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1

Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

2

Integrated Pest Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Academy of Science's NOVA Online (discussed in the March 3, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) has added a report on integrated pest management. After 25 years, Western Australia's Ord River valley is making a comeback in cotton cultivation. This area was once abandoned because of "an uncontrollable infestation" of two native caterpillars. The article discusses integrated pest management and how it can be used to control persistent pests.

3

Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially

J. A. Greenblatt; W. J. Lewis

1983-01-01

4

Comparison of toxicological impacts of integrated and chemical pest management in Mediterranean greenhouses.  

PubMed

The goal of this paper is to assess the relative impacts of pest-control methods in greenhouses, based on current LCA tools. As a case study, the relative impacts of two tomato production methods, chemical pest management (CPM) and integrated pest management (IPM), are assessed. The amount of the active ingredients applied, the fate of the ingredients in the various greenhouse and environmental compartments, the human exposure routes via the various compartments and the inherent toxicity of the ingredients were taken into account in the relative impact calculations. To assess the importance of model selection in the assessment, pesticide-specific fate and exposure factors for humans and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, used to aggregate pesticide emissions, were calculated with two different models: (1) the USES-LCA model, adapted in order to calculate the pesticide transfer from greenhouse air and soil to fruits, and (2) the empirical model critical surface time (CST). Impact scores have in general shown a higher level of potential contamination in greenhouses treated with CPM compared to IPM (a factor of 1.4 to 2.3). Relative impacts have been shown highly dependent on the selection of specific pesticides and crop stage development at the moment of pesticide application. This means that both CPM and IPM could be improved by a careful selection of pesticides. In order to improve the relative impact calculations, future research in pesticide transfer to food will be necessary. PMID:14664852

Antón, A; Castells, F; Montero, J I; Huijbregts, M

2004-02-01

5

Integrated Pest Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

6

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci (2008) Insect growth regulator effects of  

E-print Network

.2 Arthropod pest management in organic agriculture Arthropod pest management in organic farming emphasizes pests in organic agriculture, approved insecticides, such as neem, are periodically utilized to reduce for soybean aphid management in organic soybeans. 2008 Society of Chemical Industry Keywords: organic

Sheridan, Jennifer

7

Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially sex pheromones, have proved most successful as tools for manipulation of pest population dynamics Factors influencing search behavior of natural enemies include habitat characteristics such as crop, associated plants and plant assemblages, host plant characteristics, influence of associated organisms, and characteristics of the searching entomophage Recent studies have shown potential for simultaneous management of a pest species and enhancement of natural enemies using pest pheromones

Greenblatt, J. A.; Lewis, W. J.

1983-01-01

8

Seasonal Integrated Pest Management  

E-print Network

) helps growers use pesticides wisely in combination with other approaches to minimize economic, health, fruit injury and note defects for each management unit (e.g., orchard block), recording percentage this checklist. List key pests, monitoring techniques to be used, monitoring schedule and person responsible

9

Insect conservation and pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of insect conservation in pest management has many conflicting aspects. For instance, it is desirable to conserve a pest residue in order to maintain natural enemy population and it is imperative to conserve natural enemies. However, conservation of pest species is not relevant if the pest species is an exotic invader and a candidate for eradication, mainly because

Marcos Kogan; John D. Lattin

1993-01-01

10

Integrated Pest Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site is an integrated pest management (IPM) resource from the University of Minnesota Extension Service (1) with a number of regional newsletters and crop specific fact sheets. The next resource from the University of California (2) is a comprehensive overview of IPM dealing with a wide range of topics including weather, weeds, and pesticides. Cornell University's Guide to Natural Enemies in North America (3) (last mentioned in the December 10, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is a tutorial and guide to the beneficial insects that help control weeds, diseases, and pests. The home page for the Center for Integrated Pest Management (4) is a gateway to IPM research. Teachers wishing to incorporate the ecological concepts of IPM into their classrooms may be interested in this curriculum developed by Michigan State University (5) downloadable in Adobe Acrobat Reader format. Users looking to stay current on the subject of IPM may want to check out the IPMnet newsletters (6) from the Consortium for International Crop Protection. Brief reports of several IPM successes are posted on this New York State IPM Web site (7). Lastly, the home gardener may benefit from this (8) Texas A&M University site focusing on IPM for the home vegetable garden.

2002-01-01

11

Arthropod Pest Management in Greenhouses and Interiorscapes  

E-print Network

Arthropod Pest Management in Greenhouses and Interiorscapes E-1011 Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Arthropod Pest of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University #12;#12;Arthropod Pest Management

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

12

Poultry Pest Management  

E-print Network

External parasites can transmit diseases, decrease egg production, increase feed costs and reduce weight gains in poultry. This bulletin focuses on control measures, as well as the characteristics, hosts, life cycle and habits of poultry pests....

Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Drees, Bastiaan M.

2007-05-18

13

Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants.  

PubMed

To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia antibiotics are narrow-spectrum and control a fungus (Escovopsis) that parasitizes the ants' fungal symbiont, and (ii) MG secretions have broad-spectrum activity and protect ants and brood. We assessed the relative importance of these lines of defence, and their activity spectra, by scoring abundance of visible Pseudonocardia for nine species from five genera and measuring rates of MG grooming after challenging ants with disease agents of differing virulence. Atta and Sericomyrmex have lost or greatly reduced the abundance of visible bacteria. When challenged with diverse disease agents, including Escovopsis, they significantly increased MG grooming rates and expanded the range of targets. By contrast, species of Acromyrmex and Trachymyrmex maintain abundant Pseudonocardia. When challenged, these species had lower MG grooming rates, targeted primarily to brood. More elaborate MG defences and reduced reliance on mutualistic Pseudonocardia are correlated with larger colony size among attine genera, raising questions about the efficacy of managing disease in large societies with chemical cocktails versus bacterial antimicrobial metabolites. PMID:19324734

Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Wcislo, William T

2009-06-22

14

Hanford site integrated pest management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

Giddings, R.F.

1996-04-09

15

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOLS  

E-print Network

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOLS Department of Crop Science #12;Distributed, Extension Associate, Urban IPM Michael Linker, IPM Coordinator, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences ............................................................................................................. 3 Part One. What Is Integrated Pest Management?...........................................4 Part Two

16

Household Use of Agricultural Chemicals for Soil-Pest Management and Own Labor for Yard Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of its potential health and environmental risks and contribution to agribusiness, the use of agricultural chemicals\\u000a for yard care has not been well studied. In our discrete-continuous choice model, estimated with data from a national survey,\\u000a a household chooses how much money, if any, to initially spend on types of agricultural chemicals and applicators and how\\u000a much time

Scott R. Templeton; David Zilberman; Seung Jick Yoo; Andrew L. Dabalen

2008-01-01

17

Wildlife and integrated pest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of options are available to those professionals interested in pest management through an integrated approach. The components of this approach are manipulation of vegetation; manipulation of population structure, dynamics, and interaction; and manipulation of the values associated with animal and plant crop production. Each component has numerous methods, which when used alone or in combination, offer a nearly infinite number of alternatives to the successful use of pesticides.

Giles, Robert H.

1980-09-01

18

Bt maize and integrated pest management--a European perspective.  

PubMed

The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides) and the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) are the main arthropod pests in European maize production. Practised pest control includes chemical control, biological control and cultural control such as ploughing and crop rotation. A pest control option that is available since 1996 is maize varieties that are genetically engineered (GE) to produce insecticidal compounds. GE maize varieties available today express one or several genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that target corn borers or corn rootworms. Incentives to growing Bt maize are simplified farm operations, high pest control efficiency, improved grain quality and ecological benefits. Limitations include the risk of resistance evolution in target pest populations, risk of secondary pest outbreaks and increased administration to comply with licence agreements. Growers willing to plant Bt maize in the European Union (EU) often face the problem that authorisation is denied. Only one Bt maize transformation event (MON810) is currently authorised for commercial cultivation, and some national authorities have banned cultivation. Spain is the only EU member state where Bt maize adoption levels are currently delivering farm income gains near full potential levels. In an integrated pest management (IPM) context, Bt maize can be regarded as a preventive (host plant resistance) or a responsive pest control measure. In any case, Bt maize is a highly specific tool that efficiently controls the main pests and allows combination with other preventive or responsive measures to solve other agricultural problems including those with secondary pests. PMID:21710684

Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

2011-09-01

19

Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

Vaughn, C. R. (editor); Wolf, W. (editor); Klassen, W. (editor)

1979-01-01

20

DAIRY PEST MANAGEMENT (ARTHROPODS) Phillip E. Kaufman  

E-print Network

DAIRY PEST MANAGEMENT (ARTHROPODS) Phillip E. Kaufman Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. INTRODUCTION There are 10 major arthropod pest species affecting dairy cattle including six fly and four louse as the costs attributed to arthropod in- festations on dairy cattle is not available. The monetary figures

Kaufman, Phillip E.

21

Coccinellids and the Modern Pest Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of integrated pest control combining chemical and biological methods. Describes many examples of the successful use of coccinellids beetles to control other insects. Cites ecological and physiological research studies related to predator prey relationships involving coccinellids. (EB)

Hodek, Ivo

1970-01-01

22

Historical Perspectives on Apple Production: Fruit Tree Pest Management, Regulation and  

E-print Network

2 Historical Perspectives on Apple Production: Fruit Tree Pest Management, Regulation and New. Historical Use of Pesticides in Apple Production Overview of Apple Production and Pest Management Prior in Apple Production Chemical Residues in Early Insect Management Historical Chemical Regulation Recent

Jentsch, Peter J.

23

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 64:594609 (2008) Gerry Brooks and epoxide hydrolases: four  

E-print Network

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 64:594­609 (2008) Review Gerry Brooks and epoxide hydrolases: four decades to a pharmaceutical Christophe Morisseau and Bruce D Hammock Department of Entomology for treating hypertension, inflammatory disease and pain. Tight-binding transition-state inhibitors were

Hammock, Bruce D.

24

Management of insect pests and weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cuban government has undertaken the task of transforming insect pest and weed management from conventional to organic and more sustainable approaches on a nationwide basis. This paper addresses past programs and current major areas of research and implementation as well as provides examples of programs in insect and weed management. Topics covered include the newly constructed network of Centers

Jeff Dlott; Ivette Perfecto; Peter Rosset; Larry Burkham; Julio Monterrey; John Vandermeer

1993-01-01

25

Insect pests of tea and their management.  

PubMed

Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to defend the plant against these pests, leading to rapid conversion of innocuous species into pests, development of resistance, and undesirable pesticide residues in made tea. As a result of importer and consumer concerns, pesticide residues have become a major problem for the tea industry. Integrated pest management (IPM) may help to overcome the overuse of pesticides and subsequent residues. We review the advances made in our understanding of the biology and ecology of major insect and mite pests of tea, host plant resistance, cultural practices, biocontrol measures, and need-based application of botanicals and safer pesticides to understand the present status of IPM and to identify future challenges to improvement. PMID:19067632

Hazarika, Lakshmi K; Bhuyan, Mantu; Hazarika, Budhindra N

2009-01-01

26

Insect pest management in forest ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and

Donald L. Dahlsten; David L. Rowney

1983-01-01

27

Insect Pests of Tea and Their Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to

Lakshmi K. Hazarika; Mantu Bhuyan; Budhindra N. Hazarika

2009-01-01

28

INSECT PHENOLOGY AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Success of any pest management program re- quires knowing when to apply a treatment. Due to year to year weather variation, the calendar method is the least precise. Plant phenology is a more precise way to time treatments but it is subject to years when insect and plant development are not well synchronized. Pheromone trapping can be very precise but

Mark E. Ascerno

1991-01-01

29

Integrated Pest Management and Genetically Engineered Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. EU directives lay down, that genetically engineered (GE) organisms should neither cause direct nor indirect negative (acute or long-term) effects and pesticide use should be founded on the principles of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is an important international political goal. 2. Results of field tests and studies on integrated farming and on the agricultural practice in GE

G. Schütte

30

PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC PLAN FOR HONEY BEES  

E-print Network

PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC PLAN FOR HONEY BEES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC STATES (DE, MD, NC, NJ, PA, SC .........................................................................................................................................3 SUMMARY OF PRIORITIES FOR HONEY BEES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC STATES ................................4.......................................................................33 EFFICACY TABLES AND HONEY BEE ACTIVITIES TIMELINE

Tarpy, David R.

31

Biological Control Agents in Integrated Pest Management: Are They Regulated - A Research Guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a method of coordinating different pest control techniques which balance environmental, economic, and social issues with the traditional use of chemical pesticides. The author predicts expanding implementation of biological control methods of IPM in light of the environmental harm and expense that results from the use of chemical pesticides. This guide to legal and nonlegal

Jamie C. Abrams

1990-01-01

32

A Statewide Pest Management Plan for Texas.  

E-print Network

Management Association requested the writing of A Statewide Pest Management Plan for Texas. This plan is dedicated to the Association for its support in advancing IPM in Texas. Table of Contents Page... Department of Agriculture and USDA-APH IS have supported these programs through boll weevil sup- pression programs and regulatory activities. Quite naturally, the focus has been on cotton because it is a major consumer of pesticide in Texas. Classic...

1981-01-01

33

Plant Volatiles-based Insect Pest Management in Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic agriculture is increasing in popularity worldwide due to the rapidly growing market for organic products. In organic production, insects present a major pest challenge that negatively impacts crop health and yield. To successfully manage an organic farmland, an effective insect pest management program is key. In this review, we first describe the approaches currently used for pest management in

Gitika Shrivastava; Mary Rogers; Annette Wszelaki; Dilip R. Panthee; Feng Chen

2010-01-01

34

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Corn  

E-print Network

Insect pest control procedures are discussed for each stage of crop development. The characteristics of individual pests, economic thresholds and specific recommendations for chemical control are presented, including insecticide application methods....

Porter, Patrick; Cronholm, Gregory B.; Parker, Roy D.; Troxclair, Noel N.; Patrick, Carl D.; Biles, Stephen; Morrison, William P.

2006-05-24

35

An Integrated Pest Management survey of Texas school districts  

E-print Network

Texas school district personnel were surveyed using a mailed questionnaire to determine the status of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs and the efficacy of conventional pest control practices. Of the 517 survey participants, 12.4% had...

Shodrock, Damon Leon

2012-06-07

36

Insect pest management in forest ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

1983-01-01

37

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Small Grains  

E-print Network

, such as crop rotation, fertilization, variety and plant- ing date selection; ? biological control, including the use of pests? natural enemies; and ? chemical control, the judicious use of selected insecticides and rates to keep pest numbers below economically... is the release of natural enemies into areas where they do not occur naturally. This method has been effective where an exotic pest has entered Texas without the natural enemies that help control the pest in its native country. For example, several species...

Patrick, Carl D.; Knutson, Allen E.

2006-07-05

38

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 61:532538 (2005 ) DOI: 10.1002/ps.1027  

E-print Network

predation and lambda-cyhalothrin on predation efficacy of three acarophagous predators Caroline Provost,1 vitripennis. Second, the effects of intraguild predation and the application of lambda-cyhalothrin that an integrated pest management program based on H vitripennis, A fallacis and lambda-cyhalothrin may be evaluated

Lucas, Ã?ric

39

Action and Inaction Levels in Pest Management.  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Simultaneous Damage by a Complex of Pests . 9 Action Levels for Cotton Pests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Soils and Fertility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Insecticide Resistance ......................... 10 Yield Losses... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Models .................................. 12 Economics ................................ . Insecticides ............................ . Cost/Benefit Ratios ..................... .. Production Costs ........................ . Insect Losses...

Sterling, Winfield

1984-01-01

40

Poultry Integrated Pest Management: Status and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern commercial poultry production under large companies is expanding worldwide with similar methods and housing, and the accompanying arthropod and rodent pest problems. The pests increase the cost of production and are factors in the spread of avian diseases. The biology, behavior and control of ectoparasites and premise pests are described in relation to the different housing and production practices

Richard C. Axtell

1999-01-01

41

Insect Pest Management in Tropical Asian Irrigated Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant natural enemies in tropical Asian irrigated rice usually pre- vent significant insect pest problems. Integrated pest management (IPM) extension education of depth and quality is required to discourage unnecessary insecticide use that upsets this natural balance, and to empower farmers as expert managers of a healthy paddy ecosystem. Farmers' skill and collaboration will be particularly impor- tant for sustainable

P. C. Matteson

2000-01-01

42

Central Asia Region Integrated Pest Management Stakeholders Forum  

E-print Network

Central Asia Region Integrated Pest Management Stakeholders Forum Tashkent, Uzbekistan May 5 (STCU) held the Integrated Pest Management Stakeholders Forum for the Central Asia Region from May 5 a collaborative regional program in Central Asia. The U.S. team was represented by IPM specialists Karim Maredia

43

The role of allelopathy in agricultural pest management.  

PubMed

Allelopathy is a naturally occurring ecological phenomenon of interference among organisms that may be employed for managing weeds, insect pests and diseases in field crops. In field crops, allelopathy can be used following rotation, using cover crops, mulching and plant extracts for natural pest management. Application of allelopathic plant extracts can effectively control weeds and insect pests. However, mixtures of allelopathic water extracts are more effective than the application of single-plant extract in this regard. Combined application of allelopathic extract and reduced herbicide dose (up to half the standard dose) give as much weed control as the standard herbicide dose in several field crops. Lower doses of herbicides may help to reduce the development of herbicide resistance in weed ecotypes. Allelopathy thus offers an attractive environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides in agricultural pest management. In this review, application of allelopathy for natural pest management, particularly in small-farm intensive agricultural systems, is discussed. PMID:21254327

Farooq, Muhammad; Jabran, Khawar; Cheema, Zahid A; Wahid, Abdul; Siddique, Kadambot H M

2011-05-01

44

A total system approach to sustainable pest management  

PubMed Central

A fundamental shift to a total system approach for crop protection is urgently needed to resolve escalating economic and environmental consequences of combating agricultural pests. Pest management strategies have long been dominated by quests for “silver bullet” products to control pest outbreaks. However, managing undesired variables in ecosystems is similar to that for other systems, including the human body and social orders. Experience in these fields substantiates the fact that therapeutic interventions into any system are effective only for short term relief because these externalities are soon “neutralized” by countermoves within the system. Long term resolutions can be achieved only by restructuring and managing these systems in ways that maximize the array of “built-in” preventive strengths, with therapeutic tactics serving strictly as backups to these natural regulators. To date, we have failed to incorporate this basic principle into the mainstream of pest management science and continue to regress into a foot race with nature. In this report, we establish why a total system approach is essential as the guiding premise of pest management and provide arguments as to how earlier attempts for change and current mainstream initiatives generally fail to follow this principle. We then draw on emerging knowledge about multitrophic level interactions and other specific findings about management of ecosystems to propose a pivotal redirection of pest management strategies that would honor this principle and, thus, be sustainable. Finally, we discuss the potential immense benefits of such a central shift in pest management philosophy. PMID:9356432

Lewis, W. J.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Phatak, Sharad C.; Tumlinson, J. H.

1997-01-01

45

A total system approach to sustainable pest management.  

PubMed

A fundamental shift to a total system approach for crop protection is urgently needed to resolve escalating economic and environmental consequences of combating agricultural pests. Pest management strategies have long been dominated by quests for "silver bullet" products to control pest outbreaks. However, managing undesired variables in ecosystems is similar to that for other systems, including the human body and social orders. Experience in these fields substantiates the fact that therapeutic interventions into any system are effective only for short term relief because these externalities are soon "neutralized" by countermoves within the system. Long term resolutions can be achieved only by restructuring and managing these systems in ways that maximize the array of "built-in" preventive strengths, with therapeutic tactics serving strictly as backups to these natural regulators. To date, we have failed to incorporate this basic principle into the mainstream of pest management science and continue to regress into a foot race with nature. In this report, we establish why a total system approach is essential as the guiding premise of pest management and provide arguments as to how earlier attempts for change and current mainstream initiatives generally fail to follow this principle. We then draw on emerging knowledge about multitrophic level interactions and other specific findings about management of ecosystems to propose a pivotal redirection of pest management strategies that would honor this principle and, thus, be sustainable. Finally, we discuss the potential immense benefits of such a central shift in pest management philosophy. PMID:9356432

Lewis, W J; van Lenteren, J C; Phatak, S C; Tumlinson, J H

1997-11-11

46

Ecological Management of Vertebrate Pests in Agricultural Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing vertebrate pests has been a neglected topic of research in sustainable agriculture. Conventional approaches, often reactionary rather than preventative, have failed to provide sustainable solutions. Indeed, conventional control through density reduction often involves battling natural ecological processes. Agricultural practices may improve habitat quality for vertebrates that then become pests. Density reduction, but without a concomitant reduction in carrying capacity,

D. Van Vuren; K. S. Smallwood

1996-01-01

47

The Ohio Schools Pest Management Survey: A Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the Environmental Studies Senior Capstone Seminar class at Denison University helped the state of Ohio work to prevent harmful pesticide use in schools. In cooperation with Ohio State University's Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Schools Program, Denison conducted a statewide survey of school districts to determine current pest…

2001

48

Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

2011-01-01

49

Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: an African perspective.  

PubMed

African agriculture is largely traditional--characterized by a large number of smallholdings of no more than one ha per household. Crop production takes place under extremely variable agro-ecological conditions, with annual rainfall ranging from 250 to 750 mm in the Sahel in the northwest and in the semi-arid east and south, to 1500 to 4000 mm in the forest zones in the central west. Farmers often select well-adapted, stable crop varieties, and cropping systems are such that two or more crops are grown in the same field at the same time. These diverse traditional systems enhance natural enemy abundance and generally keep pest numbers at low levels. Pest management practice in traditional agriculture is a built-in process in the overall crop production system rather than a separate well-defined activity. Increased population pressure and the resulting demand for increased crop production in Africa have necessitated agricultural expansion with the concomitant decline in the overall biodiversity. Increases in plant material movement in turn facilitated the accidental introduction of foreign pests. At present about two dozen arthropod pests, both introduced and native, are recognized as one of the major constraints to agricultural production and productivity in Africa. Although yield losses of 0% to 100% have been observed on-station, the economic significance of the majority of pests under farmers' production conditions is not adequately understood. Economic and social constraints have kept pesticide use in Africa the lowest among all the world regions. The bulk of pesticides are applied mostly against pests of commercial crops such as cotton, vegetables, coffee, and cocoa, and to some extent for combating outbreaks of migratory pests such as the locusts. The majority of African farmers still rely on indigenous pest management approaches to manage pest problems, although many government extension programs encourage the use of pesticides. The current pest management research activities carried out by national or international agricultural research programs in Africa focus on classical biological control and host plant resistance breeding. With the exception of classical biological control of the cassava mealybug, research results have not been widely adopted. This could be due to African farmers facing heterogeneous conditions, not needing fixed prescriptions or one ideal variety but a number of options and genotypes to choose from. Indigenous pest management knowledge is site-specific and should be the basis for developing integrated pest management (IPM) techniques. Farmers often lack the biological and ecological information necessary to develop better pest management through experimentation. Formal research should be instrumental in providing the input necessary to facilitate participatory technology development such as that done by Farmer Field Schools, an approach now emerging in different parts of Africa. PMID:10761592

Abate, T; van Huis, A; Ampofo, J K

2000-01-01

50

Comparing conventional and biotechnology-based pest management.  

PubMed

Pest management has changed dramatically during the past 15 years by the introduction of transgenes into crops for the purpose of pest management. Transgenes for herbicide resistance or for production of one or more Bt toxins are the predominant pest management traits currently available. These two traits have been rapidly adopted where available because of their superior efficacy and simplification of pest management for the farmer. Furthermore, they have substantially reduced the use of environmentally and toxicologically suspect pesticides while reducing the carbon footprint of pest management as reduced tillage became more common, along with fewer trips across the field to spray pesticides. The most successful of these products have been glyphosate-resistant crops, which cover approximately 85% of all land occupied by transgenic crops. Over-reliance on glyphosate with continual use of these crops has resulted in the evolution of highly problematic glyphosate-resistant weeds. This situation has resulted in some farmers using weed management methods similar to those used with conventional crops. Evolution of resistance has not been a significant problem with Bt crops, perhaps because of a mandated resistance management strategy. Transgenic crops with multiple genes for resistance to different herbicides and resistance to additional insects will be available in the next few years. These products will offer opportunities for the kind of pest management diversity that is more sustainable than that provided by the first generation of transgenic crops. PMID:21528864

Duke, Stephen O

2011-06-01

51

Integrated pest management in OKRA Abelmoschus esculentus L moench;.  

E-print Network

??newline DEPARTMENT OF ENTOMOLOGY newlineCSK HIMACHAL PRADESH KRISHI VISHVAVIDYALAYA, newlinePALAMPUR-176 062 newlineTitle of the thesis : Integrated Pest Management in Okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench… (more)

Badiyala, Aditi

2013-01-01

52

7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production...producer or handler of an organic facility must use management...Removal of pest habitat, food sources, and breeding...

2012-01-01

53

7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production...producer or handler of an organic facility must use management...Removal of pest habitat, food sources, and breeding...

2013-01-01

54

7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production...producer or handler of an organic facility must use management...Removal of pest habitat, food sources, and breeding...

2011-01-01

55

Quantifying economic and environmental tradeoffs of walnut arthropod pest management  

E-print Network

Quantifying economic and environmental tradeoffs of walnut arthropod pest management Kimberly P Tradeoff Walnut Pesticide a b s t r a c t Many arthropod pesticides used by California walnut growers have

Zhang, Minghua

56

Insecticide-induced hormesis and arthropod pest management.  

PubMed

Ecological backlashes such as insecticide resistance, resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks are frequent problems associated with insecticide use against arthropod pest species. The last two have been particularly important in sparking interest in the phenomenon of insecticide-induced hormesis within entomology and acarology. Hormesis describes a biphasic dose-response relationship that is characterized by a reversal of response between low and high doses of a stressor (e.g. insecticides). Although the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis often does not receive sufficient attention, or has been subject to semantic confusion, it has been reported in many arthropod pest species and natural enemies, and has been linked to pest outbreaks and potential problems with insecticide resistance. The study of hormesis remains largely neglected in entomology and acarology. Here, we examined the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis in arthropods, its functional basis and potential fitness consequences, and its importance in arthropod pest management and other areas. PMID:24155227

Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Cutler, G Christopher

2014-05-01

57

Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program November 2013 PEST NOTES Publication 74165  

E-print Network

planted because of their visual appeal, minimal management needs, low water requirement, and lack of pests damage to Myopo- rum plants in landscapes and nurseries along the California coast from San Diego to San cover. Live thrips and damage have not yet been observed on M. parvifolium, a common prostrate form

Ishida, Yuko

58

Integrated Pest Management: Conducting Urban Rodent Surveys i Suggested citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Integrated pest management: conducting urban  

E-print Network

#12;Integrated Pest Management: Conducting Urban Rodent Surveys i Suggested citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Integrated pest management: conducting urban rodent surveys. Atlanta: US...........................................................................................................................2 Characteristics of Urban Rodent Surveys

59

Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early care and…

California Childcare Health Program, 2011

2011-01-01

60

The use of Bacillus thuringiensis on Forest Integrated Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus thuringiensis is a major microbial insecticide and a source of genes encoding several proteins toxic to insects. In this paper the authors\\u000a give a brief summary ofBacillus thuringiensis used on the integrated pest management in forestry. The derivatives of Bt strain HD1 subspkurstaki have been widely used to control the forest pests such as the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar),

Li Gui-ming; Zhang Xiang-yue; Wang Lu-quan

2001-01-01

61

The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management  

PubMed Central

Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S.; Tatchell, G. Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P.

2011-01-01

62

Integrated Pest Management for Resource-Poor African Farmers: Is the Emperor Naked?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) with rice in Asia has not been replicated with staple smallholder food crops in sub-Saharan Africa. This is variously blamed on inadequate extension, underinvestment in agricultural research, and unfavorable government policies. This article argues that it reflects the slow progress of Africa’s Green Revolution, which has reduced economic incentives for chemical forms of

Alastair Orr

2003-01-01

63

Building Blocks for School IPM: A Least-Toxic Pest Management Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a compilation of original and republished materials from numerous individuals and organizations working on pesticide reform and integrated pest management (IPM)--using alternatives to prevailing chemical-intensive practices. The manual provides comprehensive information on implementing school IPM, including a practical guide to…

Crouse, Becky, Ed.; Owens, Kagan, Ed.

