernon, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical demonstrations are an integral part of the process of how students construct meaning from chemical principles, but may introduce risks to students and presenters. Some demonstrations are known to be extremely loud and present auditory hazards; little has been done to assess the risks to educators and students. Using laboratory-grade…

  1. Managing Auditory Risk from Acoustically Impulsive Chemical Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedone, Jeffrey H.; Gee, Kent L.; Vernon, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical demonstrations are an integral part of the process of how students construct meaning from chemical principles, but may introduce risks to students and presenters. Some demonstrations are known to be extremely loud and present auditory hazards; little has been done to assess the risks to educators and students. Using laboratory-grade…

  2. THE IMPORTANCE OF SPATIAL ACCURACY FOR CHEMICAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information about chemicals can be critical to making timely decisions. The results of these decisions may not be realized for many years. In order to increase the value of chemical information and to create and utilize meaningful environmental models, the Environmental Prote...

  3. Management of chemical injuries to the upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Reilly, D A; Garner, W L

    2000-05-01

    Chemical burns are interesting and challenging to treat. When the practitioner is comfortable with the pathophysiology of chemical injury and treatment based on these principles, most patients can be treated effectively with good outcome (Fig. 2). Early treatment with water irrigation, followed by diligent wound care, will allow our patients to benefit to the maximum from our medical skills. PMID:10791168

  4. Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation.

  5. Spatial stochastic simulation offers potential as a quantitative method for pest risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Rafoss, Trond

    2003-08-01

    Pest risk analysis represents an emerging field of risk analysis that evaluates the potential risks of the introduction and establishment of plant pests into a new geographic location and then assesses the management options to reduce those potential risks. Development of new and adapted methodology is required to answer questions concerning pest risk analysis of exotic plant pests. This research describes a new method for predicting the potential establishment and spread of a plant pest into new areas using a case study, Ralstonia solanacearum, a bacterial disease of potato. This method combines current quantitative methodologies, stochastic simulation, and geographic information systems with knowledge of pest biology and environmental data to derive new information about pest establishment potential in a geographical region where a pest had not been introduced. This proposed method extends an existing methodology for matching pest characteristics with environmental conditions by modeling and simulating dissemination behavior of a pest organism. Issues related to integrating spatial variables into risk analysis models are further discussed in this article. PMID:12926559

  6. Control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruit with entomopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plethora of arthropods attack fruit crops throughout the tropics and sub-tropics. The predominant method for controlling most of these pests is the application of broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Growing concern over the negative environmental effects has encouraged development of alternative c...

  7. Household pesticide contamination from indoor pest control applications in urban low-income public housing dwellings: a community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chensheng; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Attfield, Kathleen R; Kapp, Michaela; Spengler, John D; Tao, Lin; Xie, Shao Hua

    2013-02-19

    We designed this community-based participatory research (CBPR) project aiming to generate evidence-based research results to encourage residents living in urban low-income public housing dwellings engaging in a community-wide integrated pest management (IPM) program with the intention to improve their health and quality of life, as well as household conditions. We enrolled 20 families and their children in this study in which we utilized environmental exposure assessment (surface wipe and indoor air) tools to quantitatively assessing residential pesticide exposure in young children before the implementation of an IPM program. We analyzed those samples for 19 organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticides were pyrethroids, particularly permethrin and cypermethrin with average concentrations of 2.47 and 3.87 ?g/m(2), respectively. In many dwellings, we detected OPs, which are no longer available on the market; however, their levels are significantly lower than those of pyrethroids. None of the 20 families was free from pesticide contamination in their households, and pesticides were commonly detected in living room and children's bedroom. The correlation among household hygienic conditions, the sighting of live pests/pest debris, and the degree of indoor pesticide contamination highlights the failure of conventional chemical-based applications for pest controls. The results from the current study, as well as other recent studies, conducted in low-income public housing, child care centers, and randomly selected homes in the U.S. should accentuate the need for alternative pest management programs that incorporate safer and more sustainable protocols for pest controls. PMID:23363037

  8. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER: MEASURING HISTORICAL FARMER PERCEPTIONS AND ADOPTION OF TRANSGENIC BT CORN AS A PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year, multi-state survey of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn farmers was conducted to evaluate perceptions of Bt corn performance and its utility as a European corn borer management option. A questionnaire was sent to farmers who had grown Bt corn during the previous field season...

