Note: This page contains sample records for the topic chemical pest management from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. Last update: November 12, 2013.
Turfgrass culture, a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, poses unique challenges for integrated pestmanagement. Why insect control on lawns, golf courses, and sport fields remains insecticide-driven, and how entomological research and extension can best support nascent initiatives in environmental golf and sustainable lawn care are explored. High standards for aesthetics and playability, prevailing business models, risk management-driven control decisions, and difficulty in predicting pest outbreaks fuel present reliance on preventive insecticides. New insights into pest biology, sampling methodology, microbial insecticides, plant resistance, and conservation biological control are reviewed. Those gains, and innovations in reduced-risk insecticides, should make it possible to begin constructing holistic management plans for key turfgrass pests. Nurturing the public's interest in wildlife habitat preservation, including beneficial insects, may be one means to change aesthetic perceptions and gain leeway for implementing integrated pestmanagement practices that lend stability to turfgrass settings. PMID:21910640
The goal of this paper is to assess the relative impacts of pest-control methods in greenhouses, based on current LCA tools. As a case study, the relative impacts of two tomato production methods, chemicalpestmanagement (CPM) and integrated pestmanagement (IPM), are assessed. The amount of the active ingredients applied, the fate of the ingredients in the various greenhouse
A. Anton; F. Castells; J. I. Montero; M. A. J. Huijbregts
|This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pestmanagement specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pestmanagement (entomology, pestmanagement planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pestmanagementchemicals and…
Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.
The research project was directed towards the development of a nonchemical insect pestmanagement program. The management of insect pests in highway landscapes involves the solution of various interacting problems some in common with agricultural pest man...
This Research Summary describes an alternative approach towards pestmanagement--an approach that takes into account both the necessity and the danger of pesticides. Integrated pestmanagement involves the carefully managed use of multiple pest control tactics. It is a highly eff...
Chemical soil disinfestation often leads to the eradication of most microbial residents. This creates a microbial vacuum, which often leads to a rebounding of pathogens. This in turn may cause even more damage than those originally targeted for control. Soils, especially those with low microbial populations are more vulnerable to pathogen reinvasion following fumigation. A non-chemical approach to improve the
After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pestmanagement is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…
A detailed description of the integrated pestmanagement approach, its stage of development, and the federal effort being initiated to promote its further development and use. It is the result of a CEQ study to define positive approaches in alleviating th...
This book chapter discusses sugarcane culture and history, describes arthropod biologies and injury, and identifies sugarcane pestmanagement factors to consider for people interested in commercial sugarcane production. Arthropod groups include 10 orders and 40 families. Sugarcane pestmanagement ...
These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pestmanagement and the development of Integrated PestManagement (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…
|These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pestmanagement and the development of Integrated PestManagement (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…
The first Web site is an integrated pestmanagement (IPM) resource from the University of Minnesota Extension Service (1) with a number of regional newsletters and crop specific fact sheets. The next resource from the University of California (2) is a comprehensive overview of IPM dealing with a wide range of topics including weather, weeds, and pesticides. Cornell University's Guide to Natural Enemies in North America (3) (last mentioned in the December 10, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is a tutorial and guide to the beneficial insects that help control weeds, diseases, and pests. The home page for the Center for Integrated PestManagement (4) is a gateway to IPM research. Teachers wishing to incorporate the ecological concepts of IPM into their classrooms may be interested in this curriculum developed by Michigan State University (5) downloadable in Adobe Acrobat Reader format. Users looking to stay current on the subject of IPM may want to check out the IPMnet newsletters (6) from the Consortium for International Crop Protection. Brief reports of several IPM successes are posted on this New York State IPM Web site (7). Lastly, the home gardener may benefit from this (8) Texas A&M University site focusing on IPM for the home vegetable garden.
The report analyzes several policy instruments designed to induce adoption of chemical-reducing pestmanagement strategies. A model of technology choice is developed that shows how pest losses depend on environmental and resource characteristics as well a...
The development of integrated pestmanagement is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pestmanagement tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemicalpest control. PMID:23156158
Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo
Pestmanagement on a global scale experienced a total revolution after World War II when synthetic organic compounds were in agriculture and public health. However, it soon became apparent that there were many limitations in the use of chemicals for pestmanagement. In agriculture, problems of pest resurgence, secondary pest outbreaks, pest resistance and adverse effects of pesticides on the
Burgeoning consumer interest in organically produced foods has made organic farming one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture. This growth has not been supported adequately by rigorous research to address challenges such as arthropod pestmanagement. The research that has been conducted, however, is complemented by research in aspects of conventional agriculture that may have applicability in organic systems, as well as by research in underpinning fields such as applied ecology. This article synthesizes the available literature in relation to a conceptual model of arthropod pestmanagement strategies suitable for organic systems. The present work uses the four phases of the model to review the strategies in an agroecological context and provides a synthesis of the factors that influence the success of each phase. Rather than constituting a fringe science, pestmanagement research for organic systems draws on cutting edge science in fields such as landscape and chemical ecology and has a bright future. PMID:16846384
Zehnder, Geoff; Gurr, Geoff M; Kühne, Stefan; Wade, Mark R; Wratten, Steve D; Wyss, Eric
The Hanford Site Integrated PestManagement Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated PestManagement (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.
Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to managepests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phytochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Caps...
Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to managepests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phtyochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Capsi...
Initially there were 16 objectives (11 terrestrial and 5 aquatic) for the environmental monitoring studies of the Grasshopper Integrated PestManagement (GHIPM) Project. Most of the terrestrial objectives were concerned with determining effects of the grasshopper control meth- ods and materials on birds. Studies varied from total bird population response after spray operations or bait treat- ments to toxicology tests
In spite of its potential health and environmental risks and contribution to agribusiness, the use of agricultural chemicals\\u000a for yard care has not been well studied. In our discrete-continuous choice model, estimated with data from a national survey,\\u000a a household chooses how much money, if any, to initially spend on types of agricultural chemicals and applicators and how\\u000a much time
Scott R. Templeton; David Zilberman; Seung Jick Yoo; Andrew L. Dabalen
Insect and rodent pests are serious threats to the sanitation and quality control standards necessary in seafood processing. To meet the changing standards of sanitation and quality required of seafood processing establishments, pest control operations mu...
Washington State ranks fourth in the U.S. in both the number of farms growing garlic and harvested acres. Acreage has increased substantially in recent years. Weeds pose the major pestmanagement concern for small- and large-scale garlic growers in Washington. Numerous weed species are troublesom...
The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests. PMID:23057183
|Discusses the concept of integrated pest control combining chemical and biological methods. Describes many examples of the successful use of coccinellids beetles to control other insects. Cites ecological and physiological research studies related to predator prey relationships involving coccinellids. (EB)|
Integrated PestManagement (IPM) has a prominent place on the policy agenda. Due to continuing concerns regarding unsustainable\\u000a trends in pestmanagement, promoting the adoption of IPM has been a priority in developed and developing countries. The history\\u000a of IPM, however, can be traced back to the late 1800s when ecology was identified as the foundation for scientific plant protection.
The Areawide Management and Evaluation of Melaleuca (TAME Melaleuca) program was established and funded by the USDA's Areawide PestManagement Initiative. The goal of the 5-year TAME Melaleuca project is to demonstrate the effectiveness of an integrated approach for the control of melaleuca. TAME Me...
Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pestmanagement in a variety of crops.
This 3-part manual is designed to assist school officials understand the principles of Integrated PestManagement and aid them in implementing those principles into a comprehensive pest control program in their facilities. Developed for Illinois, this guide can be applied in part or in total to other areas of the country. Part 1 explains what an…
Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.
|This 3-part manual is designed to assist school officials understand the principles of Integrated PestManagement and aid them in implementing those principles into a comprehensive pest control program in their facilities. Developed for Illinois, this guide can be applied in part or in total to other areas of the country. Part 1 explains what an…
Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.
Temperature is one of the principal factors delimitating survival and reproduction of insects and mites. Temperature extremes are a cause of significant natural mortality in populations and offer a rich potential that can be exploited for the development of environmentally safe pestmanagement strategies. The omnipresence of temperature stress has resulted in a wealth of physiological and behavioral adaptations that
This article covers various aspects of disease and pestmanagement as they relate specifically to medicinal plants. Typical disease symptoms for fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes are described as well as illustrated on specific medicinal crops. Various research tools recently made accessible...
Organic agriculture is increasing in popularity worldwide due to the rapidly growing market for organic products. In organic production, insects present a major pest challenge that negatively impacts crop health and yield. To successfully manage an organic farmland, an effective insect pestmanagement program is key. In this review, we first describe the approaches currently used for pestmanagement in
Gitika Shrivastava; Mary Rogers; Annette Wszelaki; Dilip R. Panthee; Feng Chen
Management of stored-grain insect pests by farmers or elevator managers should be based upon a knowledge of the grain storage environment and the ecology of insect pests. Grain storage facilities and practices, geographical location, government policies, and marketing demands for grain quality are discussed as factors influencing stored-grain insect pestmanagement decisions in the United States. Typical practices include a
The adventive Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake is an invasive pest plant in the greater Everglades region of Florida. Public agencies and organizations responsible for natural areas management have developed effective chemical and mechanical strategies for treating infestati...
Elicitors are compounds, which activate chemical defences in plants. Various biosynthetic pathways are acti- vated in treated plants depending on the compound used. The most intensively studied elicitor for manipulating defence pathways in plants is methyl jasmonate, which modifies e.g. the production of terpenoids, the main constituents of conifer oleoresin. Other commonly tested chemical elicitors are salicylic acid, methyl salicylate
J. K. Holopainen; J. Heijari; A.-M. Nerg; M. Vuorinen; P. Kainulainen
Diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a serious and important pest of crucifers in many parts of the world, particularly in the tropics. Although many studies have been conducted oil this pest, the development of realistic integrated pestmanagement (IPM) for it is not progressing as it should, and even less so on its practical implementation. The many reasons for
The agricultural use of synthetic insecticides usually protects crops but imposes strong selection pressures that can result in the development of resistance. The most important resistance mechanisms are enhancement of the capacity to metabolically detoxify insecticides and alterations in target sites that prevent insecticides from binding to them. Insect control methods must incorporate strategies to minimize resistance development and preserve the utility of the insecticides. The most promising approach, integrated pestmanagement, includes the use of chemical insecticides in combination with improved cultural and biologically based techniques.
Brattsten, L. B.; Holyoke, C. W.; Leeper, J. R.; Raffa, K. F.
The control of crop pests by their natural enemies represents an important ecosystem service that maintains the stability of agricultural systems and has the potential to mitigate pest control costs. Recently, there has been growing interest in enhancing natural control services via habitat management that provides resources for adult natural enemies, such as food and shelter. Management of natural enemy
Insecticide resistance management (IRM) programme was launched in 26 cotton-growing districts of India in 2002 to rationalize\\u000a the use of pesticides. The IRM strategy is presented within a full Integrated PestManagement (IPM) context with the premise\\u000a that unless full-fledged efforts to understand all aspects of resistance phenomenon are made, any attempt to implement IPM\\u000a at field level would not
Rajinder Peshin; Rajinder Kalra; A. K. Dhawan; Tripat Kumar
A fundamental shift to a total system approach for crop protection is urgently needed to resolve escalating economic and environmental consequences of combating agricultural pests. Pestmanagement strategies have long been dominated by quests for “silver bullet” products to control pest outbreaks. However, managing undesired variables in ecosystems is similar to that for other systems, including the human body and social orders. Experience in these fields substantiates the fact that therapeutic interventions into any system are effective only for short term relief because these externalities are soon “neutralized” by countermoves within the system. Long term resolutions can be achieved only by restructuring and managing these systems in ways that maximize the array of “built-in” preventive strengths, with therapeutic tactics serving strictly as backups to these natural regulators. To date, we have failed to incorporate this basic principle into the mainstream of pestmanagement science and continue to regress into a foot race with nature. In this report, we establish why a total system approach is essential as the guiding premise of pestmanagement and provide arguments as to how earlier attempts for change and current mainstream initiatives generally fail to follow this principle. We then draw on emerging knowledge about multitrophic level interactions and other specific findings about management of ecosystems to propose a pivotal redirection of pestmanagement strategies that would honor this principle and, thus, be sustainable. Finally, we discuss the potential immense benefits of such a central shift in pestmanagement philosophy.
Lewis, W. J.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Phatak, Sharad C.; Tumlinson, J. H.
|The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated PestManagement (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…
The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated PestManagement (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…
|In 2001, the Environmental Studies Senior Capstone Seminar class at Denison University helped the state of Ohio work to prevent harmful pesticide use in schools. In cooperation with Ohio State University's Integrated PestManagement (IPM) in Schools Program, Denison conducted a statewide survey of school districts to determine current pest…
This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated PestManagement program for facilities housing library…
Image processing for pestmanagement (IPPM) is an interactive distance diagnostic tool for the diagnosis and identification of diseases and insects. The objective of the IPPM was the automation of the diagnostic process based on interaction of growers and experts via the Internet, to enable pest diagnosis in crops at the earliest possible stage, using photographs produced by growers, coupled
Y. Koumpouros; B. D. Mahaman; M. Maliappis; H. C. Passam; A. B. Sideridis; V. Zorkadis
|This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated PestManagement program for facilities housing library…
Pestmanagement has changed dramatically during the past 15 years by the introduction of transgenes into crops for the purpose of pestmanagement. Transgenes for herbicide resistance or for production of one or more Bt toxins are the predominant pestmanagement traits currently available. These two traits have been rapidly adopted where available because of their superior efficacy and simplification of pestmanagement for the farmer. Furthermore, they have substantially reduced the use of environmentally and toxicologically suspect pesticides while reducing the carbon footprint of pestmanagement as reduced tillage became more common, along with fewer trips across the field to spray pesticides. The most successful of these products have been glyphosate-resistant crops, which cover approximately 85% of all land occupied by transgenic crops. Over-reliance on glyphosate with continual use of these crops has resulted in the evolution of highly problematic glyphosate-resistant weeds. This situation has resulted in some farmers using weed management methods similar to those used with conventional crops. Evolution of resistance has not been a significant problem with Bt crops, perhaps because of a mandated resistance management strategy. Transgenic crops with multiple genes for resistance to different herbicides and resistance to additional insects will be available in the next few years. These products will offer opportunities for the kind of pestmanagement diversity that is more sustainable than that provided by the first generation of transgenic crops. PMID:21528864
African agriculture is largely traditional--characterized by a large number of smallholdings of no more than one ha per household. Crop production takes place under extremely variable agro-ecological conditions, with annual rainfall ranging from 250 to 750 mm in the Sahel in the northwest and in the semi-arid east and south, to 1500 to 4000 mm in the forest zones in the central west. Farmers often select well-adapted, stable crop varieties, and cropping systems are such that two or more crops are grown in the same field at the same time. These diverse traditional systems enhance natural enemy abundance and generally keep pest numbers at low levels. Pestmanagement practice in traditional agriculture is a built-in process in the overall crop production system rather than a separate well-defined activity. Increased population pressure and the resulting demand for increased crop production in Africa have necessitated agricultural expansion with the concomitant decline in the overall biodiversity. Increases in plant material movement in turn facilitated the accidental introduction of foreign pests. At present about two dozen arthropod pests, both introduced and native, are recognized as one of the major constraints to agricultural production and productivity in Africa. Although yield losses of 0% to 100% have been observed on-station, the economic significance of the majority of pests under farmers' production conditions is not adequately understood. Economic and social constraints have kept pesticide use in Africa the lowest among all the world regions. The bulk of pesticides are applied mostly against pests of commercial crops such as cotton, vegetables, coffee, and cocoa, and to some extent for combating outbreaks of migratory pests such as the locusts. The majority of African farmers still rely on indigenous pestmanagement approaches to managepest problems, although many government extension programs encourage the use of pesticides. The current pestmanagement research activities carried out by national or international agricultural research programs in Africa focus on classical biological control and host plant resistance breeding. With the exception of classical biological control of the cassava mealybug, research results have not been widely adopted. This could be due to African farmers facing heterogeneous conditions, not needing fixed prescriptions or one ideal variety but a number of options and genotypes to choose from. Indigenous pestmanagement knowledge is site-specific and should be the basis for developing integrated pestmanagement (IPM) techniques. Farmers often lack the biological and ecological information necessary to develop better pestmanagement through experimentation. Formal research should be instrumental in providing the input necessary to facilitate participatory technology development such as that done by Farmer Field Schools, an approach now emerging in different parts of Africa. PMID:10761592
...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production...producer or handler of an organic facility must use management...Removal of pest habitat, food sources, and breeding...
Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pestmanagement through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...
Integrated pestmanagement (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...
Abundant natural enemies in tropical Asian irrigated rice usually prevent significant insect pest problems. Integrated pestmanagement (IPM) extension education of depth and quality is required to discourage unnecessary insecticide use that upsets this natural balance, and to empower farmers as expert managers of a healthy paddy ecosystem. Farmers' skill and collaboration will be particularly important for sustainable exploitation of the potential of new, higher-yielding and pest-resistant rice. IPM "technology transfer" through training and visit (T&V) extension systems failed, although mass media campaigns encouraging farmer participatory research can reduce insecticide use. The "farmer first" approach of participatory nonformal education in farmer field schools, followed by community IPM activities emphasizing farmer-training-farmer and research by farmers, has had greater success in achieving IPM implementation. Extension challenges are a key topic for rice IPM research, and new pestmanagement technology must promote, rather than endanger, ecological balance in rice paddies. PMID:10761589
This article empirically examines the impact of Farmer Field Schools (FFS) on insecticide use by onion farmers in the Philippines. FFS is an intensive Integrated PestManagement (IPM) information dissemination method that encourages producers to lower their reliance on chemical insecticides for controlling pests and diseases in their farms. These FFS-IPM trainings have been conducted within vegetable-based production systems in
The aim of this study was to (1) examine the factors involved in the adoption or non-adoption of Bt cotton, (2) identify sources of Bt cotton seed acquisition, and (3) evaluate farmers' knowledge and perception of insect pests incidence and management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 150 farmers growing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein
Muhammad Arshad; Anjum Suhail; M. Dildar Gogi; M. Yaseen; M. Asghar; M. Tayyib; Haider Karar; Faisal Hafeez; Unsar Naeem Ullah
Bacillus thuringiensis is a major microbial insecticide and a source of genes encoding several proteins toxic to insects. In this paper the authors\\u000a give a brief summary ofBacillus thuringiensis used on the integrated pestmanagement in forestry. The derivatives of Bt strain HD1 subspkurstaki have been widely used to control the forest pests such as the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar),
Effective pest control remains an essential part of food production, and it is provided both by chemicals and by natural enemies within agricultural ecosystems. These methods of control are often in conflict because of the negative impact of chemicals on natural enemies. There are already well-established approaches such as those provided by the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control-Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms for testing, collecting, and publishing information on responses of natural enemies to chemicals based on laboratory responses of specific organisms; however, these tests do not assess the cumulative impact of chemical inputs across an entire season or consider impacts on the complex communities of natural enemies that can provide effective pest control on a farm. Here, we explore the potential of different approaches for assessing the impact of chemicals on agricultural ecosystems and we propose a simple metric for sustainable chemical use on farms that minimizes overall impact on beneficial groups. We suggest ways in which the effectiveness of metrics can be extended to include persistence and habitat features. Such metrics can assist farmers in developing targets for sustainable chemical use as demonstrated in the viticultural industry. PMID:18232389
Biotechnology offers new solutions to existing and future pest problems in agriculture including, for the first time, possible\\u000a tools to use against insect transmitted pathogens causing plant diseases. Here, we describe the strategy first described as\\u000a Autocidal Biological Control applied for the development of conditional lethal pink bollworm strains. When these strains are\\u000a mass-reared, the lethal gene expression is suppressed
|Integrated pestmanagement (IPM) is a program of prevention, monitoring, and control that offers the opportunity to eliminate or drastically reduce hazardous pesticide use. IPM is intended to establish a program that uses cultural, mechanical, biological, and other non-toxic practices, and only introduces least-hazardous chemicals as a last…
|This publication is a compilation of original and republished materials from numerous individuals and organizations working on pesticide reform and integrated pestmanagement (IPM)--using alternatives to prevailing chemical-intensive practices. The manual provides comprehensive information on implementing school IPM, including a practical guide…
Public policy in developing countries has failed to invest in educating farmers on how to deal with variable agro-ecosystems and a changing world. Here we present an assessment of a participatory training approach in changing crop protection by farmers from chemically dependent, to more sustainable practices in line with the tenets of Integrated PestManagement (IPM). We review the evidence
Integrated PestManagement (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy/mix of tatics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to managepests, including human…
This study investigated consumer awareness of integrated pestmanagement (IPM) and the effects of two marketing strategies. Specific objectives were to find whether eastern Massachusetts farmstand and farmers' market customers purchasing sweet corn care how their food is grown, whether they are aware of IPM, whether they would prefer to buy IPM-certified sweet corn and why, and whether the marketing
M. D. Anderson; C. S. Hollingsworth; V. Van Zee; W. M. Coli; M. Rhodes
The ability to genetically engineer arthropods using recombinant DNA meopens new opportunities for improving pestmanagement programs but also creates new responsibilities, including evaluation of the potential risks of releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment. It is now becoming easier to transform diverse species of arthropods by a variety of recombinant DNA methods. Useful genes and genetic regulatory elements are
A mail survey was conducted to assess current computer hardware use and perceived needs of potential users for software related to crop pestmanagement in Nebraska. Surveys were sent to University of Nebraska-Lincoln agricultural extension agents, agribusiness personnel (including independent crop consultants), and crop producers identified by extension agents as computer users. There were no differences between the groups in
Scientists and engineers in areawide pestmanagement programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...
|This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pestmanagement policies, such as integrated pestmanagement (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pestmanagement policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…
Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There are highly ...
Although integrated pestmanagement (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commercially available insect-resistant transgenic crops show clear benefits for agriculture and there are many exciting new developments such as transgenic plants that enhance biological control. Effective evaluation tools are needed to ascertain that transgenic plants do not result in undesired non-target effects. If these conditions are met, there will be ample opportunities for transgenic plants to become key components of environmentally benign and durable pestmanagement systems. Here we discuss the potential and challenges for incorporating transgenic plants in IPM. PMID:19783315
Kos, Martine; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, Louise E M
Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There are highly successful products based on natural compounds in the major pesticide classes. These include the herbicide glufosinate (synthetic phosphinothricin), the spinosad insecticides, and the strobilurin fungicides. These and other examples of currently marketed natural product-based pesticides, as well as natural toxins that show promise as pesticides from our own research are discussed.
Duke, Stephen O.; Cantrell, Charles L.; Meepagala, Kumudini M.; Wedge, David E.; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Schrader, Kevin K.
Pestmanagement practices used in several deciduous fruit crops are discussed. The chapter begins by noting the geographic\\u000a origin and approximate date of domestication of several fruit crops and the need for more fruit breeding programs to identify\\u000a and incorporate insect resistant genes into more fruit cultivars. It is assumed that fruit production probably began as small\\u000a plantings where growers
\\u000a Corn, Zea mays L., grown in many areas of the United States suffers from a variety of insect species that attack virtually all parts of\\u000a the growing plant. Many conventional pestmanagement programs have been developed to combat these insects with varying degrees\\u000a of success. In the mid-1990s, the commercial introduction and subsequent widespread adoption of Bt transgenic hybrids has
Integrated PestManagement (IPM) systems in developed countries are largely based on substantial bodies of available information\\u000a from a number of sources, including published material, extension agents, contract crop consultants and, more recently, the\\u000a internet. Delivery systems for this information have traditionally been through extension agents in the USA but the internet\\u000a is playing a larger role. IPM in developing
B. M. Shepard; M. D. Hammig; G. R. Carner; P. A. C. Ooi; J. P. Smith; R. Dilts; A. Rauf
Adoption of integrated pestmanagement(IPM) practices in the Guatemalan highlands has beenlimited by the failure of researchers andextensionists to promote genuine farmer participationin their efforts. Some attempts have been made toredress this failure in the diffusion-adoptionprocess, but farmers are still largely excluded fromthe research process. Understanding farmers'agricultural knowledge must be an early step toward amore participatory research process. With this
VARMA, R. V., SAJEEV, T. V. & SUDHEENDRAKUMAR, V. V. 2007. Pest susceptibility of Tectona grandis under intensive management practices in India. The pest complex associated with intensively managed teak plantations was studied in the states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in India. Pests encountered in teak plantations in forest areas such as Hyblaea puera, Eutectona machaeralis and Sahyadrassus
Effects of farmer field school (FFS) and the conventional (classroom lectures) training on acquisition of pestmanagement knowledge and skills by small vegetable farmers were studied in Yunnan province, China from 2003 to 2007. There were significant gains of knowledge about vegetable pests, natural enemies, insect and disease ecology and pestmanagement among the FFS farmers, but were no significant
Pestmanagement practices in our nations schools are in need of improvement. More than 50 published surveys and studies since 1994 have documented deficiencies including unmanaged pest infestations, unsafe and illegal use of pesticides, and unnecessary pe...