64

Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower.  

E-print Network

............ 11 INSECTICIDE APPLICATION ............... 12 POLICY FOR MAKING INSECT CONTROL SUGGESTIONS ................. 12 PROTECTING THE BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES ...... 13 INSECTICIDES USED ON SUNFLOWER GROUPED ACCORDING... entomologist , The Texas A&M University SyS tem. 3 Until insect resistant or tolerant hybrids are developed. producers will need to rely on insecticides to control these pests. Crop rotation. weed control, volunteer sunflower control and fall tillage...

Patrick, Carl D.

1983-01-01

65

Spatially optimal habitat management for enhancing natural control of an invasive agricultural pest: Soybean aphid  

Microsoft Academic Search

By their direct effects on private profitability, invasive agricultural pests create special incentives for management that set them apart from other categories of invasive species. One attractive nonchemical management approach for agricultural pests relies upon biological control by natural enemies. By improving the habitat of natural enemies of invasive agricultural pests, biological pest control can become privately attractive. This study

Wei Zhang; Wopke van der Werf; Scott M. Swinton

2010-01-01

66

Integrated pest management (IPM) is an ecological approach to pest control that combines several different techniques to maintain pests below damaging levels. Pests may include insects, spiders, mites, diseases, weeds,  

E-print Network

the environment and maintain food quality. Specific techniques of integrated pest management programs vary different techniques to maintain pests below damaging levels. Pests may include insects, spiders, mites to justify action. · Cultural practices Modifications of planting, growing, cultivation and harvesting

New Hampshire, University of

67

Insect and Mite Pests of Grain Sorghum -- Management Approaches.  

E-print Network

.............................. 21 FIGURES Sorghum Pest Occurrence Profile ................. .. .. . 12 Sorghum Flowering Dates .............. .. ............ 14 INSECTICIDE APPLICATION METHODS .............. 22 PRECAUTIONS ...................................... 22 PROTECTING... BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES ............. 22 POLICY STATEMENT FOR MAKING CHEMICAL CONTROL SUGGESTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 24 This publication was prepared by entomologists of the Texas Ag ricultural...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

68

Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

2011-12-01

69

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF COTTON INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to combat problems of insect resist- wasp Trichogramma prediosum, an egg parasite, to ance and the increasing cost of new insecticides, in- control the Heliothis complex-the cotton bollworm tegrated pest management (IPM) systems have been and the tobacco budworm-on cotton. The test was lo- developed for many crops, including cotton. Cotton cated in Portland, Arkansas, where reports

Peter S. Liapis; L. Joe Moffitt

1983-01-01

70

Consumer response to integrated pest management and certification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated consumer awareness of integrated pest management (IPM) and the effects of two marketing strategies. Specific objectives were to find whether eastern Massachusetts farmstand and farmers' market customers purchasing sweet corn care how their food is grown, whether they are aware of IPM, whether they would prefer to buy IPM-certified sweet corn and why, and whether the marketing

M. D. Anderson; C. S. Hollingsworth; V. Van Zee; W. M. Coli; M. Rhodes

1996-01-01

71

SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR WASPS AND BEES  

E-print Network

SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR WASPS AND BEES *Important Note* According on school grounds. INTRODUCTION Bees and wasps experience "complete metamorphosis". This means. Finally, the bees and wasps emerge from the pupae as fully developed adults. Wasps and bees are both

Liskiewicz, Maciej

72

UrbanSolutionsCenter Pest Management Information for Consumers  

E-print Network

UrbanSolutionsCenter Pest Management Information for Consumers Background Nearly one-third of all pesticides manufactured in the United States are used by consumers in, and around, the home. Potential consequences of lack of information about pesticides among consumers include overuse and misuse, improper

Behmer, Spencer T.

73

Agroecological strategies for arthropod pest management in Brazil.  

PubMed

There is a need to implement a new approach to pest control in which agroecological strategies are developed and adapted in a site-specific way to highly variable and diverse farm conditions typical of farms in tropical regions such as Brazil. It has become evident that the conventional agriculture based on high use of external inputs and oriented to maximize profits, has often been detrimental and unviable when considered from social and ecological perspectives. Pest problems, for example, are generally related to high input, single-crop agroecosystems. We discuss here agroecological strategies such as conservation biological control, use of natural pesticides and selectivity of synthetic and natural pesticides as a way to conserve and increase natural enemies' efficiency in Brazilian agroecosystems. In addition, we discuss some patents related to agroecological pest management. PMID:21428869

Lemos, Felipe; Sarmento, Renato A; Teodoro, Adenir V; dos Santos, Gil R; do Nascimento, Ildon R

2011-05-01

74

Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…

Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan

2002-01-01

75

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 63:943953 (2007) Ecological network analysis: an  

E-print Network

-related substances in the soil and groundwater and possibly the emergence of pesticide-resistant pest species. Contemporary agricultural science recognises that abusive use of pesticides cannot lead to sustainable with sustainable agriculture represents a key issue in the context of current agricultural policies. In recent

Andras, Peter

76

Exploitation of Natural Compounds in Eco-Friendly Management of Plant Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The intensive use of synthetic pesticides and their environmental and toxicological risks have generated increased global\\u000a interest to develop alternative sources of chemicals to be used in safe management of plant pests. Recently, in different\\u000a parts of the world, attention has been paid towards exploitation of higher plant products as novel chemotherapeutics for plant\\u000a protection because they are mostly non

N. K. Dubey; Ashok Kumar; Priyanka Singh; Ravindra Shukla

77

Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

Knipling, E. F.

1979-01-01

78

Transgenic Bt Corn Hybrids and Pest Management in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Corn, Zea mays L., grown in many areas of the United States suffers from a variety of insect species that attack virtually all parts of\\u000a the growing plant. Many conventional pest management programs have been developed to combat these insects with varying degrees\\u000a of success. In the mid-1990s, the commercial introduction and subsequent widespread adoption of Bt transgenic hybrids has

Siddharth Tiwari; Roger R. Youngman

79

Natural Toxins for Use in Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There are highly successful products based on natural compounds in the major pesticide classes. These include the herbicide glufosinate (synthetic phosphinothricin), the spinosad insecticides, and the strobilurin fungicides. These and other examples of currently marketed natural product-based pesticides, as well as natural toxins that show promise as pesticides from our own research are discussed. PMID:22069667

Duke, Stephen O.; Cantrell, Charles L.; Meepagala, Kumudini M.; Wedge, David E.; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Schrader, Kevin K.

2010-01-01

80

POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT Public Service Assistant: Integrated Pest Management and Forest Health Program  

E-print Network

POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT Public Service Assistant: Integrated Pest Management and Forest Health Program Coordinator - The Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health University of Georgia Position: Twelve month, non- tenure track Public Service Assistant with responsibilities in Integrated Pest

Arnold, Jonathan

81

Integrated Pest Management of Pest Mole Crickets with Emphasis on the Southeastern USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are at least 70 species of mole crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae). Some are rare, others are innocuous, and a few are important pests. These soil-dwelling pests damage underground parts of a long list of cultivated plants. Although tillage and flooding are used successfully in some situations to bring these pests to the soil surface and expose them to vertebrate and

J. H. Frank; J. P. Parkman

1999-01-01

82

Optimal sterile insect release for area-wide integrated pest management in a density regulated pest population.  

PubMed

To determine optimal sterile insect release policies in area-wide integrated pest management is a challenge that users of this pest control method inevitably confront. In this note we provide approximations to best policies of release through the use of simulated annealing. The discrete time model for the population dynamics includes the effects of sterile insect release and density dependence in the pest population. Spatial movement is introduced through integrodifference equations, which allow the use of the stochastic search in cases where movement is described through arbitrary dispersal kernels. As a byproduct of the computations, an assessment of appropriate control zone sizes is possible. PMID:24506557

Gordillo, Luis F

2014-06-01

83

What can pest management learn from laboratory animal ethics?  

PubMed

There remains a lack of a clear overarching policy framework for decision-making in pest control programmes. In comparison, ethical principles have been extensively developed for scientific procedures, such as those underlying the UK's Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. This paper assesses the extent to which the principles and methodology underlying the act and secondary guidance could be used to provide principles of rodent management. Useful principles include that any programme has a legitimate purpose; that methods are used only if the harms are outweighed by the benefits; that harms are minimised by refinement, replacement and reduction and that there is personal responsibility. The usefulness and implications for pest control of each principle and the overall approach are discussed. PMID:19890947

Yeates, James

2010-03-01

84

Bug Off: A Guide for Integrated Pest Management in Granville Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes options for the Granville schools when dealing with pests. It is based on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a philosophy that employs safe and practical pest control methods. The guide can be used to incorporate IPM philosophy into the school systems. The first section provides the environmental context for an interest in…

2001

85

Factors affecting adoption and implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) in Indiana K--12 public schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pests and pesticides pose potential risks to human health. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) has been suggested, and in several states, legally mandated, as means to control pests in schools while minimizing potential risks to people. Although IPM has been actively promoted to school districts in many states, widespread voluntary adoption of IPM is unlikely to occur unless change agents have

Alfred J Fournier

2005-01-01

86

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

- petal fall pests such as plum curculio, internal Lepidoptera and apple maggot, plus Intrepid and SpinUSDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate

Agnello, Arthur M.

87

Chilled versus ambient aeration and fumigation of stored popcorn part 2: Pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 1994, a prototype grain chiller was tested to determine its efficacy as a pest management tool and its economic competitiveness with conventional pest management techniques. Four popcorn bins (121.5 tonnes) at a commercial facility were utilized. Two bins were managed using traditional ambient aeration and fumigation. The remaining two bins were managed with chilled aeration. Insect

L. J. Mason; R. A. Rulon; D. E. Maier

1997-01-01

88

ProductionProductionEmphasizing Pest Management & Irrigation This publication was funded by a grant from the United States Department  

E-print Network

B-6177 08/05 TexasTexas ProductionProductionEmphasizing Pest Management & Irrigation #12;This Grants Program. #12;Texas Corn Production Emphasizing Pest Management and Irrigation Patrick Porter ...................................................................................... 8 Water Demand and Irrigation Management............................ 9 Soil Moisture Management

Mukhtar, Saqib

89

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Legumes, Grasses and Forage Crops in Texas.  

E-print Network

&M University System College Station, Texas TABLE OF CONTENTS INSECTICIDE APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 POLICY STATEMENT FOR MAKING PEST MANAGEMENT SUGGESTIONS... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PROTECTING BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3...

Allen, C.T.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.

1988-01-01

90

Bacterial Endophytic Communities in the Grapevine Depend on Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

2014-01-01

91

2014 SOUTHEASTERN PEACH, NECTARINE AND PLUM PEST MANAGEMENT AND CULTURE GUIDE  

E-print Network

2014 SOUTHEASTERN PEACH, NECTARINE AND PLUM PEST MANAGEMENT AND CULTURE GUIDE Senior Editors: Dan Management ­ Wayne Mitchem and David Lockwood Vertebrate Management ­ David Lockwood Culture ­David Lockwood ................................................................... 54 NEMATODE CONTROL ON PEACHES.............................................................57 PEACH

Arnold, Jonathan

92

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Forage Crops  

E-print Network

This publication describes and illustrates common pests of forage crops in Texas. It discusses treatment options and pesticide application techniques as well as specific insecticides labeled to treat specific pests....

Muegge, Mark A.; Robinson, James V.

2002-10-09

93

7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.  

...humidity, atmosphere, and air circulation, to prevent pest reproduction. (b) Pests may be controlled through: (1) Mechanical...physical controls including but not limited to traps, light, or sound; or (2) Lures and repellents using nonsynthetic or...

2014-01-01

94

Role of soil microbial processes in integrated pest management  

SciTech Connect

Soil microorganisms play a significant role in the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycles in nature and are critical to the functioning of ecosystems. Microorganisms affect plant growth directly by regulating the availability of plant nutrients in soil, or indirectly by affecting the population dynamics of plant pathogens in soil. Any adverse effect on soil microorganisms or on the microbial processes will affect the soil fertility, availability of plant nutrients and the overall biogeochemical cycling of elements in nature. Soil microorganisms are responsible for the degradation and detoxification of pesticides; they control many insect pests, nematodes, and other plant pathogenic microorganisms by parasitism, competition, production of antibiotics and other toxic substances. Also, they regulate the availability of major and minor nutrients as well as essential elements. The long-term effects of continuous and, in some instances, excessive application of pesticides on soil fertility is not fully understood. Although much information is available on the integrated pest management (IPM) system, we have very little understanding of the extent of soil microbial processes which modulate the overall effectiveness of various strategies employed in IPM. The purpose of this paper is to review briefly the key microbial processes and their relationship to the IPM system.

Francis, A.J.

1987-01-01

95

Olive fruit fly: managing an ancient pest in modern times.  

PubMed

Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. Various aspects of its biology, ecology, management, and impact on olive production are highlighted. With the discovery of insecticidal resistance in some populations frequently treated with organophosphates, old and new control options are being investigated. The potential of biological control is examined. Surveys suggest that a small group of braconids in the Opiinae subfamily best represent the primary parasitoids attacking olive fruit fly in its native range. These species include Psyttalia lounsburyi, P. dacicida, P. concolor, P. ponerophaga, and Utetes africanus. Bracon celer, another braconid but in the Braconinae subfamily, is also reared from the fruit fly in its native range. The potential of these and other natural enemies is discussed with respect to olive fruit fly biology, commercial olive production, and biological constraints that may limit their success. We suggest that numerous species exist that should be further investigated as control agents for olive fruit fly in the many climatic regimes where the pest is found. PMID:19961328

Daane, Kent M; Johnson, Marshall W

2010-01-01

96

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

the last several years, almost 99% of the cotton acreage in South Carolina was planted to varietiesSouth Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 100 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT Jeremy cotton in South Carolina. Hundreds of species of insects may be found in cotton, but only a limited

Duchowski, Andrew T.

97

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 233 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL Jeremy K. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist The keys to managing insect pests in soybean are to: Scout fields. Accurately calibrate spray equipment, and properly apply insecticides. SCOUTING Check soybeans regularly from

Stuart, Steven J.

98

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 245 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL Jeremy K. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist The keys to managing insect pests in soybean are to: 1. Scout and rate. 5. Accurately calibrate spray equipment, and properly apply insecticides. SCOUTING Check soybeans

Duchowski, Andrew T.

99

Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Child Care Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children and early care and education (ECE) staff are exposed to pesticides used to manage pests in ECE facilities in the United States and elsewhere. The objective of this pilot study was to encourage child care programs to reduce pesticide use and child exposures by developing and evaluating an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Toolkit for…

Alkon, Abbey; Kalmar, Evie; Leonard, Victoria; Flint, Mary Louise; Kuo, Devina; Davidson, Nita; Bradman, Asa

2012-01-01

100

Particle films for managing arthropod pests of apple.  

PubMed

A two-season study showed that a calendar-based spray program to manage arthropod pests with kaolin (60 g/liter) applied at the rate of 450 liters/ha was effective against European apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae); apple red bug, Lygidea mendax Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae); pear plant bug, Lygocoris communis (Knight) (Heteroptera: Miridae); and the apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Although it reduced Curculionidae damage, the level of damage was still too high. It had no effect on apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae); codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); and tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae). Laboratory studies showed fewer gravid twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and fewer eggs laid by these females. The study also showed no effect of kaolin on Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). PMID:18330129

Bostanian, N J; Racette, G

2008-02-01

101

Managing Insects and Mite Pests of Texas Sorghum  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL MANAGEMENT METHODS .............................................7 Seed insecticide treatments ............................................7 Soil insecticide treatments ............................................ 7 Foliar and grain head... insecticide treatments ................8 Endangered Species Act ..................................................8 Bees and other pollinators ..............................................8 Inbred lines for hybrid seed production...

Cronholm, Gregory B.; Knutson, Allen E.; Parker, Roy D.; Pendleton, Bonnie

2007-06-20

102

Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution

Noah S Diffenbaugh; Christian H Krupke; Michael A White; Corinne E Alexander

2008-01-01

103

Soil fertility management and insect pests: harmonizing soil and plant health in agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural methods such as crop fertilization can affect susceptibility of plants to insect pests by altering plant tissue nutrient levels. Research shows that the ability of a crop plant to resist or tolerate insect pests and diseases is tied to optimal physical, chemical and mainly biological properties of soils. Soils with high organic matter and active soil biology generally exhibit

Miguel A. Altieri; Clara I. Nicholls

2003-01-01

104

Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana,

J. F. Brunner; E. H. Beers; J. E. Dunley; M. Doerr; K. Granger

105

Integrated pest management in the U.S.: progress and promise.  

PubMed Central

In the U.S., where heavy use of insecticides has been commonplace for years, the development of proper integrated insect pest control cannot get underway unless there is a changed use pattern for such chemicals. A changed use pattern, however, cannot be accomplished without much study to establish the requirements for integrated control for each major crop situation. In this paper recent developments in a number of crop areas in the U.S. in which the necessary study has been begun are reviewed. Important phases in the development of integrated control programs include: the single tactics phase, the multitactic phase, phase, the biological monitoring phase, the modeling phase, the management and optimization phase, and the implementation phase. Several crops are discussed in relation to how far along we are in the development of practical programs of insect pest control. These are cotton, apples, alfalfa, soybeans, citrus, corn, cereal grains, tobacco and pine forests. Several of these programs have already made substantial headway, e.g., those for cotton, alfalfa, apples, tobacco, and soybeans, although the accomplishments have not been even or parellel with respect to the phases of development where progress has been good. The review of developments in these crops suggests that programs of control for individual crops and perhaps for complexes of associated crops will be developed according to specific needs of the crop, the geographic area and the pests, the technologies available and the socioeconomic and political factors of relevance. The tendency will be toward greater use of science in pest control decision-making, with extensive use of biological monitoring to establish realistic levels of threatened damage to the crop, and greater concern given to possible profit reductions and environmental disturbances of applying an insecticide, as well as the possible gain from doing so. PMID:789064

Huffaker, C B; Croft, B A

1976-01-01

106

Possible impact of radar on pest management operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar in making and maintaining contact with the most important populations of major pests in different stages of flight is presented. The desert locust and the African armyworm are discussed in understanding problems and developing a more effective control of pests.

Rainey, R. C.

1979-01-01

107

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

, internal Lepidoptera and apple maggot, plus Confirm and SpinTor for leafrollers. All sprays were appliedUSDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate

Agnello, Arthur M.

108

Evaluation of water quality in an agricultural watershed as affected by almond pest management practices  

E-print Network

Evaluation of water quality in an agricultural watershed as affected by almond pest management watershed has raised concerns about water quality. This study examined the influ- ences of almond pest showed an increasing use of reduced risk pesticides and pyre- throids on almonds. SWAT simulation over

Zhang, Minghua

109

Pest Management and Environmental Quality. Course 181. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture, Family Living and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…

Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others

110

Evaluation of Pest Management Tactics for Organic Apple Production A. Agnello, H. Reissig, and D. Combs  

E-print Network

Evaluation of Pest Management Tactics for Organic Apple Production A. Agnello, H. Reissig, and D number of both native and introduced insect and mite species attack apples grown in commercial apple orchards. Control of this pest complex is particularly challenging, because unlike the more arid apple

Agnello, Arthur M.

111

Managing Insect Pests of Cacti and Other Succulents in Water-Efficient Landscapes  

E-print Network

Cacti and other succulents are popular landscape plants, especially where water is scarce. But a number of native and exotic pests can make it difficult to grow them. Learn how to identify and manage twelve insect pests that can damage your water...

Drees, Bastiaan M.

2008-11-06

112

Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.  

SciTech Connect

Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

2005-01-01

113

Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.  

PubMed

Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

2014-03-11

114

Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries  

PubMed Central

Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was “insufficient training and technical support to farmers.” Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated “IPM requires collective action within a farming community” as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the “shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists.” Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C. B.; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Perez, Veronica; Hobbs, Shaun L. A.; Kroschel, Jurgen; Ba, Malick N.; Rebaudo, Francois; Sherwood, Stephen G.; Vanek, Steven J.; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A.; Dangles, Olivier

2014-01-01

115

Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Sorghum.  

E-print Network

-Southwestern Corn Borer ......................... .. ....... 14 HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION FIELDS ........................................ 14 PROTECTING BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTiCiDES ...... 14 POUNDS OF ACTUAL INSECTICIDE IN DIFFERENT QUANTITIES... be aware of the probable occurrence of various pests (Figure 3, page 16) , be able to correctly identify pests and be aware of the various methods that aid in their suppression . Proper choice and careful use of insecticides are important...

Turney, H.A.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.; Teetes, George L.

1987-01-01

116

Managing Insect and Mite Pests in Vegetable Gardens  

E-print Network

. Recog- nizing how an insect feeds can help a gardener select the proper insecticides; choose stomach poisons for chewing insects or contact poisons for sucking insects. Plan ahead When planning a vegetable garden, consider possible pests and how.... These agencies do not consider effectiveness in the registration process. Labeled insecticides may or may not be effective in killing pests that are mentioned on the product label. The number of products available for use in home vegetable gardens...

Jackman, John A.

2008-02-19

117

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 SUNFLOWER INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

bees are foraging. The label is the law. Always read and follow all pesticide label restrictions. #12; and follow all pesticide label restrictions. #12;South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops

Duchowski, Andrew T.

118

44 CAB International 2011. Urban Pest Management: An Environmental Perspective (ed. P. Dhang)  

E-print Network

44 © CAB International 2011. Urban Pest Management: An Environmental Perspective (ed. P. Dhang) 4 to the resurgence are increased international travel, lack of effective insecticides, more restricted use

Wang, Changlu

119

Determination of pesticide residues in integrated pest management and nonintegrated pest management samples of apple (Malus pumila Mill.).  

PubMed

Studies were undertaken to analyze the residues of commonly used pesticides viz. chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, propargite, malathion, phorate, carbendazim, carbosulfan, thiamethoxam, and mancozeb in apple of integrated pest management (IPM) and non-IPM samples collected from the IPM and non-IPM fields of Shimla. We also present a method for the determination of these pesticides in apple samples. Residues of chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, dicofol, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and propargite were analyzed by gas chromatography, while residues of carbendazim, carbosulfan, and thiamethoxam were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Residues of mancozeb were determined by a colorimetric method. Recoveries of all of the pesticides ranged from 61.30 to 95.46% at 0.1, 0.2, and 1.0 microg g(-1) levels of fortification with relative standard deviations ranging between 0.8 and 8.7. Apples from IPM and non-IPM orchards were analyzed for these pesticides using a developed method. Except for carbendazim and chlorpyrifos, the residues of all of the pesticides analyzed were below detectable limits. Although residues of carbendazim and chlorpyrifos were below the prescribed limits of maximum residue levels in both IPM and non-IPM orchards, residues were lower in apples from IPM orchards. PMID:19904932

Singh, Shashi Bala; Mukherjee, Irani; Maisnam, Jaya; Kumar, Praveen; Gopal, Madhuban; Kulshrestha, Gita

2009-12-01

120

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 60:10731078 (online: 2004) DOI: 10.1002/ps.916  

E-print Network

pulcherrima Willd ex Klotzch cv Dark Red Annette Hegg). On glabrous plants (fuchsia), fourth-instar and adults) and Dicyphus hesperus Knight2,9 are successfully used to control the pest all season long. In greenhouses

Lucas, Ã?ric

121

Role of research and regulation in 50 years of pest management in agriculture. Prepared for the 50th anniversary of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.  

PubMed

Pest management techniques have evolved over the past 50 years. Inorganic chemical pesticides were replaced by synthetic organic chemicals, and now biopesticides constitute a significant part of pest management technology. Requirements for the regulatory approval of pesticides changed dramatically in 1996 with the passage of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). The FQPA directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to make more rigorous and conservative evaluation of risks and hazards and mandates a special emphasis on the safety of infants and children. The EPA provides incentives for the industry to register materials that are designated "reduced risk". The future for the registrant industry will include continued reduction in numbers of registrants through mergers and acquisitions. Conventional chemicals will remain as important pest management components, and the processes of combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput bioassays will allow the rapid synthesis and testing of large numbers of candidate compounds. Biopesticides will become more important tools in pest management, with microbial pesticides and transgenic crops being likely to play important crop protection roles. There will be a continuing need for research-based approaches to pest control. PMID:12105938

Wheeler, Willis B

2002-07-17

122

Plant essential oils for pest and disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain essential plant oils, widely used as fragrances and flavors in the perfume and food industries, have long been reputed to repel insects. Recent investigations in several countries confirm that some plant essential oils not only repel insects, but have contact and fumigant insecticidal actions against specific pests, and fungicidal actions against some important plant pathogens. As part of an

Murray B. Isman

2000-01-01

123

Role of behavioural studies in the development of management strategies for forest insect pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under forestry conditions, management techniques aimed at maintenance of pest populations at moderate levels have greater\\u000a chance of success than conventional methods of pest control. Simple behavioural observations can sometimes be used to great\\u000a advantage in the development of such methods, some examples of which are given. Although there has been considerable excitement\\u000a over the past two decades on the

K S S Nair

1985-01-01

124

Insect ryanodine receptors: molecular targets for novel pest control chemicals.  

PubMed

Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are a distinct class of ligand-gated calcium channels controlling the release of calcium from intracellular stores. They are located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle and the endoplasmic reticulum of neurons and many other cell types. Ryanodine, a plant alkaloid and an important ligand used to characterize and purify the receptor, has served as a natural botanical insecticide, but attempts to generate synthetic commercial analogues of ryanodine have proved unsuccessful. Recently two classes of synthetic chemicals have emerged resulting in commercial insecticides that target insect RyRs. The phthalic acid diamide class has yielded flubendiamide, the first synthetic ryanodine receptor insecticide to be commercialized. Shortly after the discovery of the phthalic diamides, the anthranilic diamides were discovered. This class has produced the insecticides Rynaxypyr and Cyazypyr. Here we review the structure and functions of insect RyRs and address the modes of action of phthalic acid diamides and anthranilic diamides on insect ryanodine receptors. Particularly intersting is the inherent selectivity both chemical classes exhibit for insect RyRs over their mammalian counterparts. The future prospects for RyRs as a commercially-validated target site for insect control chemicals are also considered. PMID:18696132

Sattelle, David B; Cordova, Daniel; Cheek, Timothy R

2008-09-01

125

Research priorities for rice pest management in tropical Asia: a simulation analysis of yield losses and management efficiencies.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A simulation study was conducted to assess the current and prospective efficiency of rice pest management and develop research priorities for lowland production situations in tropical Asia. Simulation modeling with the RICEPEST model provided the flexibility required to address varying production situations and diverse pest profiles (bacterial leaf blight, sheath blight, brown spot, leaf blast, neck blast, sheath rot, white heads, dead hearts, brown plant-hoppers, insect defoliators, and weeds). Operational definitions for management efficacy (injury reduction) and management efficiency (yield gain) were developed. This approach enabled the modeling of scenarios pertaining to different pest management strategies within the agroecological contexts of rice production and their associated pest injuries. Rice pests could be classified into two broad research priority-setting categories with respect to simulated yield losses and management efficiencies. One group, including weeds, sheath blight, and brown spot, consists of pests for which effective pest management tools need to be developed. The second group consists of leaf blast, neck blast, bacterial leaf blight, and brown plant-hoppers, for which the efficiency of current management methods is to be maintained. Simulated yield losses in future production situations indicated that a new type of rice plant with high-harvest index and high-biomass production ("New Plant Type") was more vulnerable to pests than hybrid rice. Simulations also indicated that the impact of deployment of host resistance (e.g., through genetic engineering) was much larger when targeted against sheath blight than when targeted against stem borers. Simulated yield losses for combinations of production situations and injury profiles that dominate current lowland rice production in tropical Asia ranged from 140 to 230 g m(-2). For these combinations, the simulated efficiency of current pest management methods, expressed in terms of relative yield gains, ranged from 0.38 to 0.74. Overall, the analyses indicated that 120 to 200 x 10(6) tons of grain yield are lost yearly to pests over the 87 x 10(6) ha of lowland rice in tropical Asia. This also amounts to the potential gain that future pest management strategies could achieve, if deployed. PMID:18943898

Willocquet, Laetitia; Elazegui, Francisco A; Castilla, Nancy; Fernandez, Luzviminda; Fischer, Kenneth S; Peng, Shaobing; Teng, Paul S; Srivastava, R K; Singh, H M; Zhu, Defeng; Savary, Serge

2004-07-01

126

Integrated Pest Management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vines<\\/TT>throughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The aim of the research project was to gain insight in the biology and ecology of sweetpotato weevils and, based on

N. E. J. M. Smit

1997-01-01

127

Integrated Agricultural Pest Management Through Remote Sensing And Spatial Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern agriculture is influenced by both the pressure for increased productivity and increased stresses caused by plant pests.\\u000a Geographical Information Systems and Global Positioning Systems are currently being used for variable rate application of\\u000a pesticides, herbicide and fertilizers in Precision Agriculture applications, but the comparatively lesser-used tools of Remote\\u000a Sensing and Spatial Analyses can be of additional value in integrated

Maggi Kelly; Qinghua Guo

128

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 270 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant (Incorporated) Herbicides for Weed Management in Tobacco by shallow disking. Controls pigweed, ragweed and other broadleaf weeds. Use the higher rate for fields

Duchowski, Andrew T.