  9. Integrated applications of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. tenebrionis and Beauveria bassiana for biologically-based integrated pest management of Colorado potato beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted over the past decade has indicated a low level of synergism and potentially high degree of complementarity between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- and Beauveria bassiana (Bb)-based biopesticides applied for management of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. In view...

  10. Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of several alternativ...

  11. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  12. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  13. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  14. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  15. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  16. Transport and fate of methyl iodide a its pest control in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For fumigants, information on transport and fate, as well as pest control, is needed to develop management practices with the fewest human and environmental health risks while offering sufficient pest control efficacy. For this purpose, a 2-D soil chamber (60 cm wide, 60 cm long, and 6 cm thick) wit...

  17. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL... movement of any other plant pest. The Plant Protection Act provides for a penalty 2 for the misuse of such... not to exceed 1 year, or both. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control...

  18. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL... movement of any other plant pest. The Plant Protection Act provides for a penalty 2 for the misuse of such... not to exceed 1 year, or both. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control...

  19. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL... movement of any other plant pest. The Plant Protection Act provides for a penalty 2 for the misuse of such... not to exceed 1 year, or both. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control...

  20. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL... movement of any other plant pest. The Plant Protection Act provides for a penalty 2 for the misuse of such... not to exceed 1 year, or both. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control...

  1. 7 CFR 330.211 - Labeling of plant pests for movement under permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL... movement of any other plant pest. The Plant Protection Act provides for a penalty 2 for the misuse of such... not to exceed 1 year, or both. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control...

  2. Development of an embryonic lethality system for transgenic sit in the fruit pest, ceratitis capitata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceratitis capitata, known as one of the world's most destructive insect pest, costs farmers billions of dollars annually. Improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of area-wide pest management. Transgenic methodology should enhance and widen the applicability of the sterile ...

  3. Toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons: exposure, identification, and management by syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Anthony J; French, Robert N E; Walter, Frank G

    2015-02-01

    Toxidromes aid emergency care providers in the context of the patient presenting with suspected poisoning, unexplained altered mental status, unknown hazardous materials or chemical weapons exposure, or the unknown overdose. The ability to capture an adequate chemical exposure history and to recognize toxidromes may reduce dependence on laboratory tests, speed time to delivery of specific antidote therapy, and improve selection of supportive care practices tailored to the etiologic agent. This article highlights elements of the exposure history and presents selected toxidromes that may be caused by toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons. Specific antidotes for toxidromes and points regarding their use, and special supportive measures, are presented. PMID:25455660

  4. Insecticide resistance and its molecular basis in urban insect pests.

    PubMed

    Naqqash, Muhammad Nadir; Gökçe, Ayhan; Bakhsh, Allah; Salim, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Insecticide resistance is one of the most important evolutionary phenomena for researchers. Overuse of chemicals has induced resistance in insect pests that ultimately has led to the collapse of disease control programs in many countries. The erroneous and inappropriate management of insect vectors has resulted in dissemination of many vector-borne diseases like dengue, malaria, diarrhea, leishmaniasis, and many others. In most cases, the emergence of new diseases and the revival of old ones can be related with ecological changes that have favored rapid growth of vector densities. Understanding molecular mechanisms in resistant strains can assist in the development of management programs to control the development and spread of resistant insect populations. The dominant, recessive, and co-dominant forms of genes encoding resistance can be investigated, and furthermore, resistance development can be addressed either by the release of susceptible strains or timely insecticide rotation. The present review discusses the resistance level in all important insect vectors of human diseases; the molecular basis of evolvement of resistance has also been discussed. PMID:26758450

  5. An index method to evaluate growers’ pesticide use for identifying on-farm innovations and effective alternative pest management strategies: a case study of winegrape in Madera County, California*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-juan; Qin, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Browde, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUI and PUIM. It was found that both PUI and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI≤10 and 34 with 1060, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds, which indicated that their pest controls heavily depended on pesticides rather than on-farm management. Through the case study, the proposed approach proved to be useful for analyzing the growers’ pesticide use intensities and interpreting their pesticide use behaviors, which led to a new start point for further investigation of searching ways to reduce pesticide environmental risk. PMID:21370508

  6. Forest Pest Control and Timber Treatment Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The document is a compilation of pamphlets and circulars which discuss forest management, control of undesirable woody plants, herbicides in forestry, diseases and insect pests, and equipment for pesticide application. (CS)

  7. Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Pests, Third Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Pests, Third Edition, is a practical guidebook for the identification and management of over 150 important diseases, insects, and other disorders of wheat. Over 70 expert authors contributed diagnostic photographs and authoritative chapters to this edition. For e...

