Science.gov

Sample records for chemical pest management

  1. Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

  2. Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

  3. Seasonal Integrated Pest Management

    E-print Network

    /or less toxic for humans and the environment. In most orchards some type of integrated pest management is already practiced. The checklist in this bulletin categorizes these practices according to seasons

  4. Sugarcane pests and their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses sugarcane culture and history, describes arthropod biologies and injury, and identifies sugarcane pest management factors to consider for people interested in commercial sugarcane production. Arthropod groups include 10 orders and 40 families. Sugarcane pest management ...

  5. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  6. The Red Queen in a potato field: integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control.

    PubMed

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Baker, Mitchell; Snyder, William E; Menasha, Sandra; Whalon, Mark; Dively, Galen; Moarsi, Wassem F

    2015-03-01

    Originally designed to reconcile insecticide applications with biological control, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) developed into the systems-based judicious and coordinated use of multiple control techniques aimed at reducing pest damage to economically tolerable levels. Chemical control, with scheduled treatments, was the starting point for most management systems in the 1950s. Although chemical control is philosophically compatible with IPM practices as a whole, reduction in pesticide use has been historically one of the main goals of IPM practitioners. In the absence of IPM, excessive reliance on pesticides has led to repeated control failures due to the evolution of resistance by pest populations. This creates the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new compounds, known as the 'insecticide treadmill'. In evolutionary biology, a similar phenomenon is known as the Red Queen principle - continuing change is needed for a population to persevere because its competitors undergo constant evolutionary adaptation. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an insect defoliator of potatoes that is notorious for its ability to develop insecticide resistance. In the present article, a review is given of four case studies from across the United States to demonstrate the importance of using IPM for sustainable management of a highly adaptable insect pest. Excessive reliance on often indiscriminate insecticide applications and inadequate use of alternative control methods, such as crop rotation, appear to expedite evolution of insecticide resistance in its populations. Resistance to IPM would involve synchronized adaptations to multiple unfavorable factors, requiring statistically unlikely genetic changes. Therefore, integrating different techniques is likely to reduce the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new ones. PMID:24817433

  7. Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 64:108111 (2008) Susceptibility of lesser mealworm

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, Phillip E.

    2008-01-01

    Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 64:108­111 (2008) Susceptibility of lesser mealworm effectiveness against lesser mealworms in some poultry operations; however, it is still effective in many others. 2007 Society of Chemical Industry Keywords: Insecta; resistance; insecticides; Alphitobius diaperinus

  8. Pest Management For Grain Storage and Fumigation

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Pest Management For Grain Storage and Fumigation Seed Treatment -Pest Control- Grain Storage & Seed MANAGEMENT FOR GRAIN STORAGE AND FUMIGATION Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................. 12 Resistance Management Issues

  9. CITRUS PESTS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter discusses citrus culture and history, describes arthropod biologies and injury, and identifies citrus pest management factors to consider for people interested in dooryard or commercial citrus production. Life history, geographic distribution, and injury to citrus foliage, fruit, ...

  10. PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC PLAN FOR HONEY BEES

    E-print Network

    Tarpy, David R.

    PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC PLAN FOR HONEY BEES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC STATES (DE, MD, NC, NJ, PA, SC................................................................35 Honey Bee Pest Management Strategic Plan ­ Mid-Atlantic States 2 #12;EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. The USDA Office of Pest Management Policy (OPMP) is funding the production of Pest Management Strategic

  11. 2010 Pest Management Guide for Wine Grapes in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a pest management guide developed for use by vineyard managers in Oregon. This guide represents some of the best recommendations for chemicals, formulations, and usage rates of products that are intended to prevent, manage and control vineyard diseases, insects, weeds, and vertebrate pests. ...

  12. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Wcislo, William T

    2009-06-22

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia antibiotics are narrow-spectrum and control a fungus (Escovopsis) that parasitizes the ants' fungal symbiont, and (ii) MG secretions have broad-spectrum activity and protect ants and brood. We assessed the relative importance of these lines of defence, and their activity spectra, by scoring abundance of visible Pseudonocardia for nine species from five genera and measuring rates of MG grooming after challenging ants with disease agents of differing virulence. Atta and Sericomyrmex have lost or greatly reduced the abundance of visible bacteria. When challenged with diverse disease agents, including Escovopsis, they significantly increased MG grooming rates and expanded the range of targets. By contrast, species of Acromyrmex and Trachymyrmex maintain abundant Pseudonocardia. When challenged, these species had lower MG grooming rates, targeted primarily to brood. More elaborate MG defences and reduced reliance on mutualistic Pseudonocardia are correlated with larger colony size among attine genera, raising questions about the efficacy of managing disease in large societies with chemical cocktails versus bacterial antimicrobial metabolites. PMID:19324734

  13. Poultry Pest Management 

    E-print Network

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2007-05-18

    for suppressing other lice will also work for wing lice. Chicken head lice, Cuclutogaster heterogra- phus, are primarily a pest on young birds. They occur on the base of the feathers on the ani- mal?s head and are transmitted through contact. Bed bugs... specks on eggs. For example, the house fl y is the intermediate host for the common tapeworm in chickens, and it has been implicated in the transmission of several viral and bacterial pathogens of peo- ple and animals. The little house fl y, Fannia...

  14. Hanford site integrated pest management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, R.F.

    1996-04-09

    The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

  15. Extension Has Key Role in "Pest" Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Ovid

    1972-01-01

    This article describes the Department of Agriculture's new program which provides a combination of biological and cultural pest control techniques in combination with chemicals, as well as long-range pest control research. (Author/JB)

  16. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Ruiu, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed. PMID:26463190

  17. Urban Pest Management of Ants in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keeping pace with the dynamic and evolving landscape of invasive ants in California presents a formidable challenge to the pest management industry. Pest management professionals (PMPs) are on the frontlines when it comes to battling these exotic ant pests, and are often the first ones to intercept ...

  18. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (editor); Wolf, W. (editor); Klassen, W. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  19. Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.

    PubMed

    Gay, Hannah

    2012-07-01

    The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests. PMID:23057183

  20. Integrated Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape Professionals Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program July 2015

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    since lost its domestic nature and be- come wild. In the 1920's, Russian wild boars were introducedIntegrated Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape Professionals Wild Pigs Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program July 2015 PEST NOTES Publication 74170 Wild pigs are not native to North

  1. Integrated Pest Management for Homes, Gardens, and Landscapes Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program October 2015

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Integrated Pest Management for Homes, Gardens, and Landscapes OpOssum Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program October 2015 PEST NOTES Publication 74123 The opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is the only for carrying their young. The opossum is not native to California but was introduced in San Jose in 1910 from

  2. ENHANCED PEST MANAGEMENT WITH COVER CROP MULCHES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Living and dead plant vegetation on the surface of soils can provide opportunities for regulating pest populations in no-tillage production systems. Cover crops generate substantial quantities of surface vegetation and residue that can be managed to enhance control of pests. Research at the Beltsv...

  3. Historical Perspectives on Apple Production: Fruit Tree Pest Management, Regulation and

    E-print Network

    Jentsch, Peter J.

    2 Historical Perspectives on Apple Production: Fruit Tree Pest Management, Regulation and New. Historical Use of Pesticides in Apple Production Overview of Apple Production and Pest Management Prior in Apple Production Chemical Residues in Early Insect Management Historical Chemical Regulation Recent

  4. Forest pest management in a changing world Andrew M. Liebhold*

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    Forest pest management in a changing world Andrew M. Liebhold* USDA Forest Service, Northern received 1 March 2012) The scope, context and science guiding forest pest management have evolved in the implementation of forest pest management. First, human dimensions will continue to play a key role in most pest

  5. Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 61:532538 (2005 ) DOI: 10.1002/ps.1027

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Éric

    Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 61:532­538 (2005 ) DOI: 10.1002/ps.1027 Impact of intraguild-Hyacinthe, Qu ´ebec, Canada J2S 7B8 3Horticultural Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri vitripennis. Second, the effects of intraguild predation and the application of lambda

  6. Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  7. Efficient management of fruit pests by pheromone nanogels.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  8. TAME MELALEUCA - AN AREAWIDE PEST MANAGEMENT INITIATIVE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Areawide Management and Evaluation of Melaleuca (TAME Melaleuca) program was established and funded by the USDA's Areawide Pest Management Initiative. The goal of the 5-year TAME Melaleuca project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the control of melaleuca. TAME Me...

  9. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. PMID:26463205

  10. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    PubMed

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. PMID:26463205

  11. A Practical Guide to Management of Common Pests in Schools. Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This 3-part manual is designed to assist school officials understand the principles of Integrated Pest Management and aid them in implementing those principles into a comprehensive pest control program in their facilities. Developed for Illinois, this guide can be applied in part or in total to other areas of the country. Part 1 explains what an…

  12. Demonstrating Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  13. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 TOBACCO DISEASE MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    be considered to help control bacterial wilt: 1. Crop rotation to include soybeans 2. Use of host resistance 3South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 293 TOBACCO DISEASE MANAGEMENT Bruce based on rotation, variety selection, sanitation and chemical treatments. A sound disease management

  14. Comparing conventional and biotechnology-based pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management has changed dramatically during the past 15 years by the introduction of transgenes into crops for the purpose of pest management. Transgenes for herbicide resistance or for production of one or more Bt toxins are the predominant pest management traits currently available. These two ...

  15. he land manager’s handbook on integrated pest management of Melaleuca quinquenervia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adventive Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake is an invasive pest plant in the greater Everglades region of Florida. Public agencies and organizations responsible for natural areas management have developed effective chemical and mechanical strategies for treating infestati...

  16. Pest Control in the School Environment: Adopting Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    As the public becomes more aware of the health and environmental risks pesticides may pose, its interest in seeking the use of equally effective alternative pest control methods increases. School administrators and other persons who have pest control decision-making responsibilities for school buildings and grounds can use this guide to become…

  17. Remote Sensing and GIS Applications for Precision Areawide Pest Management: Implications for Homeland Security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Areawide pest management represents coordinated adoption of integrated pest management to conduct preventive suppression of a pest species throughout its geographic distribution. Scientists in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies an...

  18. PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Methamidophos Application Effects on Pasimachus elongatus

    E-print Network

    McIntyre, Nancy E.

    PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Methamidophos Application Effects on Pasimachus elongatus (Coleoptera- dothioate) is a preharvest insecticide used to con- trol agricultural pests (WHO 1993). Methamido- phos resistance)are also discussed. KEY WORDS Colorado, methamidophos, Pasimachus elongatus ecosystem, Ebert

  19. A Statewide Pest Management Plan for Texas. 

    E-print Network

    1981-01-01

    Service of The Texas A&M University System, in cooperation with the USDA and the Texas Department of Agriculture, in response to a request from the agricultural leadership in Texas. The Statewide Pest Management Plan seeks to organize, in a... by reducing production costs, and to minimize the possi- bility of environmental disruption by the intelligent use of pesticides. The key to achieving these goals is a systems approach that analyzes all methods of min- imizing losses caused by noxious...

  20. IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Jon L.

    2005-03-01

    For years the pest Management Professional has relied on visual and manual inspections to locate insect pest infestations. As building materials have improved, the ability to locate pest problems has become more difficult since building materials are often able to mask the existence of pest infestation. Additionally, these improved building materials have contributed to the pest problem by providing a convenient food and nesting source. Within the past five years, the Pest Management Industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestation by detecting evidence of latent moisture within structures. This paper discusses the use of thermal imaging to detect thermal patterns associated with insect infestation, verification of data and special challenges associated with the inspection process.

  1. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Krupke, Christian H.; White, Michael A.; Alexander, Corinne E.

    2008-10-01

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  2. Insecticide Resistance: Challenge to Pest Management and Basic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brattsten, L. B.; Holyoke, C. W.; Leeper, J. R.; Raffa, K. F.

    1986-03-01

    The agricultural use of synthetic insecticides usually protects crops but imposes strong selection pressures that can result in the development of resistance. The most important resistance mechanisms are enhancement of the capacity to metabolically detoxify insecticides and alterations in target sites that prevent insecticides from binding to them. Insect control methods must incorporate strategies to minimize resistance development and preserve the utility of the insecticides. The most promising approach, integrated pest management, includes the use of chemical insecticides in combination with improved cultural and biologically based techniques.

  3. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  4. History and ecological basis for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The traditional approach to pest management is to treat the crop or commodity in a particular management unit before an economically significant infestation of the pest has developed. Determining the need to take corrective action is based on the economic threshold concept, which forms the basis of...

  5. Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 59:629642 (online: 2003) DOI: 10.1002/ps.724

    E-print Network

    Cotty, Peter J.

    have been developed which: (1) contain genes for resistance to the phytotoxic effects of certain. To achieve this, plants may be developed that resist fungal infection and/or reduce the toxic effectsPest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 59:629­642 (online: 2003) DOI: 10.1002/ps.724 United States

  6. Insect pest management for raw commodities during storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter provides an overview of the pest management decision-making process during grain storage. An in-depth discussion of sampling methods, cost-benefit analysis, expert systems, consultants and the use of computer simulation models is provided. Sampling is essential to determine if pest...

  7. Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Thomas A.

    This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

  8. The Ohio Schools Pest Management Survey: A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    In 2001, the Environmental Studies Senior Capstone Seminar class at Denison University helped the state of Ohio work to prevent harmful pesticide use in schools. In cooperation with Ohio State University's Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Schools Program, Denison conducted a statewide survey of school districts to determine current pest

  9. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies. PMID:26466733

  10. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. 205... § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a...practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to:...

  11. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. 205... § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a...practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to:...

  12. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. 205... § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a...practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to:...

  13. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. 205... § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a...practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to:...

  14. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. 205... § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a...practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to:...

  15. Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

  16. IMPROVING PEST MANAGEMENT WITH REMOTE SENSING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the sporadic nature of pest occurrence in crop fields, SSPM is a logical approach to dealing with pests, both from environmental and economic perspectives. With the technological advances of the past decade, this is an exciting time for SSPM. Remote sensing is being commercially used in weed...

  17. Published September 2010 Integrated Pest Management

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    crop rotation selection and other suppressive actions. Avoidance Avoidance may be practiced when pest practices. Avoidance tactics include: crop rotation such that the crop of choice is not a host for the pest as they migrate between alternate hosts and soybean plants. A crop rotation can be used to help break the life

  18. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 TOBACCO SUCKER CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 278 TOBACCO SUCKER CONTROL Dewitt Gooden, Extension Tobacco Specialist Chemical sucker control is necessary for high yields of good quality management techniques will result in reduced production costs through reduced hand suckering labor

  19. Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: an African perspective.

    PubMed

    Abate, T; van Huis, A; Ampofo, J K

    2000-01-01

    African agriculture is largely traditional--characterized by a large number of smallholdings of no more than one ha per household. Crop production takes place under extremely variable agro-ecological conditions, with annual rainfall ranging from 250 to 750 mm in the Sahel in the northwest and in the semi-arid east and south, to 1500 to 4000 mm in the forest zones in the central west. Farmers often select well-adapted, stable crop varieties, and cropping systems are such that two or more crops are grown in the same field at the same time. These diverse traditional systems enhance natural enemy abundance and generally keep pest numbers at low levels. Pest management practice in traditional agriculture is a built-in process in the overall crop production system rather than a separate well-defined activity. Increased population pressure and the resulting demand for increased crop production in Africa have necessitated agricultural expansion with the concomitant decline in the overall biodiversity. Increases in plant material movement in turn facilitated the accidental introduction of foreign pests. At present about two dozen arthropod pests, both introduced and native, are recognized as one of the major constraints to agricultural production and productivity in Africa. Although yield losses of 0% to 100% have been observed on-station, the economic significance of the majority of pests under farmers' production conditions is not adequately understood. Economic and social constraints have kept pesticide use in Africa the lowest among all the world regions. The bulk of pesticides are applied mostly against pests of commercial crops such as cotton, vegetables, coffee, and cocoa, and to some extent for combating outbreaks of migratory pests such as the locusts. The majority of African farmers still rely on indigenous pest management approaches to manage pest problems, although many government extension programs encourage the use of pesticides. The current pest management research activities carried out by national or international agricultural research programs in Africa focus on classical biological control and host plant resistance breeding. With the exception of classical biological control of the cassava mealybug, research results have not been widely adopted. This could be due to African farmers facing heterogeneous conditions, not needing fixed prescriptions or one ideal variety but a number of options and genotypes to choose from. Indigenous pest management knowledge is site-specific and should be the basis for developing integrated pest management (IPM) techniques. Farmers often lack the biological and ecological information necessary to develop better pest management through experimentation. Formal research should be instrumental in providing the input necessary to facilitate participatory technology development such as that done by Farmer Field Schools, an approach now emerging in different parts of Africa. PMID:10761592

  20. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production...producer or handler of an organic facility must use management...Removal of pest habitat, food sources, and breeding...

  1. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production...producer or handler of an organic facility must use management...Removal of pest habitat, food sources, and breeding...

  2. Crop pest management with an aerial imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  3. Integrated pest management for certified organic production in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...

  4. Social and cultural dimensions of rodent pest management.

    PubMed

    Palis, Florencia G; Singleton, Grant; Sumalde, Zenaida; Hossain, Mahabub

    2007-09-01

    Rice production in Vietnam is threatened by rodent pests, with a significant increase in impact reported from 1990 through to the early 21st century. Pre-harvest rice losses are typically 5-10%, with losses of >20% occurring in some years in some regions. Farmers' rodent control practices are generally reactive and rely essentially on chemical and physical methods. Ecologically-based rodent pest management (EBRM) was developed in the late 1990s to manage rodents in rice-based farming systems in Vietnam and other parts of South-East Asia. EBRM combines both cultural and physical rodent management practices such as synchrony of cropping, short 2-week rat campaigns at key periods in key habitats, increasing general hygiene around villages, and use of a community trap-barrier system. Although EBRM has been reported to be economically profitable, the successful adoption of this set of technologies requires community participation. In this paper we address issues relating to the adoption and sustainability of EBRM in lowland irrigated rice fields in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. We particularly explore the social and cultural mechanisms involved in maintaining community participation to further understand the conditions under which EBRM works and does not work. Positive indications of sustained use of community-based EBRM include: a policy pronouncement from the prime minister directing the use of integrated rodent management; the use of existing cooperatives for developing community actions; budgetary allocation from provincial and local governments; diffusion of EBRM to provinces in the south and north that are not involved in farmer participatory field trials; and the adoption of EBRM by a non-governmental organization, World Vision Vietnam, in their area-development programs. PMID:21396033

  5. Integrated Pest Management: Conducting Urban Rodent Surveys i Suggested citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Integrated pest management: conducting urban

    E-print Network

    #12;Integrated Pest Management: Conducting Urban Rodent Surveys i Suggested citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Integrated pest management: conducting urban rodent surveys. Atlanta: US...........................................................................................................................2 Characteristics of Urban Rodent Surveys

  6. Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Childcare Health Program, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early care and…

  7. NOVA PhD Course Biodiversity Based Integrated Pest Management in Field Crops (3 ECTS)

    E-print Network

    NOVA PhD Course Biodiversity Based Integrated Pest Management in Field Crops (3 ECTS) August 31 of pest management role of biodiversity levels in controlling pests, diseases and weeds mechanisms of ecological interactions mediating the effects of biodiversity on pest management and ecosystem services

  8. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S.; Tatchell, G. Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

  9. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S; Tatchell, G Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P

    2011-07-12

    Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

  10. Building Blocks for School IPM: A Least-Toxic Pest Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Becky, Ed.; Owens, Kagan, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of original and republished materials from numerous individuals and organizations working on pesticide reform and integrated pest management (IPM)--using alternatives to prevailing chemical-intensive practices. The manual provides comprehensive information on implementing school IPM, including a practical guide to…

  11. Integrated Pest Management in a Predator-Prey System with Allee Effects.

    PubMed

    Costa, M I S; dos Anjos, L

    2015-08-01

    A commonly used biocontrol strategy to control invasive pests with Allee effects consists of the deliberate introduction of natural enemies. To enhance the effectiveness of this strategy, several tactics of control of invasive species (e.g., mass-trapping, manual removal of individuals, and pesticide spraying) are combined so as to impair pest outbreaks. This combination of strategies to control pest species dynamics are usually named integrated pest management (IPM). In this work, we devise a predator-prey dynamical model in order to assess the influence of the intensity of chemical killing on the success of an IPM. The biological and mathematical framework presented in this study can also be analyzed in the light of species conservation and food web dynamics theory. PMID:26045054

  12. Managing nematode pests in Midsouth soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean producers must contend with nematode pests, several species of which may inhabit a single field. Significant yield losses caused by soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines), southern root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita), reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and other nematodes were estimated at 2.6% (...

  13. Pest management update on sunflower midge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi) is a serious insect pest of sunflower, causing bud and head deformation that lead to poor seed development, and in many cases no seed development. This presentation describes the life cycle of the sunflower midge and shows images of infested sunflower heads. ...

  14. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOLS

    E-print Network

    and contaminate food, and can be involved in the transmission of diseases. Recent research has indicated that children are especially at risk to pests. For example, cockroaches and their remains are recognized conditions, they can harbor micro-organisms that could pot

  15. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 PASTURE AND HAY INSECT MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 136 PASTURE AND HAY INSECT.D., Extension Entomologist Insect pests of pastures, hay fields and some forage crops are often difficult to notice, and may take growers by surprise. Scout these crops on a regular basis. For all pests listed

  16. Cockroach Clean-Up Tour . Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy/mix of tatics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests, including human…

  17. Stored Grain Insect Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When wheat is mixed with wheat from other locations as it moves through the grain-marketing system, insect infestation can be spread to larger quantities of wheat, which increases the overall cost of insect pest management. In Kansas and Oklahoma, insect infestations currently are managed primarily...

  18. Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower 

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    1999-02-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis when bees are not foraging. Table 2.? Insecticide suggestions for sunflower insect pests. Insects Insecticide Rate/Acre Special Instructions Banded sunflower Carbofuran 1 pt Do not re-enter treated field within 14 days without proper... entry interval. 30-day preharvest (Baythroid ? 2) interval. Bacillus thuringiensis 1.5 - 2.5 pts 4-hour restricted entry interval. (Dipel ? ES) Esfenvalerate 5.8 - 9.6 fl. oz. 12-hour restricted entry interval. 28-day preharvest (Asana ? XL) interval...

  19. Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

  20. INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS (IGRS) IN PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation is part of the symposium "Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Stored Product Entomology", presented at the 5th National IPM Conference. The use of IGRs as grain protectants, contact insecticides, and aerosols will be described and discussed using examples from current research proj...

  1. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS...

  2. Quantifying economic and environmental tradeoffs of walnut arthropod pest management

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Minghua

    Quantifying economic and environmental tradeoffs of walnut arthropod pest management Kimberly P Tradeoff Walnut Pesticide a b s t r a c t Many arthropod pesticides used by California walnut growers have through an analysis of the environmental and economic consequences that would occur if walnut growers were

  3. SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR WASPS AND BEES

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR WASPS AND BEES *Important Note* According on school grounds. INTRODUCTION Bees and wasps experience "complete metamorphosis". This means. Finally, the bees and wasps emerge from the pupae as fully developed adults. Wasps and bees are both

  4. Healthy Schools Act requirements specific to Pest Management Professionals (PMPs)

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Healthy Schools Act requirements specific to Pest Management Professionals (PMPs) Why should you care about the Healthy Schools Act? The Healthy Schools Act places requirements on PMPs that you MUST know about! The Healthy Schools Act (HSA), seeks to minimize pesticide exposure

  5. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS...

  6. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.271 Facility pest management practice standard. (a) The producer or handler of an organic... habitat, food sources, and breeding areas; (2) Prevention of access to handling facilities; and...

  7. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS...

  8. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.271 Facility pest management practice standard. (a) The producer or handler of an organic... habitat, food sources, and breeding areas; (2) Prevention of access to handling facilities; and...

  9. SPATIAL VARIABILITY IN CORN AND SOYBEAN INSECT PESTS: PRECISION FARMING AND INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT FOR THE FUTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public and private research effort is being invested in site-specific insect pest management but progress in this area lags behind other aspects of site-specific agriculture. The existence of field-level spatial variability in populations of key pests of soybean and corn suggests that a site-specif...

  10. On impulsive integrated pest management models with stochastic effects

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D.; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We extend existing impulsive differential equation models for integrated pest management (IPM) by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. Based on our model, we propose an approach that incorporates various competing stochastic components. This approach enables us to select a model with optimally determined weights for maximum accuracy and precision in parameter estimation. This is significant in the case of IPM because the proposed model accommodates varying unknown environmental and climatic conditions, which affect the resources needed for pest eradication. PMID:25954144

  11. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 97 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT Jeremy K. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist Insect pests are major limiting factors in producing cotton in South Carolina. Hundreds of species of insects may be found in cotton, but only a limited number

  12. Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan

    2002-01-01

    This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…

  13. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  14. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  15. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  16. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  17. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  18. Managing Insects and Related Pests of Roses 

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Pemberton, Brent; Cole, Charles L.

    1999-07-12

    Both sucking and chewing insects attack roses. This publication provides information on damage symptoms and control measures for common insects. Cultural and chemical insect control methods are discussed....