129

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN  

E-print Network

Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Soybean Herbicide a suitable adjuvant like NIS at 1.0% v/v (1 gal per 100 gal of spray solution) to optimize weed control;South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 216 Preplant/Burndown Herbicides

Duchowski, Andrew T.

130

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN  

E-print Network

Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Soybean Herbicide a suitable adjuvant like NIS at 1.0% v/v (1 gal per 100 gal of spray solution) to optimize weed control;South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 206 Preplant/Burndown Herbicides

Stuart, Steven J.

131

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTRL IN FIELD CORN  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 17 WEED CONTRL IN FIELD CORN Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Corn solution for weeds 3 inches or less in height. BALANCE FLEXX may be tank mixed with PARAQUAT, GLYPHOSATE

Stuart, Steven J.

132

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 262 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Sunflowers anytime before planting when weeds are small. Use a higher rate for larger weeds. Add a COC (1-2 gal per

Duchowski, Andrew T.

133

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN GRAIN SORGHUM  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 137 WEED CONTROL IN GRAIN SORGHUM Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Grain and cutleaf evening primrose than GLYPHOSATE. Add NIS at 1 qt/100 gal of spray mix. Weed and Cover Crop

Stuart, Steven J.

134

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 257 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant (Incorporated) Herbicides for Weed Management in Tobacco by shallow disking. Controls pigweed, ragweed and other broadleaf weeds. Use the higher rate for fields

Stuart, Steven J.

135

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 249 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Sunflowers anytime before planting when weeds are small. Use a higher rate for larger weeds. Add a COC (1-2 gal per

Stuart, Steven J.

136

TURFGRASS PEST SCIENCE 2013 (11:776:408; 4 cr.)  

E-print Network

1 TURFGRASS PEST SCIENCE­ 2013 (11:776:408; 4 cr.) Biology, ecology, etiology, and management of Integrated Pest Management (including cultural, biological, and chemical controls) and how it applies insecticide resistance in turfgrass management. Earthworms and golf course management: friend or foe

Chen, Kuang-Yu

137

Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.  

PubMed Central

Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

Carde, R T

1976-01-01

138

Ecologically-based Participatory and Collaborative Research and Capacity Building in Integrated Pest Management in Central Asia  

E-print Network

Pest Management in Central Asia By using an ecologically-based and multidisciplinary systems approach for Integrated Pest Management in Central Asia (IPM-CRSP). The project is designed to foster development building in IPM in Central Asia. The project consists of three components: landscape ecology, biological

139

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research in application technology for pest management.  

PubMed

A research summary is presented that emphasizes ARS achievements in application technology over the past 2-3 years. Research focused on the improvement of agricultural pesticide application is important from the standpoint of crop protection as well as environmental safety. Application technology research is being actively pursued within the ARS, with a primary focus on application system development, drift management, efficacy enhancement and remote sensing. Research on application systems has included sensor-controlled hooded sprayers, new approaches to direct chemical injection, and aerial electrostatic sprayers. For aerial application, great improvements in on-board flow controllers permit accurate field application of chemicals. Aircraft parameters such as boom position and spray release height are being altered to determine their effect on drift. Other drift management research has focused on testing of low-drift nozzles, evaluation of pulsed spray technologies and evaluation of drift control adjuvants. Research on the use of air curtain sprayers in orchards, air-assist sprayers for row crops and vegetables, and air deflectors on aircraft has documented improvements in application efficacy. Research has shown that the fate of applied chemicals is influenced by soil properties, and this has implications for herbicide efficacy and dissipation in the environment. Remote sensing systems are being used to target areas in the field where pests are present so that spray can be directed to only those areas. Soil and crop conditions influence propensity for weeds and insects to proliferate in any given field area. Research has indicated distinct field patterns favorable for weed growth and insect concentration, which can provide further assistance for targeted spraying. PMID:12846320

Smith, L A; Thomson, S J

2003-01-01

140

PEST MANAGEMENT Comparison of Perimeter Trap Crop Varieties: Effects on Herbivory,  

E-print Network

, but this effect was not statistically signiÃ?cant. Native bees accounted for 87% of pollinator visits that reduce pesticide use, effectively manage pests, and do not disturb mutualist interactions is planted to encircle the main crop, often limiting pesticide use to the border where insects

Adler, Lynn

141

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 GRASS FORAGE WEED CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 116 GRASS FORAGE WEED CONTROL Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Newly Sprigged Bermudagrass Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode: Apply OUTRIDER at 1.33 oz/A to control johnsongrass, yellow and purple nutsedge, and other weeds

Stuart, Steven J.

142

Using SkipRows for Soybean Pest Management Increases Profit Drs. Beuerlein, Hammond, Dorrance, & Dennis Mills  

E-print Network

Using SkipRows for Soybean Pest Management Increases Profit Drs. Beuerlein, Hammond, Dorrance, & Dennis Mills The Ohio State University There are several late season soybean insect and disease in late July or in August, well after the soybean canopy has closed which will cause a yield loss due

Jones, Michelle

143

Potential for Nonhost Volatiles as Repellents in Integrated Pest Management of Ambrosia Beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiochemical-based mass trapping of the striped ambrosia beetle, Trypodendron lineatum (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), has been the cornerstone of an integrated pest management (IPM) programme for ambrosia beetles on the British Columbia coast since 1981. However, there is no available tactic of protecting logs from attack that could be incorporated into the IPM programme. We tested nonhost volatiles (NHVs) from the

John H. Borden; Leslie J. Chong; Regine Gries; Harold D. Pierce

2001-01-01

144

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 279 TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL Francis even in high cash crops such as tobacco. Indiscriminate use of insecticides destroys beneficial insects they can do much damage to tobacco. Beneficial insects are very important. Economic Threshold

Duchowski, Andrew T.

145

Research on plant disease and pest management is essential to sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, a country with food in great abundance, it is difficult to realize that, were it not for the current level of plant disease and pest management, most human resources would be needed to obtain enough food and other plant and animal products merely to survive. Instead, there are surpluses, markets for many agricultural products are depressed,

R. James Cook; Clifford J. Gabriel; Arthur Kelman; S. Tolin; Anne M. Vidaver

1995-01-01

146

MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS ON FRESH MARKET TOMATOES Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist  

E-print Network

MANAGEMENT OF INSECT PESTS ON FRESH MARKET TOMATOES Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist Department of Entomology Vegetable Insects E-97-W PURDUE EXTENSION Tomato fruitworm larva (Photo Credit: G. Brust) Corn earworm adult (Photo Credit: W. Cranshaw) Fresh market tomatoes can withstand considerable

Ginzel, Matthew

147

Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

148

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 TOBACCO NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 283 TOBACCO NEMATODE CONTROL Bruce Fortnum, Extension Specialist Damage caused by nematodes are difficult to estimate because damage to roots with moderate levels of nematodes. Nematodes may increase the incidence of other diseases such as black shank

Stuart, Steven J.

149

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 188 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL W. Scott Monfort, Extension Peanut Specialist Fortunately nematodes have been a relatively minor problem on peanuts in South Carolina. Peanut root-knot (race 1) nematode is capable of causing severe losses

Stuart, Steven J.

150

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 113 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Cotton Pathologist Nematodes pose a serious threat to cotton production in South Carolina. Not every field is infested with damaging levels of nematodes. But in the fields

Stuart, Steven J.

151

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 TOBACCO NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 296 TOBACCO NEMATODE CONTROL Bruce Fortnum, Extension Specialist Damage caused by nematodes are difficult to estimate because damage to roots with moderate levels of nematodes. Nematodes may increase the incidence of other diseases such as black shank

Duchowski, Andrew T.

152

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 123 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Cotton Pathologist Nematodes pose a serious threat to cotton production in South Carolina. Not every field is infested with damaging levels of nematodes. However, in the fields

Duchowski, Andrew T.

153

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 SOYBEAN NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

primarily by Southern root-knot, soybean cyst, Columbia lance, and reniform nematodes. SoybeanSouth Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 261 SOYBEAN NEMATODE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Soybean Pathologist Nematode-induced yield losses in South Carolina soybeans are caused

Duchowski, Andrew T.

154

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

lance nematodes in cotton. Field Crop Hosts for Common Nematodes Crop Root-knot Lesion Lance SoybeanSouth Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 198 PEANUT NEMATODE CONTROL W. Scott Monfort, Extension Peanut Specialist Fortunately nematodes have been a relatively minor problem

Duchowski, Andrew T.

155

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 SOYBEAN NEMATODE CONTROL  

E-print Network

are caused primarily by Southern root-knot, soybean cyst, Columbia lance, and reniform nematodes. StingSouth Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 248 SOYBEAN NEMATODE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Soybean Pathologist Yield losses caused by nematodes in South Carolina soybeans

Stuart, Steven J.

156

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

Lepidoptera and apple maggot, plus Intrepid and SpinTor for leafrollers. All sprays were applied by the grower pheromones in most sites, border sprays for some plum curculio and apple maggot treatments, omitting pink budUSDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION

Agnello, Arthur M.

157

Comparative effectiveness of an integrated pest management system and other control tactics for  

E-print Network

resistance, IPM, Neem oil, Tetranychidae, Tetranychus ludeni Abstract. The effect of an integrated pest management (IPM) package, host plant resistance, Chrysop- erla carnea predation and neem oil were evaluated, by estimating the mite population density and yield levels. Compared with the IPM package (Panruti local, C

Reddy, Gadi VP

158

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 COTTON DISEASE CONTROL  

E-print Network

the label. Do not use treated seed for feed or food. #12;South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field are desired than are provided by the base treatments provided by seed companies in-furrow fungicides None Must be applied by seed companies or approved commercial seed treaters. Trilex Advanced must

Duchowski, Andrew T.

159

Changes in pest management practice in almond orchards during the rainy season in California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In California, regulatory agencies are concerned about organophosphate (OP) contamination of surface water. OPs originate in part from applications on dormant almond and stone fruit orchards that are washed off during winter rainstorms. Programs conducted by the University of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Project, University of California Cooperative Extension, and the Biologically Integrated Orchard Systems (BIOS), a coalition of

L. Epstein; S. Bassein; F. G. Zalom; L. R. Wilhoit

2001-01-01

160

Evaluation of water quality in an agricultural watershed as affected by almond pest management practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, the detection of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in the San Joaquin River watershed has raised concerns about water quality. This study examined the influences of almond pest management practices (PMPs) on water quality. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was employed to simulate pesticide concentration in water as affected by different PMPs. California Pesticide Use

Xuyang Zhang; Xingmei Liu; Yuzhou Luo; Minghua Zhang

2008-01-01

161

The Impact of Integrated Pest Management Programs on Pesticide Use in California, USA  

E-print Network

173 Chapter 7 The Impact of Integrated Pest Management Programs on Pesticide Use in California, USA as a method to reduce agricultural pesticide use. Cali- fornia has a public infrastructure for supporting IPM's Department Contents 7.1 Trends in Agricultural Pesticide Use in California from 1993 to 2010

Zhang, Minghua

162

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 284 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Jack M. Whetstone, Extension Aquatic Specialist W. Cory Heaton, County Agent Aquatic weeds in ponds or lakes can will depend on factors such as target weeds, non-target plants, and what the water is used for. Physical

Stuart, Steven J.

163

Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by apple growers: the role of context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption of pest and disease management practices has been the subject of numerous studies. Unfortunately, there is little consistency in their findings with regard to the variables that influence growers' decisions to adopt these techniques. In this study we focus on context as a means of explaining the lack of consistency. We used the results of in-depth interviews and

Geoff Kaine; Denise Bewsell

2008-01-01

164

THE CONCEPT OF KEY PLANTS IN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR LANDSCAPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five integrated pest management (IPM) programs for landscape plants were conducted by extension specialists at the University of Maryland between 1980 and 1982. An analysis of the insect, disease, and cultural problems of more than 30,000 plants revealed certain genera to be far more pro- blem prone than others. Genera such as Malus, Pyracantha, Cornus, Prunus, and Rosa tended to

Michael J. Raupp; John A. Davidson; John J. Homes; J. Lee Hellman

1985-01-01

165

Implementation and evaluation of HortIPM: a World Wide Web based interactive integrated pest management resource  

E-print Network

, integrated pest management as it is known today can trace its beginnings to the 1960s in response to Rachel Carson's book Silent ~Srin (Carson, 1962) which brought the impact of pesticides on the environment to national attention (Zalom, 2000). During... the 60s, pesticide misuse problems and environmental concerns on the one hand, and rapid development of technologies on the other converged to initiate the search for better methods of pest control. Prior to this, most pest control relied...

Files, Priscilla Josephine

2012-06-07

166

Pest management systems affect composition but not abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards.  

PubMed

We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus. PMID:24248910

Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor

2014-04-01

167

The case and opportunity for public-supported financial incentives to implement integrated pest management.  

PubMed

Food, water, and worker protection regulations have driven availability, and loss, of pesticides for use in pest management programs. In response, public-supported research and extension projects have targeted investigation and demonstration of reduced-risk integrated pest management (IPM) techniques. But these new techniques often result in higher financial burden to the grower, which is counter to the IPM principle that economic competitiveness is critical to have IPM adopted. As authorized by the 2002 Farm Bill and administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), conservation programs exist for delivering public-supported financial incentives to growers to increase environmental stewardship on lands in production. NRCS conservation programs are described, and the case for providing financial incentives to growers for implementing IPM is presented. We also explored the opportunity and challenge to use one key program, the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), to aid grower adoption of IPM. The EQIP fund distribution to growers from 1997 to 2002 during the last Farm Bill cycle totaled approximately 1.05 billion dollars with a portion of funds supporting an NRCS-designed pest management practice. The average percentage of allocation of EQIP funds to this pest management practice among states was 0.77 +/- 0.009% (mean +/- SD). Using Michigan as an example, vegetable and fruit grower recognition of the program's use to implement IPM was modest (25% of growers surveyed), and their recognition of its use in aiding implementation of IPM was improved after educational efforts (74%). Proposals designed to enhance program usefulness in implementing IPM were delivered through the NRCS advisory process in Michigan. Modifications for using the NRCS pest management practice to address resource concerns were adopted, incentive rates for pest management were adjusted, and an expanded incentive structure for IPM technique adoption was tabled for future consideration. The case is strong for using public-supported financial incentives offered by the EQIP to aid grower adoption of IPM as a means to address resource concerns, but current use of the EQIP for this purpose is modest to meager. With appropriate program adjustments and increased grower awareness, USDA NRCS conservation programs, and the EQIP in particular, may provide an important opportunity for growers to increase their use of IPM as a resource conservation and farm management tool. PMID:15666728

Brewer, Michael J; Hoard, Robert J; Landis, Joy N; Elworth, Lawrence E

2004-12-01

168

Intercropping for management of insect pests of castor, Ricinus communis, in the semi-arid tropics of India.  

PubMed

Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On-farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi-arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

Rao, M Srinivasa; Rama Rao, C A; Srinivas, K; Pratibha, G; Vidya Sekhar, S M; Sree Vani, G; Venkateswarlu, B

2012-01-01

169

Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi--Arid Tropics of India  

PubMed Central

Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

2012-01-01

170

Laboratory and eld studies on the integrated pest management of Helicoverpa armigera (Hu bner) in cotton, based on pheromone  

E-print Network

) in cotton, based on pheromone trap catch threshold level G. V. P. Reddy2 and M. Manjunatha1 1 Agricultural in integrated pest management of the target pest Helicov- erpa armigera in cotton ®elds, basic studies on the egg parasitism, toxicity of insecticides to parasitoids and predators and compatibility of nuclear

Reddy, Gadi VP

171

German Cockroach Allergen Levels in North Carolina Schools: Comparison of Integrated Pest Management and Conventional Cockroach Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cockroach suppression is fundamental to cockroach allergen mitigation in infested homes. The effects of various cockroach control strategies on cockroach populations and allergen concentration have not been examined in schools. This study was conducted to compare the effec- tiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) and conventional pest control in controlling German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) infestations and concentrations of the

Godfrey Nalyanya; J. Chad Gore; H. Michael Linker; Coby Schal

2009-01-01

172

Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

173

The Argentine ant: challenges in managing an invasive unicolonial pest.  

PubMed

The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, has invaded urban, agricultural, and natural habitats worldwide, causing economic damage and disrupting ecosystem processes. Introduced populations of L. humile and those of many other invasive ants tend to be unicolonial, forming expansive, multiqueened supercolonies that dominate native ant communities and challenge control practices in managed habitats. Argentine ant management typically entails the application of residual insecticide liquids, granules, or baits to only a portion of the colony, resulting in fairly rapid reinfestation. We suggest that prevailing control methodologies are incomplete and not compatible with the behavior, nesting habits, and population structure of this ant, and therefore, more aggressive management strategies are required. Successful eradication efforts against other invasive unicolonial ant species can provide useful insights for local-scale L. humile eradication. PMID:17877449

Silverman, Jules; Brightwell, Robert John

2008-01-01

174

AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CORN ROOTWORM MANAGEMENT: AREAWIDE PEST MANAGEMENT VERSUS SOIL INSECTICIDES A NET PRESENT VALUE APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996, the USDA initiated research in three Midwestern locations to control corn rootworms with a scouting and aerial spraying program. The preliminary economic results suggest that without a modest subsidy, an areawide pest management approach is not as economical as the use of soil insecticides

Christina Welch Stair; Peter Quan; Marshall A. Martin

2000-01-01

175

Potential of "lure and kill" in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species.  

PubMed

"Lure and kill" technology has been used for several decades in pest management and eradication of invasive species. In lure and kill, the insect pest attracted by a semiochemical lure is not "entrapped" at the source of the attractant as in mass trapping, but instead the insect is subjected to a killing agent, which eliminates affected individuals from the population after a short period. In past decades, a growing scientific literature has been published on this concept. This article provides the first review on the potential of lure and kill in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species. We present a summary of lure and kill, either when used as a stand-alone control method or in combination with other methods. We discuss its efficacy in comparison with other control methods. Several case studies in which lure and kill has been used with the aims of long-term pest management (e.g., pink bollworm, Egyptian cotton leafworm, codling moth, apple maggot, biting flies, and bark beetles) or the eradication of invasive species (e.g., tephritid fruit flies and boll weevils) are provided. Subsequently, we identify essential knowledge required for successful lure and kill programs that include lure competitiveness with natural odor source; lure density; lure formulation and release rate; pest population density and risk of immigration; and biology and ecology of the target species. The risks associated with lure and kill, especially when used in the eradication programs, are highlighted. We comment on the cost-effectiveness of this technology and its strengths and weaknesses, and list key reasons for success and failure. We conclude that lure and kill can be highly effective in controlling small, low-density, isolated populations, and thus it has the potential to add value to long-term pest management. In the eradication of invasive species, lure and kill offers a major advantage in effectiveness by its being inverse density dependent and it provides some improvements in efficacy over related control methods. However, the inclusion of insecticides or sterilants in lure and kill formulations presents a major obstacle to public acceptance. PMID:19610395

El-Sayed, A M; Suckling, D M; Byers, J A; Jang, E B; Wearing, C H

2009-06-01

176

Bridging disciplines, knowledge systems and cultures in pest management.  

PubMed

The success of research in integrated environmental and natural resource management relies on the participation and involvement of different disciplines and stakeholders. This can be difficult to achieve in practice because many initiatives fail to address the underlying social processes required for successful engagement and social learning. We used an action research approach to support a research-based group with a range of disciplinary and stakeholder expertise to critically reflect on their engagement practice and identify lessons around how to collaborate more effectively. This approach is provided here as a guide that can be used to support reflective research practice for engagement in other integration-based initiatives. This paper is set in the context of an integrated wildlife management research case study in New Zealand. We illustrate how multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches can provide a framework for considering the different conversations that need to occur in an integrated research program. We then outline rubrics that list the criteria required in inter- and trans-disciplinary collaborations, along with examples of effective engagement processes that directly support integration through such efforts. Finally, we discuss the implications of these experiences for other researchers and managers seeking to improve engagement and collaboration in integrated science, management and policy initiatives. Our experiences reaffirm the need for those involved in integrative initiatives to attend to the processes of engagement in both formal and informal settings, to provide opportunities for critical reflective practice, and to look for measures of success that acknowledge the importance of effective social process. PMID:24122099

Allen, Will; Ogilvie, Shaun; Blackie, Helen; Smith, Des; Sam, Shona; Doherty, James; McKenzie, Don; Ataria, James; Shapiro, Lee; MacKay, Jamie; Murphy, Elaine; Jacobson, Chris; Eason, Charles

2014-02-01

177

Studies on the extent of loss and economics of pest management in Okra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of insect damage to okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench) and the economics of pest management in this crop have been studied over three seasons in Bangalore, India. The results of insecticide trials show that disulfoton applied at the rate of 1 kg a.i.\\/ha at the time of sowing, followed by an application of 0.1% carbaryl 40, 50 and

K. Srinivasan; N. K. Krishnakumar

1983-01-01

178

Comparing object oriented and traditional designs for a forest pest management decision support system  

E-print Network

and content by: Robert C. a (Co-chair of Committee) Douglas K. Loh (Co-chair of Committee) Merr E. Makela ( ember) Richard F. Fisher (Head of Department) December 1991 Comparing Object Oriented and Traditional Designs for a Forest Pest Management... Decision Support System. (December 1991) John Michael Power, B. Sc. F. , Lakehead University Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert C. Maggio Dr. Douglas K. Loh Two design models, one object oriented (00) and the other procedure oriented, were...

Power, J. M

2012-06-07

179

Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamo, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

2013-01-01

180

Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.  

PubMed

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

2013-01-01

181

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Regulations and Basic Information: How to Use this Pest Management Guide 1-1  

E-print Network

incorporating beneficial insects, animals, and other organisms into a pest management plan to fight off harmful chapters of this guide cover external parasites of dogs and cats, outline Virginia regulations in dealing

Liskiewicz, Maciej

182

Pests in and Around the Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Knowledgebase of urban, structure, lawn and landscape pests. Includes sections on pest management theory; biting and stinging insects; pests of food, fabric and wood; occasional invaders; lawn pests; landscape pests, and some vertebrate pests. Includes pest identification keys. This is an excellent resource, although much of the material is specific to Florida. Vertebrate pest management sections are also of high quality and interesting. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser. $25.

0002-11-30

183

Reduced-risk pest management programs for eastern U.S. peach orchards: effects on arthropod predators, parasitoids, and select pests.  

PubMed

We developed new integrated pest management programs for eastern U.S. peaches with minimal use of organophosphates. From 2002-2005, we assessed the ecological impacts of these reduced-risk programs versus grower standard conventional programs that still relied primarily on the use of organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides. Using a split-plot design replicated at four commercial Pennsylvania peach orchards, we quantified pesticide rates, environmental impact, and arthropod community response. We used Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) analysis based on the growers' pesticide records from each orchard to calculate seasonal cumulative EIQ field ratings for all years. Ecological effects of the reduced-risk and conventional program were also measured as the abundance and diversity of nontarget arthropod predators, parasitoids, and selected pest taxa. Pesticide inputs and EIQ values were substantially lower in reduced-risk programs compared with conventional spray programs. Arthropod arrays differed significantly between pest management programs: most beneficial predator and parasitoid taxa were positively associated with the reduced-risk program and negatively associated with the standard grower program. Regardless of the pest management program, we observed significant differences in species arrays in the peach tree canopy compared with the ground cover of the orchards, but the arthropod community did not differ among the field sites or based on distance from the edge of the orchard. We conclude that reduced-risk programs not only provide control comparable with that of conventional programs, but they also reduce negative environmental effects while conserving key arthropod biological control agents within eastern U.S. peach orchards. PMID:25026668

Biddinger, David J; Leslie, Timothy W; Joshi, Neelendra K

2014-06-01

184

Wildlife as valuable natural resources vs. intolerable pests: A suburban wildlife management model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Management of wildlife in suburban environments involves a complex set of interactions between both human and wildlife populations. Managers need additional tools, such as models, that can help them assess the status of wildlife populations, devise and apply management programs, and convey this information to other professionals and the public. We present a model that conceptualizes how some wildlife populations can fluctuate between extremely low (rare, threatened, or endangered status) and extremely high (overabundant) numbers over time. Changes in wildlife abundance can induce changes in human perceptions, which continually redefine species as a valuable resource to be protected versus a pest to be controlled. Management programs thatincorporate a number of approaches and promote more stable populations of wildlife avoid the problems of the resource versus pest transformation, are less costly to society, and encourage more positive and less negative interactions between humans and wildlife. We presenta case example of the beaver Castor canadensis in Massachusetts to illustrate how this model functions and can be applied. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

DeStefano, S.; Deblinger, R.D.

2005-01-01

185

Conventional and New Biological and Habitat Interventions for Integrated Pest Management Systems: Review and Case Studies using Eldana saccharina Walker(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional Integrated Pest Management (IPM) systems have concentrated on controlling pests through informed use of cultural\\u000a and biological control and host plant resistance characteristics to minimise pesticide interventions. The basic foundation\\u000a of successful IPM systems is a thorough knowledge of the target pest’s life cycle, and its ecological and behavioral interactions\\u000a with the environment and natural controlling factors in both

D. E. Conlong; R. S. Rutherford

186

A Three-Year Field Validation Study to Improve the Integrated Pest Management of Hot Pepper  

PubMed Central

To improve the integrated pest management (IPM) of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control). The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper. PMID:25288956

Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

2013-01-01

187

Combining pest control and resistance management: synergy of engineered insects with Bt crops.  

PubMed

Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins are widely used to control insect pests. Their benefits would be lost if resistance to the toxins became widespread in pest populations. The most widely used resistance management method is the high-dose/refuge strategy. This requires toxin-free host plants as refuges near insecticidal crops, and toxin doses intended to be sufficiently high to kill insects heterozygous for a resistant allele, thereby rendering resistance functionally recessive. We have previously shown by mathematical modeling that mass-release of harmless susceptible (toxin-sensitive) insects engineered with repressible female-specific lethality using release of insects carrying a dominant lethal ([RIDL] Oxitec Limited, United Kingdom) technology could substantially delay or reverse the spread of resistance and reduce refuge sizes. Here, we explore this proposal in depth, studying a wide range of scenarios, considering impacts on population dynamics as well as evolution of allele frequencies, comparing with releases of natural fertile susceptible insects, and examining the effect of seasonality. We investigate the outcome for pest control for which the plant-incorporated toxins are not necessarily at a high dose (i.e., they might not kill all homozygous susceptible and all heterozygous insects). We demonstrate that a RIDL-based approach could form an effective component of a resistance management strategy in a wide range of genetic and ecological circumstances. Because there are significant threshold effects for several variables, we expect that a margin of error would be advisable in setting release ratios and refuge sizes, especially as the frequency and properties of resistant alleles may be difficult to measure accurately in the field. PMID:19449654

Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B; Alphey, Luke

2009-04-01

188

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

treatments should only be applied when numbers of insect pests reach levels that correspond to the economic the Recommendations Committee adopted thresholds calling for insecticide treatments when egg and small worm numbers in lower concentrations in blooms, pollen, and dried bloom tags, creating a window of opportunity for small

Stuart, Steven J.