Pestmanagement research within the context of agroforestry is in its infancy, and it is often difficult to say when a particular\\u000a pest justifies investment in research to establish facts. Understanding the potentials and drawbacks of farmers’ indigenous\\u000a ecological knowledge (ethnoecology) may form the basis for constructive collaboration between farmers, agroforestry scientists\\u000a and extension staff. Therefore, the objectives of the
Gudeta Weldesemayat Sileshi; Elias Kuntashula; Patrick Matakala; Philip O. Nkunika
During the summer of 1994, a prototype grain chiller was tested to determine its efficacy as a pestmanagement tool and its economic competitiveness with conventional pestmanagement techniques. Four popcorn bins (121.5 tonnes) at a commercial facility were utilized. Two bins were managed using traditional ambient aeration and fumigation. The remaining two bins were managed with chilled aeration. Insect
Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pestmanagement system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. Abbreviation: MFR Maximum field rate
Brunner, J. F.; Beers, E. H.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.
Pesticides, applied in large quantities in urban communities to control cockroaches, pose potential threats to health, especially to children, who have proportionately greater exposures and unique, developmentally determined vulnerabilities. Integrated pestmanagement (IPM) relies on nonchemical tools--cleaning of food residues, removal of potential nutrients, and sealing cracks and crevices. Least toxic pesticides are used sparingly. To evaluate IPM's effectiveness, the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center, in partnership with two community health centers in East Harlem, New York City (NY, USA), undertook a prospective intervention trial. Families (n = 131) enrolled when mothers came to the centers for prenatal care. Household cockroach infestation was measured by glue traps at baseline and 6 months afterward. The intervention group received individually tailored IPM education, repairs, least-toxic pest control application, and supplies, with biweekly pest monitoring for 2 months and monthly for 4 months. The control group, residing in East Harlem and demographically and socioeconomically similar to the intervention group, received an injury prevention intervention. The proportion of intervention households with cockroaches declined significantly after 6 months (from 80.5 to 39.0%). Control group levels were essentially unchanged (from 78.1 to 81.3%). The cost, including repairs, of individually tailored IPM was equal to or lower than traditional chemically based pest control. These findings demonstrate that individually tailored IPM can be successful and cost-effective in an urban community.
Brenner, Barbara L; Markowitz, Steven; Rivera, Maribel; Romero, Harry; Weeks, Matthew; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Deych, Elena; Garg, Anjali; Godbold, James; Wolff, Mary S; Landrigan, Philip J; Berkowitz, Gertrud
Effective management of area-wide integrated pestmanagement (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) is key to success. Programme planning includes collection of baseline data and a feasibility assessment. The optimal management structure is where the programme can be implemented effectively and flexibly, independent of government politics, bureaucracy, and even corruption that impede timely goal achievement. Ideally, programmes
V. A. DYCK; J. Reyes Flores; M. J. B. VREYSEN; E. E. REGIDOR FERNÁNDEZ; T. Teruya; B. Barnes; P. Gómez Riera; D. Lindquist; M. Loosjes
Portions of three commercial citrus orchards were treated for 1 yr with foliar imidacloprid or for 2 yr with a systemic formulation in a replicated plot design to determine the impact of this neonicotinoid on the San Joaquin Valley California citrus integrated pestmanagement (IPM) program. Foliar-applied imidacloprid had little effect on California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell; or citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), populations. Short-term suppression of the parasitoids Aphytis melinus DeBach and Comperiella bifasciata Howard; vedalia, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant); and the predacious mite Euseius tularensis (Congdon) were observed. Suppression of natural enemies allowed scales and mites to maintain higher populations in the treated areas compared with the nontreated areas. Thus, foliar imidacloprid did not exhibit control of these citrus pest species, and it disrupted biological control. Systemically applied imidacloprid suppressed California red scale and citricola scale populations 2-3 mo after treatment. Suppression of parasitoids of the California red scale also was observed. Thus, treatments of systemic imidacloprid applied in areawide management programs for invasive pests would provide a benefit of California red scale and citricola scale suppression. However, this treatment provided only single-season control of citricola scale, it was somewhat disruptive of biological control, and it did not suppress densities of either scale as low as a treatment of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos for citricola scale or the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen for California red scale. Insecticides with longer periods of efficacy and greater IPM compatibility than imidacloprid should be used for a sustainable IPM approach in California citrus. PMID:18459411
Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Robillard, S M; Gorden, J M
World-wide, integrated pestmanagement (IPM) has become the accepted strategy for plant protection over the last five decades.\\u000a Cotton growers in the Cañete valley, Peru were amongst the first to adopt a combination of pestmanagement practices to save\\u000a the cotton crop from the ravages caused by pests despite applying 16 insecticide sprays on average. However, it was not until
Rajinder Peshin; Rakesh S. Bandral; WenJun Zhang; Lewis Wilson; Ashok K. Dhawan
Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pestmanagement (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pestmanagement as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations. PMID:22022258
Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' “diffusion of innovation theory”. In particular, the success of integrated pestmanagement (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pestmanagement as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations.
Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. Various aspects of its biology, ecology, management, and impact on olive production are highlighted. With the discovery of insecticidal resistance in some populations frequently treated with organophosphates, old and new control options are being investigated. The potential of biological control is examined. Surveys suggest that a small group of braconids in the Opiinae subfamily best represent the primary parasitoids attacking olive fruit fly in its native range. These species include Psyttalia lounsburyi, P. dacicida, P. concolor, P. ponerophaga, and Utetes africanus. Bracon celer, another braconid but in the Braconinae subfamily, is also reared from the fruit fly in its native range. The potential of these and other natural enemies is discussed with respect to olive fruit fly biology, commercial olive production, and biological constraints that may limit their success. We suggest that numerous species exist that should be further investigated as control agents for olive fruit fly in the many climatic regimes where the pest is found. PMID:19961328
An Integrated PestManagement package was recently developed by the department of crop science, Makerere University for the management of the major pests and diseases of groundnuts in eastern Uganda. Although the IPM package was developed on-farm with active participation of farmers in the region, the adoption rate has been low. In this study, we have attempted to use the
E. Adipala; J. Karungi; B. Bashasha; J. Mugisha; C. E. Asekenye; C. Iceduna; V. Odeke; R. Ekemu; M. Kayiira; F. Kagino; M. Erbaugh
Management of soilborne pests and diseases in cropping systems is often highly challenging—in implementation of acceptable methodologies and in dealing with secondary problems. The phase-out of methyl bromide brings this into particularly sharp focus. There is a need for diversified options and alternatives to fill different roles across the soilborne pest and disease management spectrum, but flexibility is limited, as
A two-season study showed that a calendar-based spray program to manage arthropod pests with kaolin (60 g/liter) applied at the rate of 450 liters/ha was effective against European apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae); apple red bug, Lygidea mendax Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae); pear plant bug, Lygocoris communis (Knight) (Heteroptera: Miridae); and the apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Although it reduced Curculionidae damage, the level of damage was still too high. It had no effect on apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae); codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); and tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae). Laboratory studies showed fewer gravid twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and fewer eggs laid by these females. The study also showed no effect of kaolin on Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). PMID:18330129
The authors conceive of second-level integrated pestmanagement (IPM) in apple orchards as involving integration of multiple management tactics across all classes of pests. From 1991–1994, a second-level IPM pilot project was carried out in six commercial Massachusetts apple orchard blocks (2–4 ha) in which pest and natural enemy populations and injuries to fruit were compared with those in adjacent
Ronald J. Prokopy; Jennifer L. Mason; Margaret Christie; Starker E. Wright
For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pestmanagement (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM-for whatever reason-and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption-weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management-and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation. PMID:21858712
Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E
\\u000a The key arthropod pests in the citrus producing areas in Greece comprise the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, the California red scale Aonidiella aurantii and the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri. Outbreaks of the whiteflies Aleurothrixus floccosus and Dialeurodes citri, the scales Ceroplastes rusci and Saissetia oleae as well as the Tetranychidae mites Panonychus citri and Tetranychus urticae and the Eriophyiidae
Cultural methods such as crop fertilization can affect susceptibility of plants to insect pests by altering plant tissue nutrient levels. Research shows that the ability of a crop plant to resist or tolerate insect pests and diseases is tied to optimal physical, chemical and mainly biological properties of soils. Soils with high organic matter and active soil biology generally exhibit
In the U.S., where heavy use of insecticides has been commonplace for years, the development of proper integrated insect pest control cannot get underway unless there is a changed use pattern for such chemicals. A changed use pattern, however, cannot be accomplished without much study to establish the requirements for integrated control for each major crop situation. In this paper recent developments in a number of crop areas in the U.S. in which the necessary study has been begun are reviewed. Important phases in the development of integrated control programs include: the single tactics phase, the multitactic phase, phase, the biological monitoring phase, the modeling phase, the management and optimization phase, and the implementation phase. Several crops are discussed in relation to how far along we are in the development of practical programs of insect pest control. These are cotton, apples, alfalfa, soybeans, citrus, corn, cereal grains, tobacco and pine forests. Several of these programs have already made substantial headway, e.g., those for cotton, alfalfa, apples, tobacco, and soybeans, although the accomplishments have not been even or parellel with respect to the phases of development where progress has been good. The review of developments in these crops suggests that programs of control for individual crops and perhaps for complexes of associated crops will be developed according to specific needs of the crop, the geographic area and the pests, the technologies available and the socioeconomic and political factors of relevance. The tendency will be toward greater use of science in pest control decision-making, with extensive use of biological monitoring to establish realistic levels of threatened damage to the crop, and greater concern given to possible profit reductions and environmental disturbances of applying an insecticide, as well as the possible gain from doing so.
Pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Foerster) (Homoptera: Psyllidae), is one of the key insect pests in North American pear production. In some growing areas, more than 50% of dollars spent to control arthropod pests in commercial pear are directed specifically at controlling this species. Control measures require accurate and timely information about dispersal, onset of egg-laying in spring, densities in the
Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence and D. v. virgifera virgifera LeConte are serious pests of maize (Zea mays L.). The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service implemented a five year (1997-2001) areawide pestmanagement program in five geographic locations, including one in S...
Automation of grain sampling for insect pests should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pestmanagement programs. Currently, there are acoustic sensors and electronic grain probe traps that are available for monitoring insects in stored grain. Both the acoustic and electronic g...
Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pestmanagement in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some
IPM is considered the central paradigm of insect pestmanagement and is often characterized as a comprehensive use of multiple control tactics to reduce pest status while minimizing economic and environmental costs. As the principal precursor of IPM, the integrated control concept formulated the ec...
Insect pest control programmes, which integrate the release of sterile insects, can be efficient only if the released insects have an optimal biological quality. Frequent monitoring of the quality of reared insects after being released in the field is an important but often neglected component of area-wide integrated pestmanagement (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Parameters
The bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a worldwide pest of wheat and other small grains. This paper provides an overview of BCOA life history, reviews its pest status in wheat, synthesizes and integrates information on different management strategies, and gives up-to-date inf...
|This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pestmanagement and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…
Research was conducted in a certified organic apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) orchard in 2000 to determine the effect of organic pestmanagement techniques on pest control, apple yields and microbial populations on harvested apples. In Experiment 1, apple colouring bags, sticky red spheres, kaolin particle film, kaolin particle film plus sticky red spheres, or colouring bags plus sticky red
H. Friedrich; K. Delate; P. Domoto; G. Nonnecke; L. Wilson
Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pestmanagement in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.
Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.
Ecological studies of agroecosystems have demonstrated both significant environmental problems associated with the intensive physical and chemical control of highly simplified crop production systems, and the largely untapped opportunities for knowledge-intensive bioecological design and management of more complex systems. Barriers for change often over-emphasise economics and lack of appropriate knowledge and technology. Equally important are lack of awareness, particularly of
This guide presents games and activities on integrated pestmanagement (IPM) for home targeting grades 1-7. The activities and games use a problem-solving approach based on pest knowledge to develop an understanding of pestmanagement. Three cases are presented: (1) "Inspection is the Key to IPM Success" includes two activities--"Word Searches"…
... have evolved and are likely to continue changing into the future. ... First, human dimensions will continue to play a key role in most pest problems and should ... suppression to prevent outbreaks that extend over large geographic regions.
Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...
Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...
Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pestmanagement through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...
Integrated pestmanagement (IPM) has become especially important for vegetable crops because of increased public pressure to reduce pesticide use on these crops. The funding and adoption of IPM programs for vegetable crops during the 1980's are examined i...
The research program sponsored by California Department of Transportation on the Eucalyptus longhorned borer has produced a multi-faceted and integrated pestmanagement program for control of the insect. Tree stress, particularly water stress, has been id...
SUMMARY Avocado growers continually wage war on pests that ravage their crops. For the last 60 years, crop protection tradition fostered by the generally excellent results achieved, has been to use weapons of mass destruction in the form of chemical pesticides to combat the enemy. Issues of chemical resistance development in target species, chemical residues in fruit and the environment,
Although sex of prey is an important factor for the risk of predating, few articles consider the consequences of sexual favoritism and the corresponding effects on the impulsive predator-prey dynamics and its utility in biological control. This paper investigates the pestmanagement strategy of a prey-predator system model with sexual favoritism. An impulsive differential equation which models the process of periodically releasing natural enemies and spraying pesticides at different fixed time for pest control is proposed and investigated. It is proved that the pest-eradication periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is greater than some critical value. Permanent conditions are established under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is less than another critical value. In particular, two single control strategies are proposed. Furthermore, we compare three pest control strategies and find that if we choose narrow-spectrum pesticides that targeted to a specific pest's life cycle to kill the pest, then the combined strategy is preferable. Finally, the corresponding system with no sexual favoritism is investigated. The results indicate that we can release fewer amount of the predators to eliminate the preys with sexual favoritism than without and any strong sexual favoritism will drive the pest towards extinction. In view of the biological meaning, the sexual favoritism plays a more active role in suppressing insect pests. PMID:19015368
Grain legumes are an important source of proteins in vegetarian diet besides their role in biological nitrogen fixation. They\\u000a are prone to heavy pest infestation both on and off the field. Pest associated losses are an important contributing factor\\u000a towards declining per capita availability of grain legumes. Synthetic chemical pesticides have played an important role in\\u000a crop preservation, however their
B. K. Salunke; K. Prakash; K. S. Vishwakarma; V. L. Maheshwari
A large number of pest species is known from California avocado orchards (2) but most are seldom noticed. Species which are usually present but of minor or no economic significance include the omnivorous looper, Subulodes caberata Guenee, the amorbia, Amorbia essigana Busck, the latania scale, Hemiberlesia lataniae Signoret, the brown soft scale Coccus hesperidum L., the long-tailed mealybug Pseudococcus adonidum
The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is a destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops with a cosmopolitan distribution. Its genetic elasticity has enabled it to develop resistance to almost every insecticide applied in the field. Its natural host range is limited to cultivated and wild Brassicaceae that are characterized by having glucosinolates, sulfur-containing secondary plant compounds. Adults utilize an
The main source of income for up to 9000 smallholders in northern Malawi is coffee, yields of which are affected by insect pests, namely white stem borer (Monochamus leuconotus) and green scale (Coccus alpinus), and diseases – coffee berry disease (Colletotrichum kahawae) and leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Economic liberalisation in Malawi has removed subsidies from inputs and without credit schemes
Insects and mites can cause severe crop losses in pecan, Carya illinoensis Wang., K. Koch. Use of broad spectrum insecticides can be harmful to beneficial natural enemy populations (e.g., lady beetles and lacewings) and lead to outbreaks of non-targeted pests (e.g., aphids). Thus, due to lack of t...
According to the fact integrated pestmanagement, a Lotka–Volterra predator-prey model with impulsive effect at fixed moment is proposed and investigated. We analyze such system from two cases: general case (taking IPM strategy) and special case (only choosing pesticides). In the first case, we show that there exists a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution when the period of impulsive
Cowpeas suffer major yield losses due to insect pests, so insect resistant cowpea varieties are being developed to minimize insecticide use in integrated pestmanagement. Experiments during the cropping seasons of 2002–2004 at Kano, Nigeria, evaluated four cowpea varieties and five combinations of time and frequency of insecticide treatments. One-spray at flowering stage was better than 1-spray at podding stage.
Under forestry conditions, management techniques aimed at maintenance of pest populations at moderate levels have greater\\u000a chance of success than conventional methods of pest control. Simple behavioural observations can sometimes be used to great\\u000a advantage in the development of such methods, some examples of which are given. Although there has been considerable excitement\\u000a over the past two decades on the
Modern agriculture is influenced by both the pressure for increased productivity and increased stresses caused by plant pests.\\u000a Geographical Information Systems and Global Positioning Systems are currently being used for variable rate application of\\u000a pesticides, herbicide and fertilizers in Precision Agriculture applications, but the comparatively lesser-used tools of Remote\\u000a Sensing and Spatial Analyses can be of additional value in integrated
Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vines<\\/TT>throughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The aim of the research project was to gain insight in the biology and ecology of sweetpotato weevils and, based on
This article provides a brief overview of Farmer Field Schools (FFS), which are designed to provide farmers with on-the-job training in environmentally friendly plant protection and soil fertility management methods through integrated production and pestmanagement (IPPM). IPPM methods can increase both production and profits and play a major role in poverty alleviation. FFS activities aim to bring together a
Improvement of farmers' decision-making has been recognised as critical for the implementation of IPM, yet practitioners lack sound knowledge on the 'how and why' of farmers' decision-making processes. This study explored the perceptions, pestmanagement practice, decision tools and sources of information of smallholder farmers growing cotton in India and vegetables in Kenya. Farmers trained under an Insecticide Resistance Management
S Williamson; A Little; M Arif Ali; M Kimani; C Meir; L Oruko
This report is on the economics of pestmanagement. It is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the insect and disease program of the Forest Service, and the second part discusses the weed management program of the Forest Service. Each program ...
D. Cottingham F. D. Dottavio M. Hunter J. R. Hynson B. O'Sullivan
Despite its frequent use in terrestrial and freshwater systems, there is a lack of published experimental research examining the effectiveness of spray-delivered chemicals for the management of non-indigenous and/or unwanted pests in marine habitats. This study tested the efficacy of spraying acetic acid, hydrated lime and sodium hypochlorite for the control of marine fouling assemblages. The chemicals are considered relatively 'eco-friendly' due to their low toxicity and reduced environmental persistence compared to synthetic biocides, and they were effective in controlling a wide range of organisms. Pilot trials highlighted acetic acid as the most effective chemical at removing fouling cover, therefore it was selected for more comprehensive full-scale trials. A single spray of 5% acetic acid with an exposure time of 1 min effectively removed up to 55% of the invertebrate species present and 65% of the cover on fouled experimental plates, while one application of 10% acetic acid over 30 min removed up to 78% of species present and 95% of cover. Single-spray treatments of 5% acetic acid reduced cover of the tunicate pest species Didemnum vexillum by up to 100% depending on the exposure duration, while repeat-spraying ensured that even short exposure times (1 min) achieved approximately 99% mortality. Both 5 and 10% acetic acid solutions appeared equally effective at removing the majority of algal species. This technique could be used for controlling the introduction of unwanted species or preventing the spread of pests, and is applicable to use on a variety of natural and artificial substrata, or for the treatment of structures that can be removed from the water. PMID:19937489
Piola, Richard F; Dunmore, Robyn A; Forrest, Barrie M
Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pestmanagement approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…
The cultivation of tropical Asian rice, which may have originated 9000 yr ago, represents an agricultural ecosystem of unrivaled ecological complexity. We undertook a study of the community ecology of irrigated tropical rice fields on Java, Indonesia, as a supporting study for the Indonesian National Integrated PestManagement Programme, whose purpose is to train farmers to be better agronomists and
WILLIAM H. SETTLE; HARTIAHYO ARIAWAN; ARIEF LUKMAN HAKIM; DADAN HINDAYANA; SRI LESTARI
There is a strong debate on the success of Indonesian integrated pestmanagement project in terms of reduction in pesticide use, increase in production, and diffusion of IPM knowledge. This study aims to analyse the accomplishment of farmers' field school at national level, and the results indicated that the IPM training project failed to meet the minimum recommended requirements of
The paper introduces the pest belief model and Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action to analyze farmers’ decisions in stem borer management. Farmers spent an average of $39\\/ha (median $18) on insecticides believing that if they had not controlled an average loss of 1004 kg\\/ha or $402 (median 592, $237) would occur. Farmers’ estimates of the worst attack averaged
|This paper aims to show the relevance of spatial proximity and social capital in accelerating the spread of agricultural technologies such as integrated pestmanagement (IPM). The research was done in response to the problem of slow diffusion of agricultural technologies. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in investigating the…
Food safety is one of the top issues for consumers, especially with regard to pesticide usage. The Integrated PestManagement (IPM) has been receiving immense response from the consumers and producers due to its cost effectiveness and reduced risk from pesticide usage. It is expected to take a significant place and influence the agricultural reforms and environmental policy issues in
In 2004, client-based focus groups identified several needs for organic fruit production in the Southeastern USA: establish “go-to” personnel to increase interaction between researchers and organic producers; conduct more science-based research on soil, pest and nutrient management; develop informat...
Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.
Farmer field schools (FFS) and other participatory approaches are useful methods for rapid delivery of agricultural technologies,\\u000a knowledge, and information in resource-constrained agro-ecosystems. Cultivar selection, weekly fungicide applications and\\u000a integrated disease management (IDM) based on a disease monitoring strategy were evaluated at FFS for late blight control.\\u000a Farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of pestmanagement and agronomic practices were also assessed
Modesto Olanya; Rebecca Nelson; Johnson Hakiza; Peter Ewell; Ramzy El-Bedewy; Rogers Kakuhenzire; Samuel Namanda; Imelda Kasheija; Williams Wagoire; Brima Ngombe; Charles Musoke
A multi-spectral imaging system for use on agricultural aircraft was developed and tested to provide images of fields and help farmers and crop consultants manage agricultural lands. The results of this research indicate that the airborne MS4100 multi-spectral imaging system has a great potential for use in areawide pestmanagement systems, such as weed control or detection of insect damage.