  8. New developments in PEST shape/property hybrid descriptors.

    PubMed

    Breneman, Curt M; Sundling, C Matthew; Sukumar, N; Shen, Lingling; Katt, William P; Embrechts, Mark J

    2003-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that the inclusion of hybrid shape/property descriptors together with 2D topological descriptors increases the predictive capability of QSAR and QSPR models. Property-Encoded Surface Translator (PEST) descriptors may be computed using ab initio or semi-empirical electron density surfaces and/or electronic properties, as well as atomic fragment-based TAE/RECON property-encoded surface reconstructions. The RECON and PEST algorithms also include rapid fragment-based wavelet coefficient descriptor (WCD) computation. These descriptors enable a compact encoding of chemical information. We also briefly discuss the use of the RECON/PEST methodology in a virtual high-throughput mode, as well as the use of TAE properties for molecular surface autocorrelation analysis. PMID:13677489

  9. Prevention methods for pest control and their use in Poland.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Prevention methods can still be a cost-effective and efficient tool for pest control. Rational use of prevention methods is a feasible way to reduce dependency on chemical protection in agriculture. Costs, workload and farmers' awareness are key issues, however. In Poland, crop rotation is used as a method for pest control only to a limited extent owing to the high share of cereals in the crop structure. The choice of resistant varieties is satisfactory, but farmers should make use of qualified seed material more often. Liming is recommended on the majority of farms on account of widespread soil acidity. Favourable aspects as regards the prevention of pest development are biodiversity and the popularity of prevention cultivation techniques. PMID:24729297

  10. CHEMICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT POWWER EVAPORATION-CATALYTIC OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates the ability of the Chemical Waste Management POWWER System to reduce the volume of aqueous waste and catalytically oxidize volatile contaminants. his evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluati...

  11. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

  12. Ocular effects of exposure to industrial chemicals: clinical management and proteomic approaches to damage assessment.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K; Hom, Gregory G; Fernandez, Christopher; Hom, Louis G

    2007-01-01

    Industrial chemicals in a variety of applications are often found in highly populated areas and their presence carries risks. The threat of serious consequences from inadvertent or intentional events involving hazardous chemicals is a possibility. Extremism and/or other illicit activities pose environmental threats from chemical exposures. We present here a review of the threat of ocular injury in small-and large-scale chemical releases and discuss mechanisms of damage and repair to the eyes. The emerging field of proteomics has been described in relation to its potential role in the assessment of ocular changes following chemical exposures and management of ocular trauma. PMID:17687686

  13. Effectiveness of the High Dose/Refuge Strategy for Managing Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Plants Expressing One or Two Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Gryspeirt, Aiko; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    To delay resistance development to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing their own insecticide, the application of the Insect Resistance Management strategy called “High Dose/Refuge Strategy” (HD/R) is recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). This strategy was developed for Bt plants expressing one toxin. Presently, however, new Bt plants that simultaneously express two toxins are on the market. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficiency of the HD/R strategy for both these Bt toxins. As the current two-toxin Bt plants do not express two new Cry toxins but reuse one toxin already in use with a one-toxin plant, we estimated the spread of resistance when the resistance alleles are not rare. This study assesses: (i) whether the two toxins have to be present in high concentration, and (ii) the impact of the relative size of the refuge zone on the evolution of resistance and population density. We concluded that for Bt plants expressing one toxin, a high concentration is an essential condition for resistance management. For the pyramided Bt plants, one toxin could be expressed at a low titer if the two toxins are used for the first time, and a small refuge zone is acceptable. PMID:23162699

  14. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment for corneal ulceration, and adequate anti-inflammatory therapy when the corneal epithelium becomes intact. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423874

  15. WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND ITS MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that wastewater treatment (WWT) can be a significant source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to the environment. WWT can include centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or on-site WWT technologies. EDCs found in WWT effluents (aqueous and biosol...

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Stanley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

  17. Field Measurement of Soil Surface Chemical Transport Properties for Comparison of Management Zones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil management influences chemical movement through the profile, but due to soil resource complexity and the lack of field-measurement tools, our ability to predict how various practices will affect chemical transport has been limited. A recently developed dripper-time domain reflectometry techniqu...