189

5) Management i) Chemical control  

E-print Network

Mitosis inhibitors #12;5) Management c) Control i) Chemical control Which herbicide to use? · Herbicide families · Mode of action Auxin mimics Mitosis inhibitors Photosynthesis inhibitors #12;5) Management c Mitosis inhibitors Photosynthesis inhibitors Amino acid synthesis inhibitors #12;5) Management c) Control

Nowak, Robert S.

190

Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.  

PubMed

The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique. PMID:23342117

Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

2013-01-01

191

Susceptibility of Aphelinus certus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) to neonicotinoid seed treatments used for soybean pest management.  

PubMed

Soybean aphid is an economic pest of soybean in North America. Currently, management of soybean aphid is achieved through the use of foliar- and seed-applied insecticides. However, natural enemies play an important role in regulating soybean aphid populations, and may be adversely affected by insecticides. The effects of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam seed treatments on the soybean aphid parasitoid, Aphelinus certus Yasnosh, were examined using a tritrophic bioassay. A. certus was able to parasitize soybean aphids feeding on imidacloprid- and thiamethoxam-treated plants 5 and 6 wk after planting, respectively. However, up to 10 wk after planting, overall parasitism rates were reduced by 69-88% compared with the control. Therefore, neonicotinoid seed treatments may reduce the effectiveness of A. certus as a natural enemy of soybean aphid in seed-treated crops. PMID:25195435

Frewin, Andrew J; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Hallett, Rebecca H

2014-08-01

192

AN OPTIMAL CORN ROOTWORM SCOUTING PROGRAM FOR IMPROVED PROFITABILITY OF AREAWIDE PEST MANAGEMENT IN THE EASTERN CORN BELT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic analyses show that without cost reductions, Areawide Pest Management for corn rootworm control is not cost effective in Illinois\\/Indiana where a variant form of the western corn rootworm exists. This paper examines strategies for reducing scouting\\/costs and determining the minimal scouting effort necessary to maintain effective adult suppression.

Amelia A. West; Marshall A. Martin

2003-01-01

193

Evaluating cotton integrated pest management (IPM) farmer field school outcomes using the sustainable livelihoods approach in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmer field schools (FFSs) were conducted in southern India to reduce pesticide input and enhance sustainability of cotton production systems. This study was carried out to determine the additional benefits of FFSs in the social and economic arena, using the sustainable livelihoods (SL) concept to frame the evaluation. Farmers who had participated in the integrated pest management (IPM) FFSs perceived

FRANCESCA MANCINI; Bruggen van A. H. C; JANICE L. S. JIGGINS

2007-01-01

194

A case for multi-species management of sympatric herbivore pest impacts in the central Southern Alps, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five herbivorous introduced mammals are sympatric in the central Southern Alps. All of these species have the potential to affect conservation values, yet the Department of Conservation at present monitors and mitigates the impacts of only one. We outline ecological arguments for multi-species management of sympatric herbivore pest impacts and use the two-species system of sympatric thar and chamois to

David M. Forsyth; John P. Parkes; Graham J. Hickling

2000-01-01

195

Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

2014-10-01

196

An economic analysis of integrated pest management strategies for Texas pecans  

E-print Network

Committee: Dr. Ron Lacewell Relatively favorable pecan prices, the increasing establishment of capital intensive orchards, and apparent cognizance of pecan pest pressures have each contributed to the escalation of pesticide use on pecans in Texas... of pesticides in Texas pecan production systems. Pecan IPM demonstrations were organized utilizing grower-cooperators throughout the state. IPM tools included pest emergence prediction models, weekly newsletters on regional pest developments, and detailed...

Woods, Timothy Alan

2012-06-07

197

Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies.  

PubMed

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests'. This six-year CRP (2008-2013) focused on research aimed at under-pinning the Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) of populations of tsetse and screwworm flies, and this introductory paper to the Special Issue integrates the findings of the CRP participants and discusses them in a broader context. The tools and techniques for mapping and modelling the distributions of genetically-characterised populations of tsetse and screwworm flies are increasingly used by researchers and managers for more effective decision-making in AW-IPM programmes, as illustrated by the reports in this Special Issue. Currently, the insect pests are often characterized only by neutral genetic markers suitable for recognizing spatially isolated populations that are sometimes associated with specific environments. Two challenges for those involved in AW-IPM are the standardization of best practice to permit the efficient application of GIS and genetic tools by regional teams, and the need to develop further the mapping and modelling of parasite and pest phenotypes that are epidemiologically important. PMID:24713196

Feldmann, U; Ready, P D

2014-10-01

198

HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Regulations and Basic Information: What about Intergrated Pest Management 1-9  

E-print Network

similar effects. Food and Water Supply Pest populations thrive only if their food and water supply lasts- tions include climate, natural enemies, natural barriers, availability of shelter, and food and water supplies. Climate Weather conditions, especially temperature, day length, and humidity, affect pest

Liskiewicz, Maciej

199

Can Vetiver Grass be Used to Manage Insect Pests on Crops?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from its well known soil conservation properties, vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty; syn. Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) is reported to be repellent to many insect species. However, infestation of vetiver by pests of other crops has been recorded and concerns raised about vetiver grass being a refuge for insects pests. This paper addresses the benefits that vetiver may

J. Van den Berg; C. Midega; L. J. Wadhams; Z. R. Khan

200

Landscape context and management effects on an important insect pest and its natural enemies in almond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest control mediated by organisms such as parasitoids is a valuable ecosystem service, particularly with regard to high costs, low effectiveness, and detrimental effects of some agrochemicals. This study examined infestation rates and abundance of pests and their natural enemies in organic and conventional almond orchards in California, differing in landscape context, understory plant cover, and plant species richness. Parasitoids

Elisabeth Johanna Eilers; Alexandra-Maria Klein

2009-01-01

201

Recombinant soybean cysteine proteinase inhibitors: Chemical characteristics and effectiveness against select crop pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of this research was to partially characterize three recombinant soybean cysteine proteinase inhibitors (rSCPIs) L1, R1 and N2, and to assess their potential to inhibit the growth and development of three major agricultural crop pests known to utilize cysteine proteinases (CPs) for their digestion: Western corn rootworm (WCR), Colorado potato beetle (CPB) and cowpea weevil (CW). Partial

Lalitha Subramanian

2001-01-01

202

Chemical Control of Insect Pests and Insecticide Resistance in Oilseed Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Public concerns about environmental hazards and widespread resistance in pollen beetle populations on oilseed rape in Europe\\u000a are threatening the availability of a variety of insecticidal modes of action for pest control on the crop. For a sustainable\\u000a use of insecticides any overuse has to be avoided to minimize risk of resistance development. Pollen beetles are present in\\u000a the crop

Thomas Thieme; Udo Heimbach; Andreas Müller

203

Neem oil as a potential seed dresser for managing Homopterous sucking pests of Okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticidal seed treatment is an alternative method to spray and granular applications. It can protect the crop right from\\u000a germination to reproductive stage. Recurrent use of chemical insecticides destabilizes the ecosystem and enhances the development\\u000a of resistance in pest population. Use of biopesticides like neem oil (NO) is a promising one in this situation. Two field\\u000a experiments were conducted to

P. Indira Gandhi; K. Gunasekaran; Tongmin Sa

2006-01-01

204

Evaluation of water quality in an agricultural watershed as affected by almond pest management practices.  

PubMed

In the last decade, the detection of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in the San Joaquin River watershed has raised concerns about water quality. This study examined the influences of almond pest management practices (PMPs) on water quality. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was employed to simulate pesticide concentration in water as affected by different PMPs. California Pesticide Use Reporting (PUR) data were used to investigate PMP use trends. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to test the correlation between specific PMP use and pesticide concentrations in surface water and sediment. Our results showed an increasing use of reduced risk pesticides and pyrethroids on almonds. SWAT simulation over the period of 1992-2005 showed decreases in OP concentrations in surface water. High OP and pyrethroid use in dormant sprays was associated with high pesticide concentrations in water and sediment. Almond pesticide use was proved to have significant impacts on the pesticide load in the San Joaquin River watershed. The PMP which combines the use of reduced risk pesticides with no dormant spray was recommended for almond orchard use. This paper presented a novel method of studying the environmental impacts of different agricultural PMPs. By combining pesticide use surveys with watershed modeling, we provided a quantitative foundation for the selection of PMPs to reduce pesticide pollution in surface water. PMID:18672261

Zhang, Xuyang; Liu, Xingmei; Luo, Yuzhou; Zhang, Minghua

2008-08-01

205

Novel life stage targets against plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), in apple integrated pest management.  

PubMed

In this study the authors employed the plant-insect-chemistry (PIC) triad to investigate two novel life stage targets against the plum curculio (PC), Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), in apple integrated pest management (IPM). Laboratory treated apple bioassays were used to determine if the insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides novaluron and tebufenozide have physiological effects on PC larvae following adult exposure. Curative activity bioassays were conducted for IGR, neonicotinoid, oxidiazine and organophosphate insecticides on PC larvae post-infestation, and fruit penetration profiles of insecticides were developed. The results revealed that novaluron exhibits activity on PC larvae via vertical transmission following exposure of mated females to treated substrate. Surface treatments of azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam to preinfested fruit resulted in significant reductions in larval emergence. For all compounds, 50% or more of the total recovered active ingredient was from apple skin, and for azinphos-methyl, indoxacarb and thiamethoxam it was greater than 80%. For azinphos-methyl, novaluron, methoxyfenozide and thiacloprid, however, active ingredient was recovered from every section of the apple, from skin to core. Implications for twenty-first century IPM are discussed. PMID:17575566

Wise, John C; Kim, Ki; Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Gökçe, Ayhan; Whalon, Mark E

2007-08-01

206

Scavenging by spiders (Araneae) and its relationship to pest management of the brown recluse spider.  

PubMed

Experiments reported in Sandidge (2003; Nature 426: 30) indicated that the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, preferred to scavenge dead prey over live prey and that the spiders were not detrimentally affected when fed insecticide-killed crickets. Extrapolations made in subsequent media coverage disseminating the results of this research made counter-intuitive statements that pesticide treatment in houses would increase brown recluse populations in homes. This information was presented as if the scavenging behavior was specialized in the brown recluse; however, it was more likely that this behavior has not been well studied in other species. To provide a comparison, the current laboratory study examined the likelihood of non-Loxosceles spiders to scavenge dead prey. Of 100 non-Loxosceles spiders that were tested (from 11 families, 24 genera, and at least 29 species from a variety of spider hunting guilds), 99 scavenged dead crickets when offered in petri dishes. Some of the spiders were webspinners in which real-world scavenging of dead prey is virtually impossible, yet they scavenge when given the opportunity. Therefore, scavenging is a flexible opportunistic predatory behavior that is spread across a variety of taxa and is not a unique behavior in brown recluses. These findings are discussed in relation to pest management practices. PMID:21735920

Vetter, Richard S

2011-06-01

207

Pesticide residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and organic foods: insights from three US data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of pesticide residue data was performed to describe and quantify differences between organically grown and non-organic fresh fruits and vegetables. Data on residues in foods from three different market categories (conventionally grown, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown\\/no detectable residues (NDR), and organically grown) were compared using data from three test programmes: The Pesticide Data Program of the US Department

B. P. Bakery; C. M. Benbrook; E. Groth III; K. Lutz Benbrook

2002-01-01

208

Integrated Pest Management, Biofuels, and a New Green Revolution: A Case Study of the American Midwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural pest control scientists in the American Midwest currently work in a context created by the intersection of three\\u000a distinct threads of innovation: (1) practices that increased the yields of corn (also called maize, Zea mays L.), (2) new ways of controlling pests, and (3) the use of corn grain and other biomass to produce fuel ethanol. Public policies\\u000a beginning

John H. Perkins

209

Prospects for developing and improving a chemical method of pest control in the next 10 to 15 years.  

PubMed

The assortment of chemical substances for pest control which exists in the world or is planned by us, and the reserves which exist in scientific research make it possible to assert that: 1) It is possible to produce an assortment of pesticides that is practically harmless for man and useful animals; 2) it is possible to eliminate the accumulation of pesticides and their residue in the environment, in food products, and in food chains; 3) it is possible to produce highly selective pesticides which will not damage useful inhabitants of the biosphere, particularly useful arthropods and soil microorganisms; 4) it is possible with the proper technical approaches, especially with proper alternation of pesticides, to avoid the development of resistant strains of pests. This requires continuation of intensive scientific and technical investigations both of the pesticides themselves and in producing integrated systems with the use of an entire complex of means and methods for protecting the harvest, and improving the technical means of application. PMID:751687

Kabachnik, M I; Mel'nikov, N N

1978-01-01

210

Pathogen and biological contamination management in plant tissue culture: phytopathogens, vitro pathogens, and vitro pests.  

PubMed

The ability to establish and grow plant cell, organ, and tissue cultures has been widely exploited for basic and applied research, and for the commercial production of plants (micro-propagation). Regardless of whether the application is for research or commerce, it is essential that the cultures be established in vitro free of biological contamination and be maintained as aseptic cultures during manipulation, growth, and storage. The risks from microbial contamination are spurious experimental results due to the effects of latent contaminants or losses of valuable experimental or commercial cultures. Much of the emphasis in culture contamination management historically focussed on the elimination of phytopathogens and the maintenance of cultures free from laboratory contamination by environmental bacteria, fungi (collectively referred to as "vitro pathogens", i.e. pathogens or environmental micro-organisms which cause culture losses), and micro-arthropods ("vitro pests"). Microbial contamination of plant tissue cultures is due to the high nutrient availability in the almost universally used Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) basal medium or variants of it. In recent years, it has been shown that many plants, especially perennials, are at least locally endophytically colonized intercellularly by bacteria. The latter, and intracellular pathogenic bacteria and viruses/viroids, may pass latently into culture and be spread horizontally and vertically in cultures. Growth of some potentially cultivable endophytes may be suppressed by the high salt and sugar content of the Murashige and Skoog basal medium and suboptimal temperatures for their growth in plant tissue growth rooms. The management of contamination in tissue culture involves three stages: disease screening (syn. disease indexing) of the stock plants with disease and endophyte elimination where detected; establishment and pathogen and contaminant screening of established initial cultures; observation, random sampling, and culture screening for micro-organism in multiplication and stored cultures. The increasing accessibility of both broad-spectrum and specific molecular diagnostics has resulted in advances in multiple pathogen and latent contaminant detection. The hazard analysis critical control point management strategy for tissue culture laboratories is underpinned by staff training in aseptic technique and good laboratory practice. PMID:22610620

Cassells, Alan C

2012-01-01

211

Community-based participatory research helps farmers and scientists to manage invasive pests in the Ecuadorian Andes.  

PubMed

Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants collected data from the PTM invasion front, which revealed clear connection between the abundance of one of the species (Tecia solanivora) and the remoteness to the main market place. This suggests that mechanisms structuring invasive populations at the invasion front are different from those occurring in areas invaded for longer period. Participatory monitoring with local people may serve as a cost-effective early warning system to detect and control incipient invasive pest species in countries where the daily management of biological resources is largely in the hands of poor rural people. PMID:20799682

Dangles, O; Carpio, F C; Villares, M; Yumisaca, F; Liger, B; Rebaudo, F; Silvain, J F

2010-06-01

212

Apple Burrknot Borers in New York Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State  

E-print Network

Apple Burrknot Borers in New York ­ Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State DAVID P. KAIN, RICHARD W. STRAUB AND ARTHUR M. AGNELLO Department damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple

Agnello, Arthur M.

213

German Cockroach Allergen Levels in North Carolina Schools: Comparison of Integrated Pest Management and Conventional  

E-print Network

FORUM German Cockroach Allergen Levels in North Carolina Schools: Comparison of Integrated Pest allergen mitigation in infested homes. The effects of various cockroach control strategies on cockroach populations and allergen concentration have not been examined in schools. This study was conducted to compare

214

From a technology focus to innovation development : the management of cocoa pests and diseases in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is a major producer of cocoa in the world and relies heavily on the crop for foreign exchange revenue. However, production levels declined from the mid 1960s reaching the lowest level in 1983. The decline in production was a result of decreasing areas under cultivation, and low yields. Pests and diseases are inadequately controlled, and the use of synthetic

E. N. A. Dormon

2006-01-01

215

Use of communication media in changing rice farmers' pest management in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many rice farmers decide to spray insecticides based on their perception of potential damage and losses caused by pest species. Farmers generally overestimate the seriousness of the rice leaf folder from visible damage and apply insecticides early, and therefore, changing perceptions may help reduce the perceived benefits of unnecessary spraying. Farmers in Long An province, Vietnam, were motivated to ‘test’

K. L. Heong; M. M. Escalada; N. H. Huan; V. Mai

1998-01-01

216

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 SMALL GRAIN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

and oat production under SC conditions. Either seed treatment or foliar pyrethroid application are both on early- planted high-yield-potential wheat (60+ bu/ac). The key pest is the oat-bird cherry aphid which is recommended if you find 8 oat-bird cherry aphids per row foot prior to jointing. Oats are more susceptible

Stuart, Steven J.

217

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 CORN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

are available, each characterized by an `event' (i.e. a successful insertion of the genetic package into a plant to prevent or avoid injury, transgenic Bt corn, at-planting insecticides (including seed treatments in each field where corn is to be planted. Major insect pests of corn in South Carolina. Insect

Duchowski, Andrew T.

218

Introduction to the Chemical Management System  

SciTech Connect

The CMS, a Laboratory-wide electronic chemical inventory tracking system, will assist PNL by establishing comprehensive, integrated, Laboratory-wide databases supported by consistent and standardized procedures for chemical inventory management. It will provide PNL with the information needed to meet its current chemical management responsibilities and regulatory requirements. Its objectives are to provide an inventory of all chemicals being held at PNL facilities, to provide a specific location for all chemical containers, to ensure that health and safety regulatory codes are being upheld, and to provide PNL staff and managers with hazardous-chemical information for better inventory management. It is composed of 5 modules: chemical purchasing; chemical inventory; chemical names, properties, and hazardous groups; reporting; and system manager.

Sawyer, J.G.

1993-01-01

219

Biological Control of Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Modern era is witnessing versatile application and utilization of prophecies, processes, and products of sustainable agriculture\\u000a that pose minimum or negligible negative impacts on environment. Use of microorganisms for curbing the attack of plant pathogenic\\u000a organisms\\/pests forms the foremost limb of integrated pest management and is responsible for either imparting induced systemic\\u000a resistance or improving the general health of the

Anu Kalia; Rajinder K. Mudhar

220

Relevance of traditional integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for commercial corn producers in a transgenic agroecosystem: a bygone era?  

PubMed

The use of transgenic Bt maize hybrids continues to increase significantly across the Corn Belt of the United States. In 2009, 59% of all maize planted in Illinois was characterized as a "stacked" gene variety. This is a 40% increase since 2006. Stacked hybrids typically express one Cry protein for corn rootworm control and one Cry protein for control of several lepidopteran pests; they also feature herbicide tolerance (to either glyphosate or glufosinate). Slightly more than 50 years has passed since Vernon Stern and his University of California entomology colleagues published (1959) their seminal paper on the integrated control concept, laying the foundation for modern pest management (IPM) programs. To assess the relevance of traditional IPM concepts within a transgenic agroecosystem, commercial maize producers were surveyed at a series of meetings in 2009 and 2010 regarding their perceptions on their use of Bt hybrids and resistance management. Special attention was devoted to two insect pests of corn, the European corn borer and the western corn rootworm. A high percentage of producers who participated in these meetings planted Bt hybrids in 2008 and 2009, 97 and 96.7%, respectively. Refuge compliance in 2008 and 2009, as mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was 82 and 75.7%, respectively, for those producers surveyed. A large majority of producers (79 and 73.3% in 2009 and 2010, respectively) revealed that they would, or had, used a Bt hybrid for corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) or European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) control even when anticipated densities were low. Currently, the EPA is evaluating the long-term use of seed blends (Bt and non-Bt) as a resistance management strategy. In 2010, a large percentage of producers, 80.4%, indicated they would be willing to use this approach. The current lack of integration of management tactics for insect pests of maize in the U.S. Corn Belt, due primarily to the escalating use of transgenic Bt hybrids, may eventually result in resistance evolution and/or other unforeseen consequences. PMID:20873716

Gray, Michael E

2011-06-01

221

Insect pest management of winter planted cotton in coastal rice?fallows of West Bengal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to grow some Indian strains of G. hirsutum cotton in the dry winter season, with the residual soil moisture of rice?fallows in tropical coastal West Bengal, including the sundarbans (India), were initiated in 1969–70. Earias vitella (Stoll) was the ‘key’ insect pest from the presquaring to the boll maturing stage, while Heliothis armigera (Hubner) was an occasional mid?and late?season

A. K. Dutt; J. L. Saha

1990-01-01

222

Evaluation of components of an integrated pest management system in cotton in the Brazos River Valley  

E-print Network

and Glower discovered boll weevil resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbons. In the 1960's, populations of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F. ), a minor pest until then, developed resistance to organophosphate insecticides, and DDT became useless..., resulting in increased yields (Ignoffo et al. 1965, Chapman and Bell 13 Chamberlain and Dutky (1958) tested the Heliothis NPV for H. virescens control in a tobacco field. Applications of 5x10 PIB's per plant gave IOOX mortality in 13 days. e m BT...

Gan, Michal Roni

2012-06-07

223

Setting Priorities for the Management of Marine Pests Using a Risk-Based Decision Support Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this framework is to provide an approach to setting priorities that caters for marine biosecurity threats (from\\u000a existing or potential pests) to different types of coastal values or stakeholder sectors (e.g., aquaculture, conservation)\\u000a at different scales of interest (e.g., national vs. internal border control). It is a framework that promotes forward planning\\u000a to avoid poorly informed, ad

B. M. Forrest; M. D. Taylor; J. Sinner

224

PEST Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PEST is an acronym for four sources of change: political, economic, social and technological. PEST analysis is a powerful and widely used tool for understanding strategic risk. It identifies the changes and the effects of the external macro environment on a firm's competitive position. Strategists seek to understand external factors and evaluate how business models will have to evolve, in

T. Sammut-Bonnici; D. Galea

2014-01-01

225

Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp  

SciTech Connect

Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Entomology and Nematology, P.O. Box 110630, Gainesville, FL 32611-0630 (United States); Adjei, M.B. [University of Florida, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, 3401 Experiment Station, Ona, FL 33865-9706 (United States); Vicente, N.E. [University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box 9030, Mayaguez, PR 00681-9030 (Puerto Rico)

2007-03-15

226

Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control. PMID:21882700

Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

2011-08-01

227

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT  

E-print Network

Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut Herbicide, application rates, adjuvants, and precautions. GLYPHOSATE does not adequately control cutleaf evening primrose Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 164 Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut

Duchowski, Andrew T.

228

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN COTTON  

E-print Network

Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Cotton Herbicide not apply more than 2.0 oz/A for burndown. Add a suitable adjuvant like NIS at 1.0% v/v (1 gal per 100 gal Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 71 Preplant Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Cotton

Duchowski, Andrew T.

229

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN COTTON  

E-print Network

Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Cotton Herbicide not apply more than 2.0 oz/A for burndown. Add a suitable adjuvant like NIS at 1.0% v/v (1 gal per 100 gal Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 64 Preplant Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Cotton

Stuart, Steven J.

230

Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.  

PubMed

A diverse set of parasites and pathogens affects productivity and survival of Apis mellifera honeybees. In beekeeping, traditional control by antibiotics and molecules of synthesis has caused problems with contamination and resistant pathogens. In this research, different Laurus nobilis extracts are tested against the main honeybee pests through an integrated point of view. In vivo effects on bee survival are also evaluated. The ethanol extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 208 to 416 ?g/mL, having the best antimicrobial effect on Paenibacillus larvae among all substances tested. Similarly, this leaf extract showed a significant antiparasitic activity on Varroa destructor, killing 50 % of mites 24 h after a 30-s exposure, and on Nosema ceranae, inhibiting the spore development in the midgut of adult bees ingesting 1?×?10(4) ?g/mL of extract solution. Both ethanol extract and volatile extracts (essential oil, hydrolate, and its main component) did not cause lethal effects on adult honeybees. Thus, the absence of topical and oral toxicity of the ethanol extract on bees and the strong antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and miticidal effects registered in this study place this laurel extract as a promising integrated treatment of bee diseases and stimulates the search for other bioactive phytochemicals from plants. PMID:24288051

Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Porrini, Martín P; Gende, Liesel B; Álvarez, Estefanía; Buffa, Franco; Brasesco, Constanza; Maggi, Matías D; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

2014-02-01

231

PEST ERADICATION TECHNOLOGY - THE CRITICAL PARTNER TO PEST EXCLUSION TECHNOLOGY: THE MAUNGATAUTARI EXPERIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive pest eradication is an increasingly viab le management option for conservation and wildlife managers all over the world. The list of successfu l rodent eradications from isolated islands continu es to grow globally. Now, with the development of effect ive pest exclusion technologies, the opportunities for eradicating multiple species of vertebrate pests fr om progressively larger fragments of habitat

CAM SPEEDY; JOHN INNES

232

Thermal biology, population fluctuations and implications of temperature extremes for the management of two globally significant insect pests.  

PubMed

The link between environmental temperature, physiological processes and population fluctuations is a significant aspect of insect pest management. Here, we explore how thermal biology affects the population abundance of two globally significant pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis capitata (medfly) and C. rosa (Natal fruit fly), including irradiated individuals and those expressing a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that are used in the sterile insect technique. Results show that upper and lower lethal temperatures are seldom encountered at the field sites, while critical minimum temperatures for activity and lower developmental thresholds are crossed more frequently. Estimates of abundance revealed that C. capitata are active year-round, but abundance declines markedly during winter. Temporal autocorrelation of average fortnightly trap captures and of development time, estimated from an integrated model to calculate available degree days, show similar seasonal lags suggesting that population increases in early spring occur after sufficient degree-days have accumulated. By contrast, population collapses coincide tightly with increasing frequency of low temperature events that fall below critical minimum temperatures for activity. Individuals of C. capitata expressing the tsl mutation show greater critical thermal maxima and greater longevity under field conditions than reference individuals. Taken together, this evidence suggests that low temperatures limit populations in the Western Cape, South Africa and likely do so elsewhere. Increasing temperature extremes and warming climates generally may extend the season over which these species are active, and could increase abundance. The sterile insect technique may prove profitable as climates change given that laboratory-reared tsl flies have an advantage under warmer conditions. PMID:24080125

Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Weldon, Christopher W; Chown, Steven L; le Roux, Peter C; Terblanche, John S

2013-12-01

233

Chemical-management policy: prioritizing children's health.  

PubMed

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that chemical-management policy in the United States be revised to protect children and pregnant women and to better protect other populations. The Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) was passed in 1976. It is widely recognized to have been ineffective in protecting children, pregnant women, and the general population from hazardous chemicals in the marketplace. It does not take into account the special vulnerabilities of children in attempting to protect the population from chemical hazards. Its processes are so cumbersome that in its more than 30 years of existence, the TSCA has been used to regulate only 5 chemicals or chemical classes of the tens of thousands of chemicals that are in commerce. Under the TSCA, chemical companies have no responsibility to perform premarket testing or postmarket follow-up of the products that they produce; in fact, the TSCA contains disincentives for the companies to produce such data. Voluntary programs have been inadequate in resolving problems. Therefore, chemical-management policy needs to be rewritten in the United States. Manufacturers must be responsible for developing information about chemicals before marketing. The US Environmental Protection Agency must have the authority to demand additional safety data about a chemical and to limit or stop the marketing of a chemical when there is a high degree of suspicion that the chemical might be harmful to children, pregnant women, or other populations. PMID:21518722

2011-05-01

234

Tick pests and vectors (Acari: Ixodoidea) in European towns: Introduction, persistence and management.  