This paper reports on trials conducted to kill managed and feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies to eradicate unwanted honey bee pests. The effectiveness of Pestigas?P™ (natural pyrethrum) for the destruction of managed colonies was assessed. Pestigas?P™ was effective when applied as a single 15?s spray into an empty three?quarter?depth super and across the top of the frames. This allowed
Michelle A. Taylor; R. Mark Goodwin; Heather M. McBrydie; Harlan M. Cox
Consumer awareness, pesticide and fertilizer contaminations and environmental concerns have resulted in significant demand for organically grown farm produce. Consumption of berries has become popular among health-conscious consumers due to the high levels of valuable antioxidants, such as anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds. The present study evaluated the influence that organic farming (OF) and integrated pestmanagement (IPM) practise exert on the total phenolic content in 22 strawberry samples from four varieties. Postharvest performance of OF and IPM strawberries grown in the same area in the centre of Portugal and harvested at the same maturity stage were compared. Chemical profiles (phenolic compounds) were determined with the aid of HPLC-DAD/MS. Total phenolic content was higher for OF strawberry extracts. This study showed that the main differences in bioactive phytochemicals between organically and IPM grown strawberries concerned their anthocyanin levels. Organically grown strawberries were significantly higher in antioxidant activity than were the IPM strawberries, as measured by DPPH and FRAP assays. PMID:23442640
Insect pests and phytophagous mites cause a considerable loss to tropical root crops in the field. Major pests include the sweet potato weevil Cylas puncticollis, cassava mealybug Phenacoccus manihoti, cassava green spider mite Mononychellus tanajoa, yam beetle Heteroligus meles, and taro hornworm Hippotion celerio. Field and laboratory evaluation experiments indicate that entomopathogenic microorganisms may be adequately used in the management
In Pakistan, farmer field schools (FFS) are enhancing skills of cotton farmers to adopt integrated pestmanagement (IPM) practices for effective control of pests. To evaluate the impact of FFS on IPM practices, the present study was carried out in the Punjab province of Pakistan. A cross sectional data set of 325 cotton farmers was collected to estimate the impact
Integrated PestManagement (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…
Small farmersÕperceptions of coffee Coffea arabica L. herbivores and their natural enemies, how those perceptions relate to Þeld infestation levels, and pestmanagement practices being implemented by members from two organic and nonorganic coffee grower organizations in the Soconusco region, southeastern Mexico, were analyzed through an interview survey, diagnostic workshops, and Þeld sampling. The terms pest, disease, and damage were
Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pestmanagement and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop.
A database is a comprehensive collection of related data organized for convenient access, generally in a computer. The evolution of computer software and the need to distinguish the specialized computer systems for storing and manipulating data, stimulated development of database management systems...
Long-term cropping systems are valuable for understanding the sustainability of agro-ecosystems. Soil amendment, disease management practices and cropping pattern are components of cropping systems that may impact crop productivity. Therefore, this study was conducted in 1997 and 1998 to: evaluate t...
In 1996, the USDA initiated research in three Midwestern locations to control corn rootworms with a scouting and aerial spraying program. The preliminary economic results suggest that without a modest subsidy, an areawide pestmanagement approach is not as economical as the use of soil insecticides
Christina Welch Stair; Peter Quan; Marshall A. Martin
This chapter explores intensive hands-on occupational education for farmers in selected European, African, Latin American\\u000a countries and in south India. An Indian case study of Farmer Field Schools for Integrated Pest and Production Management (IPPM)\\u000a to ensure food security and livelihood improvement is presented, to introduce discussion of the role of IPPM beyond improving\\u000a agriculture productivity. Does it enable farmers
Adoption of genetically engineered crops with traits for pestmanagement has risen dramatically since their commercial introduction in the mid-1990's. The farm-level impacts of such crops on pesticide use, yields, and net returns vary with the crop and technology examined. Adoption of herbicide-tolerant cotton led to significant increase in yields and net returns, but was not associated with significant changes
Experimentation has been the cornerstone of much of integrated pestmanagement (IPM) research. Here, we aim to open a discussion on the possible merits of expanding the use of observational studies, and in particular the use of data from farmers or private pestmanagement consultants in "ecoinformatics" studies, as tools that might complement traditional, experimental research. The manifold advantages of experimentation are widely appreciated: experiments provide definitive inferences regarding causal relationships between key variables, can produce uniform and high-quality data sets, and are highly flexible in the treatments that can be evaluated. Perhaps less widely considered, however, are the possible disadvantages of experimental research. Using the yield-impact study to focus the discussion, we address some reasons why observational or ecoinformatics approaches might be attractive as complements to experimentation. A survey of the literature suggests that many contemporary yield-impact studies lack sufficient statistical power to resolve the small, but economically important, effects on crop yield that shape pestmanagement decision-making by farmers. Ecoinformatics-based data sets can be substantially larger than experimental data sets and therefore hold out the promise of enhanced power. Ecoinformatics approaches also address problems at the spatial and temporal scales at which farming is conducted, can achieve higher levels of "external validity," and can allow researchers to efficiently screen many variables during the initial, exploratory phases of research projects. Experimental, observational, and ecoinformatics-based approaches may, if used together, provide more efficient solutions to problems in pestmanagement than can any single approach, used in isolation. PMID:21510177
Rosenheim, Jay A; Parsa, Soroush; Forbes, Andrew A; Krimmel, William A; Law, Yao Hua; Segoli, Michal; Segoli, Moran; Sivakoff, Frances S; Zaviezo, Tania; Gross, Kevin
The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.
Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence and Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of maize, Zea mays L. To reduce the amount of toxicants released into the environment, the Agricultural Research Service implemented a 5-yr (1997-2001) areawide pestmanagement program in five geographic locations, including one in South Dakota. The objective was to use integrated pestmanagement tactics to suppress adult Diabrotica populations over a broad geographic area by using aerially applied semiochemical-baited insecticides. Suppressed populations theoretically should reduce oviposition, limit larval feeding damage to maize roots, and result in fewer beetles emerging in subsequent years. We used emergence cages, sticky traps, and CRW lure traps to monitor adult D. barberi and D. v. virgifera populations. We sampled for Diabrotica eggs, and we determined damage to maize roots. We sampled in several maize fields (control) located near the areawide site. The baited insecticides were effective in reducing adult populations 1 and 2 wk after application, and most remained low for the duration of the maize growing season. Fewer beetles were captured in both sticky and lure traps in the areawide site than in the control site. With a few exceptions, egg counts, adult emergence, and maize root damage were similar between the areawide and control sites; however, maize roots had greater fresh weight in the control site. Although not all goals were accomplished, when considering the amount of toxicant released into the environment, using semiochemical-baited insecticides to suppress adult pest Diabrotica populations seems to be an effective areawide management tool. PMID:17972631
French, B Wade; Chandler, Laurence D; Riedell, Walter E
Given the wide range of scales and mechanisms by which pest or disease agents disperse, it is unclear whether there might exist a general relationship between scale of host heterogeneity and spatial spread that could be exploited by available management options. In this model-based study, we investigate the interaction between host distributions and the spread of pests and diseases using an array of models that encompass the dispersal and spread of a diverse range of economically important species: a major insect pest of coniferous forests in western North America, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae); the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, one of the most-widespread and best-studied bacterial plant pathogens; the mosquito Culex erraticus, an important vector for many human and animal pathogens, including West Nile Virus; and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Our model results reveal an interesting general phenomenon: a unimodal (‘humpbacked’) relationship in the magnitude of infestation (an index of dispersal or population spread) with increasing grain size (i.e., the finest scale of patchiness) in the host distribution. Pest and disease management strategies targeting different aspects of host pattern (e.g., abundance, aggregation, isolation, quality) modified the shape of this relationship, but not the general unimodal form. This is a previously unreported effect that provides insight into the spatial scale at which management interventions are most likely to be successful, which, notably, do not always match the scale corresponding to maximum infestation. Our findings could provide a new basis for explaining historical outbreak events, and have implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness.
Skelsey, Peter; With, Kimberly A.; Garrett, Karen A.
Given the wide range of scales and mechanisms by which pest or disease agents disperse, it is unclear whether there might exist a general relationship between scale of host heterogeneity and spatial spread that could be exploited by available management options. In this model-based study, we investigate the interaction between host distributions and the spread of pests and diseases using an array of models that encompass the dispersal and spread of a diverse range of economically important species: a major insect pest of coniferous forests in western North America, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae); the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, one of the most-widespread and best-studied bacterial plant pathogens; the mosquito Culex erraticus, an important vector for many human and animal pathogens, including West Nile Virus; and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Our model results reveal an interesting general phenomenon: a unimodal ('humpbacked') relationship in the magnitude of infestation (an index of dispersal or population spread) with increasing grain size (i.e., the finest scale of patchiness) in the host distribution. Pest and disease management strategies targeting different aspects of host pattern (e.g., abundance, aggregation, isolation, quality) modified the shape of this relationship, but not the general unimodal form. This is a previously unreported effect that provides insight into the spatial scale at which management interventions are most likely to be successful, which, notably, do not always match the scale corresponding to maximum infestation. Our findings could provide a new basis for explaining historical outbreak events, and have implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness. PMID:24098739
Skelsey, Peter; With, Kimberly A; Garrett, Karen A
From the outset, a bottom-up, ecologically based approach to apple pestmanagement was applied to a small commercial apple orchard in Conway, MA (USA). This approach was maintained throughout the first 20 years (1981–2000) of commercial production. It consisted of maximizing genetic-based resistance to pests through the planting of cultivars resistant to apple scab, designing the orchard and managing the
Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems.
Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726
Flowering companion plants provide nectar, pollen, alternative prey, shelter, and overwintering habitat for arthropod natural enemies and thus might increase their abundance and efficacy in pest control in agricultural fields. We report the results of a 6-year study on the effects of annual and perennial flowering herbs sown in alleys of an apple orchard on phytophagous and predacious mites, leafminer
Viktor Markó; Gábor Jenser; Krisztina Mihályi; Tamás Hegyi; Klára Balázs
Flowering companion plants provide nectar, pollen, alternative prey, shelter and overwintering habitat for arthropod natural enemies and thus might increase their abundance and efficacy in pest control in agricultural fields. We report results of a six-year study on the effects of annual and perennial flowering herbs sown in alleys of an apple orchard on phytophagous and predacious mites, leafminer moths
Viktor Markó; Gábor Jenser; Krisztina Mihályi; Tamás Hegyi; Klára Balázs
Small farmers' perceptions of coffee Coffea arabica L. herbivores and their natural enemies, how those perceptions relate to field infestation levels, and pestmanagement practices being implemented by members from two organic and nonorganic coffee grower organizations in the Soconusco region, southeastern Mexico, were analyzed through an interview survey, diagnostic workshops, and field sampling. The terms pest, disease, and damage were commonly used as synonyms. The major phytophagous species, as perceived by the interviewees, were Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to a lesser extent the fungi Corticium koleroga Cooke (Höhnel) and Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley & Broome. Among the nonorganic farmers, other nonpest-related constraints were regarded as more important. Awareness of the existence of natural enemies was low, despite more organic farmers have used the ectoparasitoid bethylid Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem against H. hampei. Labor supplied by household members was most frequent for pest control; only organic farmers exchanged labor for this purpose. The levels of infestation by H. hampei, Leucoptera coffeella Guérin-Méneville, and C. koleroga were lower within the organic coffee stands. However, a low effectiveness for pest control was commonly perceived, probably due to a feeling, among the organic farmers, of a low impact of their pestmanagement extension service, whereas a lack of motivation was prevalent among the nonorganic farmers, shown by a concern with their low coffee yields and the emigration of youth. The importance of understanding farmers' perceptions and knowledge of pests and their natural enemies and the need for participatory pestmanagement approaches, are discussed. PMID:15568334
Plants respond to herbivory through different defensive mechanisms. The induction of volatile emission is one of the important and immediate response of plants to herbivory. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are involved in plant communication with natural enemies of the insect herbivores, neighboring plants, and different parts of the damaged plant. Release of a wide variety of HIPVs in response to herbivore damage and their role in plant-plant, plant-carnivore and intraplant communications represents a new facet of the complex interactions among different trophic levels. HIPVs are released from leaves, flowers, and fruits into the atmosphere or into the soil from roots in response to herbivore attack. Moreover, HIPVs act as feeding and/or oviposition deterrents to insect pests. HIPVs also mediate the interactions between the plants and the microorganisms. This review presents an overview of HIPVs emitted by plants, their role in plant defense against herbivores and their implications for pestmanagement. PMID:22105032
War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Hari Chand; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu
Exotic pests are serious threats to North American ecosystems; thus, economic analysis of decisions about eradication, stopping, or slowing their spread may be critical to ecosystem management. The proposed bioeconomic model assumes that the rate of population expansion can be reduced (even to negative values in a case of eradication) if certain management actions are taken along the population front. The area of management can be viewed as a dynamic barrier zone that moves together with the population front. The lower is the target rate of spread, the higher would be both benefits and costs of the project. The problem is to find the optimal target rate of spread at which the present value of net benefits from managing population spread reaches its maximum value. If a population spreads along an infinite habitat strip, the target rate of spread is optimal if the slope of the cost function versus the rate of spread is equal to the ratio of the average pest-related damage per unit time and unit area to the discount rate. In a more complex model where the potential area of expansion is limited, two local maxima of net benefits may exist: one for eradication and another for slowing the spread. If both maxima are present, their heights are compared and the strategy that corresponds to a higher value of net benefits is selected. The optimal strategy changes from eradication to slowing the spread and finally to doing nothing as the area occupied by the species increases. The model shows that slowing the spread of pest species generates economic benefits even if a relatively small area remains uninfested. The cost of slowing the spread can be estimated from a model of population expansion via establishment of isolated colonies beyond the moving front. The model is applied to managing the spread of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) populations in the United States. PMID:15357807
Management of imported fire ant species has evolved since their accidental introduction into the United States and currently uses integrated pestmanagement concepts to design, implement, and evaluate suppression programs. Although eradication is the management goal in certain isolated infestation sites, localized goals vary dramatically in larger infestations where reinvasion of treated areas is likely. These goals are influenced by regulatory policies, medical liabilities, ecological impact, and/or economic considerations. Tactics employed in fire ant management programs presented here include cultural and biological control options along with judicious use of site-specific insecticide products. In addition, program design considerations that include management goal(s), action level(s), ant form (monogyne or polygyne), presence of nontarget ant species, size of treatment area, seasonality, implementation cost, and environmental impact are also presented. Optimally, elegant IPM programs are target specific, threshold driven, environmentally friendly and cost-effective. PMID:23955939
Drees, Bastiaan M; Calixto, Alejandro A; Nester, Paul R
According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004–2008), China’s forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36%\\u000a of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country\\u000a with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects,\\u000a plant
Knowledgebase of urban, structure, lawn and landscape pests. Includes sections on pestmanagement theory; biting and stinging insects; pests of food, fabric and wood; occasional invaders; lawn pests; landscape pests, and some vertebrate pests. Includes pest identification keys. This is an excellent resource, although much of the material is specific to Florida. Vertebrate pestmanagement sections are also of high quality and interesting. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser. $25.
In subsistence farming systems of the developing world, adoption of resource-conserving practices such as integrated pest\\u000a management (IPM) is often strikingly low. This has partially been ascribed to researchers’ limited understanding of how technologies\\u000a develop at the interface of the systems’ social and ecological components. In Honduras (Central America), there exists concern\\u000a about limited adoption and diffusion of IPM technologies
Conventional Integrated PestManagement (IPM) systems have concentrated on controlling pests through informed use of cultural\\u000a and biological control and host plant resistance characteristics to minimise pesticide interventions. The basic foundation\\u000a of successful IPM systems is a thorough knowledge of the target pest’s life cycle, and its ecological and behavioral interactions\\u000a with the environment and natural controlling factors in both
This chapter presents a practical approach involving the use of multiple methods to manage insect pests of sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. The approach emphasizes ways to avoid and prevent damaging insect pest infestations, and estimate insect abundance and evaluate severity of damage to determine when remedial action with insecticide is justified. Insect pests (including color plates), their biologies, and
Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat-aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating mulching), litter patch deeper in soil (simulating ploughing) and litter homogeneously mixed into soil (simulating disk cultivation). The litter was labelled with (15)N to follow the mineralization and uptake of nutrients by the plants. Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and Collembola (Protaphorura armata) were included as representatives of major functional groups of decomposers. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was planted and aphids (Rhophalosiphum padi) were introduced to leaves as one of the most important pests. Earthworms, Collembola and litter distribution affected plant growth, N acquisition and aphid development in an interactive way. Earthworms and Collembola increased biomass of seeds, shoots and roots of wheat. Increased plant growth by earthworms and Collembola was mainly due to increased transfer of N from soil (rather than litter) into plants. Despite increasing plant growth, earthworms reduced aphid reproduction. Aphid reproduction was not correlated closely with plant N concentrations, but rather with the concentration of litter N in wheat. Unexpectedly, both Collembola and earthworms predominantly affected the mobilization of N from soil organic matter, and by altering the distribution of litter earthworms reduced infestation of crops by aphids via reducing plant capture of litter N, in particular if the litter was concentrated deeper in soil. The results suggest that management practices stimulating a continuous moderate increase in nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter rather than nutrient flushes from decomposing fresh organic matter result in maximum plant growth with minimum plant pest infestation. PMID:18654802
We focused on the Socio-Economic Evaluation of Farmer Field School Training on Integrated PestManagement in the humid forest region of Cameroon. The main objective was to assess the impact of training on integrated pestmanagement (IPM) on cocoa farmer field school graduates. The results indicate that shade management, phytosanitary harvest, pruning, improved spraying practices and grafting of improved materials
Njankoua Wandji Dieu ne Dort; Lapbim Nkeh Julius; James Gockowski; Tchouamo Isaac
Yield, incidence of pests, and profitability of strawberries under conventional and organic management systems were measured through four fruiting seasons, using three cultivare widely grown in the northeastern United States (dayneutrals [Tribute or Tristar], Earliglow and Honeoye). Fruits were more abundant in conventional than in organic plots, but the average weight of fruit was not affected by management system. Of
Tea is one of the most economically important crops in China. To secure its production and quality conservation biological control within the context of integrated pestmanagement (IPM) has been widely popularized for better control of arthropod pests on tea with less chemical insecticide usage and ...
Background There is a general belief that insect outbreak risk is higher in plant monocultures than in natural and more diverse habitats, although empirical studies investigating this relationship are lacking. In this study, using density data collected over seven years at 40 study sites, we compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural willow habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in 1999–2005. The density of adult P. vulgatissima was estimated in the spring every year by a knock-down sampling technique. We used two measures of population variability, CV and PV, to compare temporal variations in leaf beetle density between plantation and natural habitat. Relationships between density and variability were also analyzed to discern potential underlying processes behind stability in the two systems. The results showed that the leaf beetle P. vulgatissima had a greater temporal population variability and outbreak risk in willow plantations than in natural willow habitats. We hypothesize that the greater population stability observed in the natural habitat was due to two separate processes operating at different levels of beetle density. First, stable low population equilibrium can be achieved by the relatively high density of generalist predators observed in natural stands. Second, stable equilibrium can also be imposed at higher beetle density due to competition, which occurs through depletion of resources (plant foliage) in the natural habitat. In willow plantations, competition is reduced mainly because plants grow close enough for beetle larvae to move to another plant when foliage is consumed. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study confirming that insect pest outbreak risk is higher in monocultures. The study suggests that comparative studies of insect population dynamics in different habitats may improve our ability to predict insect pest outbreaks and could facilitate the development of sustainable pest control in managed systems.
Portions of two commercial citrus orchards were treated for two consecutive years with buprofezin or three consecutive years with pyriproxyfen in a replicated plot design to determine the long-term impact of these insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the San Joaquin Valley California integrated pestmanagement program. Pyriproxyfen reduced the target pest, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, to nondetectable levels on leaf samples approximately 4 mo after treatment. Pyriproxyfen treatments reduced the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach to a greater extent than the parasitoid Comperiella bifasciata Howard collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 33% direct mortality of the parasitoid, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Three years of pyriproxyfen treatments did not maintain citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), below the treatment threshold and cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, was slowly but incompletely controlled. Buprofezin reduced California red scale to very low but detectable levels approximately 5 mo after treatment. Buprofezin treatments resulted in similar levels of reduction of the two parasitoids A. melinus and C. bifasciata collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 7% mortality of the parasitoids, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Citricola scale was not present in this orchard, and cottony cushion scale was slowly and incompletely controlled by buprofezin. These field plots demonstrated that IGRs can act as organophosphate insecticide replacements for California red scale control; however, their narrower spectrum of activity and disruption of coccinellid beetles can allow other scale species to attain primary pest status. PMID:16813306
Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Stewart, J R; Olsen, K D
...enhance crop health, including selection of plant species and varieties with regard to suitability to site-specific conditions and resistance to prevalent pests, weeds, and diseases. (b) Pest problems may be controlled through...
|This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)|
Pesticides are among the most widely used chemicals in the world. Because of the widespread use of agricultural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to low levels of pesticide residues through their diets. Scientists do not yet have a total understanding of the health effects of these pesticide residues. This work aims to determine differences in terms of pesticide residue content in Portuguese strawberries grown using different agriculture practices. The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe sample preparation method was conducted and shown to have good performance for multiclass pesticides extraction in strawberries. The screening of 25 pesticides residue was performed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In quantitative validation, acceptable performances were achieved with recoveries of 70-120 and <12 % residual standard deviation for 25 pesticides. Good linearity was obtained for all the target compounds, with highly satisfactory repeatability. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.1-28 ?g/kg. The method was applied to analyze strawberry samples from organic and integrated pestmanagement (IPM) practices harvested in 2009-2010. The results showed the presence of fludioxonil, bifenthrin, mepanipyrim, tolylfluanid, cyprodinil, tetraconazole, and malathion when using IPM below the maximum residue levels. PMID:22562348
This paper investigates the dynamics of a competitive single-prey n-predators model of integrated pestmanagement, which is subject to periodic and impulsive controls, from the viewpoint of finding sufficient conditions for the extinction of prey and for prey and predator permanence. The per capita death rates of prey due to predation are given in abstract, unspecified forms, which encompass large classes of death rates arising from usual predator functional responses, both prey-dependent and predator-dependent. The stability and permanence conditions are then expressed as balance conditions between the cumulative death rate of prey in a period, due to predation from all predator species and to the use of control, and to the cumulative birth rate of prey in the same amount of time. These results are then specialized for the case of prey-dependent functional responses, their biological significance being also discussed. PMID:23123675
Area-wide pestmanagement (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...
Area-wide pestmanagement (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...
An evaluation study of the National Integrated PestManagement (IPM) Programme in Indonesia was conducted in one Central-Javanese district looking into processes and effects occurring at the village level when sustainable practices in rice cultivation, which contrast in many respects with the prevailing high-external- input technology, are introduced through nonformal farmer training in conditions created by policy measures. The IPM
This study examines the impact of Integrated PestManagement-Farmer Field School (IPM-FFS) programs on groundnut production in Ghana. The program was conducted in the groundnut regions of Ghana with the goal to improve groundnut agriculture through the dissemination of information and technology to the producers. Several approaches are used to control for selection and endogeneity on household level data collected
Summary In a recent article in World Development, van den Berg and Jiggins [van den Berg, H. & Jiggins, J. (2007). Investing in farmers: The impacts of farmer field schools in relation to integrated pestmanagement. World Development, 35(4), 663-686] (to be referred to in the discussion below as the \\
Farmer field schools (FFSs) were conducted in southern India to reduce pesticide input and enhance sustainability of cotton production systems. This study was carried out to determine the additional benefits of FFSs in the social and economic arena, using the sustainable livelihoods (SL) concept to frame the evaluation. Farmers who had participated in the integrated pestmanagement (IPM) FFSs perceived
FRANCESCA MANCINI; Bruggen van A. H. C; JANICE L. S. JIGGINS
A participatory planning process was applied to develop a media campaign to motivate rice farmers in the Mekong Delta to modify pestmanagement practices together with seed and fertilizer inputs. Locally named ‘Ba Giam Ba Tang’ or ‘Three Reductions, Three Gains’, campaigns were launched in two provinces, Can Tho and Tien Giang. In both provinces, farmers' practices changed significantly. Their
N. H. Huan; H. V. Chien; P. V. Quynh; P. S. Tan; P. V. Du; M. M. Escalada; K. L. Heong
Hydroprene is a juvenile hormone analogue used in stored-product insect pestmanagement. The popularity of this insect growth regulator has increased in recent years due to the change of pesticide laws in the United States and also due to change of consumer preferences world-wide. Alternatives to co...
Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pestmanagement efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks. PMID:23885431
Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G
Introduction of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) and following move towards indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical insecticides led to the contamination of water and food sources, poisoning of non-target beneficial insects and development of insect-pests resistant to the chemical insecticides. Increased public concems about the adverse environmental effects of indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides prompted search of altemative methods for insect-pest control. One of the promising alternatives has been the use of biological control agents. There is well-documented history of safe application of Bt (B. thuringiensis, a gram positive soil bacterium) as effective biopesticides and a number of reports of expression of delta-endotoxin gene(s) in crop plants are available. Only a few insecticidal sprays are required on Bt transgenic crops, which not only save cost and time, but also reduce health risks. Insects exhibit remarkable ability to develop resistance to different insecticidal compounds, which raises concern about the unsystematic use of Bt transgenic technology also. Though resistance to Bt products among insect species under field conditions has been rare, laboratory studies show that insects are capable of developing high levels of resistance to one ormore Cry proteins. Now it is generally agreed that 'high-dose/refuge strategy' is the most promising and practical approach to prolong the effectiveness of Bt toxins. Although manybiosafety concerns, ethical and moral issues exist, area under Bt transgenic crops is rapidly increasing and they are cultivated on more than 32 million hectares world over Even after reservation of European Union (EU) for acceptance of geneticaly modified (GM) crops, 6 out of 25 countries have already adopted Bt crops and many otherindustrial countries will adopt Bt transgenic crops in near future. While the modem biotechnology has been recognized to have a great potential for the promotion of human well-being, adoption of biosafety protocol is necessary to protect human health and environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of genetic engineering. The debate between proponents and opponents of GM technology has created major obstacles in hamessing benefits of the technology It has now become clear that transgenics willbe accepted by the public only when doubts related with general risks and environmental safety are adequately dispelled. Thus, there is need to organize public awareness and present the benefits of Bt transgenic crops to improve social attitude for their rational deployment. In this review, an attempt has been made to discuss social and environmental safety issues of Bt transgenic crops. PMID:19295059
Integrated pestmanagement (IPM) is a well-known innovation that accords with modern environmental management's (EMs) ‘best practice’. In this paper, it is examined in two ways. First, a recent IPM knowledge diffusion project in a region of Thailand, where durian is extensively grown, is described and analysed in relation to the adoption of both its philosophy and methods by growers.
The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), remains a major pest of brassica crops worldwide. DBM has been estimated globally to cost US$ 1 billion in direct losses and control costs. Chemical control of this pest remains difficult due to the rapid development of resistance to insecticides and to their effect on natural enemies. These problems are especially severe in
D. Grzywacz; A. Rossbach; A. Rauf; D. A. Russell; R. Srinivasan; A. M. Shelton
This guide is intended to help homeowners and forest managers in identifying and controlling forest and ornamental tree pests. The guide focuses on insect and disease pests, but also discusses natural and human-caused environmental problems.
Invasive forest pests have seriously harmed our environment and imposed significant costs upon our economy. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is the lead agency for responding to forest pests. This report evaluates the federal response to three in...
|This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)|
Many pests, especially capsid bugs, infest cocoa and contribute to low yields in producing countries. In Ghana, synthetic pesticides are recommended for controlling the insect pests, and a combination of synthetic pesticides and cultural practices for diseases and weeds. However, the farmers in Ghana are not motivated to adopt these recommendations due to the high cost of pesticides and low
\\u000a Public concerns about environmental hazards and widespread resistance in pollen beetle populations on oilseed rape in Europe\\u000a are threatening the availability of a variety of insecticidal modes of action for pest control on the crop. For a sustainable\\u000a use of insecticides any overuse has to be avoided to minimize risk of resistance development. Pollen beetles are present in\\u000a the crop
Background Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pestmanagement (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. Objectives We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. Methods We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Results Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. Conclusions In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managingpests and their consequences.
Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pestmanagement (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place. PMID:22878217
A rapid, specific, and sensitive method based on the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and a cleanup using dispersive solid-phase extraction with MgSO(4), PSA, and C18 sorbents has been developed for the routine analysis of 14 pesticides in strawberries. The analyses were performed by three different analytical methodologies: gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD), mass spectrometry (MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The recoveries for all the pesticides studied were from 46 to 128%, with relative standard deviation of <15% in the concentration range of 0.005-0.250 mg/kg. The limit of detection (LOD) for all compounds met maximum residue limits (MRL) accepted in Portugal for organochlorine pesticides (OCP). A survey study of strawberries produced in Portugal in the years 2009-2010 obtained from organic farming (OF) and integrated pestmanagement (IPM) was developed. Lindane and ?-endosulfan were detected above the MRL in OF and IPM. Other OCP (aldrin, o,p'-DDT and their metabolites, and methoxychlor) were found below the MRL. The OCP residues detected decreased from 2009 to 2010. The QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of strawberry samples. PMID:21235274
Fernandes, Virginia C; Domingues, Valentina F; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina
An analysis of pesticide residue data was performed to describe and quantify differences between organically grown and non-organic fresh fruits and vegetables. Data on residues in foods from three different market categories (conventionally grown, integrated pestmanagement (IPM)-grown\\/no detectable residues (NDR), and organically grown) were compared using data from three test programmes: The Pesticide Data Program of the US Department
B. P. Bakery; C. M. Benbrook; E. Groth III; K. Lutz Benbrook
The public relations component of area-wide integrated pestmanagement (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT) has a large impact on programme success. Full-time professionals should direct public relations activities and secure vital political support from governments and community organizations. Good communication among programme staff, and between programme staff and the public, is required to maintain participation and
V. A. DYCK; E. E. REGIDOR FERNÁNDEZ; J. Reyes Flores; T. Teruya; B. Barnes; P. GÓmez Riera; D. Lindquist; R. Reuben
On-farm pestmanagement and crop protection strongly depend on diagnosis of crop disease stress in fields. In this paper, we first examine the applicability of broadband high-spatial-resolution ADAR (airborne data acquisition and registration) remote sensing data in visible and near infrared regions for rice disease detection and then develop an approach to explore their applicability. Experiments were conducted in 1999
Zhihao Qin; Minghua Zhang; Thomas Christensen; Wenjuan Li; Huajun Tang
This paper provides a brief overview of the Australian grape industry and discusses the distribution and economic importance\\u000a of its main nematode pests and outlines the management practices (hot water treatment of planting material, nematode-resistant\\u000a rootstocks and nematicides) that are currently used to minimise losses from nematodes. However, the main focus of the paper\\u000a is the research that will be
...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements Â§ 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and...
|This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)|
\\u000a \\u000a Brassica crops are grown worldwide for oil, food and feed purposes, and constitute a significant economic value due to their nutritional,\\u000a medicinal, bioindustrial, biocontrol and crop rotation properties. Insect pests cause enormous yield and economic losses in\\u000a Brassica crop production every year, and are a threat to global agriculture. In order to overcome these insect pests, Brassica species themselves use
This publication contains 31 research papers aobut forest insect biology, ecology, and physiology as they relate to the integration of cultural tactics into the management of bark beetle and reforestration pests. These papers were presented at a joint mee...
A. M. Liebhold F. M. Stephen J. C. Gregoire K. R. Day S. M. Salom
The ability to establish and grow plant cell, organ, and tissue cultures has been widely exploited for basic and applied research, and for the commercial production of plants (micro-propagation). Regardless of whether the application is for research or commerce, it is essential that the cultures be established in vitro free of biological contamination and be maintained as aseptic cultures during manipulation, growth, and storage. The risks from microbial contamination are spurious experimental results due to the effects of latent contaminants or losses of valuable experimental or commercial cultures. Much of the emphasis in culture contamination management historically focussed on the elimination of phytopathogens and the maintenance of cultures free from laboratory contamination by environmental bacteria, fungi (collectively referred to as "vitro pathogens", i.e. pathogens or environmental micro-organisms which cause culture losses), and micro-arthropods ("vitro pests"). Microbial contamination of plant tissue cultures is due to the high nutrient availability in the almost universally used Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) basal medium or variants of it. In recent years, it has been shown that many plants, especially perennials, are at least locally endophytically colonized intercellularly by bacteria. The latter, and intracellular pathogenic bacteria and viruses/viroids, may pass latently into culture and be spread horizontally and vertically in cultures. Growth of some potentially cultivable endophytes may be suppressed by the high salt and sugar content of the Murashige and Skoog basal medium and suboptimal temperatures for their growth in plant tissue growth rooms. The management of contamination in tissue culture involves three stages: disease screening (syn. disease indexing) of the stock plants with disease and endophyte elimination where detected; establishment and pathogen and contaminant screening of established initial cultures; observation, random sampling, and culture screening for micro-organism in multiplication and stored cultures. The increasing accessibility of both broad-spectrum and specific molecular diagnostics has resulted in advances in multiple pathogen and latent contaminant detection. The hazard analysis critical control point management strategy for tissue culture laboratories is underpinned by staff training in aseptic technique and good laboratory practice. PMID:22610620
Farmers in the Republic of Benin have few resources to invest in protection of stored maize, and prophylactic pesticide application is often recommended by extension and development agencies. Neither the efficacy nor profitability of such an application in traditional maize storage facilities has been addressed quantitatively. In this study, existing management options for stored maize were evaluated monthly over 6 mo in central and southern Benin with respect to their effects on grain injury and on densities of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. P. truncatus infested 54% of the experimental stores in the study even though Teretrius nigrescens (Lewis), a natural enemy introduced against P. truncatus, was well established in the region. S. zeamais was the most common pest, found in 85% of the experimental storage facilities. Prophylactically treated maize was, on average, worth more than untreated maize for month 1 through 5 in southern Benin, after taking into account market price, pesticide costs, percentage grain damage and weight loss, but maize storage was not profitable overall. No difference was observed between treatments in central Benin. After 6 mo treated storage facilities were not significantly different from untreated storage facilities in terms of either percentage damage or profit in either region. A rapid scouting plan intended to provide farmers with a means for identifying storage facilities at greatest risk of severe P. truncatus infestation was field validated. Given that unsafe pesticide use is prevalent in Benin, research and extension services should clearly state the limitations to prophylactic treatment and increase the effort to educate farmers on appropriate pesticide use, store monitoring and marketing. PMID:12403438
Meikle, W G; Markham, R H; Nansen, C; Holst, N; Degbey, P; Azoma, K; Korie, S
Ghana is a major producer of cocoa in the world and relies heavily on the crop for foreign exchange revenue. However, production levels declined from the mid 1960s reaching the lowest level in 1983. The decline in production was a result of decreasing areas under cultivation, and low yields. Pests and diseases are inadequately controlled, and the use of synthetic
The increasing concern over the level of pesticide residues in food has encouraged researchers to look for alternatives of synthetic pesticides. Their indiscriminate use has led to the development of resistant strains of pests as well as different environmental and human health problems. Recently, in different parts of the world, attention has been paid towards exploitation of higher plant products
The German cockroach is the most common pest of urban, low-income housing in the United States and is associated with high pesticide use by residents. Cockroach allergen is implicated in asthma exacerbation and initiation and in the growing social and medical aspects of the disease. A safe and secure home environment is an environmental justice issue, and environmentally sound and
Carrie Condon; H. Patricia Hynes; Daniel R. Brooks; Don Rivard; Jim Mccarthy
The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) is the most important insect pest of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.). The larvae bore in the corm, reducing nutrient uptake and weakening the stability of the plant. Attack in newly planted banana stands can lead to crop failure. In established fields, weevil damage can result in reduced bunch weights, mat die-out and shortened
Clifford S. Gold; Jorge E. Pena; Eldad B. Karamura
The use of transgenic Bt maize hybrids continues to increase significantly across the Corn Belt of the United States. In 2009, 59% of all maize planted in Illinois was characterized as a "stacked" gene variety. This is a 40% increase since 2006. Stacked hybrids typically express one Cry protein for corn rootworm control and one Cry protein for control of several lepidopteran pests; they also feature herbicide tolerance (to either glyphosate or glufosinate). Slightly more than 50 years has passed since Vernon Stern and his University of California entomology colleagues published (1959) their seminal paper on the integrated control concept, laying the foundation for modern pestmanagement (IPM) programs. To assess the relevance of traditional IPM concepts within a transgenic agroecosystem, commercial maize producers were surveyed at a series of meetings in 2009 and 2010 regarding their perceptions on their use of Bt hybrids and resistance management. Special attention was devoted to two insect pests of corn, the European corn borer and the western corn rootworm. A high percentage of producers who participated in these meetings planted Bt hybrids in 2008 and 2009, 97 and 96.7%, respectively. Refuge compliance in 2008 and 2009, as mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was 82 and 75.7%, respectively, for those producers surveyed. A large majority of producers (79 and 73.3% in 2009 and 2010, respectively) revealed that they would, or had, used a Bt hybrid for corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) or European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) control even when anticipated densities were low. Currently, the EPA is evaluating the long-term use of seed blends (Bt and non-Bt) as a resistance management strategy. In 2010, a large percentage of producers, 80.4%, indicated they would be willing to use this approach. The current lack of integration of management tactics for insect pests of maize in the U.S. Corn Belt, due primarily to the escalating use of transgenic Bt hybrids, may eventually result in resistance evolution and/or other unforeseen consequences. PMID:20873716
Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of table grapes. Growing social concerns over excessive pesticide use have led to farming to move from conventional to organic practices. Table grapes were collected from 99 different farms in three Aegean regions. Pesticide residues were only detected in farms using conventional agriculture practices while no pesticides were detected in grapes from farms using organic or integrated pestmanagement. A risk assessment model indicated that lambda-cyhalothrin posed the most significant risk at conventional farms. PMID:20213057
The cost and effectiveness of two bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) integrated pestmanagement (IPM) programs were evaluated for 10 wk. Sixteen bed bugÐinfested apartments were chosen from a high-rise low-income apartment building. The apartments were randomly divided into two treatment groups: diatomaceous earth dustÐ based IPM (D-IPM) and chlorfenapyr sprayÐ based IPM (S-IPM). The initial median (minimum, maximum) bed
PEST is an acronym for four sources of change: political, economic, social and technological. PEST analysis is a powerful and widely used tool for understanding strategic risk. It identifies the changes and the effects of the external macro environment on a firm's competitive position. Strategists seek to understand external factors and evaluate how business models will have to evolve, in
Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)
Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Entomology and Nematology, P.O. Box 110630, Gainesville, FL 32611-0630 (United States); Adjei, M.B. [University of Florida, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, 3401 Experiment Station, Ona, FL 33865-9706 (United States); Vicente, N.E. [University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box 9030, Mayaguez, PR 00681-9030 (Puerto Rico)
Research on consumer, grower, and landscape manager perception of azalea lace bug, Stephanitis pyrioides (Scott), feeding and on plant productivity parameters, including gas exchange and growth, has increased our understanding of the nature of feeding injury. These studies made it possible to develop decision-making guidelines for cost-effective maintenance of aesthetically pleasing azaleas. Criteria were considered for three management situations: a 0.41-ha (1-acre) nursery production system that may use either insecticidal soap, acephate, or imidacloprid to control lace bugs; a landscape planting of a group of 10 azaleas; or maintenance of a single azalea in the landscape. Lace bug thresholds were calculated using a hybrid economic injury level (EIL) formula. Pesticide application decisions were determined using survey-based data from grower, landscape manager, and consumer perceptions of unacceptably injured azaleas at point-of-purchase for the nursery situation. Additional landscape scenarios incorporated the perceptions of growers, landscape managers, and consumers for those levels of lace bug feeding-injury that prompted the desire for treatment. Hybrid EIL determinations are appropriate for lace bug management in landscape systems where landscape professionals manage large plantings of azaleas and as a component of pestmanagement among nursery production systems. Aesthetic considerations are more appropriate in determining control thresholds among a few or individual azaleas in the landscape. PMID:11681683
The foundation of an integrated pestmanagement program involves valid treatment thresholds, accurate and simple monitoring methods, effective natural controls, selective pesticides and trained individuals who can implement the concept. The Integrated Control Concept written by Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen elucidated each of these points in an alfalfa ecosystem. Alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) has a low per acre value, requires little hand labor and is primarily marketed in the USA. In contrast, fresh market table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has a high per acre value, requires frequent hand labor operations, suffers unacceptable cosmetic damage and is marketed throughout both the USA and the world. Each of the components of a working IPM program is present in table grape production. Marketing grapes to foreign countries presents special problems with pests considered invasive and where residue tolerances for some selective insecticides are lacking. However, fresh market grape farmers are still able to deal with these special problems and utilize an IPM program that has resulted in a 42% reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use from 1995 to 2007. PMID:19731261
Oplostomus haroldi Witte belongs to a unique genus of afro-tropical scarabs that have associations with honey bee colonies, from which they derive vital nutrients. Although the attributes of the honey bee nest impose barriers to communication among nest invaders, this beetle still is able to detect conspecific mates for reproduction. Here, we show, through behavioral studies, that cuticular lipids serve as mate discrimination cues in this beetle. We observed five steps during mating: arrestment, alignment, mounting, and copulation, and a post-copulatory stage, lasting ~40-70 % of the total mating duration, that suggested mate guarding. Chemical analysis identified the same nine straight-chain alkanes (C(23)-C(31)), six methyl-branched alkanes (6), and five mono-unsaturated alkenes in the cuticular lipids of both sexes. Methyl alkanes constituted the major component (46 %) of male cuticular lipids, while mono-unsaturated alkenes were most abundant (53 %) in females. (Z)-9-Pentacosene was twice as abundant in females than in males, and ~20 fold more concentrated in beetles than in worker bees. In mating assays, (Z)-9-pentacosene elicited arrestment, alignment, and mounting, but not copulation, by male beetles. These results represent the first evidence of a contact sex pheromone in a scarab beetle. Such contact pheromones may be an essential, cryptic mechanism for arthropods associated with eusocial insects. PMID:23149473
Fombong, Ayuka T; Teal, Peter E A; Arbogast, Richard T; Ndegwa, Paul N; Irungu, Lucy W; Torto, Baldwyn
Semio-chemicals are released into the environment from the exocrine glands. These enable chemical communication, achieved by olfaction, gustation, oviposition and contact through hind tarsi of some species. Distinct receptor cells and sensilla amplify these signals within the active odor space to initiate both behavioral and physiological responses for corporate survival of the species. These chemical signals have been harnessed for
Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pestmanagement (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...
Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pestmanagement (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...
Smallholder farmers who practice continuous maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivation in the highlands of eastern African have been introduced to new leguminous crops for soil fertility enhancement. However, little is known about the impact these crops may have on farmers’ pre-existing crop pest problems. We investigated the cumulative effects of 7 years of differential management
Beth A. Medvecky; Quirine M. Ketterings; Eric B. Nelson
Seventy and 2,371 specimens or about 1.1 and 34.4 individuals per day were captured in melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), cue-lure monitoring/suppression traps at two area-wide integrated pestmanagement implementation sites in Kula (Maui Island) and Kamuela (Hawaii Island), respectively...
The successful development of phenology models from field studies depends on many factors, some of which are entirely under the control of pestmanagers. For example, one such factor is the choice of method for calculating thermal units. In this study, we have demonstrated that four methods for calculating thermal units provided for acceptable predictions of one phenological event of
DE Legg; SM Van Vleet; DW Ragsdale; RW Hansen; LC Skinner; TR Collier; JE Lloyd
The Argonne ChemicalManagement System (CMS) is comprised of several applications and the Infrastructure Modules. The Infrastructure Modules, which provide the integrated computing software foundation, include a security processor, common tables, reportin...
H. S. Morss R. C. Hischier D. N. Keto J. L. Woodring J. T. Davis
The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pestmanagement (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated during the final year of the areawide program. Based on data from 533 bins, SGA Pro accurately predicted which bins were at low, moderate or high risk. Only in two out of 533 bins did SGA Pro incorrectly predict bins as being low risk and, in both cases, insect density was only high (> two insects kg(-1)) at the surface, which suggested recent immigration. SGA Pro is superior to calendar-based management because it ensures that grain is only treated when insect densities exceed economic thresholds (two insects kg(-1)). This approach will reduce the frequency of fumigation while maintaining high grain quality. Minimizing the use of fumigant improves worker safety and reduces both control costs and harm to the environment. PMID:12846311
Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W
We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2?) and ozonide radical ion (*O3?) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of fertilization (organic or synthetic) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., cultivars ('K-Y cross' and 'Summer Summit') on the chemistry of cabbage and on the responses of a cabbage specialist Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval. Cabbages were grown from seeds in the greenhouse with either organic, synthetic, or no fertilizer treatments. Trials of ovipositional preference and larval feeding were conducted to evaluate the effect of foliage quality on insect responses. In addition, the foliar chemistry (water, nitrogen, total nonstructural carbohydrates, sinigrin, and anthocyanin) was measured during the insect bioassays. The results indicated that butterflies preferred to lay eggs on foliage of fertilized plants. The larvae grew faster on plants fertilized with synthetic fertilizer, but there was no evidence that contents of sinigrin delayed the developmental time of the larvae. However, plants that received organic fertilizer had higher biomass. In summary, the results of this study suggested that proper organic treatment can increase a plant's biomass production and may have a lower pest occurrence. PMID:19253632
Management of wildlife in suburban environments involves a complex set of interactions between both human and wildlife populations.\\u000a Managers need additional tools, such as models, that can help them assess the status of wildlife populations, devise and apply\\u000a management programs, and convey this information to other professionals and the public. We present a model that conceptualizes\\u000a how some wildlife populations
Four apple management strategies were compared in an Iowa orchard for codling moth, sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS), apple scab, and weeds. An orchard block with three apple scab-resistant cultivars (Redfree, Liberty, and Goldrush) was used to compare two new integrated pestmanagement (IPM) systems that incorporated weather-based disease-warning systems and alternative pesticides (Treatments 3 and 4) with an existing
The Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management (CHEMM) website from the National Library of Medicine is designed for first responders and medical providers who are planning for and responding to chemical hazards events. It includes pages tailored to the individual interests of specific groups, including first responders, health care providers, mental health professionals, toxicologists, and more. The featured decision support system CHEMM Intelligent Syndromes Tool allows users to identify the chemical a patient was exposed to in a mass casualty event. PMID:22289097
Chemical burns represent potentially blinding ocular injuries and constitute a true ocular emergency requiring immediate assessment and initiation of treatment. The majority of victims are young and exposure occurs at home, work place and in association with criminal assaults. Alkali injuries occur more frequently than acid injuries. Chemical injuries of the eye produce extensive damage to the ocular surface epithelium, cornea, anterior segment and limbal stem cells resulting in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Emergency management if appropriate may be single most important factor in determining visual outcome. This article reviews the emergency management and newer techniques to improve the prognosis of patients with chemical injuries.
Singh, Parul; Tyagi, Manoj; Kumar, Yogesh; Gupta, K. K.; Sharma, P. D.
Crop models simulate growth and development, and provide relevant information for the routine management of the crop. Integrating crop models with other information technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS), variable rate technology, remote sensing, and global positioning systems (G...