  19. Managing Risk of Pest Introduction, Establishment and Spread in a Changing World

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter by Neil Heather and Guy Hallman, in “Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers,” CABI Press, covers the topics of pest risk analysis, risk management, and host status, including the nonhost concept. Pest-free status and production areas as phytosanitary measures are also di...

  20. A systems approach for management of pests and pathogens of nursery crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horticultural nurseries are heterogeneous and spatially complex agricultural systems, which present formidable challenges to management of diseases and pests. Moreover, nursery plants shipped interstate and internationally can serve as important vectors for pathogens and pests that threaten both ag...

  1. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) integrated pest management programs for fruiting vegetables in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) resulted in the worldwide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. Efforts to control the pest and the thrips-vectored tospoviruses with calendar applicat...

  2. Integrated Pest Management In and Around the Home Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program April 2015

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    suppression. By removing material in which the larvae develop, the life cycle of the fly can be broken Program April 2015 PEST NOTES Publication 7457 Of the thousands of species of flies, only a few are common in their development (Figure 6). The female fly deposits her eggs in animal feces, carrion or moist organic material

  3. Managing Insects and Mite Pests of Texas Sorghum 

    E-print Network

    Cronholm, Gregory B.; Knutson, Allen E.; Parker, Roy D.; Pendleton, Bonnie

    2007-06-20

    infestation and other plant stresses. In ar- eas with alkaline soils where iron-defi ciency is a problem, applying iron is important for production of healthy sorghum. Chinch bugs and spider mites favor hot, dry conditions and stressed plants. Dense stands... of vigorously growing sorghum are less susceptible to chinch bugs. Rainfall tends to reduce greenbug and spider mite numbers. For most leaf-feeding insect pests, the potential to reduce yield depends par- tially on plant condition. Biological management...

  4. Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knipling, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

  5. Natural Toxins for Use in Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Stephen O.; Cantrell, Charles L.; Meepagala, Kumudini M.; Wedge, David E.; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Schrader, Kevin K.

    2010-01-01

    Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There are highly successful products based on natural compounds in the major pesticide classes. These include the herbicide glufosinate (synthetic phosphinothricin), the spinosad insecticides, and the strobilurin fungicides. These and other examples of currently marketed natural product-based pesticides, as well as natural toxins that show promise as pesticides from our own research are discussed. PMID:22069667

  6. Challenges with managing insecticide resistance in agricultural pests, exemplisfied by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Denholm, I.

    1998-01-01

    For many key agricultural pests, successful management of insecticide resistance depends not only on modifying the way that insecticides are deployed, but also on reducing the total number of treatments applied. Both approaches benefit from a knowledge of the biological characteristics of pests that promote or may retard the development of resistance. For the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), these factors include a haplodiploid breeding system that encourages the rapid selection and fixation of resistance genes, its breeding cycle on a succession of treated or untreated hosts, and its occurrence on and dispersal from high-value crops in greenhouses and glasshouses. These factors, in conjunction with often intensive insecticide use, have led to severe and widespread resistance that now affects several novel as well as conventional control agents. Resistance-management strategies implemented on cotton in Israel, and subsequently in south-western USA, have nonetheless so far succeeded in arresting the resistance treadmill in B. tabaci through a combination of increased chemical diversity, voluntary or mandatory restrictions on the use of key insecticides, and careful integration of chemical control with other pest-management options. In both countries, the most significant achievement has been a dramatic reduction in the number of insecticide treatments applied against whiteflies on cotton, increasing the prospect of sustained use of existing and future insecticides.

  7. Developing trap cropping systems for effective organic management of key insect pests of cucurbit crops (IPM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trap cropping is a behaviorally-based pest management approach that functions by planting highly attractive plants next to a higher value crop so as to attract the pest to the trap crop plants, thus preventing or making less likely the arrival of the pest to the main crop (= cash crop). In 2012, a s...

  8. Bug Off: A Guide for Integrated Pest Management in Granville Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide describes options for the Granville schools when dealing with pests. It is based on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a philosophy that employs safe and practical pest control methods. The guide can be used to incorporate IPM philosophy into the school systems. The first section provides the environmental context for an interest in…

  9. IPM: Integrated Pest Management Kit for Building Managers. How To Implement an Integrated Pest Management Program in Your Building(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Brad

    This management kit introduces building managers to the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), and provides the knowledge and tools needed to implement an IPM program in their buildings. It discusses the barriers to implementing an IPM program, why such a program should be used, and the general guidelines for its implementation. Managerial…

  10. Integrated pest management in an urban community: a successful partnership for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Barbara L; Markowitz, Steven; Rivera, Maribel; Romero, Harry; Weeks, Matthew; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Deych, Elena; Garg, Anjali; Godbold, James; Wolff, Mary S; Landrigan, Philip J; Berkowitz, Gertrud

    2003-01-01

    Pesticides, applied in large quantities in urban communities to control cockroaches, pose potential threats to health, especially to children, who have proportionately greater exposures and unique, developmentally determined vulnerabilities. Integrated pest management (IPM) relies on nonchemical tools--cleaning of food residues, removal of potential nutrients, and sealing cracks and crevices. Least toxic pesticides are used sparingly. To evaluate IPM's effectiveness, the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center, in partnership with two community health centers in East Harlem, New York City (NY, USA), undertook a prospective intervention trial. Families (n = 131) enrolled when mothers came to the centers for prenatal care. Household cockroach infestation was measured by glue traps at baseline and 6 months afterward. The intervention group received individually tailored IPM education, repairs, least-toxic pest control application, and supplies, with biweekly pest monitoring for 2 months and monthly for 4 months. The control group, residing in East Harlem and demographically and socioeconomically similar to the intervention group, received an injury prevention intervention. The proportion of intervention households with cockroaches declined significantly after 6 months (from 80.5 to 39.0%). Control group levels were essentially unchanged (from 78.1 to 81.3%). The cost, including repairs, of individually tailored IPM was equal to or lower than traditional chemically based pest control. These findings demonstrate that individually tailored IPM can be successful and cost-effective in an urban community. PMID:14527845

  11. Functional expression of lepidopteran-selective neurotoxin in baculovirus: Potential for effective pest management

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    residues from the venom of the South Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus. The synthetic toxin gene; Mesobuthus tamulus; Scorpion venom; Integrated pest management 1. Introduction Baculoviruses (nuclear

  12. Role of imidacloprid in integrated pest management of California citrus.

    PubMed

    Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Robillard, S M; Gorden, J M

    2008-04-01

    Portions of three commercial citrus orchards were treated for 1 yr with foliar imidacloprid or for 2 yr with a systemic formulation in a replicated plot design to determine the impact of this neonicotinoid on the San Joaquin Valley California citrus integrated pest management (IPM) program. Foliar-applied imidacloprid had little effect on California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell; or citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), populations. Short-term suppression of the parasitoids Aphytis melinus DeBach and Comperiella bifasciata Howard; vedalia, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant); and the predacious mite Euseius tularensis (Congdon) were observed. Suppression of natural enemies allowed scales and mites to maintain higher populations in the treated areas compared with the nontreated areas. Thus, foliar imidacloprid did not exhibit control of these citrus pest species, and it disrupted biological control. Systemically applied imidacloprid suppressed California red scale and citricola scale populations 2-3 mo after treatment. Suppression of parasitoids of the California red scale also was observed. Thus, treatments of systemic imidacloprid applied in areawide management programs for invasive pests would provide a benefit of California red scale and citricola scale suppression. However, this treatment provided only single-season control of citricola scale, it was somewhat disruptive of biological control, and it did not suppress densities of either scale as low as a treatment of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos for citricola scale or the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen for California red scale. Insecticides with longer periods of efficacy and greater IPM compatibility than imidacloprid should be used for a sustainable IPM approach in California citrus. PMID:18459411

  13. The Case of the Wild House Mouse. Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy and mix of tactics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests. These include…

  14. Bacterial endophytic communities in the grapevine depend on pest management.

    PubMed

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

  15. Bacterial Endophytic Communities in the Grapevine Depend on Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

  16. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system. PMID:26462829

  17. Coupled Information Diffusion–Pest Dynamics Models Predict Delayed Benefits of Farmer Cooperation in Pest Management Programs

    PubMed Central

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' “diffusion of innovation theory”. In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations. PMID:22022258

  18. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops 2015 FARM-STORED GRAIN INSECT MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    MANAGEMENT Robert G. Bellinger, Extension Entomologist The quality of farm-stored grain is at its peak whenSouth Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops ­ 2015 307 FARM-STORED GRAIN INSECT this level of quality. Thus, it is important to maximize the quality of your grain prior to storage

  19. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 PEANUT DISEASE MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 184 PEANUT DISEASE MANAGEMENT Jay W. Chapin, Extension Peanut Specialist Emeritus Seedling Diseases: All peanut seed should be treated to peanuts by thrips, primarily tobacco thrips. TSWV reduces yield and causes shriveled, misshapen pods. All

  20. Olive fruit fly: managing an ancient pest in modern times.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Johnson, Marshall W

    2010-01-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. Various aspects of its biology, ecology, management, and impact on olive production are highlighted. With the discovery of insecticidal resistance in some populations frequently treated with organophosphates, old and new control options are being investigated. The potential of biological control is examined. Surveys suggest that a small group of braconids in the Opiinae subfamily best represent the primary parasitoids attacking olive fruit fly in its native range. These species include Psyttalia lounsburyi, P. dacicida, P. concolor, P. ponerophaga, and Utetes africanus. Bracon celer, another braconid but in the Braconinae subfamily, is also reared from the fruit fly in its native range. The potential of these and other natural enemies is discussed with respect to olive fruit fly biology, commercial olive production, and biological constraints that may limit their success. We suggest that numerous species exist that should be further investigated as control agents for olive fruit fly in the many climatic regimes where the pest is found. PMID:19961328

  1. Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Child Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Abbey; Kalmar, Evie; Leonard, Victoria; Flint, Mary Louise; Kuo, Devina; Davidson, Nita; Bradman, Asa

    2012-01-01

    Young children and early care and education (ECE) staff are exposed to pesticides used to manage pests in ECE facilities in the United States and elsewhere. The objective of this pilot study was to encourage child care programs to reduce pesticide use and child exposures by developing and evaluating an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Toolkit for…

  2. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 248 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL Jeremy K. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist The keys to managing insect pests in soybean are to: 1. Scout and rate. 5. Accurately calibrate spray equipment, and properly apply insecticides. SCOUTING Check soybeans

  3. Chemical Management System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-10-30

    CMS provides an inventory of all chemicals on order or being held in the laboratory, to provide a specific location for all chemical containers, to ensure that health and safety regulatory codes are being upheld, and to provide PNNL staff with hazardous chemical information to better manage their inventories. CMS is comprised of five major modules: 1) chemical purchasing, 2) chemical inventory, 3) chemical names, properties, and hazard groups, 4) reporting, and 5) system administration.

  4. Integrated pest management in the U.S.: progress and promise.

    PubMed Central

    Huffaker, C B; Croft, B A

    1976-01-01

    In the U.S., where heavy use of insecticides has been commonplace for years, the development of proper integrated insect pest control cannot get underway unless there is a changed use pattern for such chemicals. A changed use pattern, however, cannot be accomplished without much study to establish the requirements for integrated control for each major crop situation. In this paper recent developments in a number of crop areas in the U.S. in which the necessary study has been begun are reviewed. Important phases in the development of integrated control programs include: the single tactics phase, the multitactic phase, phase, the biological monitoring phase, the modeling phase, the management and optimization phase, and the implementation phase. Several crops are discussed in relation to how far along we are in the development of practical programs of insect pest control. These are cotton, apples, alfalfa, soybeans, citrus, corn, cereal grains, tobacco and pine forests. Several of these programs have already made substantial headway, e.g., those for cotton, alfalfa, apples, tobacco, and soybeans, although the accomplishments have not been even or parellel with respect to the phases of development where progress has been good. The review of developments in these crops suggests that programs of control for individual crops and perhaps for complexes of associated crops will be developed according to specific needs of the crop, the geographic area and the pests, the technologies available and the socioeconomic and political factors of relevance. The tendency will be toward greater use of science in pest control decision-making, with extensive use of biological monitoring to establish realistic levels of threatened damage to the crop, and greater concern given to possible profit reductions and environmental disturbances of applying an insecticide, as well as the possible gain from doing so. PMID:789064

  5. Evaluation of water quality in an agricultural watershed as affected by almond pest management practices

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Minghua

    Evaluation of water quality in an agricultural watershed as affected by almond pest management watershed has raised concerns about water quality. This study examined the influ- ences of almond pest showed an increasing use of reduced risk pesticides and pyre- throids on almonds. SWAT simulation over

  6. MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF NUT TREES Clifford S. Sadof and Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologists

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    of Pecans and Walnuts. Monitoring plants for pests is critical for a successful IPM strategy. Plants can Vendex hexakis #12;2Managing Insect Pests of Nut Trees -- E-33-W WALNUT INSECTS Insect Treatment Comments in walnut husks. Feeding by first generation caterpillars on small nuts causes premature drop. Second

  7. Evaluation of Pest Management Tactics for Organic Apple Production A. Agnello, H. Reissig, and D. Combs

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Evaluation of Pest Management Tactics for Organic Apple Production A. Agnello, H. Reissig, and D number of both native and introduced insect and mite species attack apples grown in commercial apple orchards. Control of this pest complex is particularly challenging, because unlike the more arid apple

  8. Effectiveness of Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Areawide Pest Management in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence and D. v. virgifera virgifera LeConte are serious pests of maize (Zea mays L.). The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service implemented a five year (1997-2001) areawide pest management program in five geographic locations, including one in S...

  9. Integrated Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape Professionals Clearwing Moths

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Integrated Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape Professionals Clearwing Moths Statewide of clear- wing moths (family Sesiidae) are important wood-boring pests in land- scapes. Hosts include alder infested a tree. Clearwing moth larvae bore beneath tree bark (Figure 2) and push frass, sometimes mixed

  10. POTENTIAL OF MASS TRAPPING FOR LONG-TERM PEST MANAGEMENT AND ERADICATION OF INVASIVE SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semiochemical-based pest management programs comprise three major approaches including mass trapping, “lure and kill”, and mating disruption that are being used to provide environmentally friendly control methods of insect pests. We discuss similarities and differences between the three approaches o...

  11. RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF STORED-GRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automation of grain sampling for insect pests should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management programs. Currently, there are acoustic sensors and electronic grain probe traps that are available for monitoring insects in stored grain. Both the acoustic and electronic g...

  12. Sampling Plans, Selective Insecticides and Sustainability: The Case for IPM as ‘informed pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IPM is considered the central paradigm of insect pest management and is often characterized as a comprehensive use of multiple control tactics to reduce pest status while minimizing economic and environmental costs. As the principal precursor of IPM, the integrated control concept formulated the ec...

  13. Potential of ‘lure and kill’ in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Lure and kill’ technology has been used for several decades in pest management and eradication of invasive species. In ‘lure and kill’, the insect pest attracted by a semiochemical lure is not ‘entrapped’ at the source of the attractant as in mass trapping, but instead the insect is subjected to a ...

  14. Pest Management and Environmental Quality. Course 181. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture, Family Living and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others

    This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…

  15. USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

  16. USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

  17. USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

  18. Bird cherry-oat aphid (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Aphidinae): Biology, pest status, and management in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a worldwide pest of wheat and other small grains. This paper provides an overview of BCOA life history, reviews its pest status in wheat, synthesizes and integrates information on different management strategies, and gives up-to-date inf...

  19. Integrated Pest and Turf Control Policy Structural and landscape pests can pose significant problems to people,

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    UCHC Integrated Pest and Turf Control Policy Structural and landscape pests can pose significant and comply with UCHC's IPM policy and Pest Management Plan. #12;Turf treatment - Chemical treatment of turf is as follows: This document describes current turf maintenance practices at the University of Connecticut

  20. Possible impact of radar on pest management operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainey, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Radar in making and maintaining contact with the most important populations of major pests in different stages of flight is presented. The desert locust and the African armyworm are discussed in understanding problems and developing a more effective control of pests.

  1. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  2. The report on Component 1 -Landscape Ecology and Biodiversity under the Central Asia Regional Integrated Pest Management Project,

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Integrated Pest Management Project, October 01, 2008 ­ January 31, 2009 1. Conduct research on landscape ecology to enhance biodiversity and biological pest management. Activity 1.1. Screening of native plants for attractiveness to natural enemies of pests. All data was collected Arthropods from field Experiment

  3. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter A Biannual Newsletter of the Center for Integrated Plant Systems (CIPS) in Cooperation with the Insecticide

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Need for Resistance Risk Assessment in Major Pests of Jute to Insecticides - T. Ramasubramanian to RPMNews@msu.edu. Resistance Management Reviews Need for Resistance Risk Assessment in Major Pests of Jute

  4. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  5. Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  6. An Integrated Pest Management survey of Texas school districts 

    E-print Network

    Shodrock, Damon Leon

    1994-01-01

    that the most frequently encountered indoor pests, in order of importance, were German cockroaches [Blattella gerinanica (Linnaeus)], Pharaoh [Monomotium pharaonis (L.)] or crazy ants [Paratrechina longicomis (Latreille)], followed by house crickets [Acheta...

  7. IPM BASICSIntegrated Pest Management in North Dakota Agriculture

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    , such as Beauvaria bassiana, may be released for natural control of certain insect pests. Genetically Modified Traits. The goal of IPM in agriculture is to produce safe, abundant and affordable food, feed and fiber. The target

  8. Pest Management tours at 8:30 and 10:30 AWisconsin perspective on corn rootworm

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Clark M.

    TOURS Pest Management tours at 8:30 and 10:30 AWisconsin perspective on corn rootworm resistance to Bt hybrids: Detection, avoidance, and management Bryan Jensen Herbicide resistance management in corn and soybean Liz Bozak & Devin Hammer Can we manage weeds without roundup ready crops when we plant corn

  9. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    PubMed

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-01

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants. PMID:26458882

  10. Determination of pesticide residues in integrated pest management and nonintegrated pest management samples of apple (Malus pumila Mill.).

    PubMed

    Singh, Shashi Bala; Mukherjee, Irani; Maisnam, Jaya; Kumar, Praveen; Gopal, Madhuban; Kulshrestha, Gita

    2009-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to analyze the residues of commonly used pesticides viz. chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, propargite, malathion, phorate, carbendazim, carbosulfan, thiamethoxam, and mancozeb in apple of integrated pest management (IPM) and non-IPM samples collected from the IPM and non-IPM fields of Shimla. We also present a method for the determination of these pesticides in apple samples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and propargite were analyzed by gas chromatography, while residues of carbendazim, carbosulfan, and thiamethoxam were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Residues of mancozeb were determined by a colorimetric method. Recoveries of all of the pesticides ranged from 61.30 to 95.46% at 0.1, 0.2, and 1.0 microg g(-1) levels of fortification with relative standard deviations ranging between 0.8 and 8.7. Apples from IPM and non-IPM orchards were analyzed for these pesticides using a developed method. Except for carbendazim and chlorpyrifos, the residues of all of the pesticides analyzed were below detectable limits. Although residues of carbendazim and chlorpyrifos were below the prescribed limits of maximum residue levels in both IPM and non-IPM orchards, residues were lower in apples from IPM orchards. PMID:19904932

  11. Pest management of a prey-predator model with sexual favoritism.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yongzhen; Yang, Yong; Li, Changguo; Chen, Lansun

    2009-06-01

    Although sex of prey is an important factor for the risk of predating, few articles consider the consequences of sexual favoritism and the corresponding effects on the impulsive predator-prey dynamics and its utility in biological control. This paper investigates the pest management strategy of a prey-predator system model with sexual favoritism. An impulsive differential equation which models the process of periodically releasing natural enemies and spraying pesticides at different fixed time for pest control is proposed and investigated. It is proved that the pest-eradication periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is greater than some critical value. Permanent conditions are established under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is less than another critical value. In particular, two single control strategies are proposed. Furthermore, we compare three pest control strategies and find that if we choose narrow-spectrum pesticides that targeted to a specific pest's life cycle to kill the pest, then the combined strategy is preferable. Finally, the corresponding system with no sexual favoritism is investigated. The results indicate that we can release fewer amount of the predators to eliminate the preys with sexual favoritism than without and any strong sexual favoritism will drive the pest towards extinction. In view of the biological meaning, the sexual favoritism plays a more active role in suppressing insect pests. PMID:19015368

  12. MICROBIAL CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS OF CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pathogens are an alternative to chemical insecticides in an integrated pest management program. This chapter gives details on how to employ insect pathogens to manage insect pests of corn. Techniques for selection, formulation, application, and efficacy evaluation are given for viruses, mic...

  13. Intensive olive orchards on sloping land: good water and pest management are essential.

    PubMed

    Metzidakis, I; Martinez-Vilela, A; Castro Nieto, G; Basso, B

    2008-11-01

    There is intensive cultivation of olives on sloping land in Jaen-Granada (Spain), Basilicata (Italy) and Western Crete (Greece). The intensive olive groves here are characterised by a tree density of about 250treesha(-1), yearly fertilisation and pruning, several chemical sprays for pest control, soil tillage once to thrice per year and irrigation up to 2700m3ha(-1)yr(-1). Intensive management results in high yields of 3600-6500kgha(-1) but also higher labour costs of 1154-1590euroha(-1)yr(-1), varying per area. The major environmental concerns in this system are related to chemical residues in the fruit, the extinction of useful insects, the depletion of groundwater resources, the pollution of soil and water and the erosion of soil. This paper describes the impact of intensive orchard management on natural resources and gives recommendations for soil and water conservation, reduction of chemicals use and biodiversity enhancement. The specific recommendations for the relevant stakeholders--farmers, technicians, agricultural services and policy makers--are based on the experimental evaluation of different agricultural practices and a socio-economic analysis of local and global production and markets. PMID:17923248

  14. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter A Biannual Newsletter of the Center for Integrated Plant Systems (CIPS) in Cooperation with the Insecticide

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Resistant Pest Management Newsletter A Biannual Newsletter of the Center for Integrated Plant Around the Globe A Procedure for Monitoring Resistance in Cotton Pests -- L.H.B. Kanga and F.W. Plapp, Jr.D. Siegfried and M.Ono ________________________________ 27 Pest Resistance to Pesticides and Resistance

  15. Collaborating with wheat producers in demonstrating areawide integrated pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the fall of 2001, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) initiated a five-year areawide demonstration program for suppression of two significant pests of winter wheat, the Russian wheat aphid and greenbug. A cooperative research team was assembled from five universities—the University...

  16. Insect Pest Management in Food Legumes: Future Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food legumes such as chickpea, pigeonpea, cowpea, field pea, lentil, faba bean, blackgram, greengram, grasspea, and Phaseolus beans play an important role in the daily diets of people worldwide. A large number of insect pests attack these crops and cause extensive losses, namely Helicoverpa pod bo...

  17. Insect and Mite Pests of Grain Sorghum -- Management Approaches. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    Growth Flowering Grain Maturity (Seedling) (Preboot) (B60t Stage) Profile Legend WG - White Grub WW - Wireworm CW -Cutworm CRW - Corn Rootworm GB - Greenbug YSA - Yellow Sugarcane Aphid FAW - Fall Armyworm CLA - Corn Leaf Aphid M - Midge SW... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 7 Cutworms ............. . ....... .... ............. . .... 7 ABOVE GROUND PESTS OF GRAIN SORGHUM....... 8 Greenbugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8 Corn Leaf Aphid...

  18. SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR ANTS *Important Note*

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    and help control other pests, including fly larvae, crickets, and termites. Some species of ants colonies. Males die soon after mating. Winged ants are often confused with termites (see Figure 2). However, ants are distinguished from termites by three distinct features. First, ants have elbowed antennae

  19. Phytochemicals for pest management: current advances and future opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review provides examples of natural product-based pesticides that are now commercial successes, as well as a few examples of the many natural compounds that we have studied which are active against pests. Our group’s research is but a small sampling of the extensive, international effort to di...

  20. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Corn. 

    E-print Network

    Stewart, J.W.; Patrick, Carl; Cronholm, Gregory B.

    1982-01-01

    ? [ 8873 glng NO.1366 .....--------' Insect and ? Mite Pests of Texas Corn ~ Texas Agricultural Extension Service, Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director, The Texas A&M University System, College Station, Texas CONTENTS PRE-PLANT INSECT CONTROL... ...................................... 7 SEEDLING TO PRE-TASSEL STAGE INSECT CONTROL ............................. 8 Corn Leaf Aphid ... " ................................. 8 Soil Cutworms ........................................ 8 Lesser Cornstalk Borer...

  1. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL - THEORY AND APPLICATION OF PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By design, biological control agents once introduced into the natural environment, are expected to attach specific target organisms, reproduce in the local area and then spread to other adjacent areas. Through this process, many invasive pest species are successfully controlled at a minimum of cost...

  2. SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR RATS *Important Note*

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , Round-Upâ , and other over-the-counter pesticides) in public areas of ANY educational institution, or Alexandrine rat. The Norway rat is also known as the brown, wharf, house, gray, or sewer rat. Use Figure 1 There is one main species of pest mouse, the house mouse, Mus musculus. Other types of mice, such as field mice

  3. Mendel’s legacy lives through management of sugarcane pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomology and classical Mendelian genetics have had a long association and Mendel’s legacy continues to live through sugarcane pests. In this paper, we discuss examples of that legacy as applied to conventional and molecular approaches to breeding for insect resistance. We also discuss the applicat...