PubMed

Ticks have always been a part of fauna in and around human settlements, and their significance changed concurrently with the enlargement of settlements and their transformation into towns. The increased rate of urbanization during the last decades has created a new reality for tick existence. Two groups of ticks are of major concern for modern towns: those living under natural conditions of urban surroundings and those well-adapted to urban conditions. During the process of urbanization, encroachment into forested and uncultivated areas as well as protection of existing green spaces create opportunities for ticks living in nature to also exist under urban and suburban conditions. Conditions of modern urban and especially suburban environment in developed European countries adequately meet tick requirements. Tick species having an advantage in urban areas are those that can use one and the same host at all parasitic stages, can starve for a prolonged time, can use either urban pests or domesticated animals as hosts, and can live in man-made buildings. The ticks of the Argas reflexus group (Argasidae) and the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae) comply with practically all conditions necessary for successful survival in urban areas. The ability of ticks to transmit numerous human and animal pathogens and the presence of many reservoir hosts in urban and suburban areas create persistent danger for human populations and domestic animals. Impact on urban ticks should be directed against the two major requirements of tick existence: reducing populations of potential tick hosts (feral pigeons, stray dogs and cats, and urban rodents), and changing other environmental conditions to make them less suitable for ticks. It is especially important that urban inhabitants be properly informed about the danger posed by ticks, the sites of possible tick attacks, and basic self-protection techniques. PMID:24183576

Uspensky, Igor

2014-02-01

235

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT  

E-print Network

Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut Herbicide to specific label for weeds controlled, application rates, adjuvants, and precautions. GLYPHOSATE does/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut (cont) Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode of Action Preharvest

Stuart, Steven J.

236

Pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis: Case studies of ecological crop assessment for Bt gene incorporation and strategies of management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological assessment is made of the suitability of apples and kiwi fruit in New Zealand for transformation with genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The assessment focuses on the risk of pests of these crops developing resistance to the Bt toxins expressed in the plants or in Bt used as a biopesticide. The key target pests which were assessed were

C. H. Wearing; H. M. T. Hokkanen

1994-01-01

237

Ecologically-based Integrated Pest Management Packages for Food Security Crops in Central Asia Michigan State University, University of California-Davis, Kansas State University, University of Chicago, ICARDA, AVRDC, CGIAR-PFU, and University of Central A  

E-print Network

for biological control of potato fungal pathogens. Cultural controls such as mulching in the field to conserve parasites and predators. Use of biological control with parasitoids of cereal leaf beetle and Sunn pest. Addition of cultural controls to manage Sunn Pest. Consideration of planting and harvest dates for maximum

238

Ocular chemical injuries and their management  

PubMed Central

Chemical burns represent potentially blinding ocular injuries and constitute a true ocular emergency requiring immediate assessment and initiation of treatment. The majority of victims are young and exposure occurs at home, work place and in association with criminal assaults. Alkali injuries occur more frequently than acid injuries. Chemical injuries of the eye produce extensive damage to the ocular surface epithelium, cornea, anterior segment and limbal stem cells resulting in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Emergency management if appropriate may be single most important factor in determining visual outcome. This article reviews the emergency management and newer techniques to improve the prognosis of patients with chemical injuries. PMID:24082664

Singh, Parul; Tyagi, Manoj; Kumar, Yogesh; Gupta, K. K.; Sharma, P. D.

2013-01-01

239

Keys to the Increased Use of Host Plant Resistance in Integrated Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-plant resistance as a management tactic involves both the exploitation of intraspecific variation in genetically\\u000a based plant resistance to breed crop varieties that support lower populations of herbivores or that better tolerate injury\\u000a by herbivores and the integration of said varieties with other management tactics such as insecticide applications and biological\\u000a control. There are several barriers to the increased development

Michael Stout; Jeffrey Davis

240

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL  

E-print Network

be controlled by physical removal, biological control, or herbicides. The method or combination of methods used in combination with the use of biological control and herbicides. Biological control is an option for certain the herbicide is applied, while in some cases waiting periods are not required. Various chemicals have different

Duchowski, Andrew T.

241

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 TOBACCO INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

be tolerated before treatment is required. Aphids - Treat when 10% of the plants checked have 50 or more live. With IPM, when chemicals are used, it is because they are necessary; facts replace hunches. IPM is needed of growing season, stage of growth, and the size and condition of the tobacco plant. Economic thresholds

Stuart, Steven J.

242

Resurgence of Soilborne Pests in Double cropped Cucumber after Application of Methyl Bromide Chemical Alternatives and Solarization in Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. Cyperus, nutsedge, root-knot nematode, soil fumigant, 1,3-dichloropropene, pebulate, napropamide SUMMARY. Field studies were conducted during four consecutive tomato (Lycoper- sicon esculentum) -cucumber (Cucumis sativus) rotations to examine the long- term residual effects of tomato methyl bromide (MBr) alternatives on soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber. Four treatments were established in tomato fi elds: a) nontreated control; b) MBr

James P. Gilreath; Timothy N. Motis; Bielinski M. Santos; Joseph W. Noling; Salvadore J. Locascio; Daniel O. Chellemi

243

Adaptive release of natural enemies in a pest-natural enemy system with pesticide resistance.  

PubMed

Integrated pest management options such as combining chemical and biological control are optimal for combating pesticide resistance, but pose questions if a pest is to be controlled to extinction. These questions include (i) what is the relationship between the evolution of pesticide resistance and the number of natural enemies released? (ii) How does the cumulative number of natural enemies dying affect the number of natural enemies to be released? To address these questions, we developed two novel pest-natural enemy interaction models incorporating the evolution of pesticide resistance. We investigated the number of natural enemies to be released when threshold conditions for the extinction of the pest population in two different control tactics are reached. Our results show that the number of natural enemies to be released to ensure pest eradication in the presence of increasing pesticide resistance can be determined analytically and depends on the cumulative number of dead natural enemies before the next scheduled release time. PMID:23943345

Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A; Wu, Jianhong

2013-11-01

244

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS  

E-print Network

Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Small Grains Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode of Action Preharvest Interval Restricted Entry Interval before crop emergence). Consult glyphosate product to determine if an adjuvant is needed. If an adjuvant

Duchowski, Andrew T.

245

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN SMALL GRAINS  

E-print Network

Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Small Grains Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode of Action Preharvest Interval Restricted Entry Interval before crop emergence). Consult glyphosate product to determine if an adjuvant is needed. If an adjuvant

Duchowski, Andrew T.

246

An economic analysis of the integrated pest management program for Texas pecans  

E-print Network

Christian University M. A. , Texas ARM University Chair of Advisory Committee; Paul B. Thompson Pecans are an important cash crop in Texas. As such there are many pressures on producers to produce in a pesticide intensive environment. At the same time... acknowledgement of the economic risks associated with chemical intensive agriculture and environmental considerations suggest a more controlled approach to the use of pesticides. This controlled approach is supported and propagated by the Texas Agriculture...

Steele, Scott Raymond

2012-06-07

247

September 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 3 -Chemical Waste Management  

E-print Network

September 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 3 - Chemical Waste Management UW Environmental Health and Safety Page 3-1 Section 3 - Chemical Waste Management Contents A. HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL WASTE 3 - Chemical Waste Management Laboratory Safety Manual UW Environmental Health and Safety Page 3-2 4

Wilcock, William

248

Incorporation of intraguild predation into a pest management decision-making tool: the case of thrips and two pollen-feeding predators in strawberry.  

PubMed

Action thresholds are traditionally based on the density of pests and the economic damage they cause to crops. Pest damage assessments are usually made in a "sterile" environment, devoid of extenuating factors such as predators, parasitoids, and alternative food sources. Recently, the effects of a predator or parasitoid species have been considered. However, interactions between natural enemy species (intraguild predation and interference), which are common in agricultural fields, have not been incorporated yet into decision-making tools. We conducted a series of leaf disc and potted plant trials to evaluate the effects of two predator species, the anthocorid Orius laevigatus (Fieber) and the phytoseiid Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) on the density of and fruit damage inflicted by western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). We then used the obtained results to develop a pest management decision-making tool for the control of western flower thrips. Because strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) flower in cycles, pollen, a food source for both predators and the pest, is periodically available in the system and has also been incorporated in our decision-making tool. The developed new management tool would allow the relaxation of the economic threshold (ET) for western flower thrips in strawberry flowers. The presence of an average of a single O. laevigatus per flower for example, may allow that relaxation of the ET by 40% (from 10 to 14 western flower thrips per flower) when pollen is available during the winter. Because field monitoring shows that O. laevigatus populations in Israeli strawberry often reach mean densities of three to four per flower, the new approach promises to drastically reduce the employment of toxic insecticides. PMID:20857715

Shakya, Sulochana; Coll, Moshe; Weintraub, Phyllis G

2010-08-01

249

Efficacy and value of prophylactic vs. integrated pest management approaches for management of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in wheat and ramifications for adoption by growers.  

PubMed

Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L., can be effectively managed in southeastern U.S. wheat, Triticum aestivum L., with scouting and a single insecticide treatment, applied at the recommended economic threshold. However, many growers eschew this approach for a prophylactic treatment, often tank mixed with a nitrogen application before wheat growth stage 30. The efficacy of a prophylactic and an integrated pest management (IPM) approach was compared for 2 yr using small plot studies in North Carolina and regional surveys across North Carolina and Virginia. Economic analyses were performed, comparing the total cost of management of each approach using the regional survey data. From a cost perspective, the prophylactic approach was riskier, because when cereal leafbeetle densities were high, economic loss was also high. However, fields under the prophylactic approach did not exceed threshold as often as fields using IPM. Total cost of prophylactic management was also $20.72 less per hectare, giving this approach an economic advantage over IPM. The majority of fields under the IPM approach did not exceed the economic threshold. Hence, from an economic perspective, both the prophylactic and IPM approaches have advantages and disadvantages. This helps explains the partial, rather than complete, adoption of IPM by southeastern U.S. wheat growers. Cereal leaf beetle was spatially aggregated across the region in 2010, but not in 2011. As a result, from an economic standpoint, prophylaxis or IPM may have a better fit in localized areas of the region than others. Finally, because IPM adoption is favored when it has a strong economic advantage over alternative management approaches, more emphasis should be placed on research to reduce costs within the IPM approach. PMID:23156157

Reisig, Dominic D; Bacheler, Jack S; Herbert, D Ames; Kuhar, Thomas; Malone, Sean; Philips, Chris; Weisz, Randy

2012-10-01

250

Increasing the adoption of sustainable, integrated management strategies for soilborne diseases of high-value annual crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 30 years, integrated pest management (IPM) has been widely accepted as a desirable pest control strategy. The\\u000a concept has been embraced by all pest management disciplines and the term ’pest’ now encompasses weeds, rodents, nematodes,\\u000a plant pathogens and arthropods. However, despite attempts to increase adoption of IPM, there are situations where calendar-based\\u000a application of chemicals remains the

Graham R. Stirling

1999-01-01

251

Managing Household Ant Pests  

E-print Network

workers and not ants in the nest. Boric acid products are commonly formu- lated in sugar water (25 percent sucrose) and placed in a dispenser. Concentrations of 0.5 to 3.7 percent are most attractive to Argentine ants. Higher concentrations are less... attractive. Boric acid is a slow-acting stomach poison. Be careful using it outdoors because it is toxic to plants. For pharaoh ants, if the nest cannot be located, use a bait (e.g., Drax ? Ant Kill Gel containing 5 percent orthoboric acid or Terro...

Drees, Bastiaan M.

2005-12-02

252

BACKGROUND MANAGING EXOTIC PESTS  

E-print Network

of a biological cruise missile! ABOUT THE RESEARCH The larvae of the bark beetle Dendroctonus micans aggregate BIOLOGICAL CRUISE MISSILE Dr Hugh Evans, Dr David Wainhouse and Mr Nick Fielding Forest Research, Farnham

253

Going native can be a smart choice for Michigan landscapes Joy Landis, MSU Integrated Pest Management Program  

E-print Network

. Getting smart around your home Home landscaping and flower gardens can be designed with native perennialGoing native can be a smart choice for Michigan landscapes Joy Landis, MSU Integrated Pest. They offer extensive information at their website, www.nwf.org. Smart shorelines According to the Michigan

254

Economic Evaluation of an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program to Control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey  

PubMed Central

Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8. PMID:25338065

Shepard, Donald S.; Halasa, Yara A.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P.; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

2014-01-01

255

Management of plant species for controlling pests, by peasant farmers at Lagoa Seca, Para?ba state, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach  

PubMed Central

Ethnoecological knowledge may be understood as spontaneous knowledge, culturally referenced of any society's members, learned and transmitted through social interactions and that are targeted at resolution of daily routine situations. The traditional knowledge in small scale economy societies as well as the non-academic knowledge in urban-industrial societies might be included in this concept. An ethnoecological approach study was performed here on people living at the communities of Alvinho, Almeida, Chã do Marinho, Floriano, and Chã de Oiti, all located in the municipality of Lagoa Seca, Paraíba state, Northeast Brazil. The general objective pursued here was to study the knowledge that peasant farmers have on management of plant species utilized for pest control. For this, the methodological instruments employed here to investigate the ethnoecological knowledge were: direct observation, structured and semi-structured interviews, and tours conducted by local peasant farmers. We analyzed the data obtained under an emic/etic view and also by comparing the local knowledge with those obtained from the literature. The results showed that people in those communities utilize management alternatives for controlling pests, which are mainly: (i) fallowing; (ii) crop rotation; (iii) destruction of crop remains and fruits attacked by pests; (iv) alternations of crops with repellent plants; and/or (v) mixed cropping; (vi) insect's larvae covered with soil; (vii) crops irrigated abundantly; and (viii) soil preparation. The recovery and comprehension we get about this knowledge as well as the farmers' savoir faire, are extremely important to the revival of ancient agricultural practices, which have been forgotten due to advances in modern agriculture. The data obtained here showed that a huge body of knowledge the farmers have on many forms or strategies of management are generally compatible with scientific knowledge. PMID:17026748

Guimaraes, Andreia de Souza; Mourao, Jose da Silva

2006-01-01

256

Genetic identification of an unknown Rhagoletis fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting Chinese crabapple: implications for apple pest management.  

PubMed

The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious introduced quarantine pest in the apple (Malus spp.)-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. In August 2011, seven fly larvae of unknown origin were discovered infesting fruit of an exotic Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Aiton) Borkhausen, in Kennewick, Benton County, WA. If confirmed, Chinese crabapple would have represented a new host for R. pomonella in Washington and triggered quarantine measures in a surrounding three-county region of the state. Here, we establish, based on five microsatellite loci, the identity of the crabapple-infesting larvae as the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, representing a new host record for the fly. Morphological analysis of six flies reared to adulthood confirmed the genetic identification. The results demonstrate the utility of integrating rapid genetic identification methods with field surveys of economic pests, which decreased detection times by months, and avoided enacting costly quarantine measures that saved local and federal bodies > US$0.5 million in monitoring, inspection, and control costs. We discuss current ongoing efforts to develop rapid, accurate, and inexpensive on site DNA-based detection tools for R. pomonella that would have general applicability for the control of pest insects. PMID:23865221

St Jean, Gilbert; Egan, Scott P; Yee, Wee L; Feder, Jeffrey L

2013-06-01

257

Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 9 1 Identification of Hazardous Chemical Waste  

E-print Network

Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 9 1 · Identification manage hazardous chemical waste you must first learn the various identification steps, in order to: 1-Chemical- Biological-Waste Hierarchy to identify the regulations that govern waste management. Use the Non

Ford, James

258

Integrated chemical management system: A tool for managing chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Chemical Management System is a computer-based chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Chemical containers are identified by bar code labels and information on the type, quantity and location of chemicals are tracked on individual data bases in separate buildings. Chemical inventories from multiple buildings are uploaded to a central sitewide chemical data base where reports are available from Product, Waste, and Chemical Use modules. Hazardous chemical information is provided by a separate Material Safety Data Sheet module and excess chemicals are traded between chemical owners and users with the aid of the Chemical Exchange Module.

Costain, D. [Kaiser-Hill Co., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-07-01

259

Invasive Whitefly Pests of Florida  

E-print Network

Invasive Whitefly Pests of Florida #12;· General Whitefly Introduction · Other Problems Whiteflies · Managing Whiteflies Outline #12;· 1500 species worldwide, at least 60 have been reported from, Michigan State University, www.bugwood.org, #5351016 ­ 2 pairs of wings which are covered by a white dust

Watson, Craig A.

260

Tin Pest in Sn-0.5Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloys: A Chemical Analysis of Trace Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two samples of Sn-0.5Cu solder alloys, stored at -18°C for 7 years, were chemically analyzed by an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy method. One of the samples was unaffected by this exposure; the other one had completely transformed into brittle ?-Sn. Ten elements were found to exhibit statistically significant differences in their concentrations between the two samples, with the higher always associated with the untransformed sample. The highest concentrations were found for elements with an appreciable solubility in Sn, i.e., Bi, In, Pb, and Sb.

Leodolter-Dworak, Monika; Steffan, Ilse; Plumbridge, William J.; Ipser, Herbert

2010-01-01

261

Stratified entomological sampling in preparation for an area-wide integrated pest management program: the example of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Niayes of Senegal.  

PubMed

The riverine tsetse species Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) inhabits riparian forests along river systems in West Africa. The government of Senegal has embarked on a project to eliminate this tsetse species, and African animal trypanosomoses, from the Niayes area using an area-wide integrated pest management approach. A stratified entomological sampling strategy was therefore developed using spatial analytical tools and mathematical modeling. A preliminary phytosociological census identified eight types of suitable habitat, which could be discriminated from LandSat 7 ETM+ satellite images and denominated wet areas. At the end of March 2009, 683 unbaited Vavoua traps had been deployed, and the observed infested area in the Niayes was 525 km2. In the remaining area, a mathematical model was used to assess the risk that flies were present despite a sequence of zero catches. The analysis showed that this risk was above 0.05 in 19% of this area that will be considered as infested during the control operations. The remote sensing analysis that identified the wet areas allowed a restriction of the area to be surveyed to 4% of the total surface area (7,150 km2), whereas the mathematical model provided an efficient method to improve the accuracy and the robustness of the sampling protocol. The final size of the control area will be decided based on the entomological collection data. This entomological sampling procedure might be used for other vector or pest control scenarios. PMID:20695269

Bouyer, Jérémy; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Elhadji Youssou; Guerrini, Laure; Vreysen, Marc J B

2010-07-01

262

Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

263

Dispersal behavior of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae on tomato at several spatial scales and densities: implications for integrated pest management.  

PubMed

Studying distribution is necessary to understand and manage the dynamics of species with spatially structured populations. Here we studied the distribution in Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae, two mite pests of tomato, in the scope of evaluating factors that can influence the effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management strategies. We found greater positive density-dependent distribution with T. evansi than T. urticae when assayed on single, detached tomato leaves. Indeed, T. evansi distribution among leaflets increased with initial population density while it was high even at low T. urticae densities. Intensity and rate of damage to whole plants was higher with T. evansi than T. urticae. We further studied the circadian migration of T. evansi within plant. When T. evansi density was high the distribution behavior peaked between 8 am and 3 pm and between 8 pm and 3 am local time of Kenya. Over 24 h the total number of mites ascending and descending was always similar and close to the total population size. The gregarious behavior of T. evansi combined with its rapid population growth rate, may explain why few tomato plants can be severely damaged by T. evansi and how suddenly all the crop can be highly infested. However the localisation and elimination of the first infested plants damaged by T. evansi could reduce the risk of outbreaks in the entire crop. These findings suggest also that an acaricide treated net placed on the first infested plants could be very effective to control T. evansi. Moreover circadian migration would therefore accentuate the efficiency of an acaricide treated net covering the infested plants. PMID:24743580

Azandémè-Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Fiaboe, Komi K M; Subramanian, Sevgan; Kungu, Miriam; Martin, Thibaud

2014-01-01

264

Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Control and Management Materials. A Symposium Sponsored by ASTM Committee E-35 on Pesticides, American Society for Testing and Materials, Monterey, California, March 8, 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first symposium on "Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Management" was held in March, 1976. Much of the thrust was toward explaining and defining the "state of the art." Concerns included rodents and rabbits, predators, scavengers, and large game animals, and a variety of bird species. Environments were as restricted as a laboratory cage or pen…

Jackson, W. B., Ed.; Marsh, R. E., Ed.

265

Risk management in Chemical Supply Chains Rajagopalan Srinivasana,b  

E-print Network

Risk management in Chemical Supply Chains Rajagopalan Srinivasana,b a Department of Chemical Nowadays, efficient supply chain management has become critical to all businesses with benefits ranging to explicitly consider the entire supply chain structure while taking business decisions. Here, we describe

Alvarado, Matías

266

Chemical process safety management within the Department of Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Department of Energy (DOE) is not well known for its chemical processing activities, the DOE does have a variety of chemical processes covered under OSHA`s Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (the PSM Standard). DOE, like industry, is obligated to comply with the PSM Standard. The shift in the mission of DOE away from defense

Piatt

1995-01-01

267

Sandia National Laboratories, California Chemical Management Program annual report.  

SciTech Connect

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Chemical Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Chemical Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. SNL/CA is responsible for tracking chemicals (chemical and biological materials), providing Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and for regulatory compliance reporting according to a variety of chemical regulations. The principal regulations for chemical tracking are the Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the California Right-to-Know regulations. The regulations, the Hazard Communication/Lab Standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are also key to the CM Program. The CM Program is also responsible for supporting chemical safety and information requirements for a variety of Integrated Enabling Services (IMS) programs primarily the Industrial Hygiene, Waste Management, Fire Protection, Air Quality, Emergency Management, Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Prevention programs. The principal program tool is the Chemical Information System (CIS). The system contains two key elements: the MSDS library and the chemical container-tracking database that is readily accessible to all Members of the Sandia Workforce. The primary goal of the CM Program is to ensure safe and effective chemical management at Sandia/CA. This is done by efficiently collecting and managing chemical information for our customers who include Line, regulators, DOE and ES and H programs to ensure compliance with regulations and to streamline customer business processes that require chemical information.

Brynildson, Mark E.

2012-02-01

268

Study of the pest community of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.).  

PubMed

Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus 1787) is one of the most economically threatening weed plant in Hungary. Researching biological control against it, and identifying a possible and effective biocontrol agent is an important challenge, as chemical control is difficult and expensive, and there is an increasing claim to practice slight plant protection. Entomological studies were made in several parts of the world, for evaluating the species, occuring in velvetleaf, but none of these kind of experiments were assessed in Hungary. Our observations were made in field and plastic boxes, both under open field circumstances in 2008 and 2009 by visually assessing pests, netting and damage based identifying. Meanwhile 8 pest species were identified, including (Helix pomatia Linnaeus 1758--roman snale; Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood 1856)--greenhouse whitefly; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius 1787)-- lime seed bug; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus 1758)--fire bug; Rhopalus parumpunctatus Schilling 1829--common hyaline bug; Liorhyssus hyalinus--hyaline grass bug (Fabricius 1794); Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus 1758)--cabbage moth; Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner 1808)--corn earworm). On the whole the literature datas were enlarged with four new velvetleaf pests (roman scale, lime seed bug, common hyaline bug, cabbage moth). Considering the earlier literature and our results, Liorhyssus hyalinus may play an important role on biological management of velvetleaf. However this pest considered as polyphagous, but discovered to occur in great numbers on velvetleaf, this points to the fact that can be its main host plant and by sucking on the plant, can cause decreased germination rate. We suggest the "hyaline velvetleaf bug" name istead of "hyaline grass bug". Of course, additional experiments are needed on this pest to may use safety and effectively in the future. PMID:22696962

Nagy, V; Keresztes, B; Nádasy, E

2011-01-01

269

Parasitism Performance and Fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): Implications in Integrated Pest Management Strategy  

PubMed Central

The diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM) strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hym., Braconidae) can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1) and their progeny (F2) had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control. PMID:24968125

Kermani, Nadia; Abu Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Suhaimi, Amalina; Abuzid, Ismail; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Ghani, Idris Abd

2014-01-01

270

Parasitism performance and fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): implications in integrated pest management strategy.  

PubMed

The diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM) strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hym., Braconidae) can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1) and their progeny (F2) had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control. PMID:24968125

Kermani, Nadia; Abu Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Suhaimi, Amalina; Abuzid, Ismail; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Ghani, Idris Abd

2014-01-01

271

Cotton pest management practices and the selection of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae population in Northern Benin  

PubMed Central

Background Pyrethroid insecticides, carbamate and organophosphate are the classes of insecticides commonly used in agriculture for crop protection in Benin. Pyrethroids remain the only class of insecticides recommended by the WHO for impregnation of bed nets. Unfortunately, the high level of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l., threatens to undermine the success of pyrethroid treated nets. This study focuses on the investigation of agricultural practices in cotton growing areas, and their direct impact on larval populations of An. gambiae in surrounding breeding sites. Methods The protocol was based on the collection of agro-sociological data where farmers were subjected to semi-structured questionnaires based on the strategies used for crop protection. This was complemented by bioassay tests to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to various insecticides. Molecular analysis was performed to characterize the resistance genes and the molecular forms of An. gambiae. Insecticide residues in soil samples from breeding sites were investigated to determine major factors that can inhibit the normal growth of mosquito larvae by exposing susceptible and resistant laboratory strains. Results There is a common use by local farmers of mineral fertilizer NPK at 200 kg/ha and urea at 50 kg/hectare following insecticide treatments in both the Calendar Control Program (CCP) and the Targeted Intermittent Control Program (TICP). By contrast, no chemicals are involved in Biological Program (BP) where farmers use organic and natural fertilizers which include animal excreta. Susceptibility test results confirmed a high resistance to DDT. Mean mortality of An. gambiae collected from the farms practicing CCP, TICP and BP methods were 33%, 42% and 65% respectively. An. gambiae populations from areas using the CCP and TICP programs showed resistance to permethrin with mortality of 50% and 58% respectively. By contrast, bioassay test results of An. gambiae from BP areas gave a high level of susceptibility to permethrin with an average mortality of 94%. Molecular analysis identified An. gambiae s.s, and An. arabiensis with a high predominance of An. gambiae s.s (90%). The two molecular forms, M and S, were also determined with a high frequency of the S form (96%). The Kdr gene seemed the main target- site resistance mechanism detected in CCP, TICP, and BP areas at the rates ranging from 32 to 78%. The frequency of ace-1R gene was very low (< 0.1). The presence of inhibiting factors in soil samples under insecticide treatments were found and affected negatively in delaying the development of An. gambiae larval populations. Conclusions This research shows that Kdr has spread widely in An. gambiae, mainly in CCP and TICP areas where pyrethroids are extensively used. To reduce the negative impact of pesticides use in cotton crop protection, the application of BP-like programs, which do not appear to select for vector resistance would be useful. These results could serve as scientific evidence of the spread of resistance due to a massive agricultural use of insecticides and contribute to the management of pesticides usage on cotton crops hence reducing the selection pressure of insecticides on An. gambiae populations. PMID:21489266

2011-01-01

272

Policy Name: Chemical Pesticide Use Originating / Responsible Department: Facilities Management and Planning  

E-print Network

that chemical pesticides such as fungicides, herbicides and insecticides are used only as solutions of lastPolicy Name: Chemical Pesticide Use Originating / Responsible Department: Facilities Management-President (Facilities Management and Planning), Manager, Maintenance Services Policy: Chemical pesticide use

Carleton University

273

Obligate symbiont involved in pest status of host insect.  