We present an overview of USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) computer models and databases related to pest-management science, emphasizing current developments in environmental risk assessment and management simulation models. The ARS has a unique national interdisciplinary team of researchers in surface and sub-surface hydrology, soil and plant science, systems analysis and pesticide science, who have networked to develop empirical and mechanistic computer models describing the behavior of pests, pest responses to controls and the environmental impact of pest-control methods. Historically, much of this work has been in support of production agriculture and in support of the conservation programs of our 'action agency' sister, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service). Because we are a public agency, our software/database products are generally offered without cost, unless they are developed in cooperation with a private-sector cooperator. Because ARS is a basic and applied research organization, with development of new science as our highest priority, these products tend to be offered on an 'as-is' basis with limited user support except for cooperating R&D relationship with other scientists. However, rapid changes in the technology for information analysis and communication continually challenge our way of doing business. PMID:12846319
Wauchope, R Don; Ahuja, Lajpat R; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Bingner, Ron; Lowrance, Richard; van Genuchten, Martinus T; Adams, Larry D
Host-plant resistance as a management tactic involves both the exploitation of intraspecific variation in genetically\\u000a based plant resistance to breed crop varieties that support lower populations of herbivores or that better tolerate injury\\u000a by herbivores and the integration of said varieties with other management tactics such as insecticide applications and biological\\u000a control. There are several barriers to the increased development
Background : Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applica - tions of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest man - agement (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance , and limited use of least
Daniel Kass; Wendy McKelvey; Elizabeth Carlton; Marta Hernandez; Ginger Chew; Sean Nagle; Robin Garfinkel; Brian Clarke; Julius Tiven; Christian Espino; David Evans
Two regimes of vertical shaft furnace operation can be employed to slag encapsulate hazardous chemical wastes. One of these is similar to a method applicable to radioactive wastes, involving the pouring of hot molten slag from a coal reactor over the hazardous matter contained in a suitable designed crucible. The other method is especially appropriate for the treatment of chemical wastes that have become mixed with a great deal of soil or other diluent as must be handled as in the case of the love canal incident. It consists of feeding the contaminated solid mass into the coal reactor with a predetermined amount of coal and limestone that will still admit an adequate heat balance to generate a carefully tailored slag to incorporate the reacted waste feedstock.
The need is anticipated in the Spring of 1974, to chemically treat an estimated 650,000 acres of Federal, Indian, State and private lands in Union, Wallowa, Umatilla, and Baker Counties, Oregon, and Walla Walla, Columbia, Garfield, Asotin, Stevens, and Ok...
Diversification of agricultural activities that links farm-based enterprises with cultivation of field crops helps the resource-poor farmers in tropics to generate additional income, gainful employment and improve their dietary standards. A farming system approach has been found to be a resource management strategy for achieving economic and sustainable agricultural production, catering to the diverse needs of tropical farm household while
The mortality of cacao fruits caused by early fruit abortion or insect and pathogen attacks was investigated in differently managed agroforestry systems in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Nine agroforestry systems shaded by three different types of tree stands were selected, which represented a decrease in structural heterogeneity: forest remnants, diverse planted trees and one or two species of planted leguminose trees.
Merijn M. Bos; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter; Teja Tscharntke
An analysis of pesticide residue data was performed to describe and quantify differences between organically grown and non-organic fresh fruits and vegetables. Data on residues in foods from three different market categories (conventionally grown, integrated pestmanagement (IPM)-grown/no detectable residues (NDR), and organically grown) were compared using data from three test programmes: The Pesticide Data Program of the US Department of Agriculture; the Marketplace Surveillance Program of the California Department of Pesticide Regulation; and private tests by the Consumers Union, an independent testing organization. Organically grown foods consistently had about one-third as many residues as conventionally grown foods, and about one-half as many residues as found in IPM/NDR samples. Conventionally grown and IPM/NDR samples were also far more likely to contain multiple pesticide residues than were organically grown samples. Comparison of specific residues on specific crops found that residue concentrations in organic samples were consistently lower than in the other two categories, across all three data sets. The IPM/NDR category, based on data from two of the test programmes, had residues higher than those in organic samples but lower than those in conventionally grown foods. PMID:12028642
Baker, B P; Benbrook, C M; Groth, E; Lutz Benbrook, K
Integrated pestmanagement options such as combining chemical and biological control are optimal for combating pesticide resistance, but pose questions if a pest is to be controlled to extinction. These questions include (i) what is the relationship between the evolution of pesticide resistance and the number of natural enemies released? (ii) How does the cumulative number of natural enemies dying affect the number of natural enemies to be released? To address these questions, we developed two novel pest-natural enemy interaction models incorporating the evolution of pesticide resistance. We investigated the number of natural enemies to be released when threshold conditions for the extinction of the pest population in two different control tactics are reached. Our results show that the number of natural enemies to be released to ensure pest eradication in the presence of increasing pesticide resistance can be determined analytically and depends on the cumulative number of dead natural enemies before the next scheduled release time. PMID:23943345
Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A; Wu, Jianhong
Enhancing the environmental soundness of agricultural practices, particularly in high input systems, is of increasing concern\\u000a to those involved in agricultural research and development. The Integrated PestManagement Farmer Field School, which is based\\u000a on farmer participatory environmental education, is compared to the No Early Spray intervention, which is a simple rule approach.\\u000a A research methodology was developed and tested
Twenty?seven Hawke's Bay, New Zealand apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) pest and disease control “advisers” including horticultural merchant and New Zealand Apple and Pear Marketing Board (NZAPMB) field representatives, private consultants, and apple plant protection scientists (The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Ltd (HortResearch)) were interviewed over the 1993\\/94 growing season to determine their role in growers’ pest
There may be several ecological impacts induced by transgenic cottons, apart from their direct impact on target pest. The interactions between target insect and transgenic cotton, and the way of toxic expressed by transgenic cotton varied with plant spatial parts and different growing stages are regarded as the main cause for insect to develop resistance. In transgenic cotton field, although chemicals applied to control major insect pest could be reduced greatly, insect community structure including insect pests and beneficial organisms is less stable than that of regular cotton field. It is much easier for minor insect pests developing to be major pest. In order to full utilization of transgenic cottons and keep their efficiency on target pest, methods including integrated pestmanagement and breeding higher efficiency transgenic cottons by genetic engineering are proposed for management of pest resistance and non-target pests. PMID:12836558
Pesticides commonly used in commercial greenhouse management were evaluated for compatibility with two biological control agents: a leafminer parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea [Walker]), and a predatory mite (Neoseiulus californicus [McGregor]). These natural enemies were exposed to miticides, fungicides, and insecticides targeting leafminers, thrips, and whiteflies, according to label directions in laboratory vial assays, after which mortality at 12, 24, and 48 h was recorded. Greater mortality of predatory mites than leafminer parasitoids was observed overall, illustrating that fewer pesticides were compatible with predatory mites compared with the parasitoid. However, some commonly used pesticides were found to cause high mortality to both the leafminer parasitoid and predatory mites. Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestations often disrupt leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii [Burgess]) biocontrol programs. Therefore, potentially compatible miticides (bifenazate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, acequinocyl, etoxazole, and clofentezine) identified in laboratory trials were also evaluated in a greenhouse study and found to be compatible with leafminer biocontrol. PMID:24020270
Abraham, Cheri M; Braman, S K; Oetting, R D; Hinkle, N C
Changes in aphid presence following plant washings were evaluated on hibiscus plants, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., that supported natural aphid infestations--primarily melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Clover. Type of plant module (such as stems, tight buds, open flowers, and sepal caps) and percent of module's surface covered by aphids were recorded for each branch tip on every plant. Plant washing was done with tap water, applied for 30 s three times a week for 3 wk. Aphid presence was recorded each week. Aphid presence on plant structures immediately before and after a single 30-s wash treatment was also examined. In the 3-wk study, mean percent coverage of plant parts with aphids was significantly affected by wash treatment, plant module type, and their interactions, as well as by time and the interaction of time with wash treatment. By the third week, unwashed plants had 33.1% of stems and branch tips scoring >5% coverage with aphids, and 17.9% of unwashed stems and branch tips had 20% or more of their surface area covered by aphids. Washing plants prevented aphid coverage from ever exceeding the 5% class on all module types. In the second experiment, buds and stems with high numbers of aphids before washing generally experienced notable declines with a single wash. When the prewash coverage was 10% or greater, reduction in coverage ranged from 50 to 100% of the prewash amount. In 64% of the cases, the reduction in coverage was 75% or more of the prewash amount. Plant washing can provide a viable means of management for small, soft-bodied arthropods such as aphids. PMID:11777054
Loranthaceous mistletoes are interesting because of their complex dependence on suitable host trees and avian dispersers and because of their patchy distribution at the landscape level. Although their over- and under-abundance in Australia and New Zealand have been widely documented, little attention has been given to the need for an ecosystem approach to their management. Although the current status of
The effect of an integrated pestmanagement (IPM) package, host plant resistance, Chrysoperla carnea predation and neem oil were evaluated against the spider mite Tetranychus ludeni on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fields in 1996 and 1997, by estimating the mite population density and yield levels. Compared with the IPM package (Panruti local, C. carnea plus neem oil), the standard (susceptible) eggplant variety (MDU1) grown by farmers and treated with an acaricide (dicofol) had significantly higher mite densities. The predator C. carnea was recorded in significantly lower numbers in plots with the standard variety compared to a resistant variety (panruti local) with the full IPM package. Eggplant yield level and crop value were highest in the IPM-treated plots followed by Panruti local plus C. carnea. The standard variety treated with an acaricide had the lowest yield and value. These results indicated the usefulness of host plant resistance complemented by biorational control agents, such as C. carnea and neem oil, that these are suitable components in an IPM programme for managing the spider mite in endemic areas. PMID:12465852
The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...
The potamidid snail Cerithidea cingulata is considered a pest in brackishwater milkfish ponds in the Philippines and has been controlled by the triphenyltin (TPT) compounds Aquatin and Brestan. But TPT is also toxic to other invertebrates, fishes, algae, bacteria and people, and high TPT residues occur in sea foods including milkfish. Thus, control of snails in milkfish ponds should be
Brassica crops, principally varieties of Brassica oleracea and Brassica campestris, account for over half the total vegetable production in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). The crops are attacked by a complex of insects and the two major pest species, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) represent the principal constraints to Brassica crop production.
Michael J. Furlong; Kim Hak Ju; Pak Wi Su; Jo Kwang Chol; Ri Chang Il; Myron P. Zalucki
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been\\u000a suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated PestManagement programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since\\u000a the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects’ planning and evaluation usually rely on information from
During 1998-2001, field studies were done to assess the efficacy of an integrated pestmanagement (IPM) program using an action threshold and "reduced-risk" insecticides. The IPM program was compared with a conventional grower-based program. Program performance was evaluated based on management of Trichoplusia ni (Hiibner), Pieris (=Artogeia) rapae (L.), and Plutella xylostella (L.), as well as the economic impact of each program on net returns. The action threshold used in the IPM program consisted of 10% plants infested with T. ni larvae, based on previous small-plot experiment station trials. In all years of the study, the IPM program resulted in significantly lower percentages of plants infested than the conventional program or untreated check. The mean reduction in insecticide applications for the IPM program compared with the conventional program was 23.5%, whereas, on average, the costs of the IPM program were 46.0% higher than the conventional program. Pest reduction in the IPM program resulted in an average of 10.5% higher marketable yields than the conventional program. Percentages of marketable heads in the IPM program ranged from 82 to 99% and from 63 to 96% in the conventional program. Mean net returns for the IPM program exceeded the conventional program by $984.20/ha. These results indicated that the IPM program reduced insecticide use overall, even though costs of the IPM program, with either spinosad or indoxacarb, were sometimes higher. Overall, net returns of the IPM program were higher due to active pest scouting, improved application timing, and increases in marketable yield. Given the potential decrease in insecticide applications and increases in net profit resulting from this IPM program, additional analyses should be conducted to quantify the economic risk, or consistency of the results, to fully evaluate the benefits of the IPM program compared with a conventional program. PMID:18459412
Only few factors influencing pest populations can be studied in the laboratory, but many population- driving factors interact in the field. Therefore, complementary laboratory and field approaches are required for reliable predictions of real-world patterns and processes. Laboratory and field experi- ments with the red spider mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae), and the coffee leaf miner, Leucoptera coffeella Guérin-Méneville
Adenir V. Teodoro; Teja Tscharntke; Alexandra-Maria Klein
The Tokyo subway sarin attack in March 1995 demonstrated the importance of preparedness toward a chemical terrorist attack. Emergency medical teams on the scene are valuable, beside the medical treatment of casualties, in the cognition of toxicant involvement and later in the recognition of the specific toxidrome involved. The chemical terrorism scene is a contaminated area; therefore, first responders have to be protected from both percutaneous and inhalational exposure to toxic materials. This protection is also against secondary evaporation (gas-off) from contaminated casualty, hence the importance of disrobing casualties on the scene as soon as possible. Once the recognition of toxicological involvement have been made, the next crucial decision is whether the clinical toxidrome is of cholinergic toxicity (e.g. organophosphate or carbamate intoxication) in which there are automatic injectors for treatment available on the scene, or any other toxidrome (such as irritation or vesicants) in which, beside general measures, like oxygen delivery and airway support, there is not a specific antidotal treatment on the scene. The clinical detection and identification of the chemical toxidrome involved is of utmost importance since it promotes the antidotal treatment quickly and efficiently. The key to the medical management of such events is based on decisions that have to be taken as soon as possible according to the clinical judgment of medical teams on the scene. PMID:15889611
The purpose of this article is to present the contribution of a trans-disciplinary approach focused on ergonomics and chemical risk control. We shall more precisely discuss how such an approach carried out in the field of agricultural work has made it possible to highlight serious shortcomings in the effectiveness of the coveralls that are supposed to protect vineyard workers from
The cost and effectiveness of two bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) integrated pestmanagement (IPM) programs were evaluated for 10 wk. Sixteen bed bug-infested apartments were chosen from a high-rise low-income apartment building. The apartments were randomly divided into two treatment groups: diatomaceous earth dust-based IPM (D-IPM) and chlorfenapyr spray-based IPM (S-IPM). The initial median (minimum, maximum) bed bug counts (by visual inspection) of the two treatment groups were 73.5 (10, 352) and 77 (18, 3025), respectively. A seminar and an educational brochure were delivered to residents and staff. It was followed by installing encasements on mattresses and box springs and applying hot steam to bed bug-infested areas in all 16 apartments. Diatomaceous earth dust (Mother Earth-D) was applied in the D-IPM group 2 d after steaming. In addition, bed bug-intercepting devices were installed under legs of infested beds or sofas or chairs to intercept bed bugs. The S-IPM group only received 0.5% chlorfenapyr spray (Phantom) after the nonchemical treatments. All apartments were monitored bi-weekly and retreated when necessary. After 10 wk, bed bugs were eradicated from 50% of the apartments in each group. Bed bug count reduction (mean +/- SEM) was 97.6 +/- 1.6 and 89.7 +/- 7.3% in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Mean treatment costs in the 10-wk period were $463 and $482 per apartment in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Bed bug interceptors trapped an average of 219 +/- 135 bed bugs per apartment in 10 wk. The interceptors contributed to the IPM program efficacy and were much more effective than visual inspections in estimating bed bug numbers and determining the existence of bed bug infestations. PMID:19496428
The Project ManagerChemical Stockpile Elimination (PM-CSE) PM-CSE is an acquisition PM responsible for the safe destruction of the nation's unitary chemical agents and weapons. The destruction technologies used by PM- CSE include incineration and neutral...
Previous researchers have listed insect pests associated with figs in California, but the proportion of damage caused by different pests has not been described quantitatively. As broad spectrum insecticides have been replaced by less toxic but more species-specific pestmanagement methods, this inf...
During the last few years, FAO, as depository of the International Plant Protection Convention, has been promoting the harmonisation\\u000a of phytosanitary requirements in quarantine. Pest Risk Analysis (PRA), the systematic assessment and management of risks due\\u000a to exotic pests and diseases, has been introduced to assist quarantine organisations in targeting the ‘quarantine pests’ and\\u000a mitigating the risk of their introduction.
The Argonne ChemicalManagement System (CMS) is comprised of several applications and the Infrastructure Modules. The Infrastructure Modules, which provide the integrated computing software foundation, include a security processor, common tables, reporting framework, utilities, and other facilities common to applications processing chemical information. The MSDS Sheets were scanned and the images stored for automated faxing to the requester. User searches are accomplished based on ``search`` data keyed into the Oracle Tables; the desired MSDS is subsequently faxed. The system has been designed as an ``open`` system and is totally portable. During development and production the CMS has operated in VAX, VMS, Sun Unix, and Hewlett-Packard HP-UX environments. The only restrictions are that the MSDS Faxing Server must operate under Unix and the bar code scanning processes are accomplished using a portable PC. The current system consists of 20 Oracle Tables, over 350 columns of data, 25 Standard reports, 45 screens, and a number of utilities. With the Oracle RDBMS the computing platform may be sized to the volume of data and processing activity. The Laboratory`s implementation is on an HP 9000 Model H50 with 256 megabytes of memory, 32 concurrent users, and 8 gigabytes of disk storage that is primarily for the MSDS images.
Morss, H.S.; Hischier, R.C.; Keto, D.N.; Woodring, J.L.; Davis, J.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sherva, B. [Management Consultant, Lombard, IL (United States)
The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pestmanagement due to its safety to the surrounding environment.
Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal
The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated PestManagement programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m < 0.100) across the buffer zones between the flies in the control areas and flies captured outside. In addition, no genetic admixture was revealed from the mass-reared colony flies from the flies within the control area, which supports the effectiveness of SIT. The control pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area. PMID:21052785
|The first symposium on "Test Methods for Vertebrate PestManagement" was held in March, 1976. Much of the thrust was toward explaining and defining the "state of the art." Concerns included rodents and rabbits, predators, scavengers, and large game animals, and a variety of bird species. Environments were as restricted as a laboratory cage or pen…
The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) ChemicalManagement Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the ChemicalManagement Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. SNL/CA is responsible for tracking chemicals (chemical and biological materials), providing Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and for regulatory compliance reporting according to a variety of chemical regulations. The principal regulations for chemical tracking are the Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the California Right-to-Know regulations. The regulations, the Hazard Communication/Lab Standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are also key to the CM Program. The CM Program is also responsible for supporting chemical safety and information requirements for a variety of Integrated Enabling Services (IMS) programs primarily the Industrial Hygiene, Waste Management, Fire Protection, Air Quality, Emergency Management, Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Prevention programs. The principal program tool is the Chemical Information System (CIS). The system contains two key elements: the MSDS library and the chemical container-tracking database that is readily accessible to all Members of the Sandia Workforce. The primary goal of the CM Program is to ensure safe and effective chemicalmanagement at Sandia/CA. This is done by efficiently collecting and managingchemical information for our customers who include Line, regulators, DOE and ES and H programs to ensure compliance with regulations and to streamline customer business processes that require chemical information.
Toxic chemicals will continue to be a major concern for some time to come. This handbook treats the subject of toxic regulation and actual practices in handling, treatment, and disposal. It comes at a time when regulatory controls have advanced, and several new ways of managing toxic chemicals have also been attempted. Toxic chemicals listed in the tables are identified
Pest risk analysis represents an emerging field of risk analysis that evaluates the potential risks of the introduction and establishment of plant pests into a new geographic location and then assesses the management options to reduce those potential risks. Development of new and adapted methodology is required to answer questions concerning pest risk analysis of exotic plant pests. This research
Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus 1787) is one of the most economically threatening weed plant in Hungary. Researching biological control against it, and identifying a possible and effective biocontrol agent is an important challenge, as chemical control is difficult and expensive, and there is an increasing claim to practice slight plant protection. Entomological studies were made in several parts of the world, for evaluating the species, occuring in velvetleaf, but none of these kind of experiments were assessed in Hungary. Our observations were made in field and plastic boxes, both under open field circumstances in 2008 and 2009 by visually assessing pests, netting and damage based identifying. Meanwhile 8 pest species were identified, including (Helix pomatia Linnaeus 1758--roman snale; Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood 1856)--greenhouse whitefly; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius 1787)-- lime seed bug; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus 1758)--fire bug; Rhopalus parumpunctatus Schilling 1829--common hyaline bug; Liorhyssus hyalinus--hyaline grass bug (Fabricius 1794); Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus 1758)--cabbage moth; Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner 1808)--corn earworm). On the whole the literature datas were enlarged with four new velvetleaf pests (roman scale, lime seed bug, common hyaline bug, cabbage moth). Considering the earlier literature and our results, Liorhyssus hyalinus may play an important role on biological management of velvetleaf. However this pest considered as polyphagous, but discovered to occur in great numbers on velvetleaf, this points to the fact that can be its main host plant and by sucking on the plant, can cause decreased germination rate. We suggest the "hyaline velvetleaf bug" name istead of "hyaline grass bug". Of course, additional experiments are needed on this pest to may use safety and effectively in the future. PMID:22696962
The water and wastewater treatment chemical industry is highly fragmented and diversified. Companies must remember that markets are also highly fragmented. Successful operation in the industry requires experienced scientific and managerial personnel and a systems approach to marketing. Types of companies in the water treatment chemical industry (a selected list of companies, their income, and sales figures is included), shipment
This book chapter provides a review of biological control agents used to suppress insect pests of stored grain and food processing facilities. Biological control has several advantages compared to chemical insecticides. Natural enemies leave no harmful chemical residues; and after release in a stora...
Driven by differing statutory mandates and programmatic separation of regulatory responsibilities between federal, state, and tribal agencies, distinct chemical and radiation risk management strategies have evolved. In the field this separation poses real challenges since many of the major environmental risk management decisions we face today require the evaluation of both types of risks. Over the last decade, federal, state, and tribal agencies have continued to discuss their different approaches and explore areas where their activities could be harmonized. The current framework for managing public exposures to chemical carcinogens has been referred to as a "bottom up approach." Risk between 10(-4) and 10(-6) is established as an upper bound goal. In contrast, a "top down" approach that sets an upper bound dose limit and couples with site specific As Low As Reasonably Achievable Principle (ALARA), is in place to manage individual exposure to radiation. While radiation risk are typically managed on a cumulative basis, exposure to chemicals is generally managed on a chemical-by-chemical, medium-by-medium basis. There are also differences in the nature and size of sites where chemical and radiation contamination is found. Such differences result in divergent management concerns. In spite of these differences, there are several common and practical concerns among radiation and chemical risk managers. They include 1) the issue of cost for site redevelopment and long-term stewardship, 2) public acceptance and involvement, and 3) the need for flexible risk management framework to address the first two issues. This article attempts to synthesize key differences, opportunities for harmonization, and challenges ahead. PMID:10859777
The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia. PMID:22080590
Potato cyst nematodes (PCN), G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes worldwide. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in Idaho (G. pallida) and Quebec and Alberta, Can...
Methods of controlling harmful cotton pests in northern Afghanistan and southern Tadzhikistan are discussed. The method of using natural enemies of pests for control is compared with the use of pesticides. The effects of both methods on the ecology of the...
Successful management of incidents with chemical warfare agents strongly depends on the speed of medical help and the ability of helpers to react properly. Though the general principles of clinical toxicology, such as decontamination, stabilization, patient evaluation and symptomatic treatment are similar for many toxicants, chemical warfare agents deserve special attention because of their very high inhalative and cutaneous toxicity,
Chemical dependence constitutes a significant public health problem with immeasurable physical and psychological sequelae. Pain management is generally undertreated in this population because of the associated stigma and misconceptions about both pain and chemical dependence. The plan of care in the perioperative period is complicated by the increased incidence of related trauma, medical and psychiatric problems, and the risk for
Chemical warfare agents are toxic weapons and emergency prehospital medical care providers should be well prepared, trained, and equipped to give response. Personnel need to be aware of the following medical issues regarding prehospital management of a chemical attack, event recognition, incident medical command and control, safety and protection, decontamination, isolation of the incident area (hot zone, warm zone, and
Text Version... Should he or she be an information management specialist, or should he or she have expertise in other scientific disciplines (eg, chemistry ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
Plutella xylostella and Pieris rapae are the key components of a pest complex that attacks Brassica crops in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). We examined the spatial distributions of these insects within\\u000a crops both as individual species and when combined as a standard insect that was derived from their relative feeding rates.\\u000a The influence of standard co-operative management
Edward Kyle Waters; Andrew John Hamilton; Graham Hepworth; Hak Ju Kim; W. S. Pak; Michael John Furlong
Most animals, including pest insects, live in an “odor world” and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pestmanagement strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests.