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE A tool for testing integrated pest management strategies

    E-print Network

    Wilensky, Uri

    - Pest. The model showed that crop rotation and the use of trap crop greatly affected pollen beetle included in the model: crop allocation in time and space, ploughing, and trap crop planting. To test crop Introduction The intensification of agriculture has led to a loss of biodiversity

  5. Farm operator perceptions of water quality protective pest management practices: Selected survey findings

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.; Blair, J.; Webb, B.

    1995-12-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture often poses a tension between water quality and environmental protection goals on the one hand and the viability of food supplies on the other hand. Pesticides used for field crops (e.g., corn, soy beans and wheat) have been detected in waterbodies, and according to some studies, are apparently finding their way into water supplies. A considerable amount of discretion is allowed in farm operator`s choice of pest management practices, and voluntary behavior becomes an important factor in promoting environmentally protective practices. Thus, it is important to know the attitudes of farmers who make pest management decisions including pesticide choices, toward the use of various water quality protective pest management practices. A number of studies show that more general environmental attitudes reflect a general world view that shapes attitudes toward particular environmental issues. This paper addresses the relationship between the more general environmental attitudes of farmers to their attitudes toward water quality issues and pest management practices which are protective of water quality. Some of the personal tradeoffs farmers are willing to make to enhance environmental controls on pesticides are also explored. Results are based on preliminary findings from a survey of farm operators who grow corn, soybeans and other field crops in three eastern states. The survey was conducted via a mail questionnaire to 2,700 farmers with telephone follow-up during the Fall of 1994. Implications of the findings for pest management in general are discussed.

  6. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN FIELD CORN

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 18 WEED CONTROL IN FIELD CORN Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Field Corn solution for weeds 3 inches or less in height. BALANCE FLEXX may be tank mixed with PARAQUAT, GLYPHOSATE

  7. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN COTTON

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 70 WEED CONTROL IN COTTON Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Cotton Herbicide any time prior to planting. For best results, apply to weeds that are less than 4 inches tall (less

  8. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 266 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Sunflowers anytime before planting when weeds are small. Use a higher rate for larger weeds. Add a COC (1-2 gal per

  9. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 270 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant (Incorporated) Herbicides for Weed Management in Tobacco by shallow disking. Controls pigweed, ragweed and other broadleaf weeds. Use the higher rate for fields

  10. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 158 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut Herbicide time before planting. For best results, apply when weeds are less than 4 inches tall (less than 3 inch

  11. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 189 WEED CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Small concentrate at 1 gal per 100 gal of spray solution. Rate dependent on weed size. Apply before planting

  12. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 215 WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Soybean Herbicide time before planting. For best results, apply when weeds are less than 4 inches tall (less than 3 inch

  13. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 198 WEED CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Small concentrate at 1 gal per 100 gal of spray solution. Rate dependent on weed size. Apply before planting

  14. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 274 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant (Incorporated) Herbicides for Weed Management in Tobacco by shallow disking. Controls pigweed, ragweed and other broadleaf weeds. Use the higher rate for fields

  15. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Comparative Study of Integrated Pest Management and Baiting for

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    for German Cockroach Management in Public Housing CHANGLU WANG AND GARY W. BENNETT Center for Urban-wide cockroach integrated pest management (IPM) program compared with bait alone treatment in public housing. In total, 12 buildings (66 apartments) were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over 7 mo

  16. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 CORN INSECT CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 48 CORN INSECT CONTROL Francis P. F. Reay-Jones, Extension Entomologist Grain yield reductions and losses in grain quality due management options should therefore be made in careful consideration of the history of insect problems

  17. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 COTTON DISEASE CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 111 COTTON DISEASE CONTROL John D are determined by environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture and by seed quality and vigor. Seedling disease management relies on the integration of cultural practices and prudent use of fungicides

  18. Concepts of sustainability, motivations for pest management approaches, and implications for communicating change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective communication with farmers is an essential component of impacting their decision processes and encouraging changes in pest management practices, but requires a system of research and extension management that differs from that to which most biological scientists are accustomed. We present...

  19. Natural history of crop-related wild species: Uses in pest habitat management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salick, Jan

    1983-01-01

    The natural histories of crop-related wild species in their native habitats can be used to develop novel pest management strategies. Traditionally, such information has provided insights for biological control, plant breeding, crop management, and applied ecology Further insights can be garnered.

  20. Identifying and Managing Critical Uses of ChlorpyrifosAgainst Key Pests of

    E-print Network

    Ullrich, Paul

    Identifying and Managing Critical Uses of ChlorpyrifosAgainst Key Pests of Alfalfa,Almonds,Citrus to acknowledge the following: Crop Team Leaders: Bob Blakely, CA Citrus Mutual Bob Curtis and Gabriele Ludwig Management Guidelines for Alfalfa, Almonds, Citrus and Cotton were extensively drawn upon in preparing

  1. The applicability of remote sensing to Earth biological problems. Part 2: The potential of remote sensing in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhemus, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.

  2. The Rise and Demise of Integrated Pest Management in Rice in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia’s 11-year (1989–1999) National Integrated Pest Management Program was a spectacularly successful example of wide-scale adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) principles and practice in a developing country. This program introduced the innovative Farmer Field School model of agro-ecosystem-based experiential learning, subsequently adapted to different crops and agricultural systems in countries throughout the world. Since the termination of the program in 1999, Indonesia has undergone profound changes as the country enters a new era of democratic reform. Government support for the national IPM program has wavered during this period, and pesticide producers and traders have taken advantage of the policy vacuum to mount an aggressive marketing campaign in the countryside. These factors have contributed to a reappearance of the pesticide-induced resurgent pest problems that led to the establishment of the National IPM Program in the first place.

  3. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter A Biannual Newsletter of the Center for Integrated Plant Systems (CIPS) in Cooperation with the Insecticide

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    1 Resistant Pest Management Newsletter A Biannual Newsletter of the Center for Integrated Plant and monitoring of acaricide resistance to two spotted spider mite Tetranychus Urticae (Koch) in Bhendi ­ P Pest Management Newsletter Vol. 19, No. 1 2 Host plant resistance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum

  4. 76 FR 12959 - Promoting Community Integrated Pest Management To Prevent Tick-Borne Diseases; Notice of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... AGENCY Promoting Community Integrated Pest Management To Prevent Tick- Borne Diseases; Notice of Public... Community Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Preventing Tick-Borne Diseases Conference on March 30 and 31.... II. Background Tick-borne diseases, including Lyme, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and...

  5. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 301 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Cory Heaton, Ag and Natural Resources Agent Aquatic weeds in ponds or lakes can be controlled by physical removal such as target weeds, non-target plants, and what the water is used for. Physical removal can be accomplished

  6. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 GRASS FORAGE WEED CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 120 GRASS FORAGE WEED CONTROL Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Newly Sprigged Bermudagrass Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode: Apply OUTRIDER at 1.33 oz/A to control johnsongrass, yellow and purple nutsedge, and other weeds

  7. Management response to one insect pest may increase vulnerability to another

    E-print Network

    Aukema, Brian

    Service, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada Summary 1. Large-scale insect outbreaks provide an idealManagement response to one insect pest may increase vulnerability to another Matthew D. Klingenberg of merchantable forest. Salvage and reforestation efforts are currently underway at landscape-level scales

  8. RNA interference: Applications and advances in insect toxicology and insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ho; Soumaila Issa, Moustapha; Cooper, Anastasia M W; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-05-01

    Since its discovery, RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized functional genomic studies due to its sequence-specific nature of post-transcriptional gene silencing. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature and summarize the current knowledge and advances in the applications of RNAi technologies in the field of insect toxicology and insect pest management. Many recent studies have focused on identification and validation of the genes encoding insecticide target proteins, such as acetylcholinesterases, ion channels, Bacillus thuringiensis receptors, and other receptors in the nervous system. RNAi technologies have also been widely applied to reveal the role of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases in insecticide detoxification and resistance. More recently, studies have focused on understanding the mechanism of insecticide-mediated up-regulation of detoxification genes in insects. As RNAi has already shown great potentials for insect pest management, many recent studies have also focused on host-induced gene silencing, in which several RNAi-based transgenic plants have been developed and tested as proof of concept for insect pest management. These studies indicate that RNAi is a valuable tool to address various fundamental questions in insect toxicology and may soon become an effective strategy for insect pest management. PMID:25987228

  9. PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Relationship Between Population Density of Citrus Rust Mite

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Relationship Between Population Density of Citrus Rust Mite (Acari damage of 'Hamlin' orange, CitTltS siTlensis, and population denisl:)'of the citrus mst mite density, damage rate THE CITRUS RUST mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead), infests fruit, leaves

  10. PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Citrus Rust Mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) Damage Effects on

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Citrus Rust Mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) Damage Effects on 'Hamlin-247 (1994) ABSTRACT Effects of early-season damage by the citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta ole- ivora, in Hendry County, FL. 'Hamlin' fruit drop increased with increasing fruit surface damage by the citrus rust

  11. PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Estimating the Relative Abundance of Adult Citrus Root Weevils

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Estimating the Relative Abundance of Adult Citrus Root Weevils (Germar) caught monthly in modiÞed Tedders traps (citrus Tedders traps). Data for D. abbreviatus were obtained in six Florida citrus groves, two located on the central ridge and the others in the central

  12. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 117 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Cotton Pathologist Nematodes pose a serious threat to cotton production in South. In the last several years cotton varieties that are resistant/tolerant to Southern root- knot nematode have

  13. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 WEED CONTROL IN GRAIN SORGHUM

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 142 WEED CONTROL IN GRAIN SORGHUM Sorghum Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode of Action Preharvest Interval Restricted Entry Interval/BANVEL at least 15 days prior to planting grain sorghum. Glyphosate acid equivalent (ae) 4.5 lb ae/gal 22-32 oz 0

  14. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  15. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    E-print Network

    Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures Peter Dalin1 *, Oskar compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural willow habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings: The study was conducted in 1999

  16. Effect of pest management system on 'Empire' apple leaf phyllosphere populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The phyllosphere of plant tissues is varied and dynamic. Pest management, time of sampling, proximity to immigration sources, tissue and tissue status such as leaf/fruit age and location within the canopy, and other environmental and biological factors interact to influence the composition and abun...

  17. The Impact of Integrated Pest Management Programs on Pesticide Use in California, USA

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Minghua

    173 Chapter 7 The Impact of Integrated Pest Management Programs on Pesticide Use in California, USA as a method to reduce agricultural pesticide use. Cali- fornia has a public infrastructure for supporting IPM's Department Contents 7.1 Trends in Agricultural Pesticide Use in California from 1993 to 2010

  18. PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Inventorying and Estimating Subcanopy Spider Diversity Using

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Inventorying and Estimating Subcanopy Spider Diversity Using-based and unrestricted (plot-less) sampling on an inventory of a megadiverse taxon, spiders, in an Afrotropical forest, eight collectors sampled spiders for 350 h and 800 pitfall "trap-days." Two hundred hours of sampling

  19. Organic fruit production needs and pest management practices in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2004, client-based focus groups identified several needs for organic fruit production in the Southeastern USA: establish “go-to” personnel to increase interaction between researchers and organic producers; conduct more science-based research on soil, pest and nutrient management; develop informat...

  20. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 SUNFLOWER INSECT CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 272 SUNFLOWER INSECT CONTROL Jay W. Chapin, Extension Specialist Emeritus Insect Product Rate /acre Comments Sunflower moth Asana XL Adjourn 2.6-3.8 fl oz 2.6-3.8 fl oz 2.0-2.8 fl oz 2.25 ­ 4 oz Treat for sunflower moth when 20% of heads

  1. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Carolina unless injury or damage to peanuts has been documented. Crop rotation and resistance are the most to suppress nematodes. Peanuts are an excellent rotation crop to suppress Reniform, Southern RootSouth Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 197 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL Jay W

  2. USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2002 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2002 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION, Geneva Research sites were set up in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell; Trammel, Phelps); Central NY region (Apple Acres and Beak & Skiff, Lafayette); Hudson Valley (Crist

  3. VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Effects of Larval Habitat Substrate on Pyriproxyfen Efficacy Against

    E-print Network

    for the control of container-inhabiting mosquitoes. The effects of eight container substrates (three plastics for the container mosquitoes under certain Þeld conditions. KEY WORDS IGR, larval habitat, larval controlVECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Effects of Larval Habitat Substrate

  4. VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS A Rapid Luminescent Assay for Measuring Cytochrome P450 Activity

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS A Rapid Luminescent Assay for Measuring Cytochrome P450 Activity in Individual Larval Culex pipiens Complex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) A. B450 activity in insects, including mosquitoes; however, each of these assays has drawbacks in terms

  5. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 SOYBEAN DISEASE CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 259 SOYBEAN DISEASE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Soybean Pathologist Soybeans can be affected by diseases throughout the growing season job of controlling seedling diseases. During mid-season many leaf diseases are common on soybean

  6. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 SOYBEAN NEMATODE CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2015 264 SOYBEAN NEMATODE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Soybean Pathologist Nematode-induced yield losses in South Carolina soybeans are caused primarily by Southern root-knot, soybean cyst, Columbia lance, and reniform nematodes. Soybean

  7. Can Pesticide Delivery Methods Play a Role in Sustainable Pest Management?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional insecticides continue to play an important role in greenhouse pest management programs. Penetrating a dense plant canopy can be difficult with a handgun, and there is some evidence that boom sprayers or broadcast applications result in a more uniform deposition than handguns. A large-...

  8. Emerging issues in Integrated Pest Management implementation and adoption in the North Central USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a long tradition of integrated pest management (IPM) in the North Central region of the U.S. IPM is difficult to define, and it means different things to different people. But in general it is a philosophy based on multiple tactics to prevent a population from building up to unacceptable da...

  9. Integrated pest management and weed management in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Owen, Micheal D K; Beckie, Hugh J; Leeson, Julia Y; Norsworthy, Jason K; Steckel, Larry E

    2015-03-01

    There is interest in more diverse weed management tactics because of evolved herbicide resistance in important weeds in many US and Canadian crop systems. While herbicide resistance in weeds is not new, the issue has become critical because of the adoption of simple, convenient and inexpensive crop systems based on genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant crop cultivars. Importantly, genetic engineering has not been a factor in rice and wheat, two globally important food crops. There are many tactics that help to mitigate herbicide resistance in weeds and should be widely adopted. Evolved herbicide resistance in key weeds has influenced a limited number of growers to include a more diverse suite of tactics to supplement existing herbicidal tactics. Most growers still emphasize herbicides, often to the exclusion of alternative tactics. Application of integrated pest management for weeds is better characterized as integrated weed management, and more typically integrated herbicide management. However, adoption of diverse weed management tactics is limited. Modifying herbicide use will not solve herbicide resistance in weeds, and the relief provided by different herbicide use practices is generally short-lived at best. More diversity of tactics for weed management must be incorporated in crop systems. PMID:25346235

  10. Fitness trade-offs in pest management and intercropping with colour: an evolutionary framework and potential application

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    An important modern goal of plant science research is to develop tools for agriculturalists effective at curbing yield losses to insect herbivores, but resistance evolution continuously threatens the efficacy of pest management strategies. The high-dose/refuge strategy has been employed with some success to curb pest adaptation, and has been shown to be most effective when fitness costs (fitness trade-offs) of resistance are high. Here, I use eco-evolutionary reasoning to demonstrate the general importance of fitness trade-offs for pest control, showing that strong fitness trade-offs mitigate the threat of pest adaptation, even if adaptation were to occur. I argue that novel pest management strategies evoking strong fitness trade-offs are the most likely to persist in the face of unbridled pest adaptation, and offer the manipulation of crop colours as a worked example of one potentially effective strategy against insect herbivores. PMID:26495038

  11. Fitness trade-offs in pest management and intercropping with colour: an evolutionary framework and potential application.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Timothy E

    2015-10-01

    An important modern goal of plant science research is to develop tools for agriculturalists effective at curbing yield losses to insect herbivores, but resistance evolution continuously threatens the efficacy of pest management strategies. The high-dose/refuge strategy has been employed with some success to curb pest adaptation, and has been shown to be most effective when fitness costs (fitness trade-offs) of resistance are high. Here, I use eco-evolutionary reasoning to demonstrate the general importance of fitness trade-offs for pest control, showing that strong fitness trade-offs mitigate the threat of pest adaptation, even if adaptation were to occur. I argue that novel pest management strategies evoking strong fitness trade-offs are the most likely to persist in the face of unbridled pest adaptation, and offer the manipulation of crop colours as a worked example of one potentially effective strategy against insect herbivores. PMID:26495038

  12. MONITORING FOR PEST ACTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management programs for food processing and storage facilities depend on an effective pest-monitoring program. In turn, the foundation of a pest-monitoring program is an understanding of pest behavior and ecology. In this presentation, I will cover issues related to determining pes...

  13. Reducing the risk of invasive forest pests and pathogens: Combining legislation, targeted management and public awareness.

    PubMed

    Klapwijk, Maartje J; Hopkins, Anna J M; Eriksson, Louise; Pettersson, Maria; Schroeder, Martin; Lindelöw, Åke; Rönnberg, Jonas; Keskitalo, E Carina H; Kenis, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Intensifying global trade will result in increased numbers of plant pest and pathogen species inadvertently being transported along with cargo. This paper examines current mechanisms for prevention and management of potential introductions of forest insect pests and pathogens in the European Union (EU). Current European legislation has not been found sufficient in preventing invasion, establishment and spread of pest and pathogen species within the EU. Costs associated with future invasions are difficult to estimate but past invasions have led to negative economic impacts in the invaded country. The challenge is combining free trade and free movement of products (within the EU) with protection against invasive pests and pathogens. Public awareness may mobilise the public for prevention and detection of potential invasions and, simultaneously, increase support for eradication and control measures. We recommend focus on commodities in addition to pathways, an approach within the EU using a centralised response unit and, critically, to engage the general public in the battle against establishment and spread of these harmful pests and pathogens. PMID:26744056

  14. Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, M. A.; Whitcomb, W. H.

    1980-11-01

    Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.

  15. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  16. REMOTE SENSING AND SITE SPECIFIC MANAGEMENT OF COTTON PESTS IN EXPERIMENTALAND FARM FIELDS IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect and mite pests frequently cause major crop losses in cotton and often require expensive whole-field applications of pesticides. Site specific management of insect pests has recently been successfully practiced at the farm level using remote sensing to direct variable rate insecticide applicat...

  17. Laboratory and eld studies on the integrated pest management of Helicoverpa armigera (Hu bner) in cotton, based on pheromone

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    8 l NPV @250 LE/ha were the most effective treatments against H. armigera. The integrated pestLaboratory and ®eld studies on the integrated pest management of Helicoverpa armigera (HuÈ bner) in cotton, based on pheromone trap catch threshold level G. V. P. Reddy2 and M. Manjunatha1 1 Agricultural

  18. History and contemporary perspectives of the integrated pest management of soybean in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Panizzi, A R

    2013-04-01

    The integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean developed and implemented in Brazil was one of the most successful programs of pest management in the world. Established during the 1970s, it showed a tremendous level of adoption by growers, decreasing the amount of insecticide use by over 50%. It included outstanding approaches of field scouting and decision making, considering the economic injury levels (EILs) for the major pests. Two main biological control programs were highly important to support the soybean IPM program in Brazil, i.e., the use of a NPVAg to control the major defoliator, the velvet bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and the use of egg parasitoids against the seed-sucking stink bugs, in particular, the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). These two biological control programs plus pests scouting, and the use of more selective insecticides considering the EILs supported the IPM program through the 1980s and 1990s. With the change in the landscape, with the adoption of the no-tillage cultivation system and the introduction of more intense multiple cropping, and with the lower input to divulge and adapt the IPM program to this new reality, the program started to decline during the years 2000s. Nowadays, soybean IPM is almost a forgotten control technology. In this mini-review article, suggestions are made to possibly revive and adapt the soybean IPM to contemporary time. PMID:23949744

  19. Toxins for transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

    PubMed

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Bonning, Bryony C

    2012-06-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

  20. Duality in Phase Space and Complex Dynamics of an Integrated Pest Management Network Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Baoyin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    Fragmented habitat patches between which plants and animals can disperse can be modeled as networks with varying degrees of connectivity. A predator-prey model with network structures is proposed for integrated pest management (IPM) with impulsive control actions. The model was analyzed using numerical methods to investigate how factors such as the impulsive period, the releasing constant of natural enemies and the mode of connections between the patches affect pest outbreak patterns and the success or failure of pest control. The concept of the cluster as defined by Holland and Hastings is used to describe variations in results ranging from global synchrony when all patches have identical fluctuations to n-cluster solutions with all patches having different dynamics. Heterogeneity in the initial densities of either pest or natural enemy generally resulted in a variety of cluster oscillations. Surprisingly, if n > 1, the clusters fall into two groups one with low amplitude fluctuations and the other with high amplitude fluctuations (i.e. duality in phase space), implying that control actions radically alter the system's characteristics by inducing duality and more complex dynamics. When the impulsive period is small enough, i.e. the control strategy is undertaken frequently, the pest can be eradicated. As the period increases, the pest's dynamics shift from a steady state to become chaotic with periodic windows and more multicluster oscillations arise for heterogenous initial density distributions. Period-doubling bifurcation and periodic halving cascades occur as the releasing constant of the natural enemy increases. For the same ecological system with five differently connected networks, as the randomness of the connectedness increases, the transient duration becomes smaller and the probability of multicluster oscillations appearing becomes higher.

  1. Evaluating environmental and economic consequences of alternative pest management strategies: results of modeling workshops

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Richard L.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.L.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.; McNamee, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The model conceptualized at the first workshop simulates the effect of corn agrecosystem decisions on crop production, economic returns, and environmental indicators. The model is composed of five interacting submodels: 1) a Production Strategies submodel which makes decisions concerning tillage, planting, fertilizer and pesticide applications, and harvest; 2) a Hydrology/Chemical Transport submodel which represents soil hydrology, erosion, and concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides in the soil, runoff, surface waters, and percolation; 3) a Vegetation submodel which simulates growth of agricultural crops (corns and soybeans) and weeds; 4) a Pests submodel which calculates pest population levels and resulting crop damage; and 5) an Environmental Effects submodel which calculates indicators of potential fish kills, human health effects, and wildlife habitat. The most persistent data gaps encountered in quantifying the model were coefficients to relate environmental consequences to alternative pest management strategies. While the model developed in the project is not yet accurate enough to be used for real-world decisions about the use of pesticides on corn, it does contain the basic structure upon which such a model could be built. More importantly at this stage of development, the project has shown that very complex systems can be modeled in short periods of time and that the process of building such models increases understanding among disciplinary specialists and between diverse institutional interests. This process can be useful to EPA as the agency cooperates with other institutions to meet its responsibilities in less costly ways. Activities at the second 2 1/2-day workshop included a review of the model, incorporation of necessary corrections, simulation of policy scenarios, and examination of techniques to address remaining institutional conflicts. Participants were divided into three groups representing environmental, production or industry, and regulatory interests. Each group developed scenarios that would be most appealing to their particular interest and the scenarios were simulated by the agroecosystem computer model. Negotiators from each of the interest groups decided whether a hypothetical herbicide should be relabeled and if certain restrictions should be imposed on its use. Other participants functioned as experts and consultants on caucus teams. A solution to the hypothetical problem was successfully negotiated. Workshop participants and project staff agreed that the model and processes developed during the project should be used in training students, extension specialists, farmers, researchers, and chemical producers in collaborative problem solving methods. More productive research can be planned, and more realistic models of complex systems can be built in this way. More importantly, greater trust of decisionmakers in computer models, better understanding by technical experts about disciplines other than their own, and improved cooperation between institutional interests can be achieved. This trust, understanding, and cooperation are critical ingredients in solving problems that are too complex to be resolved by independent disciplinary activity and unilateral decision authority.

  2. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Corn 

    E-print Network

    Porter, Patrick; Cronholm, Gregory B.; Parker, Roy D.; Troxclair, Noel N.; Patrick, Carl D.; Biles, Stephen; Morrison, William P.

    2006-05-24

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 European Corn Borer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Spider Mites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Adult... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4 Introduction Corn is subject to insect attack throughout the growing season. Some insects may reach damaging levels in spite of natural predators and parasites and may require chemical control. However, plant damage is not always directly...

  3. The role of databases in areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A database is a comprehensive collection of related data organized for convenient access, generally in a computer. The evolution of computer software and the need to distinguish the specialized computer systems for storing and manipulating data, stimulated development of database management systems...