PubMed

The origin of specific insect genotypes that enable efficient use of agricultural plants is an important subject not only in applied fields like pest control and management but also in basic disciplines like evolutionary biology. Conventionally, it has been presupposed that such pest-related ecological traits are attributed to genes encoded in the insect genomes. Here, however, we report that pest status of an insect is principally determined by symbiont genotype rather than by insect genotype. A pest stinkbug species, Megacopta punctatissima, performed well on crop legumes, while a closely related non-pest species, Megacopta cribraria, suffered low egg hatch rate on the plants. When their obligate gut symbiotic bacteria were experimentally exchanged between the species, their performance on the crop legumes was, strikingly, completely reversed: the pest species suffered low egg hatch rate, whereas the non-pest species restored normal egg hatch rate and showed good performance. The low egg hatch rates were attributed to nymphal mortality before or upon hatching, which were associated with the symbiont from the non-pest stinkbug irrespective of the host insect species. Our finding sheds new light on the evolutionary origin of insect pests, potentially leading to novel approaches to pest control and management. PMID:17567556

Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

2007-08-22

274

Design and Development of Countylevel Information Management System for Diseases and Pests of Hebei Province on GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To get a more convenience work in forest application, GIS and information system is used in forestry. GIS technology is used to build an informational management system of forest disease. For the practical requirement, the system is implemented by PDA which works outside to help completing the data collection. The major function of the system is input and output of the forest disease data and processing the report which is based on the criteria report and the assistant function of GIS. This article is aim to discuss about the theory, the process and the critical points of the information system. Besides the general information management system, GIS and PDA is introduced into the diseases system, which could combine the map and the attribute information and realize inventory data reform by PDA. The system is developed with VB and SuperMap Object (SuperMap Company).

Cheng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xie, Fangyi

275

FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant  

SciTech Connect

FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

Not Available

2004-07-01

276

Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso: consequences for area-wide integrated pest management.  

PubMed

African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoé and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoé. Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoé River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F(ST)=0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoé, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s). PMID:20060501

Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie; Guerrini, Laure; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Sidibé, Issa; Vreysen, Marc J B; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry

2010-03-01

277

Energy Management at Dow Chemical Co.  

E-print Network

As one of the largest industrial consumers of energy in the world, The Dow Chemical Company and its 46,000 employees have put energy efficiency at the very core of its business – both as a cost savings initiative and as a primary corporate social...

Almaguer, J.

2008-01-01

278

Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals  

SciTech Connect

There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals.

Schobben, H.P.M.; Scholten, M.C.T. [TNO Den Helder (Netherlands); Vik, E.A.; Bakke, S. [Aquateam, Oslo (Norway)

1994-12-31

279

Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

280

European experience in chemicals management: integrating science into policy.  

PubMed

The European Union (EU) adopted the first legislation on chemicals management in 1967 with the Dangerous Substances Directive (DSD). Over time the underlying concepts evolved: from hazard identification over risk assessment to safety assessment. In 1981 a premarketing notification scheme was introduced. Approximately 10 years later a risk assessment program started for existing substances following a data collection and prioritization exercise. Integration of science into EU chemicals legislation occurred via several technical committees managed by the European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) and resulted in the Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment (TGD), which harmonized the risk assessment methodology. The TGD was revised several times to adapt to scientific developments. The revision process, and the risk assessments for new and existing substances, led to scientific research on chemical risk assessment and thus increased in complexity. The new EU chemicals policy REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of CHemicals) builds on previous experiences and aims to further enhance health and safety. REACH places the burden of proof for chemical safety on industry focusing on managing risks. REACH formalizes the precautionary principle. Furthermore, it underlines a continued scientific underpinning in its implementation, also via stakeholder involvement, and a focus on aligning with international fora. PMID:20958022

Christensen, Frans M; Eisenreich, Steven J; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Sintes, Juan Riego; Sokull-Kluettgen, Birgit; Van de Plassche, Erik J

2011-01-01

281

Guidelines for technical management of chemical process safety  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) was formed to provide leadership and coordination to engineering approaches to safety in the chemical process industry. the center focuses its' activities on safety in the manufacturing, handling and storage of toxic flammable or explosive and reactive materials and those scientific and engineering practices that can prevent or mitigate episodic events involving the release of potentially hazardous materials. CCPS recognized, however, that enhancements in chemical process technologies alone would not be good enough to prevent catastrophic events such as Bhopal. Therefore, with the support of its advisory and managing boards, a multifaceted program was established to address the need for management commitment to the technical elements of chemical process safety. Commitment in any company must start at the top level. This paper, therefore, focuses on the importance of leadership, and how management demonstrates importance of leadership, and how management demonstrates leadership through creating a vision of the future and aggressively converts that vision into reality. The paper also discusses efforts within CCPS directed at engineering visions of process safety management. These efforts have been directed by the technical management subcommittee of CCPS who collectively represent centuries of experience in process safety.

Schreiber, S. (Center for Chemical Process Safety, New York, NY (USA))

1991-04-01

282

Spatial variability in ecosystem services: simple rules for predator-mediated pest suppression.  

PubMed

Agricultural pest control often relies on the ecosystem services provided by the predators of pests. Appropriate landscape and habitat management for pest control services requires an understanding of insect dispersal abilities and the spatial arrangement of source habitats for pests and their predators. Here we explore how dispersal and habitat configuration determine the locations where management actions are likely to have the biggest impact on natural pest control. The study focuses on the early colonization phase before predator reproduction takes place and when pest populations in crops are still relatively low. We developed a spatially explicit simulation model in which pest populations grow exponentially in pest patches and predators disperse across the landscape from predator patches. We generated 1000 computer-simulated landscapes in which the performance of four typical but different predator groups as biological control agents was evaluated. Predator groups represented trait combinations of poor and good dispersal ability and density-independent and density-dependent aggregation responses toward pests. Case studies from the literature were used to inform the parameterization of predator groups. Landscapes with a small nearest-neighbor distance between pest and predator patches had the lowest mean pest density at the landscape scale for all predator groups, but there can be high variation in pest density between the patches within these landscapes. Mobile and strongly aggregating predators provide the best pest suppression in the majority of landscape types. Ironically, this result is true except in landscapes with small nearest-neighbor distances between pest and predator patches. The pest control potential of mobile predators can best be explained by the mean distance between a pest patch and all predator patches in the landscape, whereas for poorly dispersing predators the distance between a pest patch and the nearest predator patch is the best explanatory variable. In conclusion, the spatial arrangement of source habitats for natural enemies of agricultural pest species can have profound effects on their potential to colonize crops and suppress pest populations. PMID:21265461

Bianchi, F J J A; Schellhorn, N A; Buckley, Y M; Possingham, H P

2010-12-01

283

Cross-pollination of nontransgenic corn ears with transgenic Bt corn: efficacy against lepidopteran pests and implications for resistance management.  

PubMed

The efficacy of nontransgenic sweet corn, Zea mays L., hybrids cross-pollinated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sweet corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab toxin was evaluated in both field and laboratory studies in Minnesota in 2000. Non-Bt and Bt hybrids (maternal plants) were cross-pollinated with pollen from both non-Bt and Bt hybrids (paternal plants) to create four crosses. Subsequent crosses were evaluated for efficacy in the field against European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and in laboratory bioassays against O. nubilalis. Field studies indicated that crosses with maternal Bt plants led to low levels of survival for both O. nubilalis and H. zea compared with the non-Bt x non-Bt cross. However, the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen led to survival rates of 43 and 63% for O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae, respectively. This intermediate level of survival also was reflected in the number of kernels damaged. Laboratory bioassays for O. nubilalis, further confirmed field results with larval survival on kernels from the cross between non-Bt ears and Bt pollen reaching 60% compared with non-Bt crossed with non-Bt. These results suggest that non-Bt refuge plants, when planted in proximity to Bt plants, and cross-pollinated, can result in sublethal exposure of O. nubilalis and H. zea larvae to Bt and may undermine the high-dose/refuge resistance management strategy for corn hybrids expressing Cry1Ab. PMID:22066174

Burkness, E C; O'Rourke, P K; Hutchison, W D

2011-10-01

284

INSECTS, MITES, AND NEMATODES 2004 PEST&CROP INDEX  

E-print Network

Fields ­ 20 Soybean Cyst Nematode Update ­ 20 Root Knot Nematodes in Soybean ­ How Widespread of Soybean Cyst Nematode - 26 Proper Grain Storage Part II: Insect Pest Management Practices - 26 JapaneseINSECTS, MITES, AND NEMATODES 2004 PEST&CROP INDEX Alfalfa Weevil Alfalfa Weevil Damage Beginning

Ginzel, Matthew

285

7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pests found in International Standard for Phytosanitary...areas.” The international standard was established by the International Plant Protection...Convention of the United Nations' Food...determination of risk. (d) Decertification...into the United States from a pest-free...the Office of Management and Budget...

2010-01-01

286

Mass trapping or matting disruption: are they alternative tactics for the management of citrus flower moth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The citrus flower moth (CFM), Prays citri, is a key-pest of lemon orchards in the Oeste region of Portugal. The management of CFM is actually dependent on chemical control. Up to 12 insecticide treatments may be carried out against CFM each year. Phosphamidon is the only active ingredient registered in Portugal to control this pest and it shall be withdrawn

Silva EB; Franco JC

287

Chemical Inventory Management at NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chemical Management System (CMS) is a client/server application developed with Power Builder and Sybase for the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). Power Builder is a client-server application development tool, Sybase is a Relational Database Management System. The entire LeRC community can access the CMS from any desktop environment. The multiple functions and benefits of the CMS are addressed.

Kraft, Shirley S.; Homan, Joseph R.; Bajorek, Michael J.; Dominguez, Manuel B.; Smith, Vanessa L.

1997-01-01

288

Biology and management of psocids infesting stored products.  

PubMed

Previously regarded as minor nuisance pests, psocids belonging to the genus Liposcelis now pose a major problem for the effective protection of stored products worldwide. Here we examine the apparent biological and operational reasons behind this phenomenon and why conventional pest management seems to be failing. We investigate what is known about the biology, behavior, and population dynamics of major pest species to ascertain their strengths, and perhaps find weaknesses, as a basis for a rational pest management strategy. We outline the contribution of molecular techniques to clarifying species identification and understanding genetic diversity. We discuss progress in sampling and trapping and our comprehension of spatial distribution of these pests as a foundation for developing management strategies. The effectiveness of various chemical treatments and the availability and potential of nonchemical control methods are critically examined. Finally, we identify research gaps and suggest future directions for research. PMID:24160430

Nayak, Manoj K; Collins, Patrick J; Throne, James E; Wang, Jin-Jun

2014-01-01

289

Public Health Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

290

Vegetable Pests I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 63 images of pest beetles that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae,eggs, and the insect damage. Many illustrate rarely photographed insects; most of are good quality, some are excdeptional. Photos are provided in 3 resolutions and formats; one includes text with photographer's information, etc. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0002-11-30

291

Redbanded Leafroller Pest Introduction  

E-print Network

insects, such as leafminers, plum curculio, and apple maggot. Consult your county Extension Educator (see an important apple pest after the introduction of DDT for codling moth control in the late 1940's. Scientists will be on the trunk and scaffold limbs of the apple tree. Egg laying starts soon after emergence and continues

New Hampshire, University of

292

Are chemicals in articles an obstacle for reaching environmental goals? - Missing links in EU chemical management.  

PubMed

It is widely acknowledged that the management of risks associated with chemicals in articles needs to be improved. The EU environmental policy states that environmental damage should be rectified at source. It is therefore motivated that the risk management of substances in articles also takes particular consideration to those substances identified as posing a risk in different environmental compartments. The primary aim of the present study was to empirically analyze to what extent the regulation of chemicals in articles under REACH is coherent with the rules concerning chemicals in the Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). We also analyzed the chemical variation of the organic substances regulated under these legislations in relation to the most heavily used chemicals. The results show that 16 of 24 substances used in or potentially present in articles and regulated by the SSD or the WFD are also identified under REACH either as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) or subject to some restrictions. However, for these substances we conclude that there is limited coherence between the legislations, since the identification as an SVHC does not in itself encompass any use restrictions, and the restrictions in REACH are in many cases limited to a particular use, and thus all other uses are allowed. Only a minor part of chemicals in commerce is regulated and these show a chemical variation that deviates from classical legacy pollutants. This warrants new tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals in articles. We also noted that chemicals monitored in the environment under the WFD deviate in their chemistry from the ones regulated by REACH. In summary, we argue that to obtain improved resource efficiency and a sustainable development it is necessary to minimize the input of chemicals identified as hazardous to health or the environment into articles. PMID:22858536

Molander, Linda; Breitholtz, Magnus; Andersson, Patrik L; Rybacka, Aleksandra; Rudén, Christina

2012-10-01

293

Protecting Britain's Forest and Woodland Trees against Pests and Diseases  

E-print Network

...........................................................................................2 3.2 Climate change.2.4 Adaptation and mitigation ­ newly established pests ...................................13 6.3 Managing and recover from the stresses of modern life, they provide a safe haven for much of our rich biodiversity

294

Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

Kantzes, James G.; And Others

295

Chilled versus ambient aeration and fumigation of stored popcorn part 1: Temperature management  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 1994, four commercial 121.5 tonne corrugated steel bins of stored popcorn were evaluated for chemical-free pest management and conditioning. Two of the bins were managed conventionally with intensive aeration for moisture conditioning and calendar-based fumigation treatments for pest control. In the other two bins grain temperatures were managed with the Purdue prototype grain chiller. They were

D. E. Maier; R. A. Rulon; L. J. Mason

1997-01-01

296

Interaction of entomopathogenic nematodes, Steinernema glaseri (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), cultured in irradiated hosts, with ‘F1 sterility’: Towards management of a tropical pest, Spodoptera litura (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficacy of the entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), Steinernema glaseri, (Steiner) cultured in radio-sterilized host, was studied vis-à-vis radiation-induced F1 sterility on a tropical lepidopteran pest, Spodoptera litura (Fabr.). To ensure safe transport of S. glaseri EPNs in vivo, host radio-sterilization was done; and the parasitising performance of S. glaseri infective juveniles (IJs), cultured in irradiated last instar S. litura larvae (with

Rakesh K. Seth; Tapan K. Barik; Sonal Chauhan

2009-01-01

297

Field Guide to Predators, Parasites and Pathogens Attacking Insect and Mite Pests of Cotton: Recognizing the Good Bugs in Cotton  

E-print Network

The role of natural enemies in cotton pest management has often been obscured by the widespread use of broad-spectrum insecticides. However, cotton can support a large complex of insects, spiders and mites that feed on cotton pests. Changes...

Knutson, Allen E.; Ruberson, John

2005-07-08

298

Chemical and ecotoxicological guidelines for managing disposal of dredged material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different conventions around the world have produced guidelines for the disposal of dredged material (e.g., London Convention 1972 (LC) (www.Londonconvention.org); Oslo\\/Paris Convention (OSPAR) (www.ospar.org); and, the Helsinki and Barcelona Conventions). They suggest the use of different methodologies from physico-chemical to biological approaches to the management of different routes of disposal or uses of the dredged material.Most of these conventions propose

J. Blasco

2004-01-01

299

NSF-Sponsored Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem research projects are inherently interdisciplinary and benefit from improved access to well-documented data. Improved data sharing practices are important to the continued exploration of research themes that are a central focus of the ocean science community and are essential to interdisciplinary and international collaborations that address complex, global research themes. In 2006, the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to serve the data management requirements of scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to manage marine biogeochemical, ecological, and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research. These valuable data sets are documented, stored, disseminated, and protected over short and intermediate time frames. One of the goals of the BCO-DMO is to facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange through improved data discovery, access, display, downloading, and interoperability. In May 2010, NSF released a statement to the effect that in October 2010, it is planning to require that all proposals include a data management plan in the form of a two-page supplementary document. The data management plan would be an element of the merit review process. NSF has long been committed to making data from NSF-funded research publicly available and the new policy will strengthen this commitment. BCO-DMO is poised to assist in creating the data management plans and in ultimately serving the data and information resulting from NSF OCE funded research. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: geospatial and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data export and download utilities; and strategic use of controlled vocabularies to facilitate data integration and improve interoperability.

Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Glover, D. M.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Work, T. T.; Biological; Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

2010-12-01

300

Risk management programs in the chemical industry from Bhopal onward  

SciTech Connect

Chemical process safety has long been a consideration in industry but the tragedy at Bhopal in late 1984 resulted in significantly increased attention from industry, government, and the public. Whereas Bhopal had a major effect on regulations in the US, two earlier, highly publicized accidents affected regulations in the United Kingdom and Europe. A 1974 cyclohexane explosion at a chemical manufacturing plant in Flixborough, England, caused a number of fatalities, while a 1976 runaway reaction at a chemical works near Sevesco, Italy, contaminated surrounding farmland and water supplies with dioxin. Although the public's interest can be fickle, the residual concern from all these incidents has been sufficient to affect important regulatory and industry initiatives in the US and abroad. The development of the most important of the US initiatives are reviewed here. Common elements in various process safety management programs are noted and the latest regulatory developments reported. Application can be made to the nuclear industry.

Cramer, J.J. (Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Greenberg, H.R. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., New York, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

301

Preparedness for terrorism: managing nuclear, biological and chemical threats.  

PubMed

The management of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) terrorism events is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in the next decade; however, initial patient care considerations and protective actions for staff are unfamiliar to most front-line clinicians. High explosive events (bomb and blast) remain the most common type of terrorism and are easy to detect. Conversely, some types of terrorist attacks are more likely to be unsuspected or covert. This paper explains the current threat of terrorism and describes clues for detection that an event has occurred. Specific criteria that should lead to a high suspicion for terrorism are illustrated. The manuscript outlines initial actions and clinical priorities for management and treatment of patients exposed to nuclear/radiological, biological, chemical and combined agents (for example an explosion involving a chemical agent). Examples of terrorist events include: a nuclear explosion, an aerosolised release of anthrax (biological), dissemination of sarin in a subway (chemical), and the detonation of a radiologic dispersion device or "dirty bomb" (combined explosive and radiological). Basic principles of decontamination include potential risks to healthcare providers from secondary exposure and contamination. Unique issues may hinder clinical actions. These include coordination with law enforcement for a crime scene, public health entities for surveillance and monitoring, hazardous materials teams for decontamination, and the media for risk communications. Finally, the importance of personal preparedness is discussed. PMID:20052435

Koenig, Kristi L

2009-12-01

302

Stored Product Pest Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 81 images of pests of stored products, including eggs, larvae and pupae and damage photos. Mites, beetles, moths, and psocids are included. A web browser and CD-ROM drive are required to view the images. Images are of high quality and the accompanying text is generally accurate and informative. The larval lesser mealworm is mis-captioned as an adult. Navigation of the images is easy.

0002-11-30

303

Vegetable Pests II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 96 images of pests that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs; and what the insect damage looks like. Covers mites, true bugs, hoppers, whiteflies, aphids, grasshoppers, crickets, and thrips. Most of the images are of good quality; some are exceptional. Some images depict frequently photographed insects, but several are unique. Images are offered in 3 resolutions and file formats. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0002-11-30

304

Analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries and soils by GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS and two-dimensional GC-time-of-flight MS comparing organic and integrated pest management farming.  

PubMed

This study analysed 22 strawberry and soil samples after their collection over the course of 2 years to compare the residue profiles from organic farming with integrated pest management practices in Portugal. For sample preparation, we used the citrate-buffered version of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. We applied three different methods for analysis: (1) 27 pesticides were targeted using LC-MS/MS; (2) 143 were targeted using low pressure GC-tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC-MS/MS); and (3) more than 600 pesticides were screened in a targeted and untargeted approach using comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS). Comparison was made of the analyses using the different methods for the shared samples. The results were similar, thereby providing satisfactory confirmation of both similarly positive and negative findings. No pesticides were found in the organic-farmed samples. In samples from integrated pest management practices, nine pesticides were determined and confirmed to be present, ranging from 2 µg kg(-1) for fluazifop-p-butyl to 50 µg kg(-1) for fenpropathrin. Concentrations of residues in strawberries were less than European maximum residue limits. PMID:24224899

Fernandes, Virgínia C; Lehotay, Steven J; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Kwon, Hyeyoung; Mol, Hans G J; van der Kamp, Henk; Mateus, Nuno; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

2014-01-01

305

Chemical constraints of groundwater management in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two critical objectives of water management in the Yucatan are: (1) to develop regional groundwater supplies for an expanding population and tourism based on the Mayan archeological sites and excellent beaches; and (2) to control groundwater pollution in a chemically sensitive system made vulnerable by geologic conditions. The Yucatan peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and has an annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm. Such a setting should provide abundant supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that decrease the amount of available fresh water. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed by extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water-oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supplies by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution resulting from the use of a sewage disposal well adjacent to each supply well. The modern phase of water management began in 1959 when the Secretaría de Recursos Hidráulicos (S.R.H.) was charged with the responsibility for both scientific investigations and development programmes for water-supply and sewage-disposal systems for cities, villages and islands.

Back, W.; Lesser, J. M.

1981-05-01

306

Vegetable Pests III  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 108 images of lepidopteran pests that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs of most; pictures of damage also accompany many species. Covers caterpillars and moths/butterflies. Most of the photos are of good quality with some of excelletn quality; several species included are rarely photographed, while others are frequently documented and may be found in other sources. Images are offered in three resolutions and formats, including one with text acknowledging the phtographer. The depiction of the neonate tobacco hornworm may be a tomato hornwomr; it is difficult to tell from the picture. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0002-11-30

307

Short-range movement of major agricultural pests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

Vansteenwyk, R.

1979-01-01

308

The potential of botanical essential oils for insect pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today,Insect Pest management (IPM) has to face up to the economic andecological consequences of the use of pest control measures.Fifty years of sustained struggle against harmful insects usingsynthetic and oil-derivative molecules has produced perversesecondary effects (mammalian toxicity, insect resistance andecological hazards). The diversification of the approachesinherent in IPM is necessary for better environmental protection.Among the alternative strategies, the use of

CATHERINE REGNAULT-ROGER

1997-01-01

309

Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

310

A New Data Management System for Biological and Chemical Oceanography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created to serve PIs principally funded by NSF to conduct marine chemical and ecological research. The new office is dedicated to providing open access to data and information developed in the course of scientific research on short and intermediate time-frames. The data management system developed in support of U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs is being modified to support the larger scope of the BCO-DMO effort, which includes ultimately providing a way to exchange data with other data systems. The open access system is based on a philosophy of data stewardship, support for existing and evolving data standards, and use of public domain software. The DMO staff work closely with originating PIs to manage data gathered as part of their individual programs. In the new BCO-DMO data system, project and data set metadata records designed to support re-use of the data are stored in a relational database (MySQL) and the data are stored in or made accessible by the JGOFS/GLOBEC object- oriented, relational, data management system. Data access will be provided via any standard Web browser client user interface through a GIS application (Open Source, OGC-compliant MapServer), a directory listing from the data holdings catalog, or a custom search engine that facilitates data discovery. In an effort to maximize data system interoperability, data will also be available via Web Services; and data set descriptions will be generated to comply with a variety of metadata content standards. The office is located at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and web access is via http://www.bco-dmo.org.

Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C.; Allison, D.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.

2007-12-01

311

Best Management Practices for Silvicultural Chemicals and the Science Behind Them  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silvicultural chemicals include fertilizers and pesticides applied for forest management. All states east of the Rockies have at least some form of silvicultural chemical best management practices (SCBMPs) and it is widely accepted that SCBMPs effect some protection of water quality. All SCBMPs recommend handling and application precautions and a minimum width streamside management zone (SMZ) on each side of

Jerry L. Michael

2004-01-01

312

Insects and Related Pests Attacking Lawns and Ornamental Plants.  

E-print Network

.............................................................................................. 3 Leafhoppers .................................................................................................... 3 Chiggers ........................................................................................................ 4 Chewing Pests... ........................................................................................................ 9 Scale Insects .................................................................................................. 10 Chewing Pests .................................................................................................... Armyworms...

Almand, Lyndon K.; Thomas, John G.

1968-01-01

313

Application of the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls to prioritize and promote safer methods of pest control: a case study.  

PubMed

In 2005, the California Department of Public Health, Occupational Health Branch (OHB) investigated an incident of pesticide exposure and identified 27 vineyard workers who became ill due to drift of cyfluthrin, a pesticide being applied to a neighboring orange field to control katydids. Another pest, citrus thrips, was also present in the field. We investigated safer alternatives for katydid and thrips control to prevent illness due to pesticide exposure and used the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls to prioritize the control methods. OHB evaluated factors that contributed to pesticide exposure and identified safer alternatives by conducting literature reviews on katydid and thrips control, drift prevention technology, and other relevant topics, and by interviewing integrated pest management advisors, conventional and organic growers, equipment manufacturers, county agricultural commissioners, pest control advisors, regulatory agencies, and others. We prioritized methods using the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls. We identified safer pest control practices that incorporated hazard elimination, chemical substitution, engineering controls, and administrative controls, including employer policies and government regulations. PMID:19618807

Weinberg, Justine Lew; Bunin, Lisa J; Das, Rupali

2009-01-01

314

Computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics for geosystems management.  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.

Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu

2011-09-01

315

Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

1999-05-07

316

Pest Risk Analysis for Hymenoscyphus  

E-print Network

and widespread in Europe (Kowalski and Holdenrieder 2009a). Because of the disparity between the emergence including the recent findings in the UK and Ireland. 2. What is the pest's status in the EC Plant Health

317

Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

318

Insecticide resistance management of permethrin and acephate against the cowpea curculio, Chalcodermus aeneus Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a pest of the southern pea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate strategies for management of potential resistance of the cowpea curculio, Chalcodermus aeneus Boheman, to sprayer?applied permethrin and acephate, five management regimes were evaluated on early, midseason and late sequential plantings of southern peas, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. during 1991–1993. Management regimes were: (1) consecutive permethrin (0.11 kg a.i.\\/ha early?midseason?late); (2) consecutive acephate (1.1 kg a.i.ha early?midseason?late); (3) consecutive

Richard B. Chalfant

1995-01-01

319

Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation.

Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

2014-09-01

320

Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks.  

PubMed

Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation. PMID:24618062

Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

2014-09-01

321

Microbial control of cotton pests. Part I: Use of the naturally occurring entomopathogenic fungus Aspergillus sp. (BC 639) in the management of Creontiades dilutus (Stal) (Hemiptera: Miridae) and beneficial insects on transgenic cotton crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and adoption of transgenic (Bt) crops that express the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin has reduced the use of synthetic insecticide on transgenic crops to target Helicoverpa spp., the major insect pest of cotton in Australia. However, it has also increased the threat posed by sucking pests, particularly Creontiades dilutus (green mirid), which are unaffected by the Bt toxins

Robert K. Mensah; Leah Austin

2012-01-01

322

Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 11 Empty Container Decision Tree  

E-print Network

Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 11 Empty Container Decision hazard? Rinse the container and manage the rinsate as a hazardous waste. Put a H azardous W aste label Tree Chemical waste materials must be handled as hazardous unless they are on the Non-Hazardous Waste

Ford, James

323

Disease and pest control in the bioenergy crops poplar and willow  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the population ecology, genetics and epidemiology of pests and pathogens is necessary for the development of reliable and effective pest and disease management systems in energy crops. Rust diseases are among the most devastating on poplars and willows. Analysis of forms of the Melampsora rust pathogens has revealed a complex array of species, form species, races and

DJ Royle; ME Ostry

1995-01-01

324

Pest damage and arthropod community structure in organic vs. conventional tomato production in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. To test common assumptions that the reduction in agrochemicals on organic farms allows (i) the conservation of biodiversity but (ii) has some cost in terms of increased pest damage, we compared arthropod communities and pest damage levels to fresh market tomato Lycopersicon esculentum on 18 commercial farms. These farms repre- sented a range of management practices, with half

D. K. Letourneau; B. Goldstein

2001-01-01

325

Edit, September 2005 Repositioning of European Chemical Groups and Changes in Innovation Management  

E-print Network

Edit, September 2005 Repositioning of European Chemical Groups and Changes in Innovation Management the change in the chemical industry over the past 25 years by presenting the respective weights of various: The Case of the French Chemical Industry Florence Charue-Duboc Centre de Recherche en Gestion, Ecole

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

326

Imported Fire Ants: An Agricultural Pest and a  

E-print Network

Imported Fire Ants: An Agricultural Pest and a Human Health Hazard Imported fire ants (Solenopsis. The black imported fire ant was brought to Mobile, AL, in 1918. The red imported fire ant arrived) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) for advice about how to manage imported fire ants

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

327

Forest Pest Control and Timber Treatment Category Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The document is a compilation of pamphlets and circulars which discuss forest management, control of undesirable woody plants, herbicides in forestry, diseases and insect pests, and equipment for pesticide application. (CS)

Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

328

Timber import and the risk of forest pest introductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Many invasive species are introduced by trade, and there is a need for studies of pre-emptive measures to lower the risk of introductions, as post-establishment management is often extremely costly or nearly impossible. 2. In this study, we present a generic model for the first step of the invasion process for trade- imported pests, and further develop this

Olav Skarpaas; Bjørn Økland

2009-01-01

329

An index method to evaluate growers' pesticide use for identifying on-farm innovations and effective alternative pest management strategies: a case study of winegrape in Madera County, California*  

PubMed Central

Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUI and PUIM. It was found that both PUI and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI?10 and 34 with 1060, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds, which indicated that their pest controls heavily depended on pesticides rather than on-farm management. Through the case study, the proposed approach proved to be useful for analyzing the growers’ pesticide use intensities and interpreting their pesticide use behaviors, which led to a new start point for further investigation of searching ways to reduce pesticide environmental risk. PMID:21370508

Li, Wen-juan; Qin, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Browde, Joe

2011-01-01

330

An index method to evaluate growers' pesticide use for identifying on-farm innovations and effective alternative pest management strategies: a case study of winegrape in Madera County, California.  