The term Integrated PestManagement was first based on the concept of ‘integrated control’ given by the entomologists from\\u000a University of California, who defined it as “applied pest control which combines and integrates biological and chemical control.\\u000a Chemical control was used only if necessary and in a way which was least disruptive to biological control”. Entomologists\\u000a initiated the work on
|This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…
The Varroa mite ( Varroa destructor) is becoming ubiquitous worldwide and is a serious threat to honey bees. The cultivation of certain food crops are at risk. The most noted acaricides against Varroa mites are tau-fluvaninate and coumaphos, but the mites are showing resistance. Since these insecticides are used in the proximity of honey, it is desirable to use natural alternatives. Monoterpenoids such as thymol and carvacrol, that are constituents of oil of thyme and oil of origanum, show promise as acaricides against the Varroa mite ( Varroa destructor), but the delivery of these compounds remains a challenge due to the low water solubility and uncontrolled release into the colony. Beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) inclusion complexes of thymol, oil of origanum, and carvacrol were prepared on a preparative scale. Competitive binding was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy by using 6- p-toluidinylnaphthalene-2-sulfonate as a fluorescent probe. The complexes were characterized, and the competitive binding described by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy chemical shifts. The toxicity of beta-CD and the prepared complexes in enriched sucrose syrup was studied by conducting caged honey bee ( Apis mellifera) feeding trials. After the first and second weeks of feeding, hemolymph and gut tissue samples were acquired from the caged bee study. The levels of thymol and carvacrol were quantified by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectroscopy, using an optimized procedure we developed. High (mM) levels of thymol and carvacrol were detected in bee tissues without any imposed toxicity to the bees, in an effort to deter Varroa mites from feeding on honey bee hemolymph. PMID:18710247
The efficacy of nontransgenic sweet corn, Zea mays L., hybrids cross-pollinated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sweet corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab toxin was evaluated in both field and laboratory studies in Minnesota in 2000. Non-Bt and Bt hybrids (maternal plants) were cross-pollinated with pollen from both non-Bt and Bt hybrids (paternal plants) to create four crosses. Subsequent crosses were evaluated for efficacy in the field against European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and in laboratory bioassays against O. nubilalis. Field studies indicated that crosses with maternal Bt plants led to low levels of survival for both O. nubilalis and H. zea compared with the non-Bt x non-Bt cross. However, the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen led to survival rates of 43 and 63% for O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae, respectively. This intermediate level of survival also was reflected in the number of kernels damaged. Laboratory bioassays for O. nubilalis, further confirmed field results with larval survival on kernels from the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen reaching 60% compared with non-Bt crossed with non-Bt. These results suggest that non-Bt refuge plants, when planted in proximity to Bt plants, and cross-pollinated, can result in sublethal exposure of O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae to Bt and may undermine the high-dose/refuge resistance management strategy for corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab. PMID:22066174
\\u000a Process modeling develops models of chemical engineering systems to promote better understanding and allow simulated investigation.\\u000a Currently, there are no standards for process models, and no tool that addresses all phases of development. Model knowledge\\u000a is frequently lost in this conversion, due to improper documentation of models, and the lack of systematic management mechanisms\\u000a to manage all the models concerned.
The 5th Aquatic Animal Models for Human Disease meeting follows four previous meetings (Nairn et al., 2001; Schmale, 2004; Schmale et al., 2007; Hinton et al., 2009) in which advances in aquatic animal models for human disease research were reported, and community discussion of future direction was pursued. At this meeting, discussion at a workshop entitled Bioinformatics and Computational Biology with Web-based Resources (20 September 2010) led to an important conclusion: Aquatic model research using feral and experimental fish, in combination with web-based access to annotated anatomical atlases and toxicological databases, yields data that advance our understanding of human gene function, and can be used to facilitate environmental management and drug development. We propose here that the effects of genes and environment are best appreciated within an anatomical context - the specifically affected cells and organs in the whole animal. We envision the use of automated, whole-animal imaging at cellular resolution and computational morphometry facilitated by high-performance computing and automated entry into toxicological databases, as anchors for genetic and toxicological data, and as connectors between human and model system data. These principles should be applied to both laboratory and feral fish populations, which have been virtually irreplaceable sentinals for environmental contamination that results in human morbidity and mortality. We conclude that automation, database generation, and web-based accessibility, facilitated by genomic/transcriptomic data and high-performance and cloud computing, will potentiate the unique and potentially key roles that aquatic models play in advancing systems biology, drug development, and environmental risk management. PMID:21763781
Cheng, Keith C; Hinton, David E; Mattingly, Carolyn J; Planchart, Antonio
A key element of a grain storage integrated pestmanagement (IPM) system is the ability to monitor for the presence of arthropod pests and to reliably detect these, as early as possible, at low population densities. There has been considerable progress in the development of traps for monitoring storage insects and mites and progress has also been made in the
A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only,
|The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…
This volume concentrates on the energy involved in plant nutrition and pest control for crop production. Fossil fuel energy used to produce fertilizers and pesticides is evaluated along with the amount, distribution and use of these fertilizers and pesticides throughout the world. Alternatives to the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and specifically biological nitrogen fixation and the use of organic wastes are discussed in relation to their economic and energy replacement value. Methods for the conservation of nutrients and pesticides are considered. Finally, the energy balance of nutrients and pest control is reviewed in the light of the economic, policy and social issues of the alternative needs and uses.
A hazardous material is defined as any item or agent which has the potential to cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment, either by itself or through interaction with other factors. Toxic chemical substance events are increasingly common events in our modern world. The numerous variables and special equipment involved make effective response to toxic chemical events an especially critical test of hospital emergency response and patient rescue mechanisms. Inadequacies in management could result in disaster - even when only a simple event and minimal error are involved. This article introduces the general medical management algorithm for toxic chemical substance injury and the hospital incident command systems (HICS) developed and currently used by Taiwanese hospitals. Important steps and frequent mistakes made during medical management procedures are further described. The goal of medical care response and emergency units is to prevent catastrophic disasters in the emergency room and their subsequent results. This article further emphasizes correct patient management not only in terms of medical unit effort, but also in terms of cooperation between various relevant organizations including factory-based industrial health and safety systems, multi-factory union defense systems, coordination centers, fire protection and disaster rescue systems, the Environmental Protection Administration and national defense system in order to achieve the most appropriate management. Such coordination, in particular, requires reinforcement in order to ensure readiness for future response needs. PMID:20535674
In the past, the dominant approach in theoretical pestmanagement ecology has emphasized the use of simple analytical or mathematical models and the analysis of systems in equilibrium. Recent advancements in computer technology have provided the opportunity for ecological insect modelers to move aw...
Adequately preparing for and responding to terrestrial (land-based) chemical spills are critical to the protection of human health and the environment. To facilitate analysis and support decision-making for such events, the authors have developed an environmental risk management system that characterizes the ability of a spilled chemical to immediately impact human health, groundwater, surface water, and soil resources, and incorporates these four risk areas into an overall measure of terrestrial chemical risk. This system incorporates a risk index model, leverages geographic information systems (GIS) technology, and contains a comprehensive chemical and environmental database to assess and delineate the immediate threat posed by a terrestrial chemical spill. It is designed to serve a variety of stakeholders, including managers and policy-makers, who would benefit from generating screening-level environmental risk assessments without requiring a technical background or collection of detailed environmental and chemical data. Areas of potential application include transportation routing, industrial zoning, environmental regulatory compliance and enforcement, spill response, and security planning. PMID:17250961
Most organisms synthesize secondary products with biological activity that is useful in their defense. Defense can be against vertebrates, arthropods, mollusks, plants (both algal and higher plants), and microbes. Many of these compounds have been used from ancient times to the present as pharmace...
This study employed a Discourse Ethicality survey instrument to analyze the legitimacy and ethicality of one of Dow Chemical's externally focused, rhetorical, crisis management strategies. A stratified random sample of the issues management bulletin The Point Is . . ., published over a ten year time period, was evaluated. The bulletins were divided into three time periods corresponding to significant
Field trials were carried out during the 2001–2002 cropping seasons at Maiduguri, Nigeria, to determine the effects of defoliation and pod damage by insect pests on grain yield of soybean. The factorial experiments consisted of four sowing dates (31 July, 7, 14 and 21 August in 2001 and 21 and 28 July and 4 and 11 August in 2002), four
It is widely acknowledged that the management of risks associated with chemicals in articles needs to be improved. The EU environmental policy states that environmental damage should be rectified at source. It is therefore motivated that the risk management of substances in articles also takes particular consideration to those substances identified as posing a risk in different environmental compartments. The primary aim of the present study was to empirically analyze to what extent the regulation of chemicals in articles under REACH is coherent with the rules concerning chemicals in the Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). We also analyzed the chemical variation of the organic substances regulated under these legislations in relation to the most heavily used chemicals. The results show that 16 of 24 substances used in or potentially present in articles and regulated by the SSD or the WFD are also identified under REACH either as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) or subject to some restrictions. However, for these substances we conclude that there is limited coherence between the legislations, since the identification as an SVHC does not in itself encompass any use restrictions, and the restrictions in REACH are in many cases limited to a particular use, and thus all other uses are allowed. Only a minor part of chemicals in commerce is regulated and these show a chemical variation that deviates from classical legacy pollutants. This warrants new tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals in articles. We also noted that chemicals monitored in the environment under the WFD deviate in their chemistry from the ones regulated by REACH. In summary, we argue that to obtain improved resource efficiency and a sustainable development it is necessary to minimize the input of chemicals identified as hazardous to health or the environment into articles. PMID:22858536
Pest control recommendations in Papua New Guinea cocoa plantings are based on an integrated approach to insect pest and disease management. The most damaging problems are Pantorhytes weevils, black pod and bark canker disease (both caused by Phytophthora palmivora) but vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease is important in some areas of the country. Most other insect pests can be kept
|Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)|
|This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators.…
During the summer of 1994, four commercial 121.5 tonne corrugated steel bins of stored popcorn were evaluated for chemical-free pestmanagement and conditioning. Two of the bins were managed conventionally with intensive aeration for moisture conditioning and calendar-based fumigation treatments for pest control. In the other two bins grain temperatures were managed with the Purdue prototype grain chiller. They were
Management of hazardous chemical wastes generated as a part of the curriculum poses a significant task for the individual responsible for maintaining compliance with all rules and regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation while maintaining the principles of OSHA's Lab Standard and the Hazard Communication Standard. For schools that generate relatively small quantities of waste, an individual can effectively manage the waste program without becoming overly burdened by the EPA regulations required for those generating large quantities of waste, if given the necessary support from the institution.
Ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem research projects are inherently interdisciplinary and benefit from improved access to well-documented data. Improved data sharing practices are important to the continued exploration of research themes that are a central focus of the ocean science community and are essential to interdisciplinary and international collaborations that address complex, global research themes. In 2006, the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to serve the data management requirements of scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to manage marine biogeochemical, ecological, and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research. These valuable data sets are documented, stored, disseminated, and protected over short and intermediate time frames. One of the goals of the BCO-DMO is to facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange through improved data discovery, access, display, downloading, and interoperability. In May 2010, NSF released a statement to the effect that in October 2010, it is planning to require that all proposals include a data management plan in the form of a two-page supplementary document. The data management plan would be an element of the merit review process. NSF has long been committed to making data from NSF-funded research publicly available and the new policy will strengthen this commitment. BCO-DMO is poised to assist in creating the data management plans and in ultimately serving the data and information resulting from NSF OCE funded research. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: geospatial and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data export and download utilities; and strategic use of controlled vocabularies to facilitate data integration and improve interoperability.
Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Glover, D. M.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Work, T. T.; Biological; Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office
Different conventions around the world have produced guidelines for the disposal of dredged material (e.g., London Convention 1972 (LC) (www.Londonconvention.org); Oslo\\/Paris Convention (OSPAR) (www.ospar.org); and, the Helsinki and Barcelona Conventions). They suggest the use of different methodologies from physico-chemical to biological approaches to the management of different routes of disposal or uses of the dredged material.Most of these conventions propose
The management of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) terrorism events is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in the next decade; however, initial patient care considerations and protective actions for staff are unfamiliar to most front-line clinicians. High explosive events (bomb and blast) remain the most common type of terrorism and are easy to detect. Conversely, some types of terrorist attacks are more likely to be unsuspected or covert. This paper explains the current threat of terrorism and describes clues for detection that an event has occurred. Specific criteria that should lead to a high suspicion for terrorism are illustrated. The manuscript outlines initial actions and clinical priorities for management and treatment of patients exposed to nuclear/radiological, biological, chemical and combined agents (for example an explosion involving a chemical agent). Examples of terrorist events include: a nuclear explosion, an aerosolised release of anthrax (biological), dissemination of sarin in a subway (chemical), and the detonation of a radiologic dispersion device or "dirty bomb" (combined explosive and radiological). Basic principles of decontamination include potential risks to healthcare providers from secondary exposure and contamination. Unique issues may hinder clinical actions. These include coordination with law enforcement for a crime scene, public health entities for surveillance and monitoring, hazardous materials teams for decontamination, and the media for risk communications. Finally, the importance of personal preparedness is discussed. PMID:20052435
If appropriately applied, biological control offers one of the most promising, environmentally sound, and sustainable control tactics for arthropod pests and weeds for application as part of an integrated pestmanagement (IPM) approach. Public support for biological control as one of the preferred methods of managing non-indigenous and indigenous pests is increasing in many countries. An FAO\\/IAEA Coordinated Research Project
Jorge Hendrichs; Kenneth Bloem; Gernot Hoch; James E. Carpenter; Patrick Greany; Alan S. Robinson
Conservation in New Zealand is largely focused on reducing the impact introduced mammals have on the abundance of indigenous species. Conservation managers have a range of strategies they can employ to control these pests, but the combination that maximises conservation gains depends on the protection each strategy affords, and the scale at which it can be applied. Given a limited
Elucidating the chemical ecology of natural enemies, herbivores and host plants is important in the development of effective and successful integrated pestmanagement (IPM) strategies where abundance and distribution of natural enemies could be manipulated by semiochemicals for improved conservation biological control (CBC). In response to attack by herbivores, plants produce semiochemicals called Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles (HIPVs) which act to
Zeyaur R. Khan; David G. James; Charles A. O. Midega; John A. Pickett
Current United States military chemical protective ensembles do not provide for feeding, removing body wastes, or ensuring the hygiene of troops operating in a contaminated environment. As part of a nuclear-biological-chemical life support demonstration program, systems were developed to provide these capabilities. The nutrient system consisted of foods packaged in tube dispensers and a delivery system compatible with North Atlantic Treaty Organization respirators. The waste management/hygiene systems consisted of waste collection and hygiene items incorporated into a retractable-arm suit design with integrated airlock. A field demonstration of the systems resulted in successful use by armored vehicle personnel, high, positive user feedback, and only minor functional problems. PMID:2057069
Cardello, A V; Darsch, G; Fitzgerald, C; Gleason, S D; Teixeira, R
Oceanography and marine ecosystem research are inherently interdisciplinary fields of study that generate and require access to a wide variety of measurements. In late 2006 the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Geosciences Directorate Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). In late 2010 additional funding was contributed to support management of research data from the NSF Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program. The BCO-DMO is recognized in the 2011 Division of Ocean Sciences Sample and Data Policy as one of several program specific data offices that support NSF OCE funded researchers. BCO-DMO staff members offer data management support throughout the project life cycle to investigators from large national programs and medium-sized collaborative research projects, as well as researchers from single investigator awards. The office manages and serves all types of oceanographic data and information generated during the research process and contributed by the originating investigators. BCO-DMO has built a data system that includes the legacy data from several large ocean research programs (e.g. United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and United States GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics), to which data have been contributed from recently granted NSF OCE and OPP awards. The BCO-DMO data system can accommodate many different types of data including: in situ and experimental biological, chemical, and physical measurements; modeling results and synthesis data products. The system enables reuse of oceanographic data for new research endeavors, supports synthesis and modeling activities, provides availability of "real data" for K-12 and college level use, and provides decision-support field data for policy-relevant investigations. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: map-based and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data export and download utilities; and strategic use of controlled vocabularies to facilitate data integration and to improve data system interoperability.
Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.; Gegg, S. R.
Development of pestmanagement systems rests on relatively few major ecological principles and these underly the tactics and\\u000a strategies available. Many are so self-evident that we often ignore their underlying significance. They are (1) the principle\\u000a of inherent variation in the genetic properties of organisms; (2) the principle that an organism must be adapted to its environment\\u000a and becomes so
Tutorials on pest ants and cockroaches. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers acrobat ant, Argentine ant, bigheaded ant, crazy ant, Florida carpenter ant, ghost ant, imported fire ant, little fire ant, native fire ant and Pharaoh ant, American cockroach, Australian cockroach, brown cockroach, brownbanded cockroach, Cuban cockroach, Florida woods cockroaches, German cockroach, oriental cockroach, smokybrown cockroach and Surinam cockroach. Requires Windows. program must be downloaded on to hardrive, but once installed is intuitive. many of the species depicted in these tutorials are restricted to Florida and the extreme southern U.S. $15. Part number SW 157.
Certain embodiments of the methods and compositions of matter disclosed herein relate to: "simultaneous" control of rodents and at least one insect pest (e.g., cockroach, ant, tick) using the same bait; control of ticks by orally administering to mammals a diet composition comprising fipronil; enhancing insecticide efficacy through use of a diet composition that comprises a Generation-I rodenticide and an insecticide; use of imidacloprid in a diet composition orally administerable to mammals in an uncontrolled setting; and use of at least one insecticide to enhance the efficacy of a rodenticide.
Honey bees are critical to world agriculture because of their role in crop pollination. Unfortunately, the sustainability\\u000a of this bee is threatened by an increasing number of invasive pests, particularly the tracheal mite, varroa mite, and small\\u000a hive beetle. Integrated pestmanagement has not been well utilized by beekeepers, partly due to a lack of biological control\\u000a agents. Microbial control
|This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…
This chapter discusses the impact of insect infestations on the quality of postharvest nuts. The chapter first reviews the biology of key field pests that may be found in harvested nuts, and pests found in nut storage and processing facilities. The chapter then reviews current and developing control...
This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.
Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu
|Examines the use of pesticides in an integrated pestmanagement (IPM) program. The three steps to creating an IPM are discussed along with IPM personnel communication requirements, and the need for written policies managed by a knowledgeable coordinator. Additional resources for information about IPMs are included. (GR)|
Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.
There are about 13 species of rice insect pests which are common and of major significance in Guangdong Province, China. Rice\\u000a pestmanagement in China is based on cultural practices, biological control, insecticides, light traps, varietal resistance\\u000a and other control methods. Natural control by preservation of natural enemies of pests plays a very positive role in the integrated\\u000a control of
Effective biophysical and biochemical methods of attacking pests and diseases of cereal and industrial crops, vegetables, and fruit plantings are being actively developed. Scientists are uncovering and studying within the Soviet Union the natural resource...
|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)|
Increased plant importation, tourism, and trade in agricultural commodities have increased the incidence of introduction of exotic insect pests into pest-free areas of the world, threatening crop and ornamental plant production. The threat of invasion is very pronounced in areas of the world that ...
Potential alternative treatment methods are evaluated for a total of 24 waste streams selected from the report 'Assessment of Industrial Hazardous Waste Practices of the Organic Chemicals, Pesticides and Explosives Industries'. Potential alternatives are physical, chemical and biological processes identified in the report 'Analysis of Potential Application of Physical, Chemical and Biological Treatment Techniques to Hazardous Waste Management'. The primary
J. M. Genser; A. H. Zipperstein; S. P. Klosky; P. S. Farber
A computerized, expert system (FLEX) has been developed that will assess the chemical resistance of flexible membrane liners (FML) used at waste management facilities. hese FML's must be chemically resistant to the waste, its leachates, or both. o demonstrate chemical resistancy,...
Augmentative biological control as a component of integrated pestmanagement programmes involves the release of natural enemies of the pest, such as parasitoids and predators. Several potential uses for nuclear techniques have been identified which can benefit such programmes; these benefits include facilitating trade, protecting the environment and increasing the overall efficacy of the programmes. This may involve sterilising feed
The key insect pests attacking the sunflower head and seeds include the sunflower moth, the red sunflower seed weevil, the banded sunflower moth, and the sunflower midge. There is a need to reduce losses from these pests by providing long-term economical management for sunflower growers. In 2005, su...
Landscape management could contribute to sustainable pest control. Landscape composition, in particular, could either directly impact a pest abundance by affecting its dispersal, mortality or reproduction, or indirectly by affecting its natural enemies. We performed an analysis of the scientific literature to assess how the proportion of different land covers at the landscape level is related to the abundance of
Andrea Veres; Sandrine Petit; Cyrille Conord; Claire Lavigne
An understanding of the population ecology, genetics and epidemiology of pests and pathogens is necessary for the development of reliable and effective pest and disease management systems in energy crops. Rust diseases are among the most devastating on poplars and willows. Analysis of forms of the Melampsora rust pathogens has revealed a complex array of species, form species, races and
Ceratitis capitata, known as one of the world's most destructive insect pest, costs farmers billions of dollars annually. Improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of area-wide pestmanagement. Transgenic methodology should enhance and widen the applicability of the sterile ...
To date, research on suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has focused on determining health effects in humans and wildlife and on occurrence of these chemicals in the environment. There is strong evidence that certain chemicals are causing endocrine-related effects in...
|An objective of the American Chemical Society is to promote alternatives to landfilling for the disposal of laboratory chemical wastes. One method is to reduce the amount of chemicals that become wastes. This is the basis for the "less is better" philosophy. This bulletin discusses various techniques involved in purchasing control, inventory…
A plethora of arthropods attack fruit crops throughout the tropics and sub-tropics. The predominant method for controlling most of these pests is the application of broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Growing concern over the negative environmental effects has encouraged development of alternative c...
Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors,
Stephen Richards; Richard A. Gibbs; George M. Weinstock; Susan J. Brown; Robin Denell; Richard W. Beeman; G. Bucher; M. Friedrich; C. J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen; M. Klingler; M. D. Lorenzen; S. Roth; R. Schroder; D. Tautz; E. M. Zdobnov; D. Muzny; T. Attaway; S. Bell; C. J. Buhay; M. N. Chandrabose; D. Chavez; K. P. Clerk-Blankenburg; A. Cree; M. Dao; C. Davis; J. Chacko; H. Dinh; S. Dugan-Rocha; G. Fowler; T. T. Garner; J. Garnes; A. Gnirke; A. Hawes; J. Hernandez; S. Hines; M. Holder; J. Hume; S. N. Jhangiani; V. Joshi; Z. M. Khan; L. Jackson; C. Kovar; A. Kowis; S. Lee; L. R. Lewis; J. Margolis; M. Morgan; L. V. Nazareth; N. Nguyen; G. Okwuonu; D. Parker; S. J. Ruiz; J. Santibanez; J. Savard; S. E. Scherer; B. Schneider; E. Sodergren; S. Vattahil; D. Villasana; C. S. White; R. Wright; J. Lord; B. Oppert; S. Brown; L. J. Wang; Y. Liu; K. Worley; C. G. Elsik; J. T. Reese; E. Elhaik; G. Landan; D. Graur; P. Arensburger; P. Atkinson; J. Beidler; J. P. Demuth; D. W. Drury; Y. Z. Du; H. Fujiwara; V. Maselli; M. Osanai; H. M. Robertson; Z. Tu; J. J. Wang; S. Z. Wang; H. Song; L. Zhang; D. Werner; M. Stanke; B. Morgenstern; V. Solovyev; P. Kosarev; G. Brown; H. C. Chen; O. Ermolaeva; W. Hlavina; Y. Kapustin; B. Kiryutin
It has been an age-old practice to mix neem materials in stored products for protection against insect pests in countries where neem abounds. Recognition of this bio- dynamism of neem materials and the protection it offered to stored products was experience driven rather than being based on knowledge of neem's bioactive chemical constituents. Little consideration was given to large quantities
This book, developed by experts from academia and industry, provides guidance on planning procedures for the handling, storage, and disposal of chemicals. The book offers prudent practices designed to promote safety and includes practical information on assessing hazards, managingchemicals, disposing of wastes, and more. This book is intended to serve as the leading source of chemical safety guidelines for people working with laboratory chemicals: research chemists, technicians, safety officers, educators, and students.