  4. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter A Biannual Newsletter of the Center for Integrated Plant Systems (CIPS) in Cooperation with the Insecticide

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Resistant Pest Management Newsletter A Biannual Newsletter of the Center for Integrated Plant. Kuruvinashetti 13 Development of Resistance in Insects to Transgenic Plants with Bacillus thuringiensis Genes Resurgence of Spider Mite Tetranychus ludeni Zacher (Acarina: Tetranychidae) Against Acaricides and Botanical

  5. PEPPER (BELL): Capsicum annuum (L.), 'X3R Lancelot' MANAGEMENT OF PESTS OF BELL PEPPER WITH HORTICULTURAL MINERAL OIL, 2004

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    (E47) PEPPER (BELL): Capsicum annuum (L.), 'X3R Lancelot' MANAGEMENT OF PESTS OF BELL PEPPER, including peppers in south Florida. Greenhouse-raised pepper plants were transplanted on 20 Sep at 10- inch

  6. Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

  7. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  8. Integrated Pest Management for the Potato Tuber Moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) - a Potato Pest of Global Importance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato tuber moth, which originated in tropical mountainous regions of South America, is the most economically important pest of potato in developing tropical and subtropical countries. Today, it is distributed worldwide and is established in more than 90 countries including countries in tempera...

  9. The novel ABC transporter ABCH1 is a potential target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests cause serious crop damage and develop high-level resistance to chemical insecticides and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal Cry toxins. A new promising approach for controlling them and overcoming this resistance is RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi-based insect control strategy depends on the selection of suitable target genes. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel ABC transporter gene PxABCH1 in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that PxABCH1 is closely related to ABCA and ABCG subfamily members. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that PxABCH1 was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in head and male adult. Midgut sequence variation and expression analyses of PxABCH1 in all the susceptible and Bt-resistant P. xylostella strains and the functional analysis by sublethal RNAi demonstrated that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of this gene. Silencing of PxABCH1 by a relatively high dose of dsRNA dramatically reduced its expression and resulted in larval and pupal lethal phenotypes in both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella strains. To our knowledge, this study provides the first insight into ABCH1 in lepidopterans and reveals it as an excellent target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management. PMID:26333918

  10. EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION AND COVER CROPPING ON PESTS, BENEFICIALS AND PEPPER YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices that maintain soil health are becoming increasingly importatnt as non-chemical alternatives to methyl bromide. Objectives of this research were to examine effects of non-chemical pest management strategies on several key soil-borne pests and beneficial soil organisms using nemat...

  11. A three-year field validation study to improve the integrated pest management of hot pepper.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2013-09-01

    To improve the integrated pest management (IPM) of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control). The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper. PMID:25288956

  12. A Three-Year Field Validation Study to Improve the Integrated Pest Management of Hot Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2013-01-01

    To improve the integrated pest management (IPM) of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control). The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper. PMID:25288956

  13. Population Dynamics of the Boll Weevil and Modified Cotton Types: Implications for Pest Management

    E-print Network

    Walker, J. K. Jr.; Niles, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    TYPET Implications for Pest Management J. K. Walker, Jr. and G. A. Niles* I ETY INSECTS IN THE UNITED STATES HAVE CREATED F , an economic impact equal to that which resulted 'mm the rlepreclations of the boll weevil, Anthonomzss :rsndis Eoheman... application of systemic insecticides to cotton. J. Econ. Entomol. 6(4):1012-1016. 9. Walker, J. K., Jr., Merle Shepard and Mr. L. S~e~lilig. Iq''; Effect of insecticide applications for the cotton flealiopp~r ,. on beneficial insects and spiders. PR-2555...

  14. 5) Management i) Chemical control

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert S.

    Which herbicide to use? · Herbicide families · Mode of action Auxin mimics #12;5) Management c) Control i) Chemical control Which herbicide to use? · Herbicide families · Mode of action Auxin mimics) Control i) Chemical control Which herbicide to use? · Herbicide families · Mode of action Auxin mimics

  15. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    PubMed Central

    Damos, Petros; Escudero Colomar, Lucía-Adriana; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains. PMID:26463407

  16. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  17. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4-$19 (€3-15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM's impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move. PMID:26463073

  18. Population Genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: Implications for Dispersal and Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique. PMID:23342117

  19. Provisioning floral resources to attract aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) useful for pest management in central Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Uña, A; Martín, J M; Fernández-Quintanilla, C; Dorado, J

    2013-12-01

    Noncrop plant communities present on the boundaries or within crop fields are essential for the maintenance of functional biodiversity, affecting beneficial insect numbers and ecological fitness. Habitat manipulation is an increasingly studied strategy aimed at enhancing natural enemies of agricultural pests by providing feeding and shelter resources. In this study, six plant species selected from preliminary work were tested for their potential attractiveness to four common aphidophagous hoverflies species. Potential attractiveness was evaluated through observation of hoverfly feeding visits to replicated flower plots distributed in a randomized design. The combination of the selected species covered a 2-mo full-bloom period. Sphaerophoria scripta L. and Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedeman) were the dominant hoverflies present throughout the sampling period, whereas Eupeodes corollae (F.) and Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer) visits were less abundant and appeared only in the early season. Potential attractiveness varied among plant species. Calendula arvensis L. and Coriandrum sativum L. were the most visited species. C. arvensis received a high number of visits throughout a long period, whereas the visits to Co. sativum were concentrated in a short blooming period. These results suggest that habitat management by using these plant species may increase the abundance of hoverflies and could improve the biological control of aphid pests typical of spring-summer crops in open Mediterranean environments. PMID:24498730

  20. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique. PMID:23342117

  1. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pretty, Jules; Pervez Bharucha, Zareen

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4–$19 (€3–15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM’s impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move. PMID:26463073

  2. Publication 3454 Online with photos at http://www.ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.peach.html UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Publication 3454 · Online with photos at http://www.ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.peach.html · UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program Peach September 2015 PEST MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR AGRICULTURE Contents (Dates in parenthesis indicate when each topic was updated) Peach Year-round IPM Program (Reviewed

  3. Publication 3441 Online with photos at http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.citrus.html UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Publication 3441 · Online with photos at http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.citrus.html · UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program Citrus August 2015 PEST MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR AGRICULTURE Contents (Dates in parenthesis indicate when each topic was updated) Citrus Year-Round IPM Program

  4. Publication 3436 Online with photos at http://www.ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.avocado.html UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Publication 3436 · Online with photos at http://www.ipm.ucanr.edu/PMG/selectnewpest.avocado.html · UC Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program Avocado May 2015 PEST MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR AGRICULTURE Contents (Dates in parenthesis indicate when each topic was updated) Avocado Year-round IPM

  5. Susceptibility of Aphelinus certus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) to neonicotinoid seed treatments used for soybean pest management.

    PubMed

    Frewin, Andrew J; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2014-08-01

    Soybean aphid is an economic pest of soybean in North America. Currently, management of soybean aphid is achieved through the use of foliar- and seed-applied insecticides. However, natural enemies play an important role in regulating soybean aphid populations, and may be adversely affected by insecticides. The effects of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam seed treatments on the soybean aphid parasitoid, Aphelinus certus Yasnosh, were examined using a tritrophic bioassay. A. certus was able to parasitize soybean aphids feeding on imidacloprid- and thiamethoxam-treated plants 5 and 6 wk after planting, respectively. However, up to 10 wk after planting, overall parasitism rates were reduced by 69-88% compared with the control. Therefore, neonicotinoid seed treatments may reduce the effectiveness of A. certus as a natural enemy of soybean aphid in seed-treated crops. PMID:25195435

  6. Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  7. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

  8. PROJECT SUMMARY: Sustainable Management of the Small Hive Beetle (Aethina tumida), an Emerging Pest of Honey Bees

    E-print Network

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    pathogens that may contribute to Colony Collapse Disorder. Honey bees ­ critical pollinators of a wide hive beetle' (SHB, Aethina tumida), which infests honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies and vectors of Honey Bees Awarded $56,107 from the Northeast Integrated Pest Management Grants Program Gruner, D.S. (PD

  9. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter A Biannual Newsletter of the Center for Integrated Plant Systems (CIPS) in Cooperation with the Insecticide

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Resistant Pest Management Newsletter A Biannual Newsletter of the Center for Integrated Plant spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch and its predatory mite, Amblyseius longispinosus (Evans) - S in Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae koch (Acarina, Tetranychidae) - M.B.Udalov, A.V.Poskryakov, G

  10. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  11. WILLINGNESS-TO-PAY FOR AN AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM TO CONTROL THE ASIAN TIGER

    E-print Network

    WILLINGNESS-TO-PAY FOR AN AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM TO CONTROL THE ASIAN TIGER tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. We estimated commonly as the Asian tiger mosquito, is a day-biting, black and white mosquito, native to East and South

  12. Principles and practices of integrated pest management on cotton in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable agriculture is ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just, and humane. These four goals for sustainability can be applied to all aspects of any agricultural system, from production and marketing, to processing and consumption. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) may be conside...

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

  14. New dispenser types for integrated pest management of agriculturally significant insect pests: an algorithm with specialized searching capacity in electronic data bases.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G

    2012-01-01

    Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pest management efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks. PMID:23885431

  15. University of California Statewide Integrated Pest

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    , or prune out pests and use mulch for weed control. F Encourage natural enemies of pests to live in your insects,than pest insects. Beneficial insects and other organisms that kill pests are called natural enemies. In any pest management program, it is important to avoid using certain pesticides that kill

  16. Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, U; Ready, P D

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests'. This six-year CRP (2008-2013) focused on research aimed at under-pinning the Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) of populations of tsetse and screwworm flies, and this introductory paper to the Special Issue integrates the findings of the CRP participants and discusses them in a broader context. The tools and techniques for mapping and modelling the distributions of genetically-characterised populations of tsetse and screwworm flies are increasingly used by researchers and managers for more effective decision-making in AW-IPM programmes, as illustrated by the reports in this Special Issue. Currently, the insect pests are often characterized only by neutral genetic markers suitable for recognizing spatially isolated populations that are sometimes associated with specific environments. Two challenges for those involved in AW-IPM are the standardization of best practice to permit the efficient application of GIS and genetic tools by regional teams, and the need to develop further the mapping and modelling of parasite and pest phenotypes that are epidemiologically important. PMID:24713196

  17. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY AND GENETIC STRUCTURE OF THE INVASIVE WHEAT STEM SAWFLY, CEPHUS CINCTUS NORTON, (HYMENOPTERA: CEPHIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL MANAGEMENT OF THIS PEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) was originally recovered from wild grasses but has become a chronic pest of wheat in the northern region of the North American Great Plains. Effective and economical pest management practices remain elusive, therefore biological co...

  18. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  19. Training Childcare Center Administrators about Integrated Pest Management through Greener Environmental Communication Venues and Collecting Pesticide Use Data in the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Many people assume that schools and childcare centers are environmentally safe places for children to learn. However, adverse health effects from pest allergy related illnesses or pesticide exposure incidents can demonstrate the need for safer and more effective pest management strategies. The goal of this research is to measure the efficacy of…

  20. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

  1. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  2. hanges in pest management needs in response to the threat of

    E-print Network

    Burns, Jacqueline K.

    active ingredient Effects on beneficial insects Target pest Mode of Psyllid Leafminer Rust Spider Root Weevil Scale Mealybugs Action' Mites Mites Adults Insects Abamectin + oil 6 ++ +++,R +++,R + + (oil- gram. There will be situations when other pests, such as rust mites and leafminer, need to be con

  3. Recent developments and applications of bait stations for integrated pest management of tephritid fruit flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attract-and-kill approach involves the behavioral manipulation of pest insects through the integration of long-distance olfactory/visual stimuli to attract a particular pest and a killing agent and/or a collection device. Bait stations, an element of an attract-and-kill system, can be defined as...

  4. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry. PMID:24665711

  5. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested. PMID:26463064

  6. Scavenging by spiders (Araneae) and its relationship to pest management of the brown recluse spider.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S

    2011-06-01

    Experiments reported in Sandidge (2003; Nature 426: 30) indicated that the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, preferred to scavenge dead prey over live prey and that the spiders were not detrimentally affected when fed insecticide-killed crickets. Extrapolations made in subsequent media coverage disseminating the results of this research made counter-intuitive statements that pesticide treatment in houses would increase brown recluse populations in homes. This information was presented as if the scavenging behavior was specialized in the brown recluse; however, it was more likely that this behavior has not been well studied in other species. To provide a comparison, the current laboratory study examined the likelihood of non-Loxosceles spiders to scavenge dead prey. Of 100 non-Loxosceles spiders that were tested (from 11 families, 24 genera, and at least 29 species from a variety of spider hunting guilds), 99 scavenged dead crickets when offered in petri dishes. Some of the spiders were webspinners in which real-world scavenging of dead prey is virtually impossible, yet they scavenge when given the opportunity. Therefore, scavenging is a flexible opportunistic predatory behavior that is spread across a variety of taxa and is not a unique behavior in brown recluses. These findings are discussed in relation to pest management practices. PMID:21735920

  7. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus). The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were ?-cadinol (12.8%), caryophyllene (12.7%), ?-cubebene (7.9%), 4-terpineol (7.5%) and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%), while humulene epoxide II (29.4%), caryophyllene oxide (24.0%), diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7%) and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7%) were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively. PMID:25946557

  8. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

  9. Potential for microbial biological control of coleopteran and hemipteran pests of potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous insects in the orders Coleoptera and Hemiptera are major pests of potato, Solanum tuberosum, worldwide. Although these pests are currently managed almost exclusively with chemical insecticides, there is continuing demand for alternative controls that pose lower environmental and health ris...

  10. Apple Burrknot Borers in New York Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Apple Burrknot Borers in New York ­ Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State DAVID P. KAIN, RICHARD W. STRAUB AND ARTHUR M. AGNELLO Department damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple

  11. Community-based participatory research helps farmers and scientists to manage invasive pests in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    PubMed

    Dangles, O; Carpio, F C; Villares, M; Yumisaca, F; Liger, B; Rebaudo, F; Silvain, J F

    2010-06-01

    Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants collected data from the PTM invasion front, which revealed clear connection between the abundance of one of the species (Tecia solanivora) and the remoteness to the main market place. This suggests that mechanisms structuring invasive populations at the invasion front are different from those occurring in areas invaded for longer period. Participatory monitoring with local people may serve as a cost-effective early warning system to detect and control incipient invasive pest species in countries where the daily management of biological resources is largely in the hands of poor rural people. PMID:20799682

  12. Pest management in traditional maize stores in West Africa: a farmer's perspective.

    PubMed

    Meikle, W G; Markham, R H; Nansen, C; Holst, N; Degbey, P; Azoma, K; Korie, S

    2002-10-01

    Farmers in the Republic of Benin have few resources to invest in protection of stored maize, and prophylactic pesticide application is often recommended by extension and development agencies. Neither the efficacy nor profitability of such an application in traditional maize storage facilities has been addressed quantitatively. In this study, existing management options for stored maize were evaluated monthly over 6 mo in central and southern Benin with respect to their effects on grain injury and on densities of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. P. truncatus infested 54% of the experimental stores in the study even though Teretrius nigrescens (Lewis), a natural enemy introduced against P. truncatus, was well established in the region. S. zeamais was the most common pest, found in 85% of the experimental storage facilities. Prophylactically treated maize was, on average, worth more than untreated maize for month 1 through 5 in southern Benin, after taking into account market price, pesticide costs, percentage grain damage and weight loss, but maize storage was not profitable overall. No difference was observed between treatments in central Benin. After 6 mo treated storage facilities were not significantly different from untreated storage facilities in terms of either percentage damage or profit in either region. A rapid scouting plan intended to provide farmers with a means for identifying storage facilities at greatest risk of severe P. truncatus infestation was field validated. Given that unsafe pesticide use is prevalent in Benin, research and extension services should clearly state the limitations to prophylactic treatment and increase the effort to educate farmers on appropriate pesticide use, store monitoring and marketing. PMID:12403438

  13. Citizen's Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to combine methods in an approach known as integrated pest management (IPM) that emphasizes preventing pest damage . ... 9 Ground Water ................................................ 21 I Indoor Prevention ........................................ 6 Integrated Pest Management (IPM) ............ 3 L Lawn Care ...................................................... 8– ...

  14. Experimental analysis of the influence of pest management practice on the efficacy of an endemic arthropod natural enemy complex of the diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Michael J; Shi, Zu-Hua; Liu, Yin-Quan; Guo, Shi-Jian; Lu, Yao-Bin; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Zalucki, Myron P

    2004-12-01

    Maximizing the contribution of endemic natural enemies to integrated pest management (IPM), programs requires a detailed knowledge of their interactions with the target pest. This experimental field study evaluated the impact of the endemic natural enemy complex of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) on pest populations in commercial cabbage crops in southeastern Queensland, Australia. Management data were used to score pest management practices at experimental sites on independent Brassica farms practicing a range of pest management strategies, and mechanical methods of natural enemy exclusion were used to assess the impact of natural enemies on introduced cohorts of P. xylostella at each site. Natural enemy impact was greatest at sites adopting IPM and least at sites practicing conventional pest management strategies. At IPM sites, the contribution of natural enemies to P. xylostella mortality permitted the cultivation of marketable crops with no yield loss but with a substantial reduction in insecticide inputs. Three species of larval parasitoids (Diadegma semiclausum Hellén [Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae], Apanteles ippeus Nixon [Hymenoptera: Braconidae], and Oomyzus sokolowskii Kurdjumov [Hymenoptera: Eulophidae]) and one species of pupal parasitoid Diadromus collaris Gravenhorst (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) attacked immature P. xylostella. The most abundant groups of predatory arthropods caught in pitfall traps were Araneae (Lycosidae) > Coleoptera (Carabidae, Coccinelidae, Staphylinidae) > Neuroptera (Chrysopidae) > Formicidae, whereas on crop foliage Araneae (Clubionidae, Oxyopidae) > Coleoptera (Coccinelidae) > Neuroptera (Chrysopidae) were most common. The abundance and diversity of natural enemies was greatest at sites that adopted IPM, correlating greater P. xylostella mortality at these sites. The efficacy of the natural enemy complex to pest mortality under different pest management regimes and appropriate strategies to optimize this important natural resource are discussed. PMID:15666732

  15. Integrated pest management of the Pyralid stalkborers, Eoreuma loftini and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane represents an important commodity crop in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The primary insect pest of sugarcane is the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini followed by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera) which cause substantial economic damage. We quantified the re...

  16. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2015 SMALL GRAIN INSECT CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    . Chapin, Extension Specialist Emeritus Pest Product Rate /acre Comments aphids Seed Treatments Enhance AW aphid treatment for barley yellow dwarf virus suppression is recommended for high yield wheat and oat. Seed treatments provide early season control of aphids and barley yellow dwarf. Seed treatments also

  17. Improved quality management to enhance the efficacy of the sterile insect technique for lepidopteran pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidoptera are among the most severe pests of food and fibre crops in the world and are mainly controlled using broad spectrum insecticides. This does not lead to sustainable control and farmers are demanding alternative control tools which are both effective and friendly to the environment. The st...

  18. Insect Pest Management in Postharvest Ecosystems in the United States of America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest entomology can involve grain and grain-based commodities, tree fruits and nuts, citrus fruits, pome fruits, and vegetables. The insect pests and associated control strategies can vary depending on the specific host commodity, and the quarantine aspects associated with export of fresh fru...

  19. Management of plant species for controlling pests, by peasant farmers at Lagoa Seca, Paraíba state, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Andréia de Souza; Mourão, José da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Ethnoecological knowledge may be understood as spontaneous knowledge, culturally referenced of any society's members, learned and transmitted through social interactions and that are targeted at resolution of daily routine situations. The traditional knowledge in small scale economy societies as well as the non-academic knowledge in urban-industrial societies might be included in this concept. An ethnoecological approach study was performed here on people living at the communities of Alvinho, Almeida, Chã do Marinho, Floriano, and Chã de Oiti, all located in the municipality of Lagoa Seca, Paraíba state, Northeast Brazil. The general objective pursued here was to study the knowledge that peasant farmers have on management of plant species utilized for pest control. For this, the methodological instruments employed here to investigate the ethnoecological knowledge were: direct observation, structured and semi-structured interviews, and tours conducted by local peasant farmers. We analyzed the data obtained under an emic/etic view and also by comparing the local knowledge with those obtained from the literature. The results showed that people in those communities utilize management alternatives for controlling pests, which are mainly: (i) fallowing; (ii) crop rotation; (iii) destruction of crop remains and fruits attacked by pests; (iv) alternations of crops with repellent plants; and/or (v) mixed cropping; (vi) insect's larvae covered with soil; (vii) crops irrigated abundantly; and (viii) soil preparation. The recovery and comprehension we get about this knowledge as well as the farmers' savoir faire, are extremely important to the revival of ancient agricultural practices, which have been forgotten due to advances in modern agriculture. The data obtained here showed that a huge body of knowledge the farmers have on many forms or strategies of management are generally compatible with scientific knowledge. PMID:17026748

  20. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in West Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea crops are widely cultivated and a major nutritional source of protein for indigenous human populations in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include Anoplocnemis curvipes, Aphis craccivora, Cl...

  1. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Gent, David H; De Wolf, Erick; Pethybridge, Sarah J

    2011-06-01

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect tactical management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease risk and thus assist in accurately targeting events critical for management. However, in many instances adoption of these systems for use in routine disease management has been perceived as slow. The under-utilization of some decision support systems is likely due to both technical and perception constraints that have not been addressed adequately during development and implementation phases. Growers' perceptions of risk and their aversion to these perceived risks can be reasons for the "slow" uptake of decision support systems and, more broadly, integrated pest management (IPM). Decision theory provides some tools that may assist in quantifying and incorporating subjective and/or measured probabilities of disease occurrence or crop loss into decision support systems. Incorporation of subjective probabilities into IPM recommendations may be one means to reduce grower uncertainty and improve trust of these systems because management recommendations could be explicitly informed by growers' perceptions of risk and economic utility. Ultimately though, we suggest that an appropriate measure of the value and impact of decision support systems is grower education that enables more skillful and informed management decisions independent of consultation of the support tool outputs. PMID:21117876

  2. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

  3. Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management (CHEMM).

    PubMed

    Vardell, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management (CHEMM) website from the National Library of Medicine is designed for first responders and medical providers who are planning for and responding to chemical hazards events. It includes pages tailored to the individual interests of specific groups, including first responders, health care providers, mental health professionals, toxicologists, and more. The featured decision support system CHEMM Intelligent Syndromes Tool allows users to identify the chemical a patient was exposed to in a mass casualty event. PMID:22289097

  4. Interacting Agricultural Pests and Their Effect on Crop Yield: Application of a Bayesian Decision Theory Approach to the Joint Management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ilai N.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Weaver, David K.; Robison-Cox, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of accounting for direct and indirect biological interactions occurring within agroecosystems and propagating this information from the statistical analysis stage to the management stage. PMID:25692673

  5. Interacting agricultural pests and their effect on crop yield: application of a Bayesian decision theory approach to the joint management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus.

    PubMed

    Keren, Ilai N; Menalled, Fabian D; Weaver, David K; Robison-Cox, James F

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of accounting for direct and indirect biological interactions occurring within agroecosystems and propagating this information from the statistical analysis stage to the management stage. PMID:25692673

  6. Chapter V --Insect Control 1 INDUSTRIAL AND HOUSEHOLD PESTS

    E-print Network

    to long-term pest management. Column Pesticide: A--Boric acid (Niban, Perma-Dust, Perma-Guard) B formulations); D = dust 3 Some formulations of diatomaceous earth and silica gel contain pyrethrins as a flushing agent 4 Indoor use only 2003 NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS MANUAL College of Agriculture

  7. Perspectives on why digital ecologies matter: combining population genetics and ecologically informed agent-based models with GIS for managing dipteran livestock pests.

    PubMed

    Peck, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    It is becoming clear that handling the inherent complexity found in ecological systems is an essential task for finding ways to control insect pests of tropical livestock such as tsetse flies, and old and new world screwworms. In particular, challenging multivalent management programs, such as Area Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM), face daunting problems of complexity at multiple spatial scales, ranging from landscape level processes to those of smaller scales such as the parasite loads of individual animals. Daunting temporal challenges also await resolution, such as matching management time frames to those found on ecological and even evolutionary temporal scales. How does one deal with representing processes with models that involve multiple spatial and temporal scales? Agent-based models (ABM), combined with geographic information systems (GIS), may allow for understanding, predicting and managing pest control efforts in livestock pests. This paper argues that by incorporating digital ecologies in our management efforts clearer and more informed decisions can be made. I also point out the power of these models in making better predictions in order to anticipate the range of outcomes possible or likely. PMID:24680756

  8. Temperature-activity relationships in Meligethes aeneus: implications for pest management

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Andrew W; Nevard, Lucy M; Clark, Suzanne J; Cook, Samantha M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) management in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) has become an urgent issue in the light of insecticide resistance. Risk prediction advice has relied upon flight temperature thresholds, while risk assessment uses simple economic thresholds. However, there is variation in the reported temperature of migration, and economic thresholds vary widely across Europe, probably owing to climatic factors interacting with beetle activity and plant compensation for damage. The effect of temperature on flight, feeding and oviposition activity of M. aeneus was examined in controlled conditions. RESULTS Escape from a release vial was taken as evidence of flight and was supported by video observations. The propensity to fly followed a sigmoid temperature–response curve between 6 and 23 °C; the 10, 25 and 50% flight temperature thresholds were 12.0–12.5 °C, 13.6–14.2 °C and 15.5–16.2 °C, respectively. Thresholds were slightly higher in the second of two flight bioassays, suggesting an effect of beetle age. Strong positive relationships were found between temperature (6–20 °C) and the rates of feeding and oviposition on flower buds of oilseed rape. CONCLUSION These temperature relationships could be used to improve M. aeneus migration risk assessment, refine weather-based decision support systems and modulate damage thresholds according to rates of bud damage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:25052810

  9. Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

  10. Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

  11. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter A Biannual Newsletter of the Center for Integrated Plant Systems (CIPS)in Cooperation with the Insecticide

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    Resistant Pest Management Newsletter A Biannual Newsletter of the Center for Integrated Plant. Regupathy 4 Generating a Resistance Database in Heliothis virescens Populations from Areas Planted with Bt Arthropod Resistance Resurgence of Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch on Okra - Sunil Kumar and R

  12. NONTARGET ARTHROPODS CAPTURED IN CUE-LURE-BAITED BUCKET TRAPS AT AREA-WIDE PEST MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION SITES IN KAMUELA AND KULA, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy and 2,371 specimens or about 1.1 and 34.4 individuals per day were captured in melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), cue-lure monitoring/suppression traps at two area-wide integrated pest management implementation sites in Kula (Maui Island) and Kamuela (Hawaii Island), respectively...