PubMed

Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUI and PUIM. It was found that both PUI and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI?10 and 34 with 1060, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds, which indicated that their pest controls heavily depended on pesticides rather than on-farm management. Through the case study, the proposed approach proved to be useful for analyzing the growers' pesticide use intensities and interpreting their pesticide use behaviors, which led to a new start point for further investigation of searching ways to reduce pesticide environmental risk. PMID:21370508

Li, Wen-juan; Qin, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Browde, Joe

2011-03-01

331

Medical Management of the Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a complex, chronic disorder characterized by multisystemic symptoms occurring in response to a wide variety of chemical odors or low-level exposures. The etiology is unknown but likely multifactorial. Patient evaluation includes a comprehensive history with a review of past medical records and a physical examination with specific attention to the affected organ systems. Laboratory evaluation

Virginia M. Weaver

1996-01-01

332

Managing Auditory Risk from Acoustically Impulsive Chemical Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemical demonstrations are an integral part of the process of how students construct meaning from chemical principles, but may introduce risks to students and presenters. Some demonstrations are known to be extremely loud and present auditory hazards; little has been done to assess the risks to educators and students. Using laboratory-grade…

Macedone, Jeffrey H.; Gee, Kent L.; Vernon, Julia A.

2014-01-01

333

Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

Coleman, V. Rodney

334

Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

335

Effectiveness of the high dose/refuge strategy for managing pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing one or two toxins.  

PubMed

To delay resistance development to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing their own insecticide, the application of the Insect Resistance Management strategy called "High Dose/Refuge Strategy" (HD/R) is recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). This strategy was developed for Bt plants expressing one toxin. Presently, however, new Bt plants that simultaneously express two toxins are on the market. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficiency of the HD/R strategy for both these Bt toxins. As the current two-toxin Bt plants do not express two new Cry toxins but reuse one toxin already in use with a one-toxin plant, we estimated the spread of resistance when the resistance alleles are not rare. This study assesses: (i) whether the two toxins have to be present in high concentration, and (ii) the impact of the relative size of the refuge zone on the evolution of resistance and population density. We concluded that for Bt plants expressing one toxin, a high concentration is an essential condition for resistance management. For the pyramided Bt plants, one toxin could be expressed at a low titer if the two toxins are used for the first time, and a small refuge zone is acceptable. PMID:23162699

Gryspeirt, Aiko; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

2012-10-01

336

Keeping Pests Out of the Home with Fewer Pesticides and Handling Pesticides Safely  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Targeted to homeowners, although it is a great introduction for all students and educators wanting to learn more about integrated pest management. Objectively written. The links to extension offices all go to Georgia Extension.

0002-11-30

337

Prioritizing chemicals for environmental management in China based on screening of potential risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid development of China's chemical industry has created increasing pressure to improve the environmental management of chemicals. To bridge the large gap between the use and safe management of chemicals, we performed a comprehensive review of the international methods used to prioritize chemicals for environmental management. By comparing domestic and foreign methods, we confirmed the presence of this gap and identified potential solutions. Based on our literature review, we developed an appropriate screening method that accounts for the unique characteristics of chemical use within China. The proposed method is based on an evaluation using nine indices of the potential hazard posed by a chemical: three environmental hazard indices (persistence, bioaccumulation, and eco-toxicity), four health hazard indices (acute toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity), and two environmental exposure hazard indices (chemical amount and utilization pattern). The results of our screening agree with results of previous efforts from around the world, confirming the validity of the new system. The classification method will help decisionmakers to prioritize and identify the chemicals with the highest environmental risk, thereby providing a basis for improving chemical management in China.

Yu, Xiangyi; Mao, Yan; Sun, Jinye; Shen, Yingwa

2014-03-01

338

General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

339

Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

340

Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of…

Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

341

Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

Not Available

1994-09-01

342

Making Data Available via the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office - Implementation Details  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created from the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS) and the U.S. GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC) Data Management Offices. The BCO-DMO is a NSF funded project that provides support for scientists funded by either the NSF's Biological or Chemical Oceanography Program Office to facilitate making their

M. D. Allison; R. C. Groman; C. L. Chandler; D. M. Glover; P. H. Wiebe

2008-01-01

343

Assessing and Managing Risks Arising from Exposure to Endocrine-Active Chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing risks to human health and the environment produced by endocrine-active chemicals (EAC) is dependent on sound principles of risk assessment and risk management, which need to be adapted to address the uncertainties in the state of the science of EAC. Quantifying EAC hazard identification, mechanisms of action, and dose-response curves is complicated by a range of chemical structure\\/toxicology classes,

Karen P. Phillips; Warren G. Foster; William Leiss; Vanita Sahni; Nataliya Karyakina; Michelle C. Turner; Sam Kacew; Daniel Krewski

2008-01-01

344

Adaptive management of pest resistance by Helicoverpa species (Noctuidae) in Australia to the Cry2Ab Bt toxin in Bollgard II(R) cotton  

PubMed Central

In Australia, monitoring Helicoverpa species for resistance to the Cry2Ab toxin in second generation Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton has precisely fulfilled its intended function: to warn of increases in resistance frequencies that may lead to field failures of the technology. Prior to the widespread adoption of two-gene Bt cotton, the frequency of Cry2Ab resistance alleles was at least 0.001 in H. armigera and H. punctigera. In the 5 years hence, there has been a significant and apparently exponential increase in the frequency of alleles conferring Cry2Ab resistance in field populations of H. punctigera. Herein we review the history of deploying and managing resistance to Bt cotton in Australia, outline the characteristics of the isolated resistance that likely impact on resistance evolution, and use a simple model to predict likely imminent resistance frequencies. We then discuss potential strategies to mitigate further increases in resistance frequencies, until the release of a third generation product. These include mandating larger structured refuges, applying insecticide to crops late in the season, and restricting the area of Bollgard II® cotton. The area planted to Bt-crops is anticipated to continue to rise worldwide; therefore the strategies being considered in Australia are likely to relate to other situations.

Downes, Sharon; Mahon, Rodney J; Rossiter, Louise; Kauter, Greg; Leven, Tracey; Fitt, Gary; Baker, Geoff

2010-01-01

345

Disaster management plan for chemical process industries. Case study: investigation of release of chlorine to atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first step in preparing a disaster management plan for any chemical process industry (CPI) is to identify and mitigate the conditions that might cause them. In practice, such a plan should start early in the design phase of the chemical facility, and continue throughout its life. The objective is to prevent emergencies by eliminating hazards wherever possible. In-spite of

Boppana V. Ramabrahmam; G. Swaminathan

2000-01-01

346

Population Pressure, Utilization of Chemicals in Agriculture, Health Outcomes and Solid Waste Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the behavior and attitudes related to solid waste management, and relationships between the use of agricultural chemicals and health, in a sample of 98 orchid farmers from a suburb of Bangkok. A structured questionnaire, blood tests, focus group discussions and community consultations were employed in the study. Almost 98% of the respondents were not aware of chemical

Nucharee Srivirojana; Thanalak Theptepa; Sureeporn Punpuing; Philip Guest; Khumtong Tun; Olarn Chankham; Apinya Suvansrual

347

Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests.  

PubMed

Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B; Narva, Kenneth E; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C

2013-05-21

348

Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests  

PubMed Central

Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C.

2013-01-01

349

Insecticides suppress natural enemies and increase pest damage in cabbage.  

PubMed

Intensive use of pesticides is common and increasing despite a growing and historically well documented awareness of the costs and hazards. The benefits from pesticides of increased yields from sufficient pest control may be outweighed by developed resistance in pests and killing of beneficial natural enemies. Other negative effects are human health problems and lower prices because of consumers' desire to buy organic products. Few studies have examined these trade-offs in the field. Here, we demonstrate that Nicaraguan cabbage (Brassica spp.) farmers may suffer economically by using insecticides as they get more damage by the main pest diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), at the same time as they spend economic resources on insecticides. Replicated similarly sized cabbage fields cultivated in a standardized manner were either treated with insecticides according common practice or not treated with insecticides over two seasons. Fields treated with insecticides suffered, compared with nontreated fields, equal or, at least in some periods of the seasons, higher diamondback moth pest attacks. These fields also had increased leaf damage on the harvested cabbage heads. Weight and size of the heads were not affected. The farmers received the same price on the local market irrespective of insecticide use. Rates of parasitized diamondback moth were consistently lower in the treated fields. Negative effects of using insecticides against diamondback moth were found for the density of parasitoids and generalist predatory wasps, and tended to affect spiders negatively. The observed increased leaf damages in insecticide-treated fields may be a combined consequence of insecticide resistance in the pest, and of lower predation and parasitization rates from naturally occurring predators that are suppressed by the insecticide applications. The results indicate biological control as a viable and economic alternative pest management strategy, something that may be particularly relevant for the production of cash crops in tropical countries where insecticide use is heavy and possibly increasing. PMID:21735894

Bommarco, Riccardo; Miranda, Freddy; Bylund, Helena; Björkman, Christer

2011-06-01

350

Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood  

E-print Network

Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood (FINAL.7 Costs 54 II.8 Feedback from Wood Treaters and Large-End Users 56 CHAPTER III, DISPOSAL-END MANAGEMENT III.1 Field Demonstration of Sorting Technologies 62 III.2 Evaluation of Pyrolysis Systems 77 III

Florida, University of

351

Texas Poultry Pest Control Practices  

E-print Network

respondents mentioned using other means of nonchemical pest control: cats, bullets, composting, disinfecting/cleaning flat, and water control. The survey asked respondents to check the most extensive clean-out and disinfection their poultry houses receive... at least once a year (see Table 6). More than half reported that they clean out, wash and disinfect all poultry houses at least once a year. Respondents also were asked to list disinfectants used in their poultry sanitation program (see Table 7). Iodine...

Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Carey, John B.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.

1999-06-01

352

Industrial Ecology as a Management Concept for Chemical Parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the beginning of the 1990s a wide structural change in the chemical industry took place in Germany. This led to a formation of immense industrial parks, where land owner companies opened their sites to new settlers and contractors. The mutual economic benefits of such industrial communities are relatively well known. In contrast to this until now the scientific community

Tiina Salonen

353

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

Pine, Stanley H.

1984-01-01

354

Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled

G. Frey; G. Mohrman; B. R. Templin

1999-01-01

355

Global Intermodal Tank Container Management for the Chemical Industry  

E-print Network

. By integrating container routing and repositioning decisions in a single model, total operating costs and fleet or high-cost permanent storage. A tank container operator manages a fleet of tanks to transport liquid% of the fleet is owned by the operator; the remaining tanks are leased, usually for periods of 5 to 10 years

Erera, Alan

356

Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities  

PubMed Central

Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework. PMID:23914197

Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph

2013-01-01

357

Understanding heliothine (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) pests: what is a host plant?  

PubMed

Heliothine moths (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) include some of the world's most devastating pest species. Whereas the majority of nonpest heliothinae specialize on a single plant family, genus, or species, pest species are highly polyphagous, with populations often escalating in size as they move from one crop species to another. Here, we examine the current literature on heliothine host-selection behavior with the aim of providing a knowledge base for research scientists and pest managers. We review the host relations of pest heliothines, with a particular focus on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the most economically damaging of all heliothine species. We then consider the important question of what constitutes a host plant in these moths, and some of the problems that arise when trying to determine host plant status from empirical studies on host use. The top six host plant families in the two main Australian pest species (H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren) are the same and the top three (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae) are ranked the same (in terms of the number of host species on which eggs or larvae have been identified), suggesting that these species may use similar cues to identify their hosts. In contrast, for the two key pest heliothines in the Americas, the Fabaceae contains approximately 1/3 of hosts for both. For Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the remaining hosts are more evenly distributed, with Solanaceae next, followed by Poaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, and Rosaceae. For Heliothis virescens (F.), the next highest five families are Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Again there is considerable overlap in host use at generic and even species level. H. armigera is the most widely distributed and recorded from 68 plant families worldwide, but only 14 families are recorded as a containing a host in all geographic areas. A few crop hosts are used throughout the range as expected, but in some cases there are anomalies, perhaps because host plant relation studies are not comparable. Studies on the attraction of heliothines to plant odors are examined in the context of our current understanding of insect olfaction, with the aim of better understanding the connection between odor perception and host choice. Finally, we discuss research into sustainable management of pest heliothines using knowledge of heliothine behavior and ecology. A coordinated international research effort is needed to advance our knowledge on host relations in widely distributed polyphagous species instead of the localized, piecemeal approaches to understanding these insects that has been the norm to date. PMID:25026644

Cunningham, John Paul; Zalucki, Myron P

2014-06-01

358

76 FR 35186 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Rambutan From Puerto...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...findings of a pest risk analysis, can be safely moved subject...prepared a risk management analysis to identify phytosanitary measures that could be applied to the commodity to mitigate...availability of our pest risk analysis for public review and...

2011-06-16

359

Modeling the integration of parasitoid, insecticide, and transgenic insecticidal crop for the long-term control of an insect pest.  

PubMed

The tools of insect pest management include host plant resistance, biological control, and insecticides and how they are integrated will influence the durability of each. We created a detailed model of the population dynamics and population genetics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and its parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), to study long-term pest management in broccoli Brassica oleracea L. Given this pest's history of evolving resistance to various toxins, we also evaluated the evolution of resistance to transgenic insecticidal Bt broccoli (expressing Cry1Ac) and two types of insecticides. Simulations demonstrated that parasitism provided the most reliable, long-term control of P. xylostella populations. Use of Bt broccoli with a 10% insecticide-free refuge did not reduce the long-term contribution of parasitism to pest control. Small refuges within Bt broccoli fields can delay evolution of resistance > 30 generations if resistance alleles are rare in the pest population. However, the effectiveness of these refuges can be compromised by insecticide use. Rainfall mortality during the pest's egg and neonate stages significantly influences pest control but especially resistance management. Our model results support the idea that Bt crops and biological control can be integrated in integrated pest management and actually synergistically support each other. However, the planting and maintenance of toxin-free refuges are critical to this integration. PMID:23865173

Onstad, David W; Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Roush, Rick; Shelton, Anthony M

2013-06-01

360

Preparedness of emergency departments in northwest England for managing chemical incidents: a structured interview survey  

PubMed Central

Background A number of significant chemical incidents occur in the UK each year and may require Emergency Departments (EDs) to receive and manage contaminated casualties. Previously UK EDs have been found to be under-prepared for this, but since October 2005 acute hospital Trusts have had a statutory responsibility to maintain decontamination capacity. We aimed to evaluate the level of preparedness of Emergency Departments in North West England for managing chemical incidents. Methods A face-to-face semi-structured interview was carried out with the Nurse Manager or a nominated deputy in all 18 Emergency Departments in the Region. Results 16/18 departments had a written chemical incident plan but only 7 had the plan available at interview. All had a designated decontamination area but only 11 felt that they were adequately equipped. 12/18 had a current training programme for chemical incident management and 3 had no staff trained in decontamination. 13/18 could contain contaminated water from casualty decontamination and 6 could provide shelter for casualties before decontamination. Conclusion We have identified major inconsistencies in the preparedness of North West Emergency Departments for managing chemical incidents. Nationally recognized standards on incident planning, facilities, equipment and procedures need to be agreed and implemented with adequate resources. Issues of environmental safety and patient dignity and comfort should also be addressed. PMID:18096030

Williams, Jane; Walter, Darren; Challen, Kirsty

2007-01-01

361

SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR COCKROACHES  

E-print Network

human food resources. By invading human food and contaminating it with feces and saliva, cockroaches become possible vectors for food borne illnesses, like Salmonella. In addition, cockroaches AND IDENTIFICATION Cockroaches are flattened insects with long antennae. Their colors may vary but are usually

Liskiewicz, Maciej

362

2013 GEORGIA PEST MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK Commercial Edition  

E-print Network

. SWALLOWED: the label before you induce vomiting. Do not give liquids or induce vomiting to anyone who is unconscious or convulsive. Take the pesticide label with you to the doctor or hospital. DO NOT transport

Arnold, Jonathan

363

Integrated Pest Management in Greenhouses -Mechanical  

E-print Network

is it that diseases will develop? #12;Will condensation occur? Is surface temperature below dew point temperature? ­ Temperature of the surface ? ­ Air temperature ? ­ Air relative humidity ? ­ Air dew point temperature ? #12 #12;Essentials for plant growth Light Temperature Relative humidity CO2 Water and nutrients #12;White

Ling, Peter

364

DEPARTMENT OF BIOAGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AND PEST MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

to the provisions of economically and environmentally sound solutions for practical problems. Being that they play in ecological, economic and social systems and the applications of such knowledge research and outreach to deliver appropriate information for solving problems related to department

365

Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower  

E-print Network

is considered to be one moth per two plants during the late bud to early bloom stage. Headclipper weevil Sunflower plants that are girdled about 1 to 2 inches below the head are likely to be infested with the headclipper weevil. The adult weevil is metallic... black and about 1 /4 inch long with a long ?snout.? It is usually in the field as an adult from mid-July to early August. As females prepare to oviposit, they girdle just below the head and lay eggs in the girdled head. The girdled head then falls...

Patrick, Carl D.

1999-02-15

366

Managing Insects and Related Pests of Roses  

E-print Network

.?predator of larval and adult thrips, mites, aphids and whitefly pupae. n MITES: Metaseiulus occidentalis, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Mesoseiulus longipes (=Phytoseiulus longipes) and Neoseiulus californicus (Amblyseius californicus)?predatory mites of spider mites...; Amblyseius cucumeris, Neoseiulus cucumeris and Neoseiulus barkeri ?predatory mites of thrips; Galendromus occidentalis (=Metaseiulus occidentalis)? predatory mite of spider mites; and Hypoaspis miles?predaceous mite of shore- fly larvae and thrips pupae...

Drees, Bastiaan M.; Pemberton, Brent; Cole, Charles L.

1999-07-12

367

Integrated Pest Management for Iowa Schools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IPM lesson plans are divided into sections devoted to elementary school ages, middle school, and finally high school level. Topics range from recognizing arthropods and insects, to observing butterflies in the field, to understanding ecosystems, and pesticide regulations. As of this writing a few of the links to PDFs are not operating, but seem to direct to other university websites. The plans for the high school exercises are probably of most utility at the university level. The exercises are well designed; however, some of the activities relying on government web-sites may be cumbersome.

0002-11-30

368

Chemical Substance Management for EEE - Evaluation Method of Chemical Data Contained in Parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union's Restriction of the use of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive, which restricts the presence of certain chemical substances in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), will take effect on 1 July 2006. To comply with the directive, assembly manufacturers are working on collecting parts data. However, some data given by parts suppliers are not correct. Therefore, it is necessary

N. Ninagawa; N. Yamamoto; T. Kumazawa; M. Ikuzawa; Y. Hamatsuka

2005-01-01

369

Field Guide to Common Insect Pests of Urban Trees in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For each insect, the following information is presented: host plant, photographs, damage information, life cycle, and management recommendations. This is an excellent collection of tree pests, and the species accounts are accurate, well-laid out, informative, and well illustrated. However, in the table of contents, white pine aphid and white pine weevil are mis-placed under "sawflies," and the heading for "Honeylocust Insect Pests" and the link for "Honeylocust Plant Bug" are transposed.

0002-11-30

370

Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.  

PubMed

Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n?=?192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control. PMID:25279278

Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

2014-01-01

371

Terrorism, chemical accidents and major catastrophes - Notre Dame Med Students train for disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

All you need to know about terrorism, chemical and biological disasters and trauma management were topics covered at a recent Disaster Management course held at The University of Notre Dame (UNDA), Fremantle.\\u000aThe Boxing Day Tsunami was the catalyst for the innovative program completed by medical students at Notre Dame’s School of Medicine recently. Talking about the tragedy on the

Michelle Ebbs

2007-01-01

372

`Metarchon' : a New Term for a Class of Non-toxic Pest Control Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

CONCERN over the contamination of the environment by pesticide residues is directing attention to the possibility of combating insect pests by means of chemical or other influences which, without being toxic, are able to affect an organism adversely by inducing deviations from the normal behaviour. Insect repellents and insect attractants (both chemical and optical) are familiar examples, but they do

R. H. Wright

1964-01-01

373

MANAGING SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY IN IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE THROUGH ADAPTIVE CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial variability in crop production occurs as a result of spatial and temporal variations in soil structure and fertility; soil physical, chemical and hydraulic properties; irrigation applications; pests and diseases; and plant genetics. It is argued that this variability can be managed and the efficiency of irrigation water use increased by spatially variable application of irrigation water to meet the

R. J. Smith; S. R. Raine; A. C. McCarthy; N. H. Hancock

374

Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

375

Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

376

Termite Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 96.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite pest control category. The text discusses general pests, especially ants, and wood-destroying organisms such as termites, beetles, and fungi. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

377

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

378

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

French, John C.; And Others

379

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

380

Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

Parker, Robert C., Comp.

381

Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

382

The Bad Guys: Landscape Pest ID Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty common landscape pests are presented on summary cards containing identification, host range, life cycle, related species, and other information. Information is sound. Emphasis on biological control and tolerance of pests causing only cosmetic damage is good. Physical cards with the same information on them as this electronic version can be purchased.

0002-11-30

383

Transfer of the EPA/NIH Chemical Information System (CIS) to Private Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description of the EPA/NIH (Environmental Protection Agency/National Institutes of Health) Chemical Information System provides background for a discussion of the management of the system by public agencies; problems which led to the decision to transfer the system of the private sector; and the current status of the database. (CLB)

Kadec, Sarah T.; Jover, Antonio

1985-01-01

384

The Trojan female technique: a novel, effective and humane approach for pest population control.  

PubMed

Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such 'fertility control' strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. 'Trojan females' carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce 'sterile-male'-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan female technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control. PMID:24174117

Gemmell, Neil J; Jalilzadeh, Aidin; Didham, Raphael K; Soboleva, Tanya; Tompkins, Daniel M

2013-12-22

385

Stanford University EH&S: Chemical Waste Manager Quick Start Guide Revision: August, 2009 1/2 Stanford University EH&S Presents  

E-print Network

Stanford University EH&S: Chemical Waste Manager Quick Start Guide Revision: August, 2009 1/2 Stanford University EH&S Presents: Chemical Waste Manager ­ Quick Start Guide Welcome to the new Chemical liquid at all, select a physical state of "Liquid". #12;Stanford University EH&S: Chemical Waste Manager

386

Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.  

PubMed

Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions. PMID:24952967

Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

2014-06-01

387

Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks  

PubMed Central

Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

2013-01-01

388

Invasion of pests resistant to Bt toxins can lead to inherent non-uniqueness in genetically modified Bt-plant dynamics: Mathematical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified crops are effective pest management tools for worldwide growers. However, there is a concern that pests may develop resistance to Bt-toxins produced by genetically modified Bt-plants. We study the impact of the Bt-resistant pests on Bt-crops. Furthermore, the dynamics of the Bt-plant–Bt-susceptible insects–Bt-resistant insects system is analysed and it is shown that throughout the insect reproduction period the

Alexander B. Medvinsky; Maria M. Gonik; Bai-Lian Li; Vassili V. Velkov; Horst Malchow

2006-01-01

389

Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves  

PubMed Central

Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems. PMID:23904994

Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

2013-01-01

390

Myco-Biocontrol of Insect Pests: Factors Involved, Mechanism, and Regulation  

PubMed Central

The growing demand for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture and increased resistance to insecticides have provided great impetus to the development of alternative forms of insect-pest control. Myco-biocontrol offers an attractive alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms which are perceived as less damaging to the environment. Their mode of action appears little complex which makes it highly unlikely that resistance could be developed to a biopesticide. Past research has shown some promise of the use of fungi as a selective pesticide. The current paper updates us about the recent progress in the field of myco-biocontrol of insect pests and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of insect pests. PMID:22567344

Sandhu, Sardul Singh; Sharma, Anil K.; Beniwal, Vikas; Goel, Gunjan; Batra, Priya; Kumar, Anil; Jaglan, Sundeep; Sharma, A. K.; Malhotra, Sonal

2012-01-01

391

Pantry and Fabric Pests in the Home  

E-print Network

stores. Sometimes sold as roach ?hotels,? sticky traps contain glue that captures crawling insects. When placed on the closet floor or on closet shelves, they trap dermestid beetles and other crawling pests. Acknowledgment Kim Schofield, Molly Keck... stores. Sometimes sold as roach ?hotels,? sticky traps contain glue that captures crawling insects. When placed on the closet floor or on closet shelves, they trap dermestid beetles and other crawling pests. Acknowledgment Kim Schofield, Molly Keck...

Merchant, Michael E.; Brown, Wizzie

2008-10-22

392

Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications.  

PubMed

We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the main tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity, and fertility were recorded, ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. Infestation rates, developmental time, and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars 'Vishi,' '74-82,' and 'Brooks' were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while "Tommy,' 'Sensation,' and 'Ataulfo "niño"' (parthenocarpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. 'Edward,' 'Kent,' 'Brooks late,' 'Palmer, and 'Ataulfo' exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. We highlight the important role of Ataulfo "niño" as pest reservoir if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks. PMID:24665723

Aluja, M; Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Birke, A; Rull, J; Niogret, J; Epsky, N

2014-02-01

393

Chemical approaches to manage coffee leaf rust in drip irrigated trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of chemical approaches to manage coffee leaf rust (CLR) in drip-irrigated\\u000a coffee trees. Coffea arabica plants of the Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 cultivar were subjected to applications of protective and systemic fungicides from\\u000a December 2000 to June 2006. The fungicide copper oxychloride was applied preventively in December, January, February and

Antonio Fernando de Souza; Laércio Zambolim; Valdir Cintra de Jesus Júnior; Paulo Roberto Cecon

2011-01-01

394

GaussDal: An open source database management system for quantum chemical computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An open source software system called GaussDal for management of results from quantum chemical computations is presented. Chemical data contained in output files from different quantum chemical programs are automatically extracted and incorporated into a relational database (PostgreSQL). The Structural Query Language (SQL) is used to extract combinations of chemical properties (e.g., molecules, orbitals, thermo-chemical properties, basis sets etc.) into data tables for further data analysis, processing and visualization. This type of data management is particularly suited for projects involving a large number of molecules. In the current version of GaussDal, parsers for Gaussian and Dalton output files are supported, however future versions may also include parsers for other quantum chemical programs. For visualization and analysis of generated data tables from GaussDal we have used the locally developed open source software SciCraft. Program summaryTitle of program: GaussDal Catalogue identifier: ADVT Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADVT Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Any Operating system under which the system has been tested: Linux Programming language used: Python Memory required to execute with typical data: 256 MB No. of bits in word: 32 or 64 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc: 543 531 No. of bytes in distribution program, including test data, etc: 7 718 121 Distribution format: tar.gzip file Nature of physical problem: Handling of large amounts of data from quantum chemistry computations. Method of solution: Use of SQL based database and quantum chemistry software specific parsers. Restriction on the complexity of the problem: Program is currently limited to Gaussian and Dalton output, but expandable to other formats. Generates subsets of multiple data tables from output files.