National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)
The development of cost effective management and sampling techniques for western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on garden impatiens, Impatiens wallerana (Hook.f.), necessitates that the within-plant distribution and diurnal patterns of thrips abundance be known. Impatiens flo...
Helicoverpa spp. and mirids, Creontiades spp., have been difficult to control biologically in cotton due to their unpredictable temporal abundance combined with a cropping environment often made hostile by frequent usage of broad spectrum insecticides. To address this problem, a range of new generation insecticides registered for use in cotton were tested for compatibility with the assassin bug, Pristhesancus plagipennis (Walker), a potential biological control agent for Helicoverpa spp. and Creontiades spp. Indoxacarb, pyriproxifen, buprofezin, spinosad and fipronil were found to be of low to moderate toxicity on P. plagipennis whilst emamectin benzoate, abamectin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and omethaote were moderate to highly toxic. Inundative releases of P. plagipennis integrated with insecticides identified as being of low toxicity were then tested and compared with treatments of P. plagipennis and the compatible insecticides used alone, conventionally sprayed usage practice and an untreated control during two field experiments in cotton. The biological control provided by P. plagipennis nymphs when combined with compatible insecticides provided significant (P<0.001) reductions in Helicoverpa and Creontiades spp. on cotton and provided equivalent yields to conventionally sprayed cotton with half of the synthetic insecticide input. Despite this, the utilization of P. plagipennis in cotton as part of an integrated pestmanagement programme remains unlikely due to high inundative release costs relative to other control technologies such as insecticides and transgenic (Bt) cotton varieties. PMID:17524159
...been withdrawn, and that imports of host crops for the pest in question are subject to...not available, importation of the host crops would be prohibited. In order for a decertified...Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control numbers 0579-0049,...
With the widespread use of WEBGIS system, we design the architecture of diseases and Insect Pest Information System (DIPS) based on WEBGIS. First, expound the structure principle and maintenance methods of the component model management subsystem, propose common interface standards and design interface component model that suitable for WEBGIS system. Then, present design ideas and realization method of intelligent decision
|This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The document is a compilation of pamphlets and circulars which discuss forest management, control of undesirable woody plants, herbicides in forestry, diseases and insect pests, and equipment for pesticide application. (CS)|
This review describes the history and use of heat in the management of a wide range of agricultural and structural pests. Definitions and concepts used in heat treatments are discussed as well as possible mechanisms of thermal lethality. Factors used in determining treatments are availability, costs, complexity, and other constraints. Heat can be used separately in multiple forms or in
During a 3-year-experiment on strip-management a population of the spiderDictyna arundinacea (L.) was released in a winter wheat field.D. arundinacea built its webs with high preference at the ears of the wheat and 26–28% of the released spiders were rediscovered at the\\u000a marked first web-sites some weeks later. Enclosure studies and prey samples from several sub-populations showed thatD. arundinacea caught
In recent years, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of harmful chemicals in our environment. Many people\\u000a express concerns about chemicals and other foreign substances in food, in drinking water, and toxic pollutants in the air.\\u000a Exposure and risk assessment of chemical environmental pollution have been widely studied. Risk assessment provides a systematic\\u000a approach for characterizing the
Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUI and PUIM. It was found that both PUI and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI?10 and 34 with 1060, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds, which indicated that their pest controls heavily depended on pesticides rather than on-farm management. Through the case study, the proposed approach proved to be useful for analyzing the growers' pesticide use intensities and interpreting their pesticide use behaviors, which led to a new start point for further investigation of searching ways to reduce pesticide environmental risk. PMID:21370508
Li, Wen-juan; Qin, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Browde, Joe
This booklet will help nurserymen, forest woodland managers, pest control operators, and homeowners to identify and control pest problems on sycamore trees. The major insect and disease pests of sycamores in the Eastern United States are emphasized. Descr...
T. D. Leininger J. D. Solomon A. D. Wilson N. M. Shiff
There is increasing interest in the use of trap crops as components of integrated pestmanagement (IPM) strategies. Understanding\\u000a the mechanisms underlying host plant preferences of herbivorous pests can lead to improved effectiveness and reliability of\\u000a the trap crop. We investigated the behavioural and chemical ecology underlying the success of turnip rape, Brassica rapa, trap crops in protecting oilseed rape,
S. M. Cook; H. B. Rasmussen; M. A. Birkett; D. A. Murray; B. J. Pye; N. P. Watts; I. H. Williams
Information about chemicals can be critical to making timely decisions. The results of these decisions may not be realized for many years. In order to increase the value of chemical information and to create and utilize meaningful environmental models, the Environmental Prote...
To delay resistance development to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing their own insecticide, the application of the Insect Resistance Management strategy called "High Dose/Refuge Strategy" (HD/R) is recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). This strategy was developed for Bt plants expressing one toxin. Presently, however, new Bt plants that simultaneously express two toxins are on the market. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficiency of the HD/R strategy for both these Bt toxins. As the current two-toxin Bt plants do not express two new Cry toxins but reuse one toxin already in use with a one-toxin plant, we estimated the spread of resistance when the resistance alleles are not rare. This study assesses: (i) whether the two toxins have to be present in high concentration, and (ii) the impact of the relative size of the refuge zone on the evolution of resistance and population density. We concluded that for Bt plants expressing one toxin, a high concentration is an essential condition for resistance management. For the pyramided Bt plants, one toxin could be expressed at a low titer if the two toxins are used for the first time, and a small refuge zone is acceptable. PMID:23162699
To delay resistance development to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing their own insecticide, the application of the Insect Resistance Management strategy called “High Dose/Refuge Strategy” (HD/R) is recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). This strategy was developed for Bt plants expressing one toxin. Presently, however, new Bt plants that simultaneously express two toxins are on the market. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficiency of the HD/R strategy for both these Bt toxins. As the current two-toxin Bt plants do not express two new Cry toxins but reuse one toxin already in use with a one-toxin plant, we estimated the spread of resistance when the resistance alleles are not rare. This study assesses: (i) whether the two toxins have to be present in high concentration, and (ii) the impact of the relative size of the refuge zone on the evolution of resistance and population density. We concluded that for Bt plants expressing one toxin, a high concentration is an essential condition for resistance management. For the pyramided Bt plants, one toxin could be expressed at a low titer if the two toxins are used for the first time, and a small refuge zone is acceptable.
The South Coast Air Quality Management District requested technical support toward developing a regulatory approach for controlling potential accidental air releases of toxic chemicals. The report provides some of the technical input and describes other support efforts. These eff...
This report evaluates the ability of the Chemical Waste Management POWWER System to reduce the volume of aqueous waste and catalytically oxidize volatile contaminants. his evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluati...
Managing risks to human health and the environment produced by endocrine-active chemicals (EAC) is dependent on sound principles of risk assessment and risk management, which need to be adapted to address the uncertainties in the state of the science of EAC. Quantifying EAC hazard identification, mechanisms of action, and dose-response curves is complicated by a range of chemical structure\\/toxicology classes,
Karen P. Phillips; Warren G. Foster; William Leiss; Vanita Sahni; Nataliya Karyakina; Michelle C. Turner; Sam Kacew; Daniel Krewski
In order to give adequate support to risk managers, new risk assessment methods should be developed that are (1) scientifically sound, (2) simplified, and (3) suited for precautionary risk management. In this Perspective we propose that the notion of a precautionary default can be a useful tool in the development of such methods. A precautionary default is a cautious or
Per Sandin; Bengt-Erik Bengtsson; Åke Bergman; Ingvar Brandt; Lennart Dencker; Per Eriksson; Lars Förlin; Per Larsson; Agneta Oskarsson; Christina Rudén; Anders Södergren; Per Woin; Sven Ove Hansson
Use New Pest Response Guidelines: Temperate Terrestrial Gastropods as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of temperate climate pest snails and slugs in the United States and collaborating terr...
We promote in situ early pest detection in green- houses based on video analysis. Our target applica- tion is the detection of bio-aggressors on plant or- gans such as leaves. The goal of this work is to de- fine an innovative decision support system, which handles multi camera data and follows a generic approach to adapt to different categories of
|This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…
|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)|
Topics discussed in these briefing charts are: acquisition life cycle, impact of materials and process information on product lifecycle, chemical and materials dilemma, technology dilemma -- differing, sometimes conflicting perspectives/values, business t...
The purpose of the document is to assist U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of the Oc...
As requested, we reviewed how the Army's Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) funds about $281 million appropriated in fiscal years 1988 to 1994 were spent. We have previously reported problems the Army experienced in improving the em...
Targeted to homeowners, although it is a great introduction for all students and educators wanting to learn more about integrated pestmanagement. Objectively written. The links to extension offices all go to Georgia Extension.
The first step in preparing a disaster management plan for any chemical process industry (CPI) is to identify and mitigate the conditions that might cause them. In practice, such a plan should start early in the design phase of the chemical facility, and continue throughout its life. The objective is to prevent emergencies by eliminating hazards wherever possible. In-spite of
In Australia, monitoring Helicoverpa species for resistance to the Cry2Ab toxin in second generation Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton has precisely fulfilled its intended function: to warn of increases in resistance frequencies that may lead to field failures of the technology. Prior to the widespread adoption of two-gene Bt cotton, the frequency of Cry2Ab resistance alleles was at least 0.001 in H. armigera and H. punctigera. In the 5 years hence, there has been a significant and apparently exponential increase in the frequency of alleles conferring Cry2Ab resistance in field populations of H. punctigera. Herein we review the history of deploying and managing resistance to Bt cotton in Australia, outline the characteristics of the isolated resistance that likely impact on resistance evolution, and use a simple model to predict likely imminent resistance frequencies. We then discuss potential strategies to mitigate further increases in resistance frequencies, until the release of a third generation product. These include mandating larger structured refuges, applying insecticide to crops late in the season, and restricting the area of Bollgard II® cotton. The area planted to Bt-crops is anticipated to continue to rise worldwide; therefore the strategies being considered in Australia are likely to relate to other situations.
This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…
A comprehensive listing of arthropod pests arranged and searchable by commodity type. The listing includes pests of small fruits, ornamental plants, flowers, forests, corn, tobacco, turf, peanuts, cotton, and much more. Pests are listed by common and species name with life history data, images, and control strategies.
|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…
Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no influence on the composting ability and growth of E. foetida. F. semitectum, in general, expressed its selectivity against sucking pests and proved its eco-friendly characteristics to the beneficial organisms and especially safe to Sericulture, Apiculture and Vermiculture industries in Karnataka, India. This novel fungus can be well incorporated as a viable tactics into the integrated management programmes of crop pests. PMID:17385514
Application of existing human judgment and physical\\/chemical measurement techniques in developing visual air quality management programs is discussed. The measurement techniques are reviewed in terms of their abilities to provide information on several important management concerns: 1) public recognition of the problem, 2) public acceptability of different levels of visual air quality, 3) the relationship between emissions and visual air
|The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…
Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.
This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for c...
B. Carnes C. F. Jove-Colon D. Z. Turner J. R. Red-Horse M. Mesh N. Alger P. L. Hopkins S. Davison S. R. Subia
Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment for corneal ulceration, and adequate anti-inflammatory therapy when the corneal epithelium becomes intact. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.
This paper addresses the nurse manager's role regarding chemically-dependent nurses in the workplace. The manager may intervene by: terminating the contract of the impaired colleague; notifying a disciplinary committee; consulting with a counselling committee; or referring the impaired nurse to an employee assistance programme. A dilemma may arise about which of these interventions is ethically the best. The ethical theories relevant to nursing involve ethical relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, Kohlberg's justice, and Gilligan's ethic of care. Nurse managers first need to understand these theories in order to clarify their own perceptions and attitudes towards chemical dependency, and then satisfactorily resolve this ethical dilemma. Education and social learning are routes to a better understanding of chemical dependency and to broadening the ethical dimensions of nurse managers. PMID:8998031
The disposal of healthcare waste (HCW) seems to have been solved in developed countries, while in most developing countries the problem persists because the disposal methods are expensive and larger than the budget of small- and medium-sized municipalities. The current study evaluates the encapsulation process for the disposal of medical chemical waste. The experiment was developed in the Piraí municipality (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and the chemical wastes were produced in the local public hospital, as well as the 12 units of primary care health services. Chemical waste generated at health services units may include the liquid waste from cleaning materials and disinfectants, expired and unused pharmaceutical products, and cytotoxins. These are all considered hazardous waste products and they must be disposed of via an authorised system at approved sites (e.g. industrial landfills). The process of encapsulating chemical medical waste in concrete (cement, crushed stones and sand) followed by their disposal at sanitary landfills is a procedure that is not considered in Brazilian Legislation. Despite the oversight, this method of disposal was used in the municipality of Piraí, with the approval of the Rio de Janeiro State Agency for Environmental Control. The safety aspects of this method and the limits of its applicability, particularly in small municipalities, were evaluated in this study. The results indicate that, within certain parameters, this method may provide a viable solution for the disposal of HCW in small municipalities. PMID:22977125
Ferreira, João A; Bila, Danielle M; Ritter, Elisabeth; Braga, Ana Cs
KURIS, A. M., 1973. Biological control: implications of the analogy between the trophic interactions of insect pest-parasitoid and snail-trematode systems. Experi- mental Parasitology 33, 365-379. An analogy between the tropic interactions of insect pest-hymenopterous parasitoid and snail-larval trematode systems is proposed. The goal of most agricultural pestmanagement programs is increase in production of a plant crop, the deleterious agent
|Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)|
The tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Tetranychidae), is considered one of the main phytophagous mite pests of tea plants in north-east India. To reduce the amount of synthetic chemicals in tea, a strategy of using optimal rates and effective spray practices has been developed. In laboratory tests, the 50% lethal concentration (LC50 in parts per million (ppm)) values
As growers switch to transgenic crops and selective insecticides that are less toxic to natural enemies, natural enemies can become more important in agricultural pestmanagement. Current decision-making guides are generally based on pest abundance and do not address pest and natural enemy toxicity differences among insecticides or the impact of natural enemies on pest survival. A refined approach to making pestmanagement decisions is to include the impact of natural enemies and insecticides, thereby better integrating biological and chemical control. The result of this integration is a dynamic threshold that varies for each product and the level of biological control expected. To demonstrate the significance of conserved biological control in commercial production, a decision-making guide was developed that evaluates control options for European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in sweet corn, Zea mays L., where the primary natural enemies are generalist predators. Management options are lambda-cyhalothrin (broad-spectrum insecticide), spinosad (selective insecticide), Trichogramma ostriniae (Peng and Chen) (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) (parasitoid), and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sweet corn (transgenic variety). The key factors influencing thresholds for all treatments are the intended market, predator populations, and the presence of alternative foods for the predators. Treatment cost is the primary factor separating the threshold for each treatment within a common scenario, with the lowest cost treatment having the lowest pest threshold. However, when the impact of a treatment on natural enemies is projected over the 3-wk control period, the impact of the treatment on predators becomes the key factor in determining the threshold, so the lowest thresholds are for broad-spectrum treatments, whereas selective products can have thresholds > 6 times higher by the third week. This decision guide can serve as a framework to help focus future integrated pestmanagement research and to aid in the selection of pestmanagement tools. PMID:17066781
Since the early 1980s several disasters involving mass release of toxic substances have focused the attention of different administrations and the fire services into producing protocols and guidelines for action in civilian situations. The bomb attack in the Tokyo subway, in March 1995, made it clear that a terrorist attack using highly toxic agents is now feasible. Management of disasters
|In this work we show how specific challenges related to sustainable development can be integrated into chemical engineering education by introducing an environmental management system in the laboratory where the students perform their experimental lessons. It is shown how the system has been developed and implemented in the laboratory, what role…
Background A number of significant chemical incidents occur in the UK each year and may require Emergency Departments (EDs) to receive and manage contaminated casualties. Previously UK EDs have been found to be under-prepared for this, but since October 2005 acute hospital Trusts have had a statutory responsibility to maintain decontamination capacity. We aimed to evaluate the level of preparedness of Emergency Departments in North West England for managingchemical incidents. Methods A face-to-face semi-structured interview was carried out with the Nurse Manager or a nominated deputy in all 18 Emergency Departments in the Region. Results 16/18 departments had a written chemical incident plan but only 7 had the plan available at interview. All had a designated decontamination area but only 11 felt that they were adequately equipped. 12/18 had a current training programme for chemical incident management and 3 had no staff trained in decontamination. 13/18 could contain contaminated water from casualty decontamination and 6 could provide shelter for casualties before decontamination. Conclusion We have identified major inconsistencies in the preparedness of North West Emergency Departments for managingchemical incidents. Nationally recognized standards on incident planning, facilities, equipment and procedures need to be agreed and implemented with adequate resources. Issues of environmental safety and patient dignity and comfort should also be addressed.
It has long been argued by proponents of organic agriculture that crop losses to insects and diseases are reduced by this farming method, and that reduced susceptibility to pests is a reflection of differences in plant health, as mediated by soil-fertility management. These reports although widespread are mostly anecdotal and largely without experimental foundation. In this study, the effects of
With increased rice production under improved methods, the problem of plant protection is more accentuated. Insect infestation\\u000a is found to be more in rice under high fertility. The usual indirect methods advocated till now, have not achieved the expected\\u000a results. Chemical method of control appears to be the most effective at present. Insecticidal control of pests that feed on\\u000a the
IPM lesson plans are divided into sections devoted to elementary school ages, middle school, and finally high school level. Topics range from recognizing arthropods and insects, to observing butterflies in the field, to understanding ecosystems, and pesticide regulations. As of this writing a few of the links to PDFs are not operating, but seem to direct to other university websites. The plans for the high school exercises are probably of most utility at the university level. The exercises are well designed; however, some of the activities relying on government web-sites may be cumbersome.
Insecticides and acaricides account for about 10% of the budget required to grow cotton in the San Joaquin Valley during the typical year. Estimates of cotton yield loss from spider mites, cotton aphids, lygus bugs, and lepidopterous larvae in the SJV have been as high as 15% during the peak years ...
Great success has been and will continue to be made through traditional breeding methods. Continued efforts to improve crop resistance through conventional methods and genetic engineering have had limited success due to the lack of genetic resources and genes for resistance, the genetic complexity ...
Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pestmanagement framework. PMID:23914197
Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph
Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pestmanagement framework.
Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph
Operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems), the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a manufacturing facility that plays an integral role in the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Fulfilling the national security mission at the Y-12 Plant, continuing to be the cornerstone of uranium and lithium technologies for DOE, and providing customers with solutions for challenging manufacturing needs requires usage of a variety of chemicals and chemical processes. Performing this work safely while protecting workers, the public, and the environment is their commitment. The purpose of this document is to provide a description of the essential components of chemical safety, the integration of these components into the Y-12 Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), and the functional integration of chemical safety issues across Y-12 organizations and programs managed by Energy Systems.
Froggatt's apple leafhopper, Edwardsiana froggatti (FALH), is a minor pest of apples in New Zealand. The eggs are attacked by several species of the mymarid genus Anagrus. The phenology of the leafhopper and these parasitoids in Central Otago has not been previously described. Leafhopper and Anagrus spp. adults were monitored with sticky traps in apple blocks under conventional, integrated, and
The 1959 publication of the article ‘The Integrated Control Concept’ by Stern and colleagues established a new philosophical framework for pestmanagement that eventually provided a foundation for IPM to develop. Considered within the context of pest control approaches 50 years ago, the integrated ...
The Department of the Army has established the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) in response to Congressional direction to eliminate the nation`s stockpile of unitary chemical agents and munitions. This will be accomplished through the construction and operation of disposal facilities specifically designed for this mission. It is a fundamental objective of the CSDP to complete the disposal program with maximum protection of the health and safety of the public, facility staff, and the environment. To this end, the CSDP has implemented a comprehensive risk management program. The army has undertaken qualitative and quantitative risk assessments to help understand the risks to be managed. This risk management program also integrates army system safety practices and policies and industrial safety standards and risk management activities.
Boyd, G.J. [Sciences Applications International Corp., Abingdon, MD (United States)
Spiders are common generalist predators, and understanding their potential in biological control is important for the development of integrated pestmanagement programs. In this study, predation by three groups of spiders on the mirid bug Stenotus rubrovittatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) in rice paddies was investigated using DNA-based gut-content analysis. A laboratory feeding study revealed that the detection half-lives of bug DNA
All you need to know about terrorism, chemical and biological disasters and trauma management were topics covered at a recent Disaster Management course held at The University of Notre Dame (UNDA), Fremantle.\\u000aThe Boxing Day Tsunami was the catalyst for the innovative program completed by medical students at Notre Dame’s School of Medicine recently. Talking about the tragedy on the
During the last several years there has been increasing public concern about chemicals in everyday products. Scientific studies are increasingly revealing the build-up of some substances in ecosystems and in our bodies and new findings are linking exposures to hazardous chemicals to a range of adverse human health effects. Despite these trends, there has been little federal initiative in the United States on reforming chemicalsmanagement policies for well over two decades, even though a variety of analyses have identified significant gaps in the regulatory structure. As has historically been the case, states are beginning to fill the holes in federal leadership. This article explores this emerging state leadership and establishes a vision for and elements of policies to reduce hazardous chemicals in the products we buy and the places we go. It examines international efforts to reform chemicalsmanagement policies, such as the European REACH legislation and corporate leadership in advancing safer products. Finally, it outlines specific challenges states face in developing integrated, comprehensive chemicalsmanagement policies. We conclude that while there are plenty of challenges to implementation of chemicals policy reforms, it is a propitious time for states to become leaders in policy innovation that can help achieve safer production systems and products for future generations. This article is part of a Lowell Center for Sustainable Production report entitled "Options for State Chemicals Policy Reform" that provides in-depth analysis of the pros and cons of policy options to address a range of aspects of state-level chemicals policy reform. The article has been edited slightly for use in New Solutions. The report has been widely distributed to policy-makers, advocates, and others across the United States. PMID:19447756
A revolution in analytical instrumentation circa 1920 greatly improved the ability to characterize chemical substances. This analytical foundation resulted in an unprecedented explosion in the design and production of synthetic chemicals during and post-World War II. What is now often referred to as the 2nd Chemical Revolution has provided substantial societal benefits; with modern chemical design and manufacturing supporting dramatic advances in medicine, increased food production, and expanding gross domestic products at the national and global scales as well as improved health, longevity, and lifestyle convenience at the individual scale. Presently, the chemical industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the United States (U.S.) and the second largest in Europe and Japan, representing approximately 5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in each of these countries. At the turn of the 21st century, the chemical industry was estimated to be worth more than $1.6 trillion and to employ over 10 million people, globally. During the first half of the 20th century, the chemical sector expanded rapidly, the chemical industry enjoyed a generally positive status in society, and chemicals were widely appreciated as fundamental to individual and societal quality of life. Starting in the 1960s, however, the environmental costs associated with the chemical industry increasingly became the focus, due in part to the impact of books like “Silent Spring” and “Our Stolen Future” and to a number of highly publicized environmental disasters. Galvanizing chemical industry disasters included the 1976 dioxin leak north of Milan, Italy, the Love Canal evacuations in Niagara, New York beginning in 1978, and the Union Carbide leak in Bhopal, India in 1984. Understanding the environmental impact of synthetic compounds is essential to any informed assessment of net societal benefit, for the simple reason that any chemical substance that is in commercial production or use will eventually find its way to the environment. Not surprisingly given the direct link to profits, manufacturers intensely investigate and routinely document the potential benefits of new chemicals and chemical products. In contrast, the environmental risks associated with chemical production and uses are often investigated less intensely and are poorly communicated. An imbalance in the risk-benefit analysis of any synthetic chemical substance or naturally occurring chemical, which presence and concentration in the environment largely reflects human activities and management, is a particular concern owing to the fundamental link between chemistry and biology. Biological organisms are intrinsically a homeostatic balance of innumerable internal and external chemical interactions and, thus, inherently sensitive to changes in the external chemical environment.