  13. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated Pest Managment Program to control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using contingent valuation, the perceived value of an area-wide, integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, was estimated. The residents’ maximum willingness-to-pay (WTP) and payment modality was estimat...

  14. Perceived Consequences of Herbicide-Tolerant and Insect-Resistant Crops on Integrated Pest Management Strategies in the Western United States: Results of an Online Survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted an online survey to assess the potential effects of herbicide-tolerant (HT) and insect-resistant (IR) crops on integrated pest management (IPM) practices in the Western United States. For HT crops, participants perceived a decrease in several IPM practices, including crop and herbicide ...

  15. Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

    2011-08-01

    Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control. PMID:21882700

  16. Sunflower insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While many insects have been noted as pests of sunflower in North America and elsewhere, few of those species represent significant, consistent constraints on sunflower production and management. In North America, where insect problems in sunflower are most serious, the abundance or distribution of ...

  17. Pathogenicity of a Microsporidium Isolate from the Diamondback Moth against Noctuid Moths:Characterization and Implications for Microbiological Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Ghani, Idris Abd; Dieng, Hamady; Abu Hassan, Zainal Abidin; Ramli, Norazsida; Kermani, Nadia; Satho, Tomomitsu; Ahmad, Hamdan; Abang, Fatimah Bt; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to problems with chemical control, there is increasing interest in the use of microsporidia for control of lepidopteran pests. However, there have been few studies to evaluate the susceptibility of exotic species to microsporidia from indigenous Lepidoptera. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated some biological characteristics of the microsporidian parasite isolated from wild Plutella xylostella (PX) and evaluated its pathogenicity on the laboratory responses of sympatric invasive and resident noctuid moths. There were significant differences in spore size and morphology between PX and Spodoptera litura (SL) isolates. Spores of PX isolate were ovocylindrical, while those of SL were oval. PX spores were 1.05 times longer than those of SL, which in turn were 1.49 times wider than those of the PX. The timing of infection peaks was much shorter in SL and resulted in earlier larval death. There were no noticeable differences in amplicon size (two DNA fragments were each about 1200 base pairs in length). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequences of the two isolates shared a clade with Nosema/Vairimorpha sequences. The absence of octospores in infected spodopteran tissues suggested that PX and SL spores are closely related to Nosema plutellae and N. bombycis, respectively. Both SL and S. exigua (SE) exhibited susceptibility to the PX isolate infection, but showed different infection patterns. Tissular infection was more diverse in the former and resulted in much greater spore production and larval mortality. Microsporidium-infected larvae pupated among both infected and control larvae, but adult emergence occurred only in the second group. Conclusion/Significance The PX isolate infection prevented completion of development of most leafworm and beet armyworm larvae. The ability of the microsporidian isolate to severely infect and kill larvae of both native and introduced spodopterans makes it a valuable candidate for biocontrol against lepidopteran pests. PMID:24349104

  18. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  19. Cultural and chemical pest control methods alter habitat suitability for biological control agents: An example from Wisconsin commercial cranberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An integrated pest control program requires an in-depth understanding of the compatibility of all control strategies used. In Wisconsin commercial cranberry production, early-season control strategies may include either a broad-spectrum insecticide application or a corresponding spring flood, along ...

  20. Resurgance of soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber after application of methyl bromide chemical alternatives and solarization in tomato.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted during four consectutive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-cucumber (Cucumis sativus) rotations to examine the long-term residual effects of tomato methyl bromide alternatives on soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber. Four treatments were established in tomato field...

  1. Thermal biology, population fluctuations and implications of temperature extremes for the management of two globally significant insect pests.

    PubMed

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Weldon, Christopher W; Chown, Steven L; le Roux, Peter C; Terblanche, John S

    2013-12-01

    The link between environmental temperature, physiological processes and population fluctuations is a significant aspect of insect pest management. Here, we explore how thermal biology affects the population abundance of two globally significant pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis capitata (medfly) and C. rosa (Natal fruit fly), including irradiated individuals and those expressing a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that are used in the sterile insect technique. Results show that upper and lower lethal temperatures are seldom encountered at the field sites, while critical minimum temperatures for activity and lower developmental thresholds are crossed more frequently. Estimates of abundance revealed that C. capitata are active year-round, but abundance declines markedly during winter. Temporal autocorrelation of average fortnightly trap captures and of development time, estimated from an integrated model to calculate available degree days, show similar seasonal lags suggesting that population increases in early spring occur after sufficient degree-days have accumulated. By contrast, population collapses coincide tightly with increasing frequency of low temperature events that fall below critical minimum temperatures for activity. Individuals of C. capitata expressing the tsl mutation show greater critical thermal maxima and greater longevity under field conditions than reference individuals. Taken together, this evidence suggests that low temperatures limit populations in the Western Cape, South Africa and likely do so elsewhere. Increasing temperature extremes and warming climates generally may extend the season over which these species are active, and could increase abundance. The sterile insect technique may prove profitable as climates change given that laboratory-reared tsl flies have an advantage under warmer conditions. PMID:24080125

  2. Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

    2013-02-01

    We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2?) and ozonide radical ion (*O3?) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  3. Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Porrini, Martín P; Gende, Liesel B; Álvarez, Estefanía; Buffa, Franco; Brasesco, Constanza; Maggi, Matías D; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2014-02-01

    A diverse set of parasites and pathogens affects productivity and survival of Apis mellifera honeybees. In beekeeping, traditional control by antibiotics and molecules of synthesis has caused problems with contamination and resistant pathogens. In this research, different Laurus nobilis extracts are tested against the main honeybee pests through an integrated point of view. In vivo effects on bee survival are also evaluated. The ethanol extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 208 to 416 ?g/mL, having the best antimicrobial effect on Paenibacillus larvae among all substances tested. Similarly, this leaf extract showed a significant antiparasitic activity on Varroa destructor, killing 50 % of mites 24 h after a 30-s exposure, and on Nosema ceranae, inhibiting the spore development in the midgut of adult bees ingesting 1?×?10(4) ?g/mL of extract solution. Both ethanol extract and volatile extracts (essential oil, hydrolate, and its main component) did not cause lethal effects on adult honeybees. Thus, the absence of topical and oral toxicity of the ethanol extract on bees and the strong antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and miticidal effects registered in this study place this laurel extract as a promising integrated treatment of bee diseases and stimulates the search for other bioactive phytochemicals from plants. PMID:24288051

  4. Pest control: A modelling approach. Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by S. Petrovskii, N. Petrovskaya and D. Bearup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyson, Rebecca C.

    2014-09-01

    Successful food production results in the delivery to market of beautiful produce, free of damage from insects. All of that produce however, is an excellent and plentiful food source, and nature has evolved a multitude of insects that compete with humans for access. There exist a number of management strategies to combat pests, including traditional crop rotation and companion planting techniques, as well as more sophisticated techniques including mating disruption using pheromones and the application of chemical sprays. Chemical sprays are extremely effective, and are in widespread use around the globe [1,12,20]. Indeed, pesticides are the dominant form of pest management in current use [10,20].

  5. The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, a new pest threat in the Caribbean: Biology and options for management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is a serious pest of palms. RPW is native to Asia, but over the last few decades it has spread to the Middle East, Africa and Europe where it has caused major economic damage. This pest was accidentally introduced to the Caribbean (Curacao and Aru...

  6. Review of 2008 Studies on Integrated Pest Management Strategies to Reduce Damage from the Sunflower Seed Maggot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis, is an emerging pest of cultivated sunflower in the northern Great Plains sunflower production region. It is a seed-feeding pest and infests the sunflower plant from late bud stage through flowering. There are two generations in North Dakota. Adults of...

  7. Effectiveness of kaolin clay particle film in managing Helopeltis collaris (Hemiptera: Miridae), a major pest of cacao in the Philippines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helopeltis collaris Stal, commonly known as cacao mirid or capsid bug is one of the major pests of cacao in Southeast Asia. Recent survey of cacao pests in the Philippines showed that cacao mirid bug is causing significant yield loss particularly in cacao growing areas in Luzon. Kaolin is a naturall...

  8. Development of a precision areawide pest management decision system for cotton - Preliminary study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop models simulate growth and development, and provide relevant information for the routine management of the crop. Integrating crop models with other information technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS), variable rate technology, remote sensing, and global positioning systems (G...

  9. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  10. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  11. Precision Farming and Precision Pest Management: The Power of New Crop Production Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, R. Mack; Ess, Daniel R.; Parsons, Samuel D.

    1998-01-01

    The use of new technologies including Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the Global Positioning System (GPS), Variable Rate Technology (VRT), and Remote Sensing (RS) is gaining acceptance in the present high-technology, precision agricultural industry. GIS provides the ability to link multiple data values for the same geo-referenced location, and provides the user with a graphical visualization of such data. When GIS is coupled with GPS and RS, management decisions can be applied in a more precise "micro-managed" manner by using VRT techniques. Such technology holds the potential to reduce agricultural crop production costs as well as crop and environmental damage. PMID:19274236

  12. MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF COMMERCIALLY GROWN CRUCIFERS Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    Department of Entomology Vegetable Insects E-99-W PURDUE EXTENSION Cabbage maggot, pupae and adult Crucifer flea beetle (Photo Credit: C. Eastman) The crucifers include cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels damage and others, such as cabbage, must be managed carefully to avoid serious insect damage. CABBAGE

  13. Comparative effectiveness of an integrated pest management system and other control tactics for

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    against the spider mite Tetranychus ludeni on egg- plant (Solanum melongena L.) fields in 1996 and 1997 for managing the spider mite Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) on eggplant G.V.P. REDDY Department in revised form 19 July 2001 Key words: Acari, Acaricide, Chrysoperla carnea, Dicofol, Eggplant, Host plant

  14. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2012 WEED CONTROL IN GRAIN SORGHUM

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    SORGHUM Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Grain Sorghum Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode of Action Preharvest Interval Restricted Entry Interval/BANVEL at least 15 days prior to planting grain sorghum. Glyphosate acid equivalent (ae) 4.5 lb ae/gal 22-32 oz 0

  15. Comparative assessment of pest management practices in potato production at farmer field schools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmer field schools (FFS) and other participatory approaches are useful methods for rapid delivery of agricultural technologies in resource-constrained agro-ecosystems. Cultivar selection, weekly fungicide applications and integrated disease management (IDM) based on a disease monitoring strategy w...

  16. Total chemical management in photographic processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luden, Charles; Schultz, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    The mission of the U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center is to produce high-quality photographs of the earth taken from aircraft and Landsat satellite. In order to meet the criteria of producing research-quality photographs, while at the same time meeting strict environmental restrictions, a total photographic chemical management system was installed. This involved a three-part operation consisting of the design of a modern chemical analysis laboratory, the implementation of a chemical regeneration system, and the installation of a waste treatment system, including in-plant pretreatment and outside secondary waste treatment. Over the last ten years the result of this program has yielded high-quality photographs while saving approximately 30,000 per year and meeting all Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restrictions.

  17. Sequential sampling and biorational chemistries for management of lepidopteran pests of vegetable amaranth in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Clarke-Harris, Dionne; Fleischer, Shelby J

    2003-06-01

    Although vegetable amaranth, Amaranthus viridis L. and A. dubius Mart. ex Thell., production and economic importance is increasing in diversified peri-urban farms in Jamaica, lepidopteran herbivory is common even during weekly pyrethroid applications. We developed and validated a sampling plan, and investigated insecticides with new modes of action, for a complex of five species (Pyralidae: Spoladea recurvalis (F.), Herpetogramma bipunctalis (F.), Noctuidae: Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and S. eridania Stoll). Significant within-plant variation occurred with H. bipunctalis, and a six-leaf sample unit including leaves from the inner and outer whorl was selected to sample all species. Larval counts best fit a negative binomial distribution. We developed a sequential sampling plan using a threshold of one larva per sample unit and the fitted distribution with a k(c) of 0.645. When compared with a fixed plan of 25 plants, sequential sampling recommended the same management decision on 87.5%, additional samples on 9.4%, and gave inaccurate recommendations on 3.1% of 32 farms, while reducing sample size by 46%. Insecticide frequency was reduced 33-60% when management decisions were based on sampled data compared with grower-standards, with no effect on crop damage. Damage remained high or variable (10-46%) with pyrethroid applications. Lepidopteran control was dramatically improved with ecdysone agonists (tebufenozide) or microbial metabolites (spinosyns and emamectin benzoate). This work facilitates resistance management efforts concurrent with the introduction of newer modes of action for lepidopteran control in leafy vegetable production in the Caribbean. PMID:12852619

  18. The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests

    PubMed Central

    Sobhy, Islam S.; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2014-01-01

    An imminent food crisis reinforces the need for novel strategies to increase crop yields worldwide. Effective control of pest insects should be part of such strategies, preferentially with reduced negative impact on the environment and optimal protection and utilization of existing biodiversity. Enhancing the presence and efficacy of native biological control agents could be one such strategy. Plant strengthener is a generic term for several commercially available compounds or mixtures of compounds that can be applied to cultivated plants in order to ‘boost their vigour, resilience and performance’. Studies into the consequences of boosting plant resistance against pests and diseases on plant volatiles have found a surprising and dramatic increase in the plants' attractiveness to parasitic wasps. Here, we summarize the results from these studies and present new results from assays that illustrate the great potential of two commercially available resistance elicitors. We argue that plant strengtheners may currently be the best option to enhance the attractiveness of cultivated plants to biological control agents. Other options, such as the genetic manipulation of the release of specific volatiles may offer future solutions, but in most systems, we still miss fundamental knowledge on which key attractants should be targeted for this approach. PMID:24535390

  19. The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests.

    PubMed

    Sobhy, Islam S; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen; Turlings, Ted C J

    2014-04-01

    An imminent food crisis reinforces the need for novel strategies to increase crop yields worldwide. Effective control of pest insects should be part of such strategies, preferentially with reduced negative impact on the environment and optimal protection and utilization of existing biodiversity. Enhancing the presence and efficacy of native biological control agents could be one such strategy. Plant strengthener is a generic term for several commercially available compounds or mixtures of compounds that can be applied to cultivated plants in order to 'boost their vigour, resilience and performance'. Studies into the consequences of boosting plant resistance against pests and diseases on plant volatiles have found a surprising and dramatic increase in the plants' attractiveness to parasitic wasps. Here, we summarize the results from these studies and present new results from assays that illustrate the great potential of two commercially available resistance elicitors. We argue that plant strengtheners may currently be the best option to enhance the attractiveness of cultivated plants to biological control agents. Other options, such as the genetic manipulation of the release of specific volatiles may offer future solutions, but in most systems, we still miss fundamental knowledge on which key attractants should be targeted for this approach. PMID:24535390

  20. Pesticide compatibility with natural enemies for pest management in greenhouse gerbera daisies.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Cheri M; Braman, S K; Oetting, R D; Hinkle, N C

    2013-08-01

    Pesticides commonly used in commercial greenhouse management were evaluated for compatibility with two biological control agents: a leafminer parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea [Walker]), and a predatory mite (Neoseiulus californicus [McGregor]). These natural enemies were exposed to miticides, fungicides, and insecticides targeting leafminers, thrips, and whiteflies, according to label directions in laboratory vial assays, after which mortality at 12, 24, and 48 h was recorded. Greater mortality of predatory mites than leafminer parasitoids was observed overall, illustrating that fewer pesticides were compatible with predatory mites compared with the parasitoid. However, some commonly used pesticides were found to cause high mortality to both the leafminer parasitoid and predatory mites. Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestations often disrupt leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii [Burgess]) biocontrol programs. Therefore, potentially compatible miticides (bifenazate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, acequinocyl, etoxazole, and clofentezine) identified in laboratory trials were also evaluated in a greenhouse study and found to be compatible with leafminer biocontrol. PMID:24020270

  1. In situ assessment of pesticide genotoxicity in an integrated pest management program I--Tradescantia micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G S; Pimentel, D; Weinstein, L H

    1998-02-13

    The genotoxicity induced by pesticides applied in an integrated pest management (IPM) program was evaluated with the Tradescantia micronucleus assay (Trad-MCN). Three pesticide application rates were prescribed as follows: (a) Low, no field pesticide spray; (b) Medium, IPM test rate: banded cyanazine plus metolachlor (2.7 kg a.i. and 2.3 l a.i./ha of herbicides, respectively); and (c) High, a preventative pesticide application program: broadcast cyanazine plus metolachlor (same application rates as above) plus chlorpyrifos (1 kg a.i./ha of insecticide). The Trad-MCN was employed for the assessment of (a) the formulated compounds, singly and in combinations; (b) pesticide residues extracted from soils sampled before and after application, and (c) in situ exposures (14-h exposure to pesticide-sprayed field). All pesticides showed clastogenic potency at doses between 10 and 50 ppm. Aqueous extracts of the two pesticide-sprayed soils were clastogenic, but the unsprayed soil extracts were not. Plants exposed in situ to pesticide-sprayed soils (inside a chamber receiving vapors from the soil) also showed significant increases in micronuclei frequency in relation to controls exposed to unsprayed soil. In general, there was no significant reduction in the genotoxic effects from the High to the Medium treatment levels of the IPM program. This suggests that the reduction in pesticide application rates attained with the implementation of the proposed IPM program was not sufficient to abate the genotoxicity of the pesticides, as perceived with the sensitive assays employed. The results indicate that replacing genotoxic compounds may be the only effective remediation measure to eliminate the risks imposed by mutagenic compounds in the agricultural environment. PMID:9600691

  2. Classical biological control of an invasive forest pest: a world perspective of the management of Sirex noctilio using the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae).

    PubMed

    Fischbein, D; Corley, J C

    2015-02-01

    Classical biological control is a key method for managing populations of pests in long-lived crops such as plantation forestry. The execution of biological control programmes in general, as the evaluation of potential natural enemies remains, to a large extent, an empirical endeavour. Thus, characterizing specific cases to determine patterns that may lead to more accurate predictions of success is an important goal of the much applied ecological research. We review the history of introduction, ecology and behaviour of the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides. The species is a natural enemy of Sirex noctilio, one of the most important pests of pine afforestation worldwide. We use an invasion ecology perspective given the analogy between the main stages involved in classical biological control and the biological invasion processes. We conclude that success in the establishment, a common reason of failure in biocontrol, is not a limiting factor of success by I. leucospoides. A mismatch between the spread capacity of the parasitoid and that of its host could nevertheless affect control at a regional scale. In addition, we suggest that given its known life history traits, this natural enemy may be a better regulator than suppressor of the host population. Moreover, spatial and temporal refuges of the host population that may favour the local persistence of the interaction probably reduce the degree to which S. noctilio population is suppressed by the parasitoid. We emphasize the fact that some of the biological attributes that promote establishment may negatively affect suppression levels achieved. Studies on established non-native pest-parasitoid interactions may contribute to defining selection criteria for classical biological control which may prove especially useful in integrated pest management IPM programmes of invasive forest insects. PMID:24923367

  3. Current status and future perspectives on sunflower insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While occasional insect pests of cultivated sunflowers may be managed by conventional or reduced-risk insecticides, the cumulative costs and risks of relying on insecticides to suppress perennial or severe pests (common in North America) call for exploration of broader pest management strategies. Re...

  4. Options for pest and disease control in organic pecan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although organic pecans typically command a higher wholesale and retail price, their production presents a unique set of challenges. Among these are issues of pest and disease management - it is not simply a modification of the conventional, pest and disease management paradigm. Despite these pest ...

  5. Large-scale deployment of seed treatments has driven rapid increase in use of neonicotinoid insecticides and preemptive pest management in US field crops.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Margaret R; Tooker, John F

    2015-04-21

    Neonicotinoids are the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide, but patterns of their use in the U.S. are poorly documented, constraining attempts to understand their role in pest management and potential nontarget effects. We synthesized publicly available data to estimate and interpret trends in neonicotinoid use since their introduction in 1994, with a special focus on seed treatments, a major use not captured by the national pesticide-use survey. Neonicotinoid use increased rapidly between 2003 and 2011, as seed-applied products were introduced in field crops, marking an unprecedented shift toward large-scale, preemptive insecticide use: 34-44% of soybeans and 79-100% of maize hectares were treated in 2011. This finding contradicts recent analyses, which concluded that insecticides are used today on fewer maize hectares than a decade or two ago. If current trends continue, neonicotinoid use will increase further through application to more hectares of soybean and other crop species and escalation of per-seed rates. Alternatively, our results, and other recent analyses, suggest that carefully targeted efforts could considerably reduce neonicotinoid use in field crops without yield declines or economic harm to farmers, reducing the potential for pest resistance, nontarget pest outbreaks, environmental contamination, and harm to wildlife, including pollinator species. PMID:25793443

  6. Lantana and Verbena: How to Combat Insect and Mite Pests 

    E-print Network

    Mott, Dale; Merchant, Michael E.

    2005-02-21

    Several insect and mite pests attack lantana and verbena, which are perennial ornamental plants found in many Texas landscapes. This publication describes the most common pests and explains how to manage them....

  7. Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mensah, Robert K.; Young, Alison; Rood-England, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp.) against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects) was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 102 to 109) of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 × 107 spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha) than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha). Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production. PMID:26463189

  8. Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

  9. Genetic identification of an unknown Rhagoletis fruit fly infesting Chinese crabapple (Malus spectabilis): implications for apple pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious introduced quarantine pest in the apple-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. In August 2011, seven fly larvae of unknown origin were discovered infesting fruit of an exotic Chinese crabapple, Malus s...

  10. A Review of the Natural Enemies of Beetles in the Subtribe Diabroticina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): Implications for Sustainable Pest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabroticina is a speciose subtribe of New World Chrysomelidae (Subfamily Galerucinae: Tribe Luperini) that includes pests like corn rootworms, cucumber beetles and bean leaf beetles (e.g. Diabrotica, Acalymma, Cerotoma species). The evolution and spread of pesticide resistance, the European invasio...

  11. Managing Household Ant Pests 

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2005-12-02

    , and mating may occur within the nest without swarming. These ants form new colo- nies when one or more of the queen ants, along with some workers and brood, leave the nest and move to a new location. Ant colonies do not nest in permanent locations. Often...

  12. Integrated Pest Management Ideas

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Assassin bug - Reduviidaye - The assassin bug feeds mainly on aphids, caterpillars, Colorado potato beetles on aphids, leafhoppers, mites, and caterpillars. Big-eyed bug - Lygaeidae - Big-eyed bugs feed on aphids - Syrphidae - Fly larvae of this species feed on aphids and mealybugs. Lady beetle - Hippodamia convergens

  13. Chemical management system at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Morss, H.S.; Hischier, R.C.; Keto, D.N.; Woodring, J.L.; Davis, J.T.; Sherva, B.

    1995-07-01

    The Argonne Chemical Management System (CMS) is comprised of several applications and the Infrastructure Modules. The Infrastructure Modules, which provide the integrated computing software foundation, include a security processor, common tables, reporting framework, utilities, and other facilities common to applications processing chemical information. The MSDS Sheets were scanned and the images stored for automated faxing to the requester. User searches are accomplished based on ``search`` data keyed into the Oracle Tables; the desired MSDS is subsequently faxed. The system has been designed as an ``open`` system and is totally portable. During development and production the CMS has operated in VAX, VMS, Sun Unix, and Hewlett-Packard HP-UX environments. The only restrictions are that the MSDS Faxing Server must operate under Unix and the bar code scanning processes are accomplished using a portable PC. The current system consists of 20 Oracle Tables, over 350 columns of data, 25 Standard reports, 45 screens, and a number of utilities. With the Oracle RDBMS the computing platform may be sized to the volume of data and processing activity. The Laboratory`s implementation is on an HP 9000 Model H50 with 256 megabytes of memory, 32 concurrent users, and 8 gigabytes of disk storage that is primarily for the MSDS images.