  18. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

  19. Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, V. Rodney

    This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

  20. Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, V. Rodney

    This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

  1. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  2. Integrating drivers influencing the detection of plant pests carried in the international cut flower trade.

    PubMed

    Areal, F J; Touza, J; MacLeod, A; Dehnen-Schmutz, K; Perrings, C; Palmieri, M G; Spence, N J

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyses the cut flower market as an example of an invasion pathway along which species of non-indigenous plant pests can travel to reach new areas. The paper examines the probability of pest detection by assessing information on pest detection and detection effort associated with the import of cut flowers. We test the link between the probability of plant pest arrivals, as a precursor to potential invasion, and volume of traded flowers using count data regression models. The analysis is applied to the UK import of specific genera of cut flowers from Kenya between 1996 and 2004. There is a link between pest detection and the Genus of cut flower imported. Hence, pest detection efforts should focus on identifying and targeting those imported plants with a high risk of carrying pest species. For most of the plants studied, efforts allocated to inspection have a significant influence on the probability of pest detection. However, by better targeting inspection efforts, it is shown that plant inspection effort could be reduced without increasing the risk of pest entry. Similarly, for most of the plants analysed, an increase in volume traded will not necessarily lead to an increase in the number of pests entering the UK. For some species, such as Carthamus and Veronica, the volume of flowers traded has a significant and positive impact on the likelihood of pest detection. We conclude that analysis at the rank of plant Genus is important both to understand the effectiveness of plant pest detection efforts and consequently to manage the risk of introduction of non-indigenous species. PMID:17761382

  3. Incidence of Sitophilus oryzae and other stored-product pests on cowpea in local markets in Accra: management strategies employed by retailers.

    PubMed

    Egbon, I N; Ayertey, J N

    2013-05-01

    In recent times, the unusual presence of Sitophilus on cowpea has become an issue in Ghana as it constitutes a threat to food sufficiency and food security; this, by extension, necessitated the execution of this survey to establish the specific identity of the insect and its incidence, on stored cowpea in Ghana and consequently assess the level of awareness of traders and the management strategies employed. Using internal morphological identification techniques, the insect was identified as Sitophilus oryzae with an incidence rate of 12, 22 and 20% as against 50, 41 and 42% incidence rate of Callosobruchus maculatus after 30, 60 and 90 days respectively, of undisturbed storage of cowpea within the marketing systems in Accra, Ghana. Relatively low number of retailers (35.44%, N = 79) was aware of this occurrence, with 91.14% of this employing the energy-demanding and time-consuming sieving techniques as their main control strategies. This paper draws attention to the possible worsening of food insecurity already eminent in Africa for insects are no respecters of international or geo-political boundaries as they can spread to other countries, should this observation be left unchecked. PMID:24498808

  4. Adaptive management of pest resistance by Helicoverpa species (Noctuidae) in Australia to the Cry2Ab Bt toxin in Bollgard II® cotton

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Sharon; Mahon, Rodney J; Rossiter, Louise; Kauter, Greg; Leven, Tracey; Fitt, Gary; Baker, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In Australia, monitoring Helicoverpa species for resistance to the Cry2Ab toxin in second generation Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton has precisely fulfilled its intended function: to warn of increases in resistance frequencies that may lead to field failures of the technology. Prior to the widespread adoption of two-gene Bt cotton, the frequency of Cry2Ab resistance alleles was at least 0.001 in H. armigera and H. punctigera. In the 5 years hence, there has been a significant and apparently exponential increase in the frequency of alleles conferring Cry2Ab resistance in field populations of H. punctigera. Herein we review the history of deploying and managing resistance to Bt cotton in Australia, outline the characteristics of the isolated resistance that likely impact on resistance evolution, and use a simple model to predict likely imminent resistance frequencies. We then discuss potential strategies to mitigate further increases in resistance frequencies, until the release of a third generation product. These include mandating larger structured refuges, applying insecticide to crops late in the season, and restricting the area of Bollgard II® cotton. The area planted to Bt-crops is anticipated to continue to rise worldwide; therefore the strategies being considered in Australia are likely to relate to other situations. PMID:25567948

  5. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  6. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  7. Chemical incident management: gaseous emissions from a stockpile of coal.