Since the early 1980s several disasters involving mass release of toxic substances have focused the attention of different administrations and the fire services into producing protocols and guidelines for action in civilian situations. The bomb attack in the Tokyo subway, in March 1995, made it clear that a terrorist attack using highly toxic agents is now feasible. Management of disasters in the civil sector in France is based upon two interlinked plans: the Red Plan, which covers on-site organisation, and the White Plan, which concerns the interface with hospital services. Special procedures have been developed to adapt the Red and White Plans for use in the event of toxic attack and concern the deployment of emergency responding personnel, the provision of life support and antidotes in the contaminated zone, the prevention of secondary contamination and the transport and reception of victims at the hospital. Based on the established principle of pre-hospital resuscitation and well-tried assistance plans, this doctrine allows a safe and effective response to terrorist attacks as well as to other toxic release incidents. PMID:10617333
This guide gives information needed to meet Environmental Protection Agency standards on industrial and institutional pest control, and to help prepare for certification. It gives descriptions and pictures of general insect pests, parasitic pests of man, occasional invaders, wood-destroying pests, stored product pests, vertebrates, and weeds. The…
Use of low quality waters for irrigation requires improved tools for managing soil salinity, and increased knowledge of chemical effects on infiltration, plant ion uptake, and impact to ground and surface water. Impacts of irrigation water with SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) 2,4,6,8 and l0 on infiltr...
Design processes in chemical engineering are hard to support. In particular, this applies to conceptual design and basic engineering, in which the fundamental decisions concerning the plant design are performed. The design process is highly creative, many design alternatives are explored, and both unexpected and planned feedback occurs frequently. As a consequence, it is inherently difficult to manage design processes,
Manfred Nagl; Bernhard Westfechtel; Ralph Schneider
The goal of this study is to obtain the information about the chemical behavior of radionuclides in groundwater for the safety of radioactive waste management. The effect of o-phenanthroline and 2,2'-bipyridine on the adsorption of metal(II) (Mn, Fe, Co, ...
T. Y. Eom K. K. Park W. H. Kim K. Y. Jee J. K. Kim
Chemical analysis on geological materials was performed for radioactive waste management. Seven major elements including Mn, Fe in JG-2, DWC-l, W-2 and BIR standard samples were determined by acid digestion decomposition and fusion method with sodium carb...
T. Y. Eom S. S. Kim J. S. Kim S. D. Park Y. J. Park
The X*TRAXâ?¢ Mode! 200 Thermal Desorption System developed by Chemical Waste Management, Inc. (CWM), is a low-temperature process designed to separate organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and other solid media. The X*TRAXâ?¢ Model 200 is fully transportable and consists of thre...
This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)
This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…
This pamphlet is a non-technical description of common household arthropod pests in Maryland. Since most of the pests can be found in houses throughout North America, this publication has a wide geographic range of use. General discussions of arthropod structure, growth and development, and metamorphosis are given before the pages on specific…
This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite pest control category. The text discusses general pests, especially ants, and wood-destroying organisms such as termites, beetles, and fungi. (CS)
|This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)|
|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)|
|Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…
|This pamphlet is a non-technical description of common household arthropod pests in Maryland. Since most of the pests can be found in houses throughout North America, this publication has a wide geographic range of use. General discussions of arthropod structure, growth and development, and metamorphosis are given before the pages on specific…
Thirty common landscape pests are presented on summary cards containing identification, host range, life cycle, related species, and other information. Information is sound. Emphasis on biological control and tolerance of pests causing only cosmetic damage is good. Physical cards with the same information on them as this electronic version can be purchased.
According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available techniques for quantitative economic impact assessment: partial budgeting, partial equilibrium analysis, input output analysis, and computable general equilibrium
T. A. A. Soliman; M. C. M. Mourits; W. van der Werf
THE acronym PEST aims to make us look at political, economic, social and technological pressures for change when assessing the business environment. Here, Harvey Carruthers discusses some of the factors that might need to be considered when applying the PEST model to veterinary practice.
Tutorials on houshold pests. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers booklice, plaster beetles, centipedes, millipedes, amphipods, earwigs, pillbugs, sowbugs, fungus gnats, springtails, silverfish, scorpions, thrips, crickets and plaster bagworm. Requires Windows. $15. Easy to use once loaded on hard drive. Some of the pests depicted are largely restricted to the Deep South. Part number SW 161.
Hawaii has an expanding tropical exotic fruits industry. Since the opening of export markets for a number of fruits in 1997, the aceage in lychee, longan, and rambutan has grown dramatically. Growers are concerned about losses to arthropod pests. The major pests of these crops are oriental fruit fly...
This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…
Potato cyst nematodes (PCN; G. rostochiensis and G. pallida) are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes due to annual worldwide yield losses estimated at 12.2%. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in I...
Use New Pest Response Guidelines: Khapra Beetle as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of this pest. If khapra beetle is detected in the United States, PPQ personnel will produce a site-specif...
|This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…
|This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…
Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.
|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite pest control category. The text discusses general pests, especially ants, and wood-destroying organisms such as termites, beetles, and fungi. (CS)|
|This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…
|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…
|This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…
This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…
Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866
Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei
Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pestmanagement usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pestmanagement via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such 'fertility control' strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. 'Trojan females' carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce 'sterile-male'-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan female technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control. PMID:24174117
Gemmell, Neil J; Jalilzadeh, Aidin; Didham, Raphael K; Soboleva, Tanya; Tompkins, Daniel M
Threats to native forests from non-native insects and pathogens (pests) are generally addressed with methods such as quarantine, eradication, biological control, and development of resistant stock through hybridization and breeding. In conjunction with such efforts, it may be useful to have citizen scientists locate rare surviving trees that may be naturally pest resistant or tolerant. The degree of resistance of individual trees identified in this way can be tested under controlled conditions, and the most resistant individuals can be integrated into plant breeding programs aimed at developing pest-resistant native stock. Involving citizen scientists in programs aimed at identifying rare trees that survive colonization by pests provides a low-cost means of maximizing search efforts across wide geographic regions and may provide an effective supplement to existing management approaches. PMID:20735452
The threat of use of chemical warfare agents (agents of `mass destruction`) is no longer confined to the battlefield. Agent releases by terrorists in Japan in 1995 served to awaken the world to the dangers faced by civilian communities far removed from centers of armed conflict. The ability to save lives in the event of a chemical agent release turns on provision of immediate and correct medical care in the field and hospital. Being able to ensure availability of life-saving care depends on reaching both military and civilian medical personnel with information on chemical warfare agents and on keeping their skills and knowledge current. While this is of critical importance both to the Department of Defense and to civilian agencies charged with protecting the public, it also is a daunting and potentially expensive task in view of the numbers and geographic dispersion of persons to be trained. The Department of Defense has addressed and overcome these challenges, to the benefit of the military and civilians, by using computer technology as the vehicle by which cost-effective chemical warfare agent training may be conveniently delivered to all who require it. The multi-media instructional program, Management of Chemical Warfare Injuries, was developed for military use by the Naval Health Sciences Education and Training Command, with the technical assistance of the U.S. Army Medical Command. It was originally designed for delivery via video disc, a format used extensively within the Navy. However, in response to a request from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Office of the Secretary of Defense agreed to repackage the materials for delivery on CD-ROM in order to make them accessible to a larger audience. In addition, the Navy agreed to include on the two CD-ROMs which contain the program a ready reference not found on the video disc: the Army`s `Medical Management of Chemical Casualties` handbooks for field and medical personnel.
Contaminated mass fatalities following the release of chemical, biological, or radiological agents pose a potential major health hazard. A United Kingdom government investigation has identified a number of areas of risk. This paper presents an outline of the findings of the study and describes specific pathways for the management of contaminated and non-contaminated fatalities. Factors determining the choice between cremation and burial are discussed. Effective decontamination remains a neglected area of study for both fatalities and casualties. PMID:19618352
Baker, David J; Jones, Kelly A; Mobbs, Shelly F; Sepai, Ovnair; Morgan, Dilys; Murray, Virginia S G
Section 304, Chemical Process Safety Management,'' of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 required the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to develop a complete integrated process safety management program regulation. In February 1992, OSHA published rule 29 CFR 1910.119, Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals''. The 1990 CAA Amendment section 112(r), Prevention of Accidental Releases'', required the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish measures for owners and operators of facilities processing or handling hazardous materials to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and other extremely hazardous substances to the air. Additionally, it required the consequence of releases to be minimized by focusing preventative measures on those chemicals that pose the greatest risk. Section 112(r) begins with a general duty clause requiring owners and operators to: identify hazards that may result from releases; design and maintain a safe facility; and minimize the consequences of releases when they occur. The major difference between the two regulations concerns the areas affected by the potential release of a regulated substance. The OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 regulation limits the concern to incidents that could result in an exposure to employees within the boundaries of the facility. The proposed EPA 40 CFR regulation will address significant accidental releases that have a potential for off-site effects on humans and the environment. The provisions of the new EPA regulation would require additional resources and increase the formal documentation and record keeping requirements beyond those of the older OSHA regulation.
Brown, C.A.; Sharma, P. (Brown and Root Petroleum and Chemicals Inc., Houston, TX (United States))
Tetrahydrofuranoid acetogenins characteristic of the Annonaceae plant family have been found to have potent pesticidal and feeding deterrent activity against a diverse variety of pests such as mosquito larvae, spider mites, aphids, the Mexican bean beetle...
K. L. Mikolajczak J. L. McLaughlin J. K. Rupprecht
By researching and analyzing the crop diseases and insect pests, we find the distribution and spread of crop diseases and insect pests have tight touch with the time and space information, which provides a premise of applying geography information system (GIS) and spatial interpolation technology especially. By considering the particularity of spatial interpolation on the plant diseases and insect pests in agriculture, the authors bring forward one new method: multifactors spatial interpolation model. It is made up of many factors, such as spatial orientation relationship, topological relationship, distance relationship and national weather conditions so on. Then, on the basis of building the multi-factors spatial interpolation model, the monitor and warning system of crop diseases and insect pests is constructed by using GIS technology and ArcIMS software. The basic functions, such as map visualization, information query, data input, data management, spatial interpolation, are implemented. What's more, by using the multi-factors spatial interpolation model, the effluence and spread speed of crop diseases and insect pests are showed and the monitoring and early-warning of crop diseases and insect pests is implemented.
The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved. PMID:17119231
In October 1997, the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation finalized its process for identifying candidate substances for regional action under the Sound Management of Chemicals Initiative. Regional action plans will be prepared if substantive risk to human he...
This engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report has been prepared to support the proposed removal action for managing contaminated surface waters impounded at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site, located near Weldon Spring, Missouri...
M. M. MacDonell M. L. Maxey J. M. Peterson I. E. Joya
Invasive animal pests reduce crop and livestock output, require management and control measures, and threaten native plants,\\u000a animals and their habitat. The agricultural and management costs are often directly measurable. But the costs to protect threatened\\u000a native plants and animals are harder to assess. The Rural Lands Protection Boards were the government agency in New South\\u000a Wales that managed invasive
Use of chemical activator for the management of root-knot disease in medicinal and aromatic plants can become an attractive alternative to traditionally used nematicides. Large numbers of chemical molecules are present in the plants and are involved in the induction of different types of proteins. The purpose of our research study is to explore the possibilities of resistance factors that
Over the decades, rice farmers have become dependent on chemicals to control insect pests. Farmers perceive that all insects are harmful and that insecticide is very effective in controlling them, aside from being very convenient to use. Empirical evidence shows that farmers' perceptions about insects and consequently their control practices can be changed through experiential methods. Experience can be achieved
Chemical fumigants are an important component of protecting postharvest commodity from insect pests. Sulfuryl fluoride, originally produced and marketed as the structural fumigant Vikane®, has transitioned toward use in durable commodities as ProFume®. Substantial laboratory- and commercial-scale da...
As concerns continue to mount regarding the environmental and human health consequences of using chemical controls for insect pests, a wide variety of alternative approaches are receiving increased attention. Crop rotation, tillage practices, genetically-engineered crop varieties, and the use of predators, parasites, and pathogens as agents of biological control are representative of these strategies. In this chapter we describe the
According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs.
Investigations into the biology and seasonal and specific variation of the most important pests (Cryptophlebia spp. and Nezara spp.) of macadamia in Malawi are described. Details are given of the times taken for the eggs and larvae of Cryptophlebia spp. to develop. The alternative hosts of both groups of pests are given. Cryptophlebia larvae are attacked in the nut by
Protected areas are often the source of agricultural pests and Xishuangbanna State Nature Reserve in Yunnan is no exception. The main pest associated with the reserve is the Asian elephant Elephas maximus which causes damage outside the reserve to agriculture and also within the reserve. These elephants are an important attraction for tourists visiting Xishuangbanna. Xishuangbanna prefecture contains the only
The implementation of the FRAMES 2.0 F2PEST module is described, including requirements, design, and specifications of the software. This module integrates the PEST parameter estimation software within the FRAMES 2.0 environmental modeling framework. A test case is presented.
PACSY (Protein structure And Chemical Shift NMR spectroscopY) is a relational database management system that integrates information from the Protein Data Bank, the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank, and the Structural Classification of Proteins database. PACSY provides three-dimensional coordinates and chemical shifts of atoms along with derived information such as torsion angles, solvent accessible surface areas, and hydrophobicity scales. PACSY consists of six relational table types linked to one another for coherence by key identification numbers. Database queries are enabled by advanced search functions supported by an RDBMS server such as MySQL or PostgreSQL. PACSY enables users to search for combinations of information from different database sources in support of their research. Two software packages, PACSY Maker for database creation and PACSY Analyzer for database analysis, are available from http://pacsy.nmrfam.wisc.edu.
Lee, Woonghee; Yu, Wookyung; Kim, Suhkmann; Chang, Iksoo
Space weapons typically require large amounts of power and substantial cooling. Independent design of the power-generator and thermal-management subsystems leads to excessive platform weight. Chemically fueled space-based lasers have large reactant-conditioning heat-input requirements. An integrated power and thermal-management system (IPTMS) for these weapons uses the waste heat from the power generation cycle to provide reactant heating. Electrically powered weapons have high power and cooling requirements. In an IPTMS, a common expendable hydrogen supply permits the cooling fluid to be used as the power-generation working fluid. Optimization of the temperature selected for the cryogenically cooled components is shown to provide minimum overall hydrogen consumption, and thus minimizes system weight.
Chemicals play an important role in everyday life, but some may be harmful to human health and the environment. Chemicals are used to produce items widely used throughout society, including consumer products such as cleansers, paints, plastics, and fuels,...
Plants may produce compounds that directly or indirectly affect their biological environment. These compounds fall within a broad category of compounds called allelochemicals, and are exclusive of food that influences growth, health, or behavior of other organisms (Whittaker and Feeney 1971). One reason for interest in allelochemicals is their potential for use in alternative pestmanagement systems. Using plant-produced allelochemicals
Helicoverpa spp. (heliothis) are a major insect pest of cotton, grains and horticulture in the Murray? Darling Basin. Climate change is likely to make conditions more favourable for heliothis. This could cause regional comparative advantages in irrigation systems to change as management costs increase and yields decrease. Irrigation in the Murray Darling Basin produces 12 percent of Australia’s total gross
|This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…
Due to ever increasing state and federal regulations, the future use of fumigants is predicted on negative environmental impacts while offering sufficient pest control efficacy. To foster the development of the best management practice (BMP), an integrated tool is needed to simultaneously predict fu...
The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created from the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS) and the U.S. GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC) Data Management Offices. The BCO-DMO is a NSF funded project that provides support for scientists funded by either the NSF's Biological or Chemical Oceanography Program Office to facilitate making their projects' data publically accessible. To extend the domains of the U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs and to enable new capacities, the BCO-DMO formalized our metadata collection efforts and designed and created the BCO-DMO metadata database. This database, together with our new website content (http://www.bco-dmo.org) and a geospatial interface based on the University of Minnesota's MapServer software, currently provide access to information and data from nine science programs and their associated 27 projects. This presentation provides an overview and summary of the data discovery, data access, display, download options, interoperability features, and capabilities of the BCO-DMO data system.
Groman, R. C.; Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.
: In the real world, there is an interaction between pest, plant and pesticide that greatly affects the kinds and amounts of\\u000a potentially toxic and allergenic chemicals that we eat. These interactions are virtually ignored in food safety regulation.\\u000a Exposure to potentially toxic chemicals from crop foods comes from three principle sources: fungal toxin contamination, natural\\u000a toxicants and allergens of the
The BCO-DMO (http://www.bco-dmo.org) was created to serve PIs funded by the NSF Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections as a facility where marine biogeochemical and ecological data and information developed in the course of scientific research can easily be disseminated, protected, and stored on short and intermediate time-frames. The Data Management Office also strives to provide research scientists and others with the tools and systems necessary to work with marine biogeochemical and ecological data from heterogeneous sources with increased efficacy. To accomplish this, two data management offices (former- U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC) have been united and enhanced to provide a venue for contribution of electronic data/metadata and other information for open distribution via the World Wide Web. The JGOFS/GLOBEC Client/Server distributed data management system software is used to serve data and information to every investigator, regardless of computing platform. In addition, Web services are provided for data discovery, and development has begun on a machine-to-machine application programming interface (API) to allow interoperability between Web-based data systems. The BCO-DMO will manage existing and new data sets from individual scientific investigators, collaborative groups of investigators, and data management offices of larger multi-institutional projects via any standard Web browser. The office will work with principal investigators on data quality control; maintain an inventory and program thesaurus of strictly defined field names; generate metadata (e.g. Directory Interchange Format (DIF) ) records required by Federal agencies; ensure submission of data to national data centers; support and encourage data synthesis by providing new, online, Web-based display tools; facilitate interoperability among different data portals; and facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange.
The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.
The intensive production of animal protein is known to be an environmental polluting activity, especially if the wastewater produced is not managed properly. Swine production in Brazil is growing, and technologies to manage all pollutants present in the wastewater effluent are needed. This work presents a case of study of phosphorus (P) removal from piggery wastewater using Ca(OH)2, and demonstrates the feasibility of this strategy for P management. The effluent of a swine manure treatment plant was treated with Ca(OH)2. According to the addition of Ca(OH)2 the pH of the effluent ranged from 8.0 to 10.0. Different conditions of sludge dewatering were evaluated, and the chemical composition of sludge was investigated. Ion chromatography analysis of effluent samples showed that 92% of total P (TP) was present as soluble P (SP) whereas 75% of SP species were present as phosphate. The efficiency of P removal was typically 90% at pH 8.5 and higher than 98% at pH 10.5. The sludge was separated by sedimentation, centrifugation or filtration and dried. The TP content of dried sludge was 9.3% (w/w). X-ray diffraction analysis of the dry sludge showed the presence of amorphous compounds of Ca and P, which is an indication that the sludge obtained from the swine manure treatment has a potential for application as biofertilizer. PMID:22988628
Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services. PMID:23269852
Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G; Rundlöf, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo
Coffee is one of the leading commodities in tropical America. Although plantations are usually established under a canopy of trees in most producing countries in the region, Brazilian coffee is mostly produced under full sun conditions. Such simple, single-crop agroecosystems with intensive agrochemical inputs often suffer with pests like mites. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are the main natural enemies associated with pest mites in the field. However, these beneficial arthropods struggle to survive in intensive agroecosystems such as coffee monocultures due to unfavorable microclimatic conditions, widespread pesticide use, and lack of alternative food (pollen, nectar). Conservation biological control uses a range of management strategies to sustain and enhance populations of indigenous natural enemies such as predatory mites. We discuss here conservation biological control as a strategy to improve biological control of pest mites by native predatory mites in Brazilian coffee monocultures as well as some related patents. PMID:20653561
Teodoro, Adenir V; Sarmento, Renato A; Rêgo, Adriano S; da Graça S Maciel, Anilde
|Reviewed are good housekeeping practices for eliminating and preventing the return of common household pests. Each category of pest is described individually including a description of their habits, the damage they do, and approved methods of control. (SL)|
Description: Biological control may provide an affordable and sustainable option ... to pest Bruchidae in stored food legumes, a crucial source of human dietary protein. ... A negative correlation was detected between mean pest species body ...
Use New Pest Response Guidelines: Swede Midge Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of this pest. If swede midge is detected in the United States, PPQ personnel...
Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA) and denitrifying (nirK) genes), greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil. A high impact of land use was observed in soil under the common burnt cane management. The green cane soil also presented different profiles compared to the control soil, but to at a lesser degree.
Neglecting spatial heterogeneity pattern in soil properties and nutrient status may result in reduced yield and in environmental damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in spatial variability of some chemical attributes and corn yield under two management systems. The experiment was developed in a soil classified as an Alfisol, according to the Soil Survey Staff and as a Nitossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, in the Brazilian System of Soil Classification. The field was located at the Lageado Experimental Farm, in FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). The measurements were made in an area under no tillage system, divided in two of 100 x 120 m. In the first area reduced tillage was implement, whereas in the second area no tillage was performed, having the corn crop been sowed in December of 2006. The attributes analyzed were performed in a grid with 130 sample points in each management system, at depths of 0-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m. The attributes analyzed were pH, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB and V% and the corn yield. Classical statistics revealed a characteristic ranking in the variability of soil properties. Geostatistical analysis showed contrasting patterns of spatial dependence for the different soil uses, sampling depths and studied properties. So, all the attributes evaluated presented spatial dependence in both management systems, the majority with moderate dependence. The spherical and exponential models were adjusted to most of the semivariograms. Land use effects may have contributed to differences in variability between the experimental plots. Kriging maps indicated the presence of homogeneous subareas which can be useful for future management decisions.
Furtado, M. B.; Bicudo, S. J.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Vieira, S. R.; Nascimento, F. M.
The number of insect and mite species attacking sugarcane in Florida has increased over time. Five new pest species were discovered during the 31-year period 1964 to 1995, one species indigenous to Florida with no previous association with sugarcane and four invasive species entirely new to the Eve...
This paper presents results of a study of risk perceptions and risk communication issues arising from the “Fowl Pest Crisis” in Belgium. During the crisis, various unanticipated groups emerged as influential stakeholders – such as pigeon fancier associations, zoos or collectors of exotic birds. These stakeholders were not used to communicating with the public authorities responsible for the food chain
This compendium of diseases, pests and other disorders of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is designed to be a practical reference for anyone interested in growing hops, whether for commercial production, ornamental or home use. Growers, crop advisors, private consultants, home brewers, students, extension...
|This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful…
|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the right-of-way pest control category. The text discusses types of vegetation, the nature of herbicides, application methods, use for specific situations, and safety precautions. (CS)|
|This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…
|This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial applicators. Weed control, vertebrate pest control, and environmental considerations and restrictions are the three major parts of the document. The weed control section discusses non-pesticide, mechanical, and biological control as…
One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coff...
|This manual gives descriptions of and control methods for the imported fire ant, sweet potato pests, the white fringed beetle, the Japanese beetle, and phony peach disease. Toxicity, formulation, and application information is given for 2,4-D, methyl bromide, Chlordane, Mirex, and Mocap. Finally, environmental considerations and precautions are…
A survey of rice insect pests conducted during 1983–87 in Nigeria revealed 70 species of pests, 14 parasitoids and two predators. Both incidence and severity of pests varied considerably across different climatic zones and rice agro?ecosystems. Thirteen Insects were classified as major pests. They are: stalk?eyed fly. Diopsis longicornis Macquart; lepidopterous stem borers. Mallarpha separatella Rag., Chllo zacconius Blesz, Sesamia
...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests Â§ 330.206 Permits for plant pest movement...
...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests Â§ 330.200 Movement of plant pests regulated;...
...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests Â§ 330.205 Disposal of plant pests when permits are...
...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests Â§ 330.212 Movement of plant pests by baggage....
...ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests Â§ 330.211 Labeling of plant pests for movement...