  14. Evaluation of two least toxic integrated pest management programs for managing bed bugs (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) with discussion of a bed bug intercepting device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Gibb, Timothy; Bennett, Gary W

    2009-05-01

    The cost and effectiveness of two bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) integrated pest management (IPM) programs were evaluated for 10 wk. Sixteen bed bug-infested apartments were chosen from a high-rise low-income apartment building. The apartments were randomly divided into two treatment groups: diatomaceous earth dust-based IPM (D-IPM) and chlorfenapyr spray-based IPM (S-IPM). The initial median (minimum, maximum) bed bug counts (by visual inspection) of the two treatment groups were 73.5 (10, 352) and 77 (18, 3025), respectively. A seminar and an educational brochure were delivered to residents and staff. It was followed by installing encasements on mattresses and box springs and applying hot steam to bed bug-infested areas in all 16 apartments. Diatomaceous earth dust (Mother Earth-D) was applied in the D-IPM group 2 d after steaming. In addition, bed bug-intercepting devices were installed under legs of infested beds or sofas or chairs to intercept bed bugs. The S-IPM group only received 0.5% chlorfenapyr spray (Phantom) after the nonchemical treatments. All apartments were monitored bi-weekly and retreated when necessary. After 10 wk, bed bugs were eradicated from 50% of the apartments in each group. Bed bug count reduction (mean +/- SEM) was 97.6 +/- 1.6 and 89.7 +/- 7.3% in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Mean treatment costs in the 10-wk period were $463 and $482 per apartment in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Bed bug interceptors trapped an average of 219 +/- 135 bed bugs per apartment in 10 wk. The interceptors contributed to the IPM program efficacy and were much more effective than visual inspections in estimating bed bug numbers and determining the existence of bed bug infestations. PMID:19496428

  15. Sandia National Laboratories, California Chemical Management Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2012-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Chemical Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Chemical Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. SNL/CA is responsible for tracking chemicals (chemical and biological materials), providing Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and for regulatory compliance reporting according to a variety of chemical regulations. The principal regulations for chemical tracking are the Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the California Right-to-Know regulations. The regulations, the Hazard Communication/Lab Standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are also key to the CM Program. The CM Program is also responsible for supporting chemical safety and information requirements for a variety of Integrated Enabling Services (IMS) programs primarily the Industrial Hygiene, Waste Management, Fire Protection, Air Quality, Emergency Management, Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Prevention programs. The principal program tool is the Chemical Information System (CIS). The system contains two key elements: the MSDS library and the chemical container-tracking database that is readily accessible to all Members of the Sandia Workforce. The primary goal of the CM Program is to ensure safe and effective chemical management at Sandia/CA. This is done by efficiently collecting and managing chemical information for our customers who include Line, regulators, DOE and ES and H programs to ensure compliance with regulations and to streamline customer business processes that require chemical information.

  16. A Framework for Identifying Selective Chemical Applications for IPM in Dryland Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Umina, Paul A.; Jenkins, Sommer; McColl, Stuart; Arthur, Aston; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2015-01-01

    Shifts to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in agriculture are assisted by the identification of chemical applications that provide effective control of pests relative to broad-spectrum pesticides but have fewer negative effects on natural enemy (beneficial) groups that assist in pest control. Here, we outline a framework for identifying such applications and apply this framework to field trials involving the crop establishment phase of Australian dryland cropping systems. Several chemicals, which are not presently available to farmers in Australia, were identified as providing moderate levels of pest control and seedling protection, with the potential to be less harmful to beneficial groups including predatory mites, predatory beetles and ants. This framework highlights the challenges involved in chemically controlling pests while maintaining non-target populations when pest species are present at damaging levels. PMID:26694469

  17. A Framework for Identifying Selective Chemical Applications for IPM in Dryland Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Umina, Paul A; Jenkins, Sommer; McColl, Stuart; Arthur, Aston; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2015-01-01

    Shifts to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in agriculture are assisted by the identification of chemical applications that provide effective control of pests relative to broad-spectrum pesticides but have fewer negative effects on natural enemy (beneficial) groups that assist in pest control. Here, we outline a framework for identifying such applications and apply this framework to field trials involving the crop establishment phase of Australian dryland cropping systems. Several chemicals, which are not presently available to farmers in Australia, were identified as providing moderate levels of pest control and seedling protection, with the potential to be less harmful to beneficial groups including predatory mites, predatory beetles and ants. This framework highlights the challenges involved in chemically controlling pests while maintaining non-target populations when pest species are present at damaging levels. PMID:26694469

  18. Parasites of Insect Pests

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Parasites of Insect Pests Parasites of Insect Pests A parasite is an organism that lives and feeds in or on a larger animal (host). Nearly all insect pests have at least one parasite that attacks them. Insects that parasitize other invertebrates (sometimes called parasitoids) are parasitic only in their immature stages

  19. Implementation and evaluation of HortIPM: a World Wide Web based interactive integrated pest management resource 

    E-print Network

    Files, Priscilla Josephine

    2001-01-01

    to overcome the challenges associated with maintaining a current database of chemical and non-chemical control options. This web-based approach provided the opportunity for real-time corrections in labeling changes, new products and deletions. An on...

  20. Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Control and Management Materials. A Symposium Sponsored by ASTM Committee E-35 on Pesticides, American Society for Testing and Materials, Monterey, California, March 8, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, W. B., Ed.; Marsh, R. E., Ed.

    The first symposium on "Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Management" was held in March, 1976. Much of the thrust was toward explaining and defining the "state of the art." Concerns included rodents and rabbits, predators, scavengers, and large game animals, and a variety of bird species. Environments were as restricted as a laboratory cage or pen…

  1. Peanut-Cotton-Rye Rotations and Soil Chemical Treatment for Managing Nematodes and Thrips

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Minton, N. A.; Brenneman, T. B.; Todd, J. W.; Herzog, G. A.; Gascho, G. J.; Baker, S. H.; Bondari, Y.

    1998-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult) infested primarily with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. Continuous peanut, continuous cotton, cotton-peanut rotation, or peanut-cotton rotation were used as main plots; winter rye or fallow as sub-plots; and cotton with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha), or peanut with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha) plus flutolanil (1.12 kg a.i./ha), as sub-sub-plots. Population densities of M. incognita and B. longicaudatus declined rapidly after the first crop in continuous peanut and remained low thereafter. Neither rye nor soil chemical treatment affected M. incognita or B. longicaudatus population density on peanut or cotton. Cotton and peanut yields from the cotton-peanut rotation were 26% and 10% greater, respectively, than those from monoculmre over the 7-year study. Cotton and peanut yields were improved 9% and 4%, respectively, following rye vs. fallow. Soil chemical treatments increased yields of cotton 23% and peanut 32% over those of untreated plots. Our data demonstrate the sustainable benefits of using cotton-peanut rotations, winter rye, and soil chemical treatments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes and other pests and pathogens and improve yield of both cotton and peanut. PMID:19274213

  2. Areawide Insect Management Plans for Corn Rootworm Using GIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of maize in the United States and Europe. Historically, chemical pesticides and crop rotation have been used to control these pests, creating economic and environmental concerns. A five year corn rootworm areawide management program was es...

  3. Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter D

    2012-02-01

    The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia. PMID:22080590

  4. Study of the pest community of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.).

    PubMed

    Nagy, V; Keresztes, B; Nádasy, E

    2011-01-01

    Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus 1787) is one of the most economically threatening weed plant in Hungary. Researching biological control against it, and identifying a possible and effective biocontrol agent is an important challenge, as chemical control is difficult and expensive, and there is an increasing claim to practice slight plant protection. Entomological studies were made in several parts of the world, for evaluating the species, occuring in velvetleaf, but none of these kind of experiments were assessed in Hungary. Our observations were made in field and plastic boxes, both under open field circumstances in 2008 and 2009 by visually assessing pests, netting and damage based identifying. Meanwhile 8 pest species were identified, including (Helix pomatia Linnaeus 1758--roman snale; Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood 1856)--greenhouse whitefly; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius 1787)-- lime seed bug; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus 1758)--fire bug; Rhopalus parumpunctatus Schilling 1829--common hyaline bug; Liorhyssus hyalinus--hyaline grass bug (Fabricius 1794); Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus 1758)--cabbage moth; Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner 1808)--corn earworm). On the whole the literature datas were enlarged with four new velvetleaf pests (roman scale, lime seed bug, common hyaline bug, cabbage moth). Considering the earlier literature and our results, Liorhyssus hyalinus may play an important role on biological management of velvetleaf. However this pest considered as polyphagous, but discovered to occur in great numbers on velvetleaf, this points to the fact that can be its main host plant and by sucking on the plant, can cause decreased germination rate. We suggest the "hyaline velvetleaf bug" name istead of "hyaline grass bug". Of course, additional experiments are needed on this pest to may use safety and effectively in the future. PMID:22696962

  5. EFFECTIVE RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS WORKSHOP NEWMEDIA CD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a CD-ROM version of the workshop, Effective Risk Management of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals, held in January 2002, in Cincinnati, Ohio. The goal of this workshop was to introduce the science and engineering behind managing the potential risk of suspected endocri...

  6. FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

  7. Chemical Biological Emergency Management Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-06-15

    CB-EMIS is designed to provide information and analysis to transit system operators and emergency responders in the event of a chemical attack on a subway system. The software inforporates detector data, video images, train data, meteorological data, and above- and below-ground plume dispersion models, hight of the liquid level.

  8. Energy Management at Dow Chemical Co. 

    E-print Network

    Almaguer, J.

    2008-01-01

    As one of the largest industrial consumers of energy in the world, The Dow Chemical Company and its 46,000 employees have put energy efficiency at the very core of its business – both as a cost savings initiative and as a primary corporate social...

  9. Impact of combining planting date and chemical control to reduce larval densities of stem-infesting pests of sunflower in the Central Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Dectes texanus texanus L...

  10. Parasitism Performance and Fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): Implications in Integrated Pest Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Suhaimi, Amalina; Abuzid, Ismail; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Ghani, Idris Abd

    2014-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM) strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hym., Braconidae) can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1) and their progeny (F2) had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control. PMID:24968125

  11. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: An introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease r...

  12. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  13. Chemical leasing business models: a contribution to the effective risk management of chemical substances.

    PubMed

    Ohl, Cornelia; Moser, Frank

    2007-08-01

    Chemicals indisputably contribute greatly to the well-being of modern societies. Apart from such benefits, however, chemicals often pose serious threats to human health and the environment when improperly handled. Therefore, the European Commission has proposed a regulatory framework for the Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) that requires companies using chemicals to gather pertinent information on the properties of these substances. In this article, we argue that the crucial aspect of this information management may be the honesty and accuracy of the transfer of relevant knowledge from the producer of a chemical to its user. This may be particularly true if the application of potentially hazardous chemicals is not part of the user's core competency. Against this background, we maintain that the traditional sales concept provides no incentives for transferring this knowledge. The reason is that increased user knowledge of a chemical's properties may raise the efficiency of its application. That is, excessive and unnecessary usage will be eliminated. This, in turn, would lower the amount of chemicals sold and in competitive markets directly decrease profits of the producer. Through the introduction of chemical leasing business models, we attempt to present a strategy to overcome the incentive structure of classical sales models, which is counterproductive for the transfer of knowledge. By introducing two models (a Model A that differs least and a Model B that differs most from traditional sales concepts), we demonstrate that chemical leasing business models are capable of accomplishing the goal of Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals: to effectively manage the risk of chemicals by reducing the total quantity of chemicals used, either by a transfer of applicable knowledge from the lessor to the lessee (Model A) or by efficient application of the chemical by the lessor him/herself (Model B). PMID:17958507

  14. Connecting scales: achieving in-field pest control from areawide and landscape ecology studies.

    PubMed

    Schellhorn, Nancy A; Parry, Hazel R; Macfadyen, Sarina; Wang, Yongmo; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-02-01

    Areawide management has a long history of achieving solutions that target pests, however, there has been little focus on the areawide management of arthropod natural enemies. Landscape ecology studies that show a positive relationship between natural enemy abundance and habitat diversity demonstrate landscape-dependent pest suppression, but have not yet clearly linked their findings to pest management or to the suite of pests associated with crops that require control. Instead the focus has often been on model systems of single pest species and their natural enemies. We suggest that management actions to capture pest control from natural enemies may be forth coming if: (i) the suite of response and predictor variables focus on pest complexes and specific management actions; (ii) the contribution of "the landscape" is identified by assessing the timing and numbers of natural enemies immigrating and emigrating to and from the target crop, as well as pests; and (iii) pest control thresholds aligned with crop development stages are the benchmark to measure impact of natural enemies on pests, in turn allowing for comparison between study regions, and generalizations. To achieve pest control we will need to incorporate what has been learned from an ecological understanding of model pest and natural enemy systems and integrate areawide landscape management with in-field pest management. PMID:25099692

  15. Pest Insect Olfaction in an Insecticide-Contaminated Environment: Info-Disruption or Hormesis Effect

    PubMed Central

    Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Thany, Steeve Hervé; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Most animals, including pest insects, live in an “odor world” and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests. PMID:22457653

  16. 2009 American Chemical Society 125 Least Toxic Strategies for Managing German

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    indoor environment with food, water, and a warm temperature. Cockroach infestations #12;126 are often Cockroaches Changlu Wang1 and Gary W. Bennett Center for Urban and Industrial Pest Management, Department infestations, and the health impact of insecticide applications have prompted increased interest in least toxic

  17. Chemical burns of the eye: causes and management.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, S J

    1987-01-01

    For the 14 months 1 January 1985 to 28 February 1986 all cases of chemical eye injury presenting to the Croydon Eye Unit were analysed. Of the 180 cases 19 were caused by assaults and 14 were admitted for treatment. The wide range of injurious substances is emphasised, and the circumstances of injury are listed. A discussion of the management of chemical eye injury is included. PMID:3689738

  18. A Pest of Importance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN), G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes worldwide. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in Idaho (G. pallida) and Quebec and Alberta, Can...

  19. Corn Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

  20. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter A Biannual Newsletter of the Center for Integrated Plant Systems (CIPS) in Cooperation with the Insecticide

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    . Regupathy 3 Whitefly-Bemisia tabaci Biotype Survey of Urban and Urban-Field Interfaces in South and Central of Eggplant Shoot and Fruit Borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guen., in India - S.V.S Raju, U.K. Bar, Uma Shankar _______________________________________________________________ 24 Resistance Management News New Record of Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Iraq - Ibrahim J. Al-Jboory 27

  1. Aquatic models, genomics and chemical risk management.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Keith C; Hinton, David E; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Planchart, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease meeting follows four previous meetings (Nairn et al., 2001; Schmale, 2004; Schmale et al., 2007; Hinton et al., 2009) in which advances in aquatic animal models for human disease research were reported, and community discussion of future direction was pursued. At this meeting, discussion at a workshop entitled Bioinformatics and Computational Biology with Web-based Resources (20 September 2010) led to an important conclusion: Aquatic model research using feral and experimental fish, in combination with web-based access to annotated anatomical atlases and toxicological databases, yields data that advance our understanding of human gene function, and can be used to facilitate environmental management and drug development. We propose here that the effects of genes and environment are best appreciated within an anatomical context - the specifically affected cells and organs in the whole animal. We envision the use of automated, whole-animal imaging at cellular resolution and computational morphometry facilitated by high-performance computing and automated entry into toxicological databases, as anchors for genetic and toxicological data, and as connectors between human and model system data. These principles should be applied to both laboratory and feral fish populations, which have been virtually irreplaceable sentinals for environmental contamination that results in human morbidity and mortality. We conclude that automation, database generation, and web-based accessibility, facilitated by genomic/transcriptomic data and high-performance and cloud computing, will potentiate the unique and potentially key roles that aquatic models play in advancing systems biology, drug development, and environmental risk management. PMID:21763781

  2. Design and Development of Countylevel Information Management System for Diseases and Pests of Hebei Province on GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xie, Fangyi

    To get a more convenience work in forest application, GIS and information system is used in forestry. GIS technology is used to build an informational management system of forest disease. For the practical requirement, the system is implemented by PDA which works outside to help completing the data collection. The major function of the system is input and output of the forest disease data and processing the report which is based on the criteria report and the assistant function of GIS. This article is aim to discuss about the theory, the process and the critical points of the information system. Besides the general information management system, GIS and PDA is introduced into the diseases system, which could combine the map and the attribute information and realize inventory data reform by PDA. The system is developed with VB and SuperMap Object (SuperMap Company).

  3. Alternative pest control research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the benefits of conserving natural enemies, and based on environmental and regulatory concerns, a reduced reliance on chemical pesticides in pecan management is desirable. In this paper we describe three studies directed toward alternative control: 1) Pre-emergence nematode applications for ...

  4. Chemical composition of cottonseed affected by cropping management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed is a valuable raw material for a range of food, animal feed, and industrial (such as adhesives) products. Chemical composition is one of the critical parameters to evaluate cottonseed's quality and potential end use. However, the information on the impacts of cropping management practices...

  5. DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR EVALUATING RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) risk management (RM) is to minimize the release of EDCs into the environment or to minimize the exposure of humans or wildlife to EDCs already present in the environment. RM research projects may involve: substituting more innocuous...

  6. Pesticide and Nutrient Management for Orchards

    E-print Network

    (FAS 105). The most sophisticated and effective pest manage- ment programs rely on farming systems management. Proper management of nutrients from chemical fertiliz- ers and organic sources is critical to maximizing fruit production and preventing environmental problems. Evidence is increasing that farming

  7. Chrysomelids American diabroticines Hosts and natural enemies. Biology-feasibility for control of pest species (Crisomelidos Diabroticinos americanos Hospederos y enemigos naturales Biologia y factibili manejo especies plagas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chrysomelids in the Diabroticites include some of the most important pest species of the American continent. The chemical and management techniques used to date to control them are: crop rotation to prevent re-infection of host crops, especially in the species that display an egg diapause; insec...

  8. Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

    This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

  9. Biology and management of psocids infesting stored products.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Manoj K; Collins, Patrick J; Throne, James E; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Previously regarded as minor nuisance pests, psocids belonging to the genus Liposcelis now pose a major problem for the effective protection of stored products worldwide. Here we examine the apparent biological and operational reasons behind this phenomenon and why conventional pest management seems to be failing. We investigate what is known about the biology, behavior, and population dynamics of major pest species to ascertain their strengths, and perhaps find weaknesses, as a basis for a rational pest management strategy. We outline the contribution of molecular techniques to clarifying species identification and understanding genetic diversity. We discuss progress in sampling and trapping and our comprehension of spatial distribution of these pests as a foundation for developing management strategies. The effectiveness of various chemical treatments and the availability and potential of nonchemical control methods are critically examined. Finally, we identify research gaps and suggest future directions for research. PMID:24160430

  10. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  11. Feeding Attractants for Pest Tephritid Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adult tephritids require sugar to ensure survival and females require protein to ensure fecundity. This strong protein requirement has been exploited to develop trapping systems for pest tephritids. Traps baited with liquid protein solutions or synthetic lures based on chemical cues from protein a...

  12. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  13. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” (0.80) < “applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times” (0.83) < “applying common insecticides 14 times” (1.08). The treatment “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China. PMID:25906199

  14. Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several a...

  15. New developments in bait stations for control of pest Tephritids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bait stations are being developed and tested as alternatives to broadcast pesticide application for control of a number of pest insects. This is an attract-and-kill pest management approach. With the development of female-targeted food-based synthetic attractants for tephritid fruit flies, a numbe...

  16. Ascochyta blight and insect pests of chickpeas in the Palouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This newsletter article informs chickpea growers in the Palouse region about current disease and insect pest problems. Ascochyta blight appeared in many chickpea fields and was severe in some fields. Insect pests including loopers and armyworms were rampant. Appropriate management practices for t...

  17. Field evaluation of integrated pest management-compatible pesticides for the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) and its parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).

    PubMed

    Villanueva-Jiménez, J A; Hoy, M A; Davies, F S

    2000-04-01

    Potentially selective and integrated pest management (IPM)-compatible pesticides for the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton and its parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola Logvinovskaya were compared under nursery field conditions at Gainesville, FL. In 1996, replicated blocks of young grapefruit trees were treated with 2% petroleum oil and 1 x the lowest recommended field rate (LRFR) of diflubenzuron + oil (0.4%). Untreated and treated controls (avermectin at 1 x the LRFR + oil) were included. In 1997, blocks were treated with oil (3%), 1 x the LRFR of azadirachtin + oil, 1 x the LRFR of diflubenzuron + oil and 0.1 x the LRFR of avermectin + oil. Untreated and treated controls were again included. Oil at 3%, azadirachtin at 1 x the LRFR + 0.4% of oil, and diflubenzuron at 1 x the LRFR + 0.4% of oil were shown to be IPM-compatible pesticides. In 1997, these blocks had fewer mines per leaf and P. citrella pupae parasitized by A. citricola per total leaves sampled compared with the untreated control but more than the treated control (alpha = 0.05). Avermectin at 0.1 x the LRFR + 0.4% of oil was not considered an IPM-compatible pesticide because, while it reduced the number of P. citrella mines per leaf, it reduced the number of A. citricola to levels as low as the treated control. Actual P. citrella infestation levels had no detectable effect on tree growth and vigor. Pesticide applications were not justified when P. citrella infestations were < 1 mine per leaf and the biological control agent A. citricola was present. PMID:10826186

  18. Insect Pests Models and Insecticide Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, the dominant approach in theoretical pest management ecology has emphasized the use of simple analytical or mathematical models and the analysis of systems in equilibrium. Recent advancements in computer technology have provided the opportunity for ecological insect modelers to move aw...

  19. Sustainable Biocontrol of Apple Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol of insect pests is a cornerstone to sustainable production of apples and other crops. The ecology of orchards lends itself to the application of many management options which will enhance the sustainability of biocontrol. Orchards remain in place for decades, allowing for an evolution o...

  20. BIODIVERSITY Insect pests and pathogens of Australian

    E-print Network

    in the emergence of novel associations between pests, pathogens and trees planted, for example, to sustain established in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere as non-natives in intensively managed plantations. While. mearnsii. Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

  2. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) hold significant promise for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are being employed for various reconnaissance purposes (“eyes in the sky”), but not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Luck La...

  3. Environmental ethanol as an ecological constraint on the dietary breadth of the Spotted-Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Mat. (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and its implication for integrated pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spotted-wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is a recent exotic insect pest of the Americas. What makes SWD particularly destructive is the female’s double bladed and prominently serrated ovipositor, which inserts eggs below the epidermis of intact berries. Unlike the vast majority of Drosophi...

  4. As any experienced grower knows only too well, nursery management is a con-tinuous process of solving problems. One recurring problem is pests. In the past,

    E-print Network

    . Plants such as weeds, liv- erworts, and algae (L, M) can smother small plants. Photos A through J, algae, or liverworts) (figures 14.1L, 14.1M) can become pests when they com- pete with crop plants is an integrated and preventative approach that considers the overall health of the plant and the nursery

  5. Natural Products for Pest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most organisms synthesize secondary products with biological activity that is useful in their defense. Defense can be against vertebrates, arthropods, mollusks, plants (both algal and higher plants), and microbes. Many of these compounds have been used from ancient times to the present as pharmace...

  6. Sample NRCS Integrated Pest Management

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    : __________________________ Farm number: ___________________________ Tract number: ___________________________ Crop rotation is located in Rice County Minnesota. The property has a mix of orchard blocks, crop land, hay/pasture land for field crop production. Current aerial photography shows the location of these abandoned blocks, which

  7. PEST MANAGEMENT 2015 Legislative Summary

    E-print Network

    to achieving our mission of protecting the environment and food safety while responding to industry needs. I commodity organizations work together to ensure that Project GREEEN research aligns with industry priorities to challenges surrounding food, energy and the environment. Since 1997, Project GREEEN (Generating Research

  8. NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The topic of natural products as pesticides is reviewed, with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of adopting a natural product-based strategy for pesticide discovery. Current and past natural product and natural product-based herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, molluscicides, rodent...

  9. Texas Poultry Pest Control Practices 

    E-print Network

    Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Carey, John B.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.

    1999-06-01

    A 1996 survey of 242 Texas poultry operators found that fire ants and darling beetles have emerged as major pests in the industry. Survey results included types of poultry operations, pests, control methods and needs, and differences in operations...

  10. A Dynamical Analysis of a Piecewise Smooth Pest Control SI Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Liu, Wanbo; Tao, Fennmei; Kang, Baolin; Cong, Jiguang

    In this paper, we propose a piecewise smooth SI pest control system to model the process of spraying pesticides and releasing infectious pests. We assume that the pest population consists of susceptible pests and infectious pests, and that the disease spreads horizontally between pests. We take the susceptible pest as the control index on whether to implement chemical control and biological control strategies. Based on the theory of Filippov system, the sliding-mode domain and conditions for the existence of real equilibria, virtual equilibria, pseudo-equilibrium and boundary equilibria are given. Further, we show the global stability of real equilibria (or boundary equilibria) and pseudo-equilibrium. Our results can provide theoretical guidance for the problem of pest control.