    PubMed

    Freudenstein, U; Crowley, D; Welch, F

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal releases a wide range of airborne pollutants which, in high concentrations, may be hazardous to health. Little is known about how the effects on health change in relation to the release of multiple substances. This article reports an incident in which a stockpile of coal released potentially harmful gases into the environment. Although the resultant health effects reported were few, the co-ordinated response by local authorities and health authorities highlighted the advantage of a multidisciplinary approach. Public health departments need to be aware of major chemical hazards within their district. Prompt environmental monitoring and exposure measurement needs to be arranged as this is crucial to making an appropriate response. Updated registers are needed from private companies and public bodies; who can provide timely measurements of chemical hazards. Health districts with more than one local authority may benefit from pooling resources and knowledge in order to prepare for such an incident. PMID:10787025

  8. PRECISION CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOILS TO SUPPORT PRECISION MANAGEMENT DECISIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technological advances in application of fertilizers and crop cultivars have expanded the potential for more precise management of soil. Resin-extraction, an alternative method of characterizing soils, coupled with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) provides information about the relative activity of ...

  9. General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

  10. Insect and mite pests of durum wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses the postharvest arthropod pests of durum wheat and their control. The main internally feeding pests are Rhyzopertha dominica, Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae, and S. zeamais. The main externally feeding pests are Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Oryzaephilus surinamensis, O. m...

  11. General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

  12. Moving plants means moving pests (Updated Version)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ornamentals industry must recognize not only that it is at direct risk from invasive species and resistant pests, but also that there is increased public awareness about the movement of any pest species on ornamental plants, and increased concern that these pests will move from ornamental plants...

  13. Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

  14. Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of…

  15. Forest Pest Control. Sale Publication 4072.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W., Ed.

    The forest pests discussed in this guide are weeds, insects, diseases, and vertebrates. The guide gives information about types of forests, characteristics of common forest pests, pest control methods, pesticides and application equipment used in forestry, and environmental and human hazards. (Author/BB)

  16. Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

  17. Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of…

  18. Testing for multiple invasion routes and source populations for the invasive brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam: implications for pest management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Wood, Dustin A.; Stanford, James W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) population on the Pacific island of Guam has reached iconic status as one of the most destructive invasive species of modern times, yet no published works have used genetic data to identify a source population. We used DNA sequence data from multiple genetic markers and coalescent-based phylogenetic methods to place the Guam population within the broader phylogeographic context of B. irregularis across its native range and tested whether patterns of genetic variation on the island are consistent with one or multiple introductions from different source populations. We also modeled a series of demographic scenarios that differed in the effective size and duration of a population bottleneck immediately following the invasion on Guam, and measured the fit of these simulations to the observed data using approximate Bayesian computation. Our results exclude the possibility of serial introductions from different source populations, and instead verify a single origin from the Admiralty Archipelago off the north coast of Papua New Guinea. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis thatB. irregularis was accidentally transported to Guam during military relocation efforts at the end of World War II. Demographic model comparisons suggest that multiple snakes were transported to Guam from the source locality, but that fewer than 10 individuals could be responsible for establishing the population. Our results also provide evidence that low genetic diversity stemming from the founder event has not been a hindrance to the ecological success of B. irregularis on Guam, and at the same time offers a unique ‘genetic opening’ to manage snake density using classical biological approaches.

  19. Factors influencing economic profitability of dampling-based integrated management of wheat in country elevators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management provides the potential for better insect management in stored wheat, as well as increased worker safety and reduced environmental concerns. Many country elevators, however, continue to use chemical-based approaches. To determine if this choice is economically justified, to...

  20. Resolving the ethical dilemma of nurse managers over chemically-dependent colleagues.

    PubMed

    Chiu, W; Wilson, D

    1996-12-01

    This paper addresses the nurse manager's role regarding chemically-dependent nurses in the workplace. The manager may intervene by: terminating the contract of the impaired colleague; notifying a disciplinary committee; consulting with a counselling committee; or referring the impaired nurse to an employee assistance programme. A dilemma may arise about which of these interventions is ethically the best. The ethical theories relevant to nursing involve ethical relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, Kohlberg's justice, and Gilligan's ethic of care. Nurse managers first need to understand these theories in order to clarify their own perceptions and attitudes towards chemical dependency, and then satisfactorily resolve this ethical dilemma. Education and social learning are routes to a better understanding of chemical dependency and to broadening the ethical dimensions of nurse managers. PMID:8998031