  11. Assessment and management of chemical coping in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Fabbro, Egidio

    2014-06-01

    Chemical coping is a working definition that describes patients' intake of opioids on a scale that spans the range between normal nonaddictive opioid use for pain all the way to opioid addiction. Most patients will fall somewhere between the two extremes in using opioid analgesics to cope with their psychological or spiritual distress. The degree to which patients use their medications in a maladaptive manner will determine their susceptibility to drug toxicity and harm. When there are no obvious cancer-related causes for increased pain intensity, chemical coping and other patient-related factors such as delirium, somatization, and depression should be considered. As part of the initial evaluation of patients with cancer-related pain, a brief screening tool such as the CAGE questionnaire should be used to identify patients who may be at risk for chemical coping. Identifying patients at risk will allow clinicians to avoid unnecessary opioid toxicity, control pain, and improve quality of life. A structured approach for managing opioid use should be adopted, including standardized documentation, opioid treatment agreements, urine drug screens, frequent visits, and restricted quantities of breakthrough opioids. All patients at risk should receive brief motivational interviewing with an objective, nonjudgmental, and empathic style that includes personalized feedback, particularly about markers of risk or harm. For chemical copers approaching the addiction end of the spectrum, with evidence of compulsive use and destructive behavior, referral should be made to substance abuse specialists. PMID:24799476

  12. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  13. The War Against Pests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  14. Stored raisin products pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A large proportion of California grapes are dried for raisins. Insect pests of raisins can be separated into two categories; those insects attracted to drying raisins and those attacking stored raisins. Most of the insects that feed on drying raisins do not continue to feed on them when drying is c...

  15. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  16. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

  17. Moving plants means moving pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ornamentals industry must recognize not only that it is at direct risk from invasive species and resistant pests, but also that there is increased public awareness about the movement of any pest species on ornamental plants, and increased concern that these pests will move from ornamental plants...

  18. European Red Mite Pest Introduction

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    important fruit pests in the U.S. and Canada. Undersized fruit, foliage loss and weakened fruit buds canTree Fruit European Red Mite Pest Fact Sheet 6 Introduction This non-insect pest is a European native which was first discovered in the U.S. in 1911. Since that time, it has become one of the most

  19. Chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) thermal management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truesdell, Keith A.; Helms, Charles A.; Longergan, Thomas; Wisniewski, Charles F.; Scott, Joseph E.; Healey, Keith P.

    1995-03-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has been studied at the Phillips Laboratory since its invention in 1978. One of the most difficult challenges in COIL technology is to produce constant power for more than a few seconds; an essential feature for most applications. The key to developing a laser with these operational characteristics is management of the heat released during the production of singlet delta oxygen. Approximately 10 joules is deposited into the singlet delta oxygen generator (SOG) for every joule extracted as laser power. A recent test series demonstrated run times of 120 seconds at 9 kW by controlling the SOG reaction temperature with a flowing aqueous solution of cold hydroperoxide (BHP). This method of managing the energy released is quite effective but requires a large reservoir of cold BHP.

  20. Significance of Penicillium ochrochloron chitinase as a biocontrol agent against pest Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nilambari S; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2015-06-01

    Penicillium ochrochloron chitinase purified by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography was evaluated for its antifeedant and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera at different concentrations of 2000, 1000, 500, 250 and 100 U mL(-1). It reduced the successful pupation and increased larval and pupal mortality, adult emergence in a dosage-dependent manner when applied topically. The highest mortalities were recorded for groups treated with 2000 U mL(-1) chitinase activity. The studies showed P.ochrochloron chitinase can affect the growth of H.armigera larvae. Since this insect pest species has developed resistance and resurgence to chemical insecticides, only alternate is the usage of enzyme-based pesticide formulations as an environmentally friendly pest management tool. PMID:25723715

  1. Wireworms’ Management: An Overview of the Existing Methods, with Particular Regards to Agriotes spp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

    PubMed Central

    Barsics, Fanny; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J.

    2013-01-01

    Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health and environmental care brought out the need for alternative management techniques. This paper summarizes the main potential tools that have been studied up to now and that could be applied together in integrated pest management systems and suggests guidelines for future research. PMID:26466799

  2. Analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries and soils by GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS and two-dimensional GC-time-of-flight MS comparing organic and integrated pest management farming.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Virgínia C; Lehotay, Steven J; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Kwon, Hyeyoung; Mol, Hans G J; van der Kamp, Henk; Mateus, Nuno; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed 22 strawberry and soil samples after their collection over the course of 2 years to compare the residue profiles from organic farming with integrated pest management practices in Portugal. For sample preparation, we used the citrate-buffered version of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. We applied three different methods for analysis: (1) 27 pesticides were targeted using LC-MS/MS; (2) 143 were targeted using low pressure GC-tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC-MS/MS); and (3) more than 600 pesticides were screened in a targeted and untargeted approach using comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS). Comparison was made of the analyses using the different methods for the shared samples. The results were similar, thereby providing satisfactory confirmation of both similarly positive and negative findings. No pesticides were found in the organic-farmed samples. In samples from integrated pest management practices, nine pesticides were determined and confirmed to be present, ranging from 2 µg kg(-1) for fluazifop-p-butyl to 50 µg kg(-1) for fenpropathrin. Concentrations of residues in strawberries were less than European maximum residue limits. PMID:24224899

  3. Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect

    PubMed Central

    Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  4. Automatic monitoring of insect pests in stored grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manual sampling of insects in stored grain is a laborious and time consuming process. Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management. To make accurate insect management decisions, managers need to know both the insect species and numbers ...

  5. Computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics for geosystems management.

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2011-09-01

    This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.

  6. Short-range movement of major agricultural pests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, R.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

  7. Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation.

    PubMed

    Bryks, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and "expert witnesses" who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability. PMID:26467732

  8. Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Bryks, Sam

    2011-01-01

    The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and “expert witnesses” who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability. PMID:26467732

  9. Sigma Chemical's environmental management system -- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.; Takacs, J.; Olsson, P.

    1999-07-01

    Sigma Chemical Company (Sigma) is a world leader in the production of biochemicals and reagents for life science research. The Environmental Services requirement to be able to handle a wide variety of environmental data is challenging. To meet this task Sigma turned to develop in-house a state-of-the-art environmental management system. Sigma's environmental management system is a custom developed intranet web and PC-based Windows system. The system utilizes the company's intranet to allow individuals in a web application to fill out a request form to alert Environmental Services of material ready for pick-up. Environmental Services personnel collect and contain the material and use portable handheld barcode scanners to record the information. The system is then used to track material in different storage locations as well as to build and print manifests. A costing module also allows processing and disposal charges to be issued back to the various departments from which the materials were collected. The fluid integration of this system into the Environmental Services business practices has allowed this department to streamline their operation and to process and manifest more material than thought was possible. The system is also very dynamic and easily modified to incorporate new modules to help increase efficiency.

  10. Natural compounds for pest and weed control.

    PubMed

    Petroski, Richard J; Stanley, David W

    2009-09-23

    The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeedants, and prostaglandins, as well as growth regulators for plants and insects. Synthetic analogues of natural substances have been prepared to explore the relationships between chemical structure and observed biological activity. Recent scientific advances have resulted from better methods for the chemical synthesis of target compounds and better analytical methods. The capability of analytical instrumentation continues to advance rapidly, enabling new insights. PMID:19719128

  11. A method of multiplex PCR for detection of field released Beauveria bassiana, a fungal entomopathogen applied for pest management in jute (Corchorus olitorius).

    PubMed

    Biswas, Chinmay; Dey, Piyali; Gotyal, B S; Satpathy, Subrata

    2015-04-01

    The fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana is a promising biocontrol agent for many pests. Some B. bassiana strains have been found effective against jute pests. To monitor the survival of field released B. bassiana a rapid and efficient detection technique is essential. Conventional methods such as plating method or direct culture method which are based on cultivation on selective media followed by microscopy are time consuming and not so sensitive. PCR based methods are rapid, sensitive and reliable. A single primer PCR may fail to amplify some of the strains. However, multiplex PCR increases the possibility of detection as it uses multiple primers. Therefore, in the present investigation a multiplex PCR protocol was developed by multiplexing three primers SCA 14, SCA 15 and SCB 9 to detect field released B. bassiana strains from soil as well as foliage of jute field. Using our multiplex PCR protocol all the five B. bassiana strains could be detected from soil and three strains viz., ITCC 6063, ITCC 4563 and ITCC 4796 could be detected even from the crop foliage after 45 days of spray. PMID:25680421

  12. Leaves of Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae) as a potential insecticide for the management of three species of stored grain insect pests.

    PubMed

    Rajashekar, Y; Ravindra, K V; Bakthavatsalam, N

    2014-11-01

    Insects cause extensive damage to stored grains and their value added products. Among the stored grain pests Sitophilus oryzae (L.) Callosobruchus chinensis (Fab.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) are considered as destructive pests in India. Plants may provide alternatives to currently used insect control agents as they constitute rich source in bioactive molecules. Lantana camara, an erect shrub, which grows widely in the tropics, exhibits insecticidal activity against several insects. The methanol extract from leaves of L. camara has fumigant and contact toxicity against S. oryzae, C. chinesis and T. castaneum. In fumigant assays, The LC50 for S. oryzae was 128 ?l/L(1), C. chinensis 130.3 ?l/L(1), and T. castaneum 178.7 ?l/L(1). The LD50 values for S. oryzae C. chinensis and T. castaneum in contact toxicity were 0.158, 0.140 and 0.208 mg/cm(2), respectively. For grain treatment, a concentration of 500 mg/L(1) and 7 days exposure were needed to obtain 90 - 100 % population extinction in all three insects. Probit analysis showed that C. chinensis were more susceptible than S. oryzae and T. castaneum. Gaschromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) studies for extracts indicated the presence of potent fumigant molecules in L. camara. The prospect of utilizing L. camara as potent fumigant insecticide is discussed. PMID:26396352

  13. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  14. Order Online This is a free online version of Sweet Corn Pest

    E-print Network

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    Order Online This is a free online version of Sweet Corn Pest Identification and Management, so) EXT-INFO To order a high-resolution printed version of Sweet Corn Pest Identification and Management of Minnesota Roger Becker andVince Fritz Pennsylvania State University Michael Orzolek #12;4 Preface ThisSweetCorn

  15. Dynamic Project and Workflow Management for Design Processes in Chemical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Westfechtel, Bernhard

    Dynamic Project and Workflow Management for Design Processes in Chemical Engineering Markus Heller processes in chemical engineering are hard to support. The design process is highly creative, many design processes in chemical engineering are hard to support. Since design processes are highly creative, they can

  16. Insecticide susceptibility of three species of cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pests of grapes.

    PubMed

    Smirle, Michael J; Zurowski, Cheryl L; Lowery, D Thomas; Mostafa, Ayman M

    2013-10-01

    Climbing cutworms in the genus Abagrotis are economically important pests of grapes in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia (BC). Grapes are recently introduced into many areas of the region, and the association between crop and pest is new and still evolving. This has led to limited information being available on pest management strategies, including the evaluation of chemical controls compatible with local production practices. Few insecticides are currently registered in Canada for cutworm control on grapes, and our study was initiated to provide information on the efficacy of potential control materials. We were also interested in the relative susceptibilities of the three most common cutworm species attacking grape buds in BC--Abagrotis orbis (Grote), Abagrotis reedi Buckett, and Abagrotis nefascia (Smith). Dose-response bioassays with nine insecticides were conducted on neonate larvae using Bok Choy leaf disks, and on fourth-instar larvae using diet incorporation. There were considerable differences in the toxicity of insecticides within species for neonates and fourth instars. For some materials, the relative toxicity to neonates and fourth instars were not correlated. Response to insecticides among the three species showed variation as well, and correct identification of the species complex present in individual locations is important in choosing the best available control material. PMID:24224256

  17. Less is Better. Laboratory Chemical Management for Waste Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    An objective of the American Chemical Society is to promote alternatives to landfilling for the disposal of laboratory chemical wastes. One method is to reduce the amount of chemicals that become wastes. This is the basis for the "less is better" philosophy. This bulletin discusses various techniques involved in purchasing control, inventory…

  18. Risk management in Chemical Supply Chains Rajagopalan Srinivasana,b

    E-print Network

    Alvarado, Matías

    to various types of risk. 1. Introduction The chemical industry is one of the world's largest manufacturing industries, producing more than 50,000 chemicals and formulations. Starting from raw materials such as oil, coal, gas, water, air and minerals, the chemical industry produces a vast array of substances that form

  19. A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To date, research on suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has focused on determining health effects in humans and wildlife and on occurrence of these chemicals in the environment. There is strong evidence that certain chemicals are causing endocrine-related effects in...

  20. The effect of transitional organic production practices on soilborne pests of tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The perceived risk of pest resurgence upon transition from conventional to organic-based farming systems remains a critical obstacle to expanding organic vegetable production, particularly where chemical fumigants have provided soilborne pest and disease control. Microplots were used to study the ef...

  1. Keep checking to see if the pests are still there and which control methods are working.

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    tells you how fast it reproduces, where it likes to live, what it likes to eat, and special things. One way is to place sticky traps near the places that you think the pests are living or traveling These are chemicals that kill pests. In IPM, we may use pesticides when the other control methods are not effective

  2. The importance of arthropod pests in Belgian pome fruit orchards.

    PubMed

    Bangels, Eva; De Schaetzen, Charles; Hayen, Guy; Paternotte, Edouard; Gobin, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Located in temperate, maritime climate with frequent rainfall, crop protection in Belgian orchards is dominated by fungicides. Though, the importance of arthropod pests should not be underestimated. Pcfruit, the former Research station of Gorsem, has been maintaining a warning system for fruit pests in Belgium since 1944. Therefore, various pests and beneficial's and their life cycle stages have been monitored in Gorsem and in different observation posts across Belgium, being part of a monitoring network. Although up to 3000 arthropod species are present in pome fruit orchards, about 25% can be considered as harmful and another 25% as beneficial. Out of those species, around 100 harmful and 50 beneficial organisms are omnipresent. The list of monitored species is extended yearly for upcoming or difficult to control organisms. Integrated pest management was introduced in the eighties, with the accent on using selective pesticides and saving beneficial organisms. A shift in pesticide use affected the importance of secondary pests, together with recent exceptional climatic conditions. Following many years of monitoring insects and mites and editing warning bulletins in our station, a ranking of the economical importance of different pest species is presented. PMID:19226798

  3. RESEARCH ON RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The activity is a research program that will develop technical tools to manage sources of EDCs to the environment and to manage EDC accumulated in the environment. Several sources are under investigation including wastewater treatment plants, concentrated animal feeding operatio...

  4. Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation.

  5. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    PubMed

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. PMID:26100381

  6. Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

  7. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai-Long; Wan, Pin-Jun; Wang, Wei-Xia; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Ran (RanGTPase) in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan) was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1) Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2) The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control. PMID:26554926

  8. Ran Involved in the Development and Reproduction Is a Potential Target for RNA-Interference-Based Pest Management in Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Xia; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Ran (RanGTPase) in insects participates in the 20-hydroxyecdysone signal transduction pathway in which downstream genes, FTZ-F1, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1) and vitellogenin, are involved. A putative Ran gene (NlRan) was cloned from Nilaparvata lugens, a destructive phloem-feeding pest of rice. NlRan has the typical Ran primary structure features that are conserved in insects. NlRan showed higher mRNA abundance immediately after molting and peaked in newly emerged female adults. Among the examined tissues ovary had the highest transcript level, followed by fat body, midgut and integument, and legs. Three days after dsNlRan injection the NlRan mRNA abundance in the third-, fourth-, and fifth-instar nymphs was decreased by 94.3%, 98.4% and 97.0%, respectively. NlFTZ-F1 expression levels in treated third- and fourth-instar nymphs were reduced by 89.3% and 23.8%, respectively. In contrast, NlKr-h1 mRNA levels were up-regulated by 67.5 and 1.5 folds, respectively. NlRan knockdown significantly decreased the body weights, delayed development, and killed >85% of the nymphs at day seven. Two apparent phenotypic defects were observed: (1) Extended body form, and failed to molt; (2) The cuticle at the notum was split open but cannot completely shed off. The newly emerged female adults from dsNlRan injected fifth-instar nymphs showed lower levels of NlRan and vitellogenin, lower weight gain and honeydew excretion comparing with the blank control, and no offspring. Those results suggest that NlRan encodes a functional protein that was involved in development and reproduction. The study established proof of concept that NlRan could serve as a target for dsRNA-based pesticides for N. lugens control. PMID:26554926

  9. Control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruit with entomopathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A plethora of arthropods attack fruit crops throughout the tropics and sub-tropics. The predominant method for controlling most of these pests is the application of broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Growing concern over the negative environmental effects has encouraged development of alternative c...

  10. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  11. Peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  12. Managing Auditory Risk from Acoustically Impulsive Chemical Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedone, Jeffrey H.; Gee, Kent L.; Vernon, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical demonstrations are an integral part of the process of how students construct meaning from chemical principles, but may introduce risks to students and presenters. Some demonstrations are known to be extremely loud and present auditory hazards; little has been done to assess the risks to educators and students. Using laboratory-grade…

  13. Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of several alternativ...

  14. Transport and fate of methyl iodide a its pest control in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For fumigants, information on transport and fate, as well as pest control, is needed to develop management practices with the fewest human and environmental health risks while offering sufficient pest control efficacy. For this purpose, a 2-D soil chamber (60 cm wide, 60 cm long, and 6 cm thick) wit...

  15. Development of an embryonic lethality system for transgenic sit in the fruit pest, ceratitis capitata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceratitis capitata, known as one of the world's most destructive insect pest, costs farmers billions of dollars annually. Improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of area-wide pest management. Transgenic methodology should enhance and widen the applicability of the sterile ...

  16. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  17. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  18. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  19. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  20. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  1. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Jonathan G.; Fausti, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in altered pesticide use patterns, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic and environmental costs. Characteristics of the ecological community influence pest populations, but the nature of these interactions remains poorly understood within realistic community complexities and on operating farms. We examine how species diversity and the topology of linkages in species’ abundances affect pest abundance on maize farms across the Northern Great Plains. Our results show that increased species diversity, community evenness, and linkage strength and network centrality within a biological network all correlate with significantly reduced pest populations. This supports the assertion that reduced biological complexity on farms is associated with increased pest populations and provides a further justification for diversification of agroecosystems to improve the profitability, safety, and sustainability of food production systems. Bioinventories as comprehensive as the one conducted here are conspicuously absent for most agroecosystems but provide an important baseline for community and ecosystem ecology and the effects of food production on local biodiversity and ecosystem function. Network analyses of abundance correlations of entire communities (rather than focal interactions, for example, trophic interactions) can reveal key network characteristics, especially the importance and nature of network centrality, which aid in understanding how these communities function. PMID:26601223

  2. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

  3. CHEMICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT POWWER EVAPORATION-CATALYTIC OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates the ability of the Chemical Waste Management POWWER System to reduce the volume of aqueous waste and catalytically oxidize volatile contaminants. his evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluati...

  4. Toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons: exposure, identification, and management by syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Anthony J; French, Robert N E; Walter, Frank G

    2015-02-01

    Toxidromes aid emergency care providers in the context of the patient presenting with suspected poisoning, unexplained altered mental status, unknown hazardous materials or chemical weapons exposure, or the unknown overdose. The ability to capture an adequate chemical exposure history and to recognize toxidromes may reduce dependence on laboratory tests, speed time to delivery of specific antidote therapy, and improve selection of supportive care practices tailored to the etiologic agent. This article highlights elements of the exposure history and presents selected toxidromes that may be caused by toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons. Specific antidotes for toxidromes and points regarding their use, and special supportive measures, are presented. PMID:25455660

  5. UVM chemical use planning form.docx; 2012 Version 4 Page 1 of 6 Risk Management & Safety

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    UVM chemical use planning form.docx; 2012 Version 4 Page 1 of 6 Risk Management & Safety Your Laboratory Safety Partners http://www.uvm.edu/safety/ UVM CHEMICAL USE PLANNING FORM Chemical Hygiene Plan. Hazard Identification: a) Identify the Hazardous Chemical or Hazard Group: 1. List chemical name and CAS

  6. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

  7. All chemotherapy waste must be managed as a hazardous chemical waste. For more information regarding hazardous chemical waste management please visit www.ehs.uci.edu/programs/enviro/.

    E-print Network

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    All chemotherapy waste must be managed as a hazardous chemical waste. For more information.ehs.uci.edu/programs/enviro/. Chemotherapeutic Agents: Examples of chemotherapeutic agents include but are not limited to: · Liquid chemotherapy Expired stock vials · Solid chemotherapy waste includes but is not limited to trace-contaminated: o

  8. CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Sex Pheromone of the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, and

    E-print Network

    CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Sex Pheromone of the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, and Its Potential aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, has seriously threatened soybean production in North America, afterCanada.ControlofA.glycineshasfocusedonapplicationsofinsecticides, which are not a long-term solution to soybean aphid pest management. In autumn, soybean aphids start

  9. Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

  10. Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Pests, Third Edition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compendium of Wheat Diseases and Pests, Third Edition, is a practical guidebook for the identification and management of over 150 important diseases, insects, and other disorders of wheat. Over 70 expert authors contributed diagnostic photographs and authoritative chapters to this edition. For e...

  11. Forest Pest Control and Timber Treatment Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The document is a compilation of pamphlets and circulars which discuss forest management, control of undesirable woody plants, herbicides in forestry, diseases and insect pests, and equipment for pesticide application. (CS)

  12. Prevention methods for pest control and their use in Poland.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-04-01

    Prevention methods can still be a cost-effective and efficient tool for pest control. Rational use of prevention methods is a feasible way to reduce dependency on chemical protection in agriculture. Costs, workload and farmers' awareness are key issues, however. In Poland, crop rotation is used as a method for pest control only to a limited extent owing to the high share of cereals in the crop structure. The choice of resistant varieties is satisfactory, but farmers should make use of qualified seed material more often. Liming is recommended on the majority of farms on account of widespread soil acidity. Favourable aspects as regards the prevention of pest development are biodiversity and the popularity of prevention cultivation techniques. PMID:24729297

  13. PAPA--Univ. Calif. IPM Program--SF Bay Water Quality Control Board Integrated Pest Management for Landscapes and Public Agencies Seminar

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    :00 Registration 7:30 Welcome Mary Louise Flint, Associate Director for Urban and Community IPM, UC Statewide IPM Program 7:35 Continuing Education and License Renewal Update Shayla Tarp, PAPA 8:00 Laws and Regulations 12:55 Managing Urban and Suburban Wildlife Robert Timm, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Director

  14. Integrated applications of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. tenebrionis and Beauveria bassiana for biologically-based integrated pest management of Colorado potato beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted over the past decade has indicated a low level of synergism and potentially high degree of complementarity between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- and Beauveria bassiana (Bb)-based biopesticides applied for management of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. In view...

  15. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER: MEASURING HISTORICAL FARMER PERCEPTIONS AND ADOPTION OF TRANSGENIC BT CORN AS A PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year, multi-state survey of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn farmers was conducted to evaluate perceptions of Bt corn performance and its utility as a European corn borer management option. A questionnaire was sent to farmers who had grown Bt corn during the previous field season...

  16. INFLUENCE OF HERBICIDE TOLERANT SOYBEAN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS ON INSECT PEST POPULATIONS AND PEST-INDUCED CROP DAMAGE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of weed management in conventional cultivars and transgenic herbicide-tolerant cultivars were examined in soybean to assess their impact on insect pest populations. Soybean cultivar had very little impact on the insect species observed, except that maturity group effects were observed f...

  17. An index method to evaluate growers’ pesticide use for identifying on-farm innovations and effective alternative pest management strategies: a case study of winegrape in Madera County, California*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-juan; Qin, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Browde, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUI and PUIM. It was found that both PUI and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI?10 and 34 with 1060, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds, which indicated that their pest controls heavily depended on pesticides rather than on-farm management. Through the case study, the proposed approach proved to be useful for analyzing the growers’ pesticide use intensities and interpreting their pesticide use behaviors, which led to a new start point for further investigation of searching ways to reduce pesticide environmental risk. PMID:21370508

  18. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Stanley H.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

  19. WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND ITS MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that wastewater treatment (WWT) can be a significant source of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to the environment. WWT can include centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or on-site WWT technologies. EDCs found in WWT effluents (aqueous and biosol...

  20. Integrating drivers influencing the detection of plant pests carried in the international cut flower trade.

    PubMed

    Areal, F J; Touza, J; MacLeod, A; Dehnen-Schmutz, K; Perrings, C; Palmieri, M G; Spence, N J

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyses the cut flower market as an example of an invasion pathway along which species of non-indigenous plant pests can travel to reach new areas. The paper examines the probability of pest detection by assessing information on pest detection and detection effort associated with the import of cut flowers. We test the link between the probability of plant pest arrivals, as a precursor to potential invasion, and volume of traded flowers using count data regression models. The analysis is applied to the UK import of specific genera of cut flowers from Kenya between 1996 and 2004. There is a link between pest detection and the Genus of cut flower imported. Hence, pest detection efforts should focus on identifying and targeting those imported plants with a high risk of carrying pest species. For most of the plants studied, efforts allocated to inspection have a significant influence on the probability of pest detection. However, by better targeting inspection efforts, it is shown that plant inspection effort could be reduced without increasing the risk of pest entry. Similarly, for most of the plants analysed, an increase in volume traded will not necessarily lead to an increase in the number of pests entering the UK. For some species, such as Carthamus and Veronica, the volume of flowers traded has a significant and positive impact on the likelihood of pest detection. We conclude that analysis at the rank of plant Genus is important both to understand the effectiveness of plant pest detection efforts and consequently to manage the risk of introduction of non-indigenous species. PMID:17761382

  1. Pathogenicity of Fusarium semitectum against crop pests and its biosafety to non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

    2006-01-01

    Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no influence on the composting ability and growth of E. foetida. F. semitectum, in general, expressed its selectivity against sucking pests and proved its eco-friendly characteristics to the beneficial organisms and especially safe to Sericulture, Apiculture and Vermiculture industries in Karnataka, India. This novel fungus can be well incorporated as a viable tactics into the integrated management programmes of crop pests. PMID:17385514

  2. Integrating Environmental Management in Chemical Engineering Education by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the Student's Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanes, Maria T.; Palomares, Antonio E.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we show how specific challenges related to sustainable development can be integrated into chemical engineering education by introducing an environmental management system in the laboratory where the students perform their experimental lessons. It is shown how the system has been developed and implemented in the laboratory, what role…

  3. PRECISION CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOILS TO SUPPORT PRECISION MANAGEMENT DECISIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technological advances in application of fertilizers and crop cultivars have expanded the potential for more precise management of soil. Resin-extraction, an alternative method of characterizing soils, coupled with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) provides information about the relative activity of ...

  4. Pests and Diseases 1 Exotic longhorn beetle

    E-print Network

    in Malaysia. The symposium title, Biological Invasions of Forest Insect Pests - Agents of Global Change-ordinator of a session on the biology of quarantine pests and diseases and a joint paper by Joan Webber and Clive Brasier

  5. Effectiveness of the High Dose/Refuge Strategy for Managing Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Plants Expressing One or Two Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Gryspeirt, Aiko; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    To delay resistance development to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing their own insecticide, the application of the Insect Resistance Management strategy called “High Dose/Refuge Strategy” (HD/R) is recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). This strategy was developed for Bt plants expressing one toxin. Presently, however, new Bt plants that simultaneously express two toxins are on the market. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficiency of the HD/R strategy for both these Bt toxins. As the current two-toxin Bt plants do not express two new Cry toxins but reuse one toxin already in use with a one-toxin plant, we estimated the spread of resistance when the resistance alleles are not rare. This study assesses: (i) whether the two toxins have to be present in high concentration, and (ii) the impact of the relative size of the refuge zone on the evolution of resistance and population density. We concluded that for Bt plants expressing one toxin, a high concentration is an essential condition for resistance management. For the pyramided Bt plants, one toxin could be expressed at a low titer if the two toxins are used for the first time, and a small refuge zone is acceptable. PMID:23162699

  6. Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, V. Rodney

    This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

  7. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  8. Chemical Safety Management Program for Lockheed Martin Energy Systems operations at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    C.W. McMahon

    2000-03-24

    Operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems), the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a manufacturing facility that plays an integral role in the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Fulfilling the national security mission at the Y-12 Plant, continuing to be the cornerstone of uranium and lithium technologies for DOE, and providing customers with solutions for challenging manufacturing needs requires usage of a variety of chemicals and chemical processes. Performing this work safely while protecting workers, the public, and the environment is their commitment. The purpose of this document is to provide a description of the essential components of chemical safety, the integration of these components into the Y-12 Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), and the functional integration of chemical safety issues across Y-12 organizations and programs managed by Energy Systems.

  9. Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

  10. Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of…

  11. General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

  12. Forest Pest Control. Sale Publication 4072.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmann, M. W., Ed.

    The forest pests discussed in this guide are weeds, insects, diseases, and vertebrates. The guide gives information about types of forests, characteristics of common forest pests, pest control methods, pesticides and application equipment used in forestry, and environmental and human hazards. (Author/BB)

  13. Compatibility of Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Blastospores with Agricultural Chemicals Used for Management of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Avery, Pasco B; Pick, David A; Aristizábal, Luis F; Kerrigan, James; Powell, Charles A; Rogers, Michael E; Arthurs, Steven P

    2013-01-01

    Biorational insecticides are being increasingly emphasized for inclusion in integrated pest management programs for invasive insects. The entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria fumosorosea, can be used to help manage the Asian citrus psyllid with minimal impact on beneficial arthropods, but its effectiveness may be compromised by agrochemicals used to control concurrent arthropod pests and diseases. We evaluated the compatibility of I. fumosorosea blastospores with a range of spray oils and copper-based fungicides registered for use in citrus groves. Results of laboratory and greenhouse tests showed a range of responses of the fungus to the different materials, including compatibility and incompatibility. Overall, I. fumosorosea growth in vitro was reduced least by petroleum-based materials and most by botanical oils and borax, and some of the copper-based fungicides, suggesting that tank mixing of I. fumosorosea with these latter products should be avoided. However, equivalent negative effects of test materials on fungal pathogenicity were not always observed in tests with adult psyllids. We hypothesize that some oils enhanced adherence of blastospores to the insect cuticle, overcoming negative impacts on germination. Our data show that care should be taken in selecting appropriate agrochemicals for tank-mixing with commercial formulations of entomopathogenic fungi for management of citrus pests. The prospects of using I. fumosorosea for managing the invasive Asian citrus psyllid and other citrus pests are discussed. PMID:26462531

  14. Impact of Regulatory Decisions on Emerging Pest Control Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest control research is an enormously broad field. Pests can be segregated into broad biological categories such as rodents, insects, nematodes, weeds, fungi, bacteria. Pests can be categorized by the product or environment in which the pest occurs such as crop pests, stored product pests, forest p...

  15. Thiamethoxam Seed Treatments Have No Impact on Pest Numbers or Yield in Cultivated Sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Bredeson, Michael M; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2015-12-01

    The use of neonicotinoid seed treatments is a nearly ubiquitous practice in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pest management. Sunflowers have a speciose pest complex, but also harbor a diverse and abundant community of beneficial, nontarget organisms which may be negatively affected by pest management practices. Here, we investigate how the foliar and subterranean arthropod pest communities in sunflower fields were affected by a thiamethoxam seed treatment over three site years (two years on one farm, and another year at an additional field in the second year). Thiamethoxam and its metabolite clothianidin in leaf tissue were quantified throughout the growing season, and yield differences between treatments were measured. Across site years, foliar herbivores and key pests of sunflowers were unaffected by the seed treatment. Likewise, subterranean herbivores were unaffected. Thiamethoxam was measurable in leaf tissue through the R1 plant stage, while its metabolite clothianidin was detected throughout flowering (R6). No difference in sunflower yield was observed between treatments across site years. This research suggests that neonicotinoid seed treatments in sunflowers do not always provide economic benefits to farmers in the form of pest reductions or yield improvements. Future research should focus on sunflower integrated pest management strategies that limit nontarget effects of agrochemicals, while providing greater economic returns to farmers. PMID:26340223

  16. Reforming state-level chemicals management policies in the United States: status, challenges, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Ken; Tickner, Joel; Torrie, Yve

    2009-01-01

    During the last several years there has been increasing public concern about chemicals in everyday products. Scientific studies are increasingly revealing the build-up of some substances in ecosystems and in our bodies and new findings are linking exposures to hazardous chemicals to a range of adverse human health effects. Despite these trends, there has been little federal initiative in the United States on reforming chemicals management policies for well over two decades, even though a variety of analyses have identified significant gaps in the regulatory structure. As has historically been the case, states are beginning to fill the holes in federal leadership. This article explores this emerging state leadership and establishes a vision for and elements of policies to reduce hazardous chemicals in the products we buy and the places we go. It examines international efforts to reform chemicals management policies, such as the European REACH legislation and corporate leadership in advancing safer products. Finally, it outlines specific challenges states face in developing integrated, comprehensive chemicals management policies. We conclude that while there are plenty of challenges to implementation of chemicals policy reforms, it is a propitious time for states to become leaders in policy innovation that can help achieve safer production systems and products for future generations. This article is part of a Lowell Center for Sustainable Production report entitled "Options for State Chemicals Policy Reform" that provides in-depth analysis of the pros and cons of policy options to address a range of aspects of state-level chemicals policy reform. The article has been edited slightly for use in New Solutions. The report has been widely distributed to policy-makers, advocates, and others across the United States. PMID:19447756

  17. Adaptive management of pest resistance by Helicoverpa species (Noctuidae) in Australia to the Cry2Ab Bt toxin in Bollgard II® cotton

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Sharon; Mahon, Rodney J; Rossiter, Louise; Kauter, Greg; Leven, Tracey; Fitt, Gary; Baker, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In Australia, monitoring Helicoverpa species for resistance to the Cry2Ab toxin in second generation Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton has precisely fulfilled its intended function: to warn of increases in resistance frequencies that may lead to field failures of the technology. Prior to the widespread adoption of two-gene Bt cotton, the frequency of Cry2Ab resistance alleles was at least 0.001 in H. armigera and H. punctigera. In the 5 years hence, there has been a significant and apparently exponential increase in the frequency of alleles conferring Cry2Ab resistance in field populations of H. punctigera. Herein we review the history of deploying and managing resistance to Bt cotton in Australia, outline the characteristics of the isolated resistance that likely impact on resistance evolution, and use a simple model to predict likely imminent resistance frequencies. We then discuss potential strategies to mitigate further increases in resistance frequencies, until the release of a third generation product. These include mandating larger structured refuges, applying insecticide to crops late in the season, and restricting the area of Bollgard II® cotton. The area planted to Bt-crops is anticipated to continue to rise worldwide; therefore the strategies being considered in Australia are likely to relate to other situations. PMID:25567948

  18. Incidence of Sitophilus oryzae and other stored-product pests on cowpea in local markets in Accra: management strategies employed by retailers.

    PubMed

    Egbon, I N; Ayertey, J N

    2013-05-01

    In recent times, the unusual presence of Sitophilus on cowpea has become an issue in Ghana as it constitutes a threat to food sufficiency and food security; this, by extension, necessitated the execution of this survey to establish the specific identity of the insect and its incidence, on stored cowpea in Ghana and consequently assess the level of awareness of traders and the management strategies employed. Using internal morphological identification techniques, the insect was identified as Sitophilus oryzae with an incidence rate of 12, 22 and 20% as against 50, 41 and 42% incidence rate of Callosobruchus maculatus after 30, 60 and 90 days respectively, of undisturbed storage of cowpea within the marketing systems in Accra, Ghana. Relatively low number of retailers (35.44%, N = 79) was aware of this occurrence, with 91.14% of this employing the energy-demanding and time-consuming sieving techniques as their main control strategies. This paper draws attention to the possible worsening of food insecurity already eminent in Africa for insects are no respecters of international or geo-political boundaries as they can spread to other countries, should this observation be left unchecked. PMID:24498808

  19. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control.

    PubMed

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Strand, Michael R; Snyder, William E

    2010-07-01

    Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural pest-management practices often lead to altered food web structure and communities dominated by a few common species, which together contribute to pest outbreaks. Here we show that organic farming methods mitigate this ecological damage by promoting evenness among natural enemies. In field enclosures, very even communities of predator and pathogen biological control agents, typical of organic farms, exerted the strongest pest control and yielded the largest plants. In contrast, pest densities were high and plant biomass was low when enemy evenness was disrupted, as is typical under conventional management. Our results were independent of the numerically dominant predator or pathogen species, and so resulted from evenness itself. Moreover, evenness effects among natural enemy groups were independent and complementary. Our results strengthen the argument that rejuvenation of ecosystem function requires restoration of species evenness, rather than just richness. Organic farming potentially offers a means of returning functional evenness to ecosystems. PMID:20596021

  20. Managing the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wastewater-impacted streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2013-01-01

    A revolution in analytical instrumentation circa 1920 greatly improved the ability to characterize chemical substances. This analytical foundation resulted in an unprecedented explosion in the design and production of synthetic chemicals during and post-World War II. What is now often referred to as the 2nd Chemical Revolution has provided substantial societal benefits; with modern chemical design and manufacturing supporting dramatic advances in medicine, increased food production, and expanding gross domestic products at the national and global scales as well as improved health, longevity, and lifestyle convenience at the individual scale. Presently, the chemical industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the United States (U.S.) and the second largest in Europe and Japan, representing approximately 5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in each of these countries. At the turn of the 21st century, the chemical industry was estimated to be worth more than $1.6 trillion and to employ over 10 million people, globally. During the first half of the 20th century, the chemical sector expanded rapidly, the chemical industry enjoyed a generally positive status in society, and chemicals were widely appreciated as fundamental to individual and societal quality of life. Starting in the 1960s, however, the environmental costs associated with the chemical industry increasingly became the focus, due in part to the impact of books like “Silent Spring” and “Our Stolen Future” and to a number of highly publicized environmental disasters. Galvanizing chemical industry disasters included the 1976 dioxin leak north of Milan, Italy, the Love Canal evacuations in Niagara, New York beginning in 1978, and the Union Carbide leak in Bhopal, India in 1984. Understanding the environmental impact of synthetic compounds is essential to any informed assessment of net societal benefit, for the simple reason that any chemical substance that is in commercial production or use will eventually find its way to the environment. Not surprisingly given the direct link to profits, manufacturers intensely investigate and routinely document the potential benefits of new chemicals and chemical products. In contrast, the environmental risks associated with chemical production and uses are often investigated less intensely and are poorly communicated. An imbalance in the risk-benefit analysis of any synthetic chemical substance or naturally occurring chemical, which presence and concentration in the environment largely reflects human activities and management, is a particular concern owing to the fundamental link between chemistry and biology. Biological organisms are intrinsically a homeostatic balance of innumerable internal and external chemical interactions and, thus, inherently sensitive to changes in the external chemical environment.

  1. Project management of the San Onofre steam generator chemical cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Herschthal, M.A.; Malzahn, M.V.; Knight, K.

    1997-12-01

    The San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) units 2 and 3 is a 3410-MW(thermal) dual-unit Combustion Engineering (CE) pressurized water reactor (PWR). Each of the units` four reactor coolant loops utilizes two vertical U-tube recirculating steam generators (SGs) to transfer heat to a secondary steam plant. The SONGS Steam Generator Strategic Plan was developed to optimize the operation, maintenance, and working life of the SGs. The plan called for SG chemical cleaning (SGCC) during the units` respective cycle-10 refueling outages. Free-span SG tube cracking at other CE PWRs in 1995 and 1996, resulted in the decision to accelerate the SGCC to the cycle-9 refueling outages.

  2. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations.

    PubMed

    Dotson, G Scott; Hudson, Naomi L; Maier, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). This DSS facilitates dynamic decision making during each of the distinct life cycle phases of an emergency incident (ie, preparedness, response, or recovery) and identifies EMO needs. A checklist tool provides key questions intended to guide users through the complexities of conducting a dermal risk assessment. The questions define the scope of the framework for resource identification and application to support decision-making needs. The framework consists of three primary modules: 1) resource compilation, 2) prioritization, and 3) decision. The modules systematically identify, organize, and rank relevant information resources relating to the hazards of dermal exposures to chemicals and risk management strategies. Each module is subdivided into critical elements designed to further delineate the resources based on relevant incident phase and type of information. The DSS framework provides a much needed structure based on contemporary decision analysis principles for 1) documenting key questions for EMO problem formulation and 2) a method for systematically organizing, screening, and prioritizing information resources on dermal hazards, exposures, risk characterization, and management. PMID:26312660

  3. Testing for multiple invasion routes and source populations for the invasive brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam: implications for pest management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Wood, Dustin A.; Stanford, James W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) population on the Pacific island of Guam has reached iconic status as one of the most destructive invasive species of modern times, yet no published works have used genetic data to identify a source population. We used DNA sequence data from multiple genetic markers and coalescent-based phylogenetic methods to place the Guam population within the broader phylogeographic context of B. irregularis across its native range and tested whether patterns of genetic variation on the island are consistent with one or multiple introductions from different source populations. We also modeled a series of demographic scenarios that differed in the effective size and duration of a population bottleneck immediately following the invasion on Guam, and measured the fit of these simulations to the observed data using approximate Bayesian computation. Our results exclude the possibility of serial introductions from different source populations, and instead verify a single origin from the Admiralty Archipelago off the north coast of Papua New Guinea. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis thatB. irregularis was accidentally transported to Guam during military relocation efforts at the end of World War II. Demographic model comparisons suggest that multiple snakes were transported to Guam from the source locality, but that fewer than 10 individuals could be responsible for establishing the population. Our results also provide evidence that low genetic diversity stemming from the founder event has not been a hindrance to the ecological success of B. irregularis on Guam, and at the same time offers a unique ‘genetic opening’ to manage snake density using classical biological approaches.

  4. Managing Turfgrass Insects of the Northeast

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    /17/2014) Albrecht Koppenhöfer Rutgers Cooperative Extension #12;Outline · INTRODUCTION TO INSECTS (3-7) · TURF from USDA #12;TURF INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT from Watschke et al. 1994 #12;INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IPM is the considered and coordinated use of pest control tactics in turf management. The goal of IPM is to maintain

  5. Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities

    PubMed Central

    Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework. PMID:23914197

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: X*TRAX MODEL 200 THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEMS - CHEMICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The X*TRAX™ Mode! 200 Thermal Desorption System developed by Chemical Waste Management, Inc. (CWM), is a low-temperature process designed to separate organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and other solid media. The X*TRAX™ Model 200 is fully transportable and consists of thre...

  7. RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS (EDCS) RESEARCH PROGRAM -- TREATMENT AND DESTRUCTION BRANCH (LRPCD, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals now in and continuing to enter the environment may be causing adverse endocrine-related health ecosystem effects. Because recognized exposure of humans and ecosystems to known or highly suspected EDCs may be minimized quickly and easily by adapting existing risk manage...

  8. Chemical ecology of Xyleborus glabratus and implications for monitoring and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Chemical ecology of Xyleborus glabratus and implications for monitoring and management Paul E. Kendra, Wayne S. Montgomery, Jerome Niogret, Elena Q. Schnell, and Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture Research Station, 13601 Old Cutler Rd., Miami, FL 33158 The redbay ambrosia b...

  9. Use of Management Practices to Mitigate Chemical Transport with Runoff from Fairway Turf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality surveys have detected chemical pollutants in surface waters of urban and rural areas. As a result, attempts are being made to identify the sources of these compounds and reduce their inputs. The use of fertilizers and pesticides in highly managed turf systems has raised questions conce...

  10. Water quality impacts on infiltration rates and using chemical transport models as management tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of low quality waters for irrigation requires improved tools for managing soil salinity, and increased knowledge of chemical effects on infiltration, plant ion uptake, and impact to ground and surface water. Impacts of irrigation water with SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) 2,4,6,8 and l0 on infiltr...

  11. Impact of the Munitions Rule on management of military chemical warfare agents and associated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmell, T.A.; Green, D.R.; Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1997-07-01

    The Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA), an amendment to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), was signed by President Bush on October 6, 1992. Section 107 of the FFCA amended RCRA by adding a new Section 3004(y) that required the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop, after consultation with the US Department of Defense (DOD) and appropriate state officials, regulations that identify when conventional and chemical munitions become hazardous waste and that provide for the safe transportation and storage of these wastes. The Military Munitions Rule (MMR) was proposed by EPA on November 8, 1995. The impact of the MMR on the management of military chemical warfare agents and associated waste is an important topic. There has been significant controversy regarding the disposition, under RCRA, of military chemical stockpile materials, and the MMR, in addition to issues with respect to conventional munitions, was expected to clarify the applicability of RCRA in these situations. The purpose of this paper is to review the applicability of the RCRA regulations to military chemical munitions that become waste and to discuss the impacts of the final MMR on the management of these wastes. The focus is on selected chemical agents that are part of the US chemical stockpile.

  12. Interactions of biological and herbicidal management of Melaleuca quinquenervia with fire: Consequences for ecosystem services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An example of a successful integrated pest plant management program is the Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake project in the Florida Everglades. Mechanical, chemical, and biological control methods have been used in concert to eliminate large monotypic stands while containing future population ex...

  13. Genome-based approach to discover new livestock pest control technologies: The horn fly (Haematobia irritans) genome sequencing project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion of the Americas by the horn fly, H. irritans, has resulted in control issues throughout the continent. Insecticide resistance is a major complicating factor with efforts to manage this pest. Stakeholder focus groups identified the horn fly as the top priority arthropod pest affecting cattle...

  14. Implementing principles of the integrated control concept 50 years later – current challenges in IPM for arthropod pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 1959 publication of the article ‘The Integrated Control Concept’ by Stern and colleagues established a new philosophical framework for pest management that eventually provided a foundation for IPM to develop. Considered within the context of pest control approaches 50 years ago, the integrated ...

  15. Modeling the integration of parasitoid, insecticide, and transgenic insecticidal crop for the long-term control of an insect pest.

    PubMed

    Onstad, David W; Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Roush, Rick; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-06-01

    The tools of insect pest management include host plant resistance, biological control, and insecticides and how they are integrated will influence the durability of each. We created a detailed model of the population dynamics and population genetics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and its parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), to study long-term pest management in broccoli Brassica oleracea L. Given this pest's history of evolving resistance to various toxins, we also evaluated the evolution of resistance to transgenic insecticidal Bt broccoli (expressing Cry1Ac) and two types of insecticides. Simulations demonstrated that parasitism provided the most reliable, long-term control of P. xylostella populations. Use of Bt broccoli with a 10% insecticide-free refuge did not reduce the long-term contribution of parasitism to pest control. Small refuges within Bt broccoli fields can delay evolution of resistance > 30 generations if resistance alleles are rare in the pest population. However, the effectiveness of these refuges can be compromised by insecticide use. Rainfall mortality during the pest's egg and neonate stages significantly influences pest control but especially resistance management. Our model results support the idea that Bt crops and biological control can be integrated in integrated pest management and actually synergistically support each other. However, the planting and maintenance of toxin-free refuges are critical to this integration. PMID:23865173

  16. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...public docket without change, and may be made available...using highly hazardous chemicals with the potential of...to a major release, fire, or explosion. The...procedures to manage changes; preparing reports at...Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR...

  17. NMSU EXPLOSIVE CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES These procedures are a guide to help prevent explosions and protect health and the

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    NMSU EXPLOSIVE CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES These procedures are a guide to help prevent explosions and protect health and the environment. If you identify old explosives or old organic peroxide: All explosive chemicals should be identified and carefully managed. There are two main classes

  18. Chemical Burn Injury in Kumasi: The Trend and Complications following and Their Management

    PubMed Central

    Akpaloo, Joseph; Chirurgie, Facharzt; Aboah, Ken; Klutsey, Ellen; Hoyte-Williams, Paa Ekow; Farhat, Boutros; Turkson, Edmund; Yorke, Joseph; Chirurgie, Facharzt; Ametih, Richard; Hussey, Romeo

    2015-01-01

    Background: A chemical burn refers to irritation and destruction of human tissue caused by exposure to a chemical, usually by direct contact with the chemical or its fumes. The study investigated the trend and complications following chemical burns and their management. Methods: The study involved a retrospective review of Burns Registry at the Burns Intensive Care Unit of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital on patients who were admitted for burns from May 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013. Results: Chemical burns admissions accounted for 3.5% (n = 17) out of the total 487 burns cases, consisting of 12 males (70.6%) and 5 females (29.4%). Mean total burns surface area was 21.9%; mean length of stay in Burns Intensive Care Unit was 9.5 days. The etiological agents for the chemical burns included the following: hot caustic soda 1 (5.9%); acid 9 (53.9%)—the most common; hot ethanol 3 (17.6%); and other chemicals such as other bases, oxidizers, solvents, etc. accounted for 4 (23.5%) etiological agents. Outcome included 11 discharges (64.7%), 6 transferred out to other wards (35.3%), and 0 deaths (0.0%). The complications included severe scar contractures in 5 patients (29.4%), loss of vision: partial/total = 2 (11.8%), gross keloidal/hypertrophic scars = 10 (58.8%). Conclusions: Chemical burns are severe and often cause severe debilitating sequelae including partial/total loss of vision. But the current study showed that only a small population (3.5%) were affected by chemical burns and no death was recorded; society has to be continually conscious of chemicals, especially caustic agents, and hence take the necessary precautions so as to prevent these avoidable complications. PMID:26579354

  19. Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower. 

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    1983-01-01

    Insecticide Concentrate/ Harvest (listed alphabetically) Acre Interval Sun- Bacillus thuringiensis See remarks. flower (Dipel ?, Thuricide?, et.al.) 0 Moth WP 0.5 lb. Liquid 1 pt. Chlorpyrifos See remarks. (Lorsban ?) 42 4E 1 pt. Endosulfan See... remarks. (Thiodan?) 3 EC 1 1/3 pt. 0 2 miscible 2 qt. 0 50 WP 21b. 0 Methidathion See remarks. (Supracide?) 2 E 2 pt. 50 Methyl parathion See remarks. 4E 1 pt. 30 Parathion See remarks. 8 E 1/ 2-1 pt. 30 REMARKS Bacillus thuringiensis. Has...

  20. DAIRY PEST MANAGEMENT (ARTHROPODS) Phillip E. Kaufman

    E-print Network

    Kaufman, Phillip E.

    by supplementing animal diets with grain. It has been es- timated that stable flies annually result in losses of confined fly control. Removing or drying breeding areas can considerably reduce fly abundance. In areas