Alsberg, Bjørn K.; Bjerke, Håvard; Navestad, Gunn M.; Åstrand, Per-Olof

2005-09-01

395

VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Evaluation of Two Least Toxic Integrated Pest Management Programs  

E-print Network

, anxiety, sleeplessness, and ostracism (Hwang et al. 2005). Residents living in bed bugÐinfested apartments limited because of their �nancial capa- bility or social behavior. For instance, some residents may refuse

Wang, Changlu

396

Effects of raising frogs and putting pest-killing lamps in paddy fields on the prevention of rice pests and diseases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frogs in paddy fields become less and less due to applying large amounts of pesticides and human hunting for a long time, which causes the aggravation of rice pests and diseases. A field experiment was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai to study the effects of artificially raising frogs and putting frequency oscillation pest-killing lamps in paddy fields on the prevention of rice pests and diseases. The field experiment includes three treatments. Treatment I: 150 frogs, each 20 g in weight, per 100 m2 were put in the fields; Treatment II: a frequency oscillation pest-killing lamp was put in the fields; Treatment III: no frogs and pest-killing lamps were put in the fields. All the experimental fields were operated based on the organic faming system. The amount of organic manure, 7500 kg/hm2, was applied to the fields as base fertilizer before sowing in early June, 2013. No any chemical fertilizers and pesticides were used during the entire period of rice growth. Each treatment is in triplicate and each plot is 67 m2 in area. The results are as follows: (1) During the entire growth period, the incidences of rice pests and diseases with Treatment I and II are significantly lower than those with CK (Treatment III). The incidence of chilo suppressalis with Treatment I, II and III is 0, 0.46% and 1.69%, respectively; that of cnaphalocrocis medinalis is 7.67%, 6.62% and 10.10%, respectively; that of rice sheath blight is 0, 11.11% and 5.43%, respectively; that of rice planthopper is 4.25 per hill, 5.75 per hill and 11 per hill, respectively. (2) The grain yield of the three treatments is significantly different. That of Treatment I, II and III is 5157.73 kg/hm2, 4761.60 kg/hm2 and 3645.14kg/hm2 on average, respectively. (3) Affected by frog activities, the contents of NH4-N, available P and available K in the soil with Treatment I are significantly raised. All the above suggest that artificially raising frogs in paddy fields could effectively prevent rice pests and diseases, especially reduce the incidences of rice sheath blight and chilo suppressalis, and setting pest-killing lamps could also effectively control rice pests, but not rice sheath blight, which contribute to the increase of grain yield largely. Moreover, the activity of frogs in paddy fields could improve soil fertility and increase bio-diversity. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41130526).

Teng, Qing; Hu, Xue-Feng; Luo, Fan; Cao, Ming-Yang

2014-05-01

397

Chemical management in fungicide sensitivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México.  

PubMed

The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L(-1) for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for ?-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L(-1) for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices. PMID:24948956

Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J

2014-01-01

398

Modeling and managing toxic chemicals: The Lake Michigan mass balance study  

SciTech Connect

The control and management of anthropogenic chemicals in the Great Lakes is an issue of great concern for 2 nations, 9 states and provinces, and 33 million people. As loadings from identified sources have been reduced, sometimes dramatic declines in toxic chemical concentrations have been observed to follow. However, human health and ecological effects from toxic chemicals remain topics of concern. There is also scientific debate regarding what factors control current toxic chemical concentrations in biotic and abiotic components of the Great lakes ecosystem. To address this latter issue, mathematical models are being developed to simulate the sources, transport, bioavailability, and bioaccumulation of four target chemicals (atrazine, mercury, PCBs, and trans-nonachlor). Preliminary modeling assessment by the authors suggested that PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan lake trout would remain greater than 1 mg/kg, even if all point and nonpoint sources in the watershed were eliminated. 2 factors control this result: (1) atmospheric sources are the largest PCB load component, and (2) the release of PCBs from the lake sediments by resuspension represents a huge internal mass flux. However, current data does not allow accurate estimation of either quantity. Because of the major ecological and economical consequences of decisions based upon the mass balance assessment, the modeling results require scientific confirmation.

Endicott, D.D.; Richardson, W.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Grosse Ile, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

399

A Cognitive Vision Approach to Early Pest Detection in Greenhouse Crops  

E-print Network

generally on protected crops to control pests and diseases by biological means instead of pesticides but they are qualitative and their accuracy depends on the human eye resolution, even if magnification tools can be used to check whether a biological or chemical treatment has reached its objective. In this paper, we focus

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

400

Changing farmers' perceptions and practices: the case of insect pest control in central Luzon, Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the decades, rice farmers have become dependent on chemicals to control insect pests. Farmers perceive that all insects are harmful and that insecticide is very effective in controlling them, aside from being very convenient to use. Empirical evidence shows that farmers' perceptions about insects and consequently their control practices can be changed through experiential methods. Experience can be achieved

F. G. Palis

1998-01-01

401

Recommendations on chemicals management policy and legislation in the framework of the Egyptian-German twinning project on hazardous substances and waste management.  

PubMed

The sustainable management of chemicals and their associated wastes-especially legacy stockpiles-is always challenging. Developing countries face particular difficulties as they often have insufficient treatment and disposal capacity, have limited resources and many lack an appropriate and effective regulatory framework. This paper describes the objectives and the approach of the Egyptian-German Twinning Project under the European Neighbourhood Policy to improve the strategy of managing hazardous substances in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) between November 2008 and May 2011. It also provides an introduction to the Republic of Egypt's legal and administrative system regarding chemical controls. Subsequently, options for a new chemical management strategy consistent with the recommendations of the United Nations Chemicals Conventions are proposed. The Egyptian legal and administrative system is discussed in relation to the United Nations' recommendations and current European Union legislation for the sound management of chemicals. We also discuss a strategy for the EEAA to use the existing Egyptian legal system to implement the United Nations' Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, the Stockholm Convention and other proposed regulatory frameworks. The analysis, the results, and the recommendations presented may be useful for other developing countries in a comparable position to Egypt aspiring to update their legislation and administration to the international standards of sound management of chemicals. PMID:23417361

Wagner, Burkhard O; Aziz, Elham Refaat Abdel; Schwetje, Anja; Shouk, Fatma Abou; Koch-Jugl, Juliane; Braedt, Michael; Choudhury, Keya; Weber, Roland

2013-04-01

402

The legal framework to manage chemical pollution in India and the lesson from the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).  

PubMed

India's rapid agro-economic growth has resulted into many environmental issues, especially related to chemical pollution. Environmental management and control of toxic chemicals have gained significant attention from policy makers, researchers, and enterprises in India. The present study reviews the policy and legal and non-regulatory schemes set in place in this country during the last decades to manage chemical risk and compares them with those in developed nations. India has a large and fragmented body of regulation to control and manage chemical pollution which appears to be ineffective in protecting environment and human health. The example of POPs contamination in India is proposed to support such a theory. Overlapping of jurisdictions and retrospectively approached environmental policy and risk management currently adopted in India are out of date and excluding Indian economy from the process of building and participating into new, environmentally-sustainable market spaces for chemical products. To address these issues, the introduction of a new integrated and scientifically-informed regulation and management scheme is recommended. Such scheme should acknowledge the principle of risk management rather than the current one based on risk acceptance. To this end, India should take advantage of the experience of recently introduced chemical management regulation in some developed nations. PMID:24907609

Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bharat, Girija K; Tayal, Shresth; Nizzetto, Luca; Larssen, Thorjørn

2014-08-15

403

NORTH AMERICA'S SOUND MANAGEMENT OF CHEMICALS INITIATIVE: APPLICATION OF SELECTION CRITERIA TO DIOXINS/FURANS, HEXACHLOROBENZENE, AND HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANES  

EPA Science Inventory

In October 1997, the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation finalized its process for identifying candidate substances for regional action under the Sound Management of Chemicals Initiative. Regional action plans will be prepared if substantive risk to human he...

404

Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions.  

PubMed

This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the infiltration process, due to frozen ground and snow melt including the contact between the melting snow cover and the soil, and unsaturated flow is emphasised. In this paper, the applicability of geophysical methods for characterising soil heterogeneity is considered, aimed at modelling and monitoring changes in contamination. To deal with heterogeneity, a stochastic modelling framework may be appropriate, emphasizing the more robust spatial and temporal moments. Examples of a combination of different field techniques for measuring subsoil properties and monitoring contaminants and integration through transport modelling are provided by the SoilCAM project and previous work. Commonly, the results of flow and contaminant fate modelling are quite detailed and complex and require post-processing before communication and advising stakeholders. The managers' perspectives with respect to monitoring strategies and challenges still unresolved have been analysed with basis in experience with research collaboration with one of the case study sites, Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway. Both scientific challenges of monitoring subsoil contaminants in cold regions and the effective interaction between investigators and management are illustrated. PMID:24281673

French, Helen K; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

2014-08-01

405

Risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in chemical industrial parks based on catastrophe theory.  

PubMed

According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

2012-12-01

406

Risk Assessment and Hierarchical Risk Management of Enterprises in Chemical Industrial Parks Based on Catastrophe Theory  

PubMed Central

According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

2012-01-01

407

[Biologic monitoring as a stage in medical and prophylactic measures system managing chemical risks for public health in Sverdlovsk region].  

PubMed

Biomonitoring is one among key elements of medical prophylactic measures within public health risk management system created in Sverdlovsk region, for residents of territories with chemically polluted environment. Biologic monitoring enables to determine levels of chemical load, to form risk groups among children and pregnant women for rehabilitation and health-imporving measures, and to evaluate efficiency of these measures. PMID:25282804

Vaniaeva, E P; Malykh, O L; Iarushin, S V

2014-01-01

408

Chemical activity as an integrating concept in environmental assessment and management of contaminants.  

PubMed

It is suggested that chemical activity in environmental media can serve as an integrating concept for holistic evaluations of contaminants, including their fate and effects. In support of this assertion, information underlying the thermodynamic principles and the relationships between monitored and modeled concentrations and activities are presented. The toxicological significance of activity is discussed, with emphasis on substances that exert baseline narcosis. Illustrations are given of the application of activity using models and monitoring data for chemical risk assessment and management. It is argued that the proximity of prevailing multimedia environmental activities to activities causing toxic effects is a particularly insightful metric of environmental contamination for both narcotics and reactive toxic substances. PMID:20836055

Mackay, Don; Arnot, Jon A; Wania, Frank; Bailey, Robert E

2011-04-01

409

[Toxicology of chemical substances (metals and organic solvents): management as an occupational physician].  

PubMed

Even in Japan, there was a time when cases of occupational poisoning had frequently occurred, which led to the enactment of the Industrial Safety and Health Act in 1972. Currently, the use of only a part of chemical substances utilized in the workplace is regulated according to their designated hazardous level, but there are many other substances whose toxicities have not been elucidated. Risk assessment is now required of entrepreneurs in all categories of industry by the recently-revised Industrial Safety and Health Act. This article will focus on the toxicology of metals and organic solvents, and it will discuss how occupational physicians should manage chemicals, including the ones whose toxicities have not been clarified. PMID:24107340

Ueno, Susumu

2013-10-01

410

Tracking the global dispersal of a cosmopolitan insect pest, the peach potato aphid  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Global commerce and human transportation are responsible for the range expansion of various insect pests such as the plant sucking aphids. High resolution DNA markers provide the opportunity to examine the genetic structure of aphid populations, identify aphid genotypes and infer their evolutionary history and routes of expansion which is of value in developing management strategies. One of the

John T Margaritopoulos; Louise Kasprowicz; Gaynor L Malloch; Brian Fenton

2009-01-01

411

Selective flowers to enhance biological control of cabbage pests by parasitoids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat management is an important element in sustainable agriculture and can be used to maximize a range of ecosystem services that support crop production. An important example of such ecosystem services is biological control of pests which can be enhanced by providing arthropod natural enemies with suitable floral resources. The potential risk of this approach, however, is that flowering plants

Céline E. Géneau; Felix L. Wäckers; Henryk Luka; Claudia Daniel; Oliver Balmer

412

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

413

The IAEA system and experience as a model for Information Management under the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

Similarities in the verification aims of the monitoring regimes of the future Organization for the Prohibition of chemical Weapons (OPCW) and of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), make their general data requirements similar: data are needed for planning inspections, for evaluating inspections, and for preparation of reports on compliance with the relevant treaty In this paper we discuss the legal, procedural and administrative structure behind the data system associated with IAEA safeguards, and, after comparing this to the CWC regime, suggest possible improvements for consideration during the development of national implementation programs and of the declaration and inspection data management system for the OPCW.

Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Kempf, C.R.

1992-01-01

414

The IAEA system and experience as a model for Information Management under the Chemical Weapons Convention  

SciTech Connect

Similarities in the verification aims of the monitoring regimes of the future Organization for the Prohibition of chemical Weapons (OPCW) and of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), make their general data requirements similar: data are needed for planning inspections, for evaluating inspections, and for preparation of reports on compliance with the relevant treaty In this paper we discuss the legal, procedural and administrative structure behind the data system associated with IAEA safeguards, and, after comparing this to the CWC regime, suggest possible improvements for consideration during the development of national implementation programs and of the declaration and inspection data management system for the OPCW.

Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Kempf, C.R.

1992-09-01

415

Control technology assessment of hazardous waste disposal operations in chemicals manufacturing: walk-through survey report of Chemical Waste Management, Inc. , Emelle, Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

A walk through survey was conducted to assess hazardous waste disposal operations at Chemical Waste Management, Incorporated (SIC-4953), Emelle, Alabama in February 1982. Hazardous waste treatment and disposal operations included landfilling, fixation, solar evaporation, and incineration. The incinerator was a liquid injection unit used for combustible liquids containing up to 10 percent chlorine. Polychlorinated biphenyls and other chlorine containing wastes

Anastas

1982-01-01

416

When ecosystem services interact: crop pollination benefits depend on the level of pest control  

PubMed Central

Pollination is a key ecosystem service which most often has been studied in isolation although effects of pollination on seed set might depend on, and interact with, other services important for crop production. We tested three competing hypotheses on how insect pollination and pest control might jointly affect seed set: independent, compensatory or synergistic effects. For this, we performed a cage experiment with two levels of insect pollination and simulated pest control in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) grown for seed. There was a synergistic interaction between the two services: the gain in seed set obtained when simultaneously increasing pollination and pest control outweighed the sum of seed set gains obtained when increasing each service separately. This study shows that interactions can alter the benefits obtained from service-providing organisms, and this needs to be considered to properly manage multiple ecosystem services. PMID:23269852

Lundin, Ola; Smith, Henrik G.; Rundlof, Maj; Bommarco, Riccardo

2013-01-01

417

Approaches in highly parameterized inversion - PEST++, a Parameter ESTimation code optimized for large environmental models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An object-oriented parameter estimation code was developed to incorporate benefits of object-oriented programming techniques for solving large parameter estimation modeling problems. The code is written in C++ and is a formulation and expansion of the algorithms included in PEST, a widely used parameter estimation code written in Fortran. The new code is called PEST++ and is designed to lower the barriers of entry for users and developers while providing efficient algorithms that can accommodate large, highly parameterized problems. This effort has focused on (1) implementing the most popular features of PEST in a fashion that is easy for novice or experienced modelers to use and (2) creating a software design that is easy to extend; that is, this effort provides a documented object-oriented framework designed from the ground up to be modular and extensible. In addition, all PEST++ source code and its associated libraries, as well as the general run manager source code, have been integrated in the Microsoft Visual Studio® 2010 integrated development environment. The PEST++ code is designed to provide a foundation for an open-source development environment capable of producing robust and efficient parameter estimation tools for the environmental modeling community into the future.

Welter, David E.; Doherty, John E.; Hunt, Randall J.; Muffels, Christopher T.; Tonkin, Matthew J.; Schreuder, Willem A.

2012-01-01

418

Agricultural impacts: Big data insights into pest spread  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pests and diseases reduce agricultural yields and are an important wildcard in the evaluation of future climate impacts. A unique global record of pests and diseases provides evidence for poleward expansions of their distributions.

Garrett, Karen A.

2013-11-01

419

A theoretical approach on controlling agricultural pest by biological controls.  

PubMed

In this paper we propose and analyze a prey-predator type dynamical system for pest control where prey population is treated as the pest. We consider two classes for the pest namely susceptible pest and infected pest and the predator population is the natural enemy of the pest. We also consider average delay for both the predation rate i.e. predation to the susceptible pest and infected pest. Considering a subsystem of original system in the absence of infection, we analyze the existence of all possible non-negative equilibria and their stability criteria for both the subsystem as well as the original system. We present the conditions for transcritical bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the disease free system. The theoretical evaluations are demonstrated through numerical simulations. PMID:24212833

Mondal, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Soovoojeet; Kar, T K

2014-03-01

420

New Pest Response Guidelines: Swede Midge 'Contarinia nasturtii' (Kieffer).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use New Pest Response Guidelines: Swede Midge Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) as a guide when designing a program to detect, monitor, control, contain, or eradicate an infestation of this pest. If swede midge is detected in the United States, PPQ personnel...

2007-01-01

421

An Introduction to the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO- DMO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BCO-DMO (http://www.bco-dmo.org) was created to serve PIs funded by the NSF Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections as a facility where marine biogeochemical and ecological data and information developed in the course of scientific research can easily be disseminated, protected, and stored on short and intermediate time-frames. The Data Management Office also strives to provide research scientists and others with the tools and systems necessary to work with marine biogeochemical and ecological data from heterogeneous sources with increased efficacy. To accomplish this, two data management offices (former- U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC) have been united and enhanced to provide a venue for contribution of electronic data/metadata and other information for open distribution via the World Wide Web. The JGOFS/GLOBEC Client/Server distributed data management system software is used to serve data and information to every investigator, regardless of computing platform. In addition, Web services are provided for data discovery, and development has begun on a machine-to-machine application programming interface (API) to allow interoperability between Web-based data systems. The BCO-DMO will manage existing and new data sets from individual scientific investigators, collaborative groups of investigators, and data management offices of larger multi-institutional projects via any standard Web browser. The office will work with principal investigators on data quality control; maintain an inventory and program thesaurus of strictly defined field names; generate metadata (e.g. Directory Interchange Format (DIF) ) records required by Federal agencies; ensure submission of data to national data centers; support and encourage data synthesis by providing new, online, Web-based display tools; facilitate interoperability among different data portals; and facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange.

Chandler, C.; Glover, D.; Groman, R.; Wiebe, P.

2007-12-01

422

Department of Entomology Stored Product Pests  

E-print Network

Department of Entomology Stored Product Pests E-227-W PURDUE EXTENSION RUSTY, FLAT, AND FLOUR MILL. ferrugineus (Stephens), the flat grain beetle, C. pusillus (Schonherr), and the flour mill beetle, C. turcicus of flat grain beetles and flour mill beetles are more than two-thirds the length of the body

Ginzel, Matthew

423

Department of Entomology Stored Product Pests  

E-print Network

Department of Entomology Stored Product Pests E-224-W PURDUE EXTENSION Red flour beetle on left and confused flour beetle on right (Photo Credit: Univar USA, Inc.) DESCRIPTION These two beetles are often grouped together due to the similarity in their appearance, biology, and behavior. The confused flour

Ginzel, Matthew

424

PEST NOTES Publication 7418 University of California  

E-print Network

borers and bark or ambrosia beetles in your home if you store infested firewood inside. However inside of buildings. The beetle larvae feed in and do most of the damage to wood, and when they reach or in a ship's dunnage, and some of the key beetle pests of wood in structures have likely established

Seybold, Steven J.

425

Regulatory Pest Control. Pesticide Bulletin 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives descriptions of and control methods for the imported fire ant, sweet potato pests, the white fringed beetle, the Japanese beetle, and phony peach disease. Toxicity, formulation, and application information is given for 2,4-D, methyl bromide, Chlordane, Mirex, and Mocap. Finally, environmental considerations and precautions are…

Thornton, George C.

426

Demonstration and Research Pest Control. Manual 91.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the demonstration and research pest control category. The text discusses pesticide-organism interactions such as penetration, transport, accumulation, and biological magnification. Integrating pesticides…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

427

Department of Entomology Stored Product Pests  

E-print Network

other fly in or around structures. Black soldier Fly (Photo Credit: Johnny N. Dell, Bugwood, org) #12, Bottle, Soldier and Flesh Flies Linda J. Mason, Extension Food Pest Entomologist and Marissa X. Mc-looking sheen is key characteristic! Blow Fly (Photo Credit: Johnny N. Dell, Bugwood, org) Soldier Flies: Large

Ginzel, Matthew

428

Training for Certification: Aquatic Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial applicators. Weed control, vertebrate pest control, and environmental considerations and restrictions are the three major parts of the document. The weed control section discusses non-pesticide, mechanical, and biological control as…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

429

1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

MacNab, A. A.; And Others

430

Right Of Way Pest Control. Manual 88.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the right-of-way pest control category. The text discusses types of vegetation, the nature of herbicides, application methods, use for specific situations, and safety precautions. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

431

Bacillus thuringiensis and control of plant pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility ofB. thuringiensis as an economic insect control agent is dependent upon various factors. Consideration of three situations. whereB. thuringiensis could be used illustrates the interaction of these factors, and their contribution to determining the success or failure of the organism as an insecticide. Apple crops suffer from attack by a complex of insect pests, many of which are

Geraldine A. Hardy; R. Quinlan

1986-01-01

432

November 4, 2009 Statewide Emergency Pest Alert  

E-print Network

". It is not previously known from the U.S. It is currently found on Kudzu in Georgia. It is native to India and China, where it feeds on Kudzu. It has been reported as a pest of numerous legume crops, including soybeans or phone). 2) Secondly, in the coming days we need you to visit a couple Kudzu patches (even ones close

Watson, Craig A.

433

Reducing Pest Problems in Schools by Reducing Clutter Pests and Clutter  

E-print Network

. The brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) prefers to hide among layered papers and within forgotten boxes of cluttered corners, and similar areas. Brown recluse spiders and other pests have bitten

Ginzel, Matthew

434

THE IPM APP FOR PLANT PESTS UConn Extension The IPM app will provide direct access in the field to a database of information on plant pests, help the user identify the plant pest by  

E-print Network

for landscapes. To Use the App: � A grower takes a photo of a plant pest or crop damage caused by the pestTHE IPM APP FOR PLANT PESTS � UConn Extension The IPM app will provide direct access in the field to a database of information on plant pests, help the user identify the plant pest by comparing photos

Demurjian, Steven A.

435

Evolutionary history predicts plant defense against an invasive pest  

E-print Network

Evolutionary history predicts plant defense against an invasive pest Gaylord A. Desurmonta,1 for plant defense (11­14), evolutionarily naïve plants may be par- ticularly susceptible to invasive pest invasive pest in North America. Theory predicts that plant defenses should be convergently gained

Agrawal, Anurag

436

Potential Use of a Serpin from Arabidopsis for Pest Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although genetically modified (GM) plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided

Fernando Alvarez-Alfageme; Jafar Maharramov; Laura Carrillo; Steven Vandenabeele; Dominique Vercammen; Frank van Breusegem; Guy Smagghe; Miguel A. Blazquez

2011-01-01

437

Pest Control on the "Fly"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

2002-01-01

438

Chemical ecology of bark beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The purview of chemical ecology and the recent criticisms of improper application of theory to bark beetle phenomena is briefly discussed. Seven levels of research in chemical ecology are presented as well as their relationship to research on bark beetles. The biology and chemical ecology of several pest bark beetles from North America and Europe are discussed in regard

J. A. Byers

1989-01-01

439

Low thrust chemical orbit to orbit propulsion system propellant management study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low thrust chemical propulsion systems were sized for transfer of large space systems from LEO to GEO. The influence of propellant combination, tankage and insulation requirements, and propellant management techniques on the LTPS mass and volume were studied. Liquid oxygen combined with hydrogen, methane or kerosene were the propellant combinations. Thrust levels of 445, 2230, and 4450 N were combined with 1, 4 and 8 perigee burn strategies. This matrix of systems was evaluated using multilayer insulation and spray-on-foam insulation systems. Various combinations of toroidal, cylindrical with ellipsoidal domes, and ellipsoidal tank shapes were investigated. Results indicate that low thrust (445 N) and single perigee burn approaches are considerably less efficient than the higher thrust level and multiple burn strategies. A modified propellant settling approach minimized propellant residuals and decreased system complexity, in addition, the toroid/ellipsoidal tank combination was predicted to be shortest.

Dergance, R. H.; Hamlyn, K. M.; Tegart, J. R.

1981-01-01

440

Distribution of selected chemical constituents in water from the Floridan aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Generalized maps showing variations in concentration of chlorides, sulfates, hardness, and dissolved solids in the Floridan aquifer have been prepared as part of a cooperative program with the Southwest Florida Water Management District. This report covers 10 counties and parts of 6 others comprising the District. Data used to develop the report were retrieved from the water-quality files of the U.S. Geological Survey. Considerable vertical and areal variation of chemical constituents was found in ground water of the Floridan aquifer. In general, ground water becomes more mineralized with increasing depth and with increasing distance from recharge areas due to solution of minerals from the aquifer. Ground water was also more mineralized with proximity to the coast, due to saltwater intrusion. (USGS)

Corral, M.A., Jr.

1983-01-01

441

Prunus persica Crop Management Differentially Promotes Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Diversity in a Tropical Agro-Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Due to the important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystem functioning, determination of the effect of management practices on the AMF diversity in agricultural soils is essential for the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the AMF diversity in Prunus persica roots under two types of fertilisation (inorganic, with or without manure) combined with integrated or chemical pest management in a Venezuelan agro-ecosystem. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified: 15 belonged to the genus Glomus, one to Claroideoglomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. The distribution of the AMF community composition differed as a consequence of the treatment effects. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control had the highest AMF richness and the treatment combining inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest had the lowest. The real causes and effects of these differences in the AMF community are very difficult to establish, since the crop management regimes tested were composed of several interacting factors. In conclusion, the crop management practices can exert a significant influence on the populations of AMF. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable agricultural management strategy with respect to improving the AMF diversity in this crop under tropical conditions, and thus for maintaining the agricultural and environmental sustainability of this agro-ecosystem. PMID:24520389

Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldan, Antonio

2014-01-01

442

Prunus persica crop management differentially promotes arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in a tropical agro-ecosystem.  

PubMed

Due to the important role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in ecosystem functioning, determination of the effect of management practices on the AMF diversity in agricultural soils is essential for the sustainability of these agro-ecosystems. The objective of this study was to compare the AMF diversity in Prunus persica roots under two types of fertilisation (inorganic, with or without manure) combined with integrated or chemical pest management in a Venezuelan agro-ecosystem. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified: 15 belonged to the genus Glomus, one to Claroideoglomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. The distribution of the AMF community composition differed as a consequence of the treatment effects. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control had the highest AMF richness and the treatment combining inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest had the lowest. The real causes and effects of these differences in the AMF community are very difficult to establish, since the crop management regimes tested were composed of several interacting factors. In conclusion, the crop management practices can exert a significant influence on the populations of AMF. The treatment combining organic and inorganic fertilisation with chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable agricultural management strategy with respect to improving the AMF diversity in this crop under tropical conditions, and thus for maintaining the agricultural and environmental sustainability of this agro-ecosystem. PMID:24520389

Alguacil, Maria del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldán, Antonio

2014-01-01

443

A framework and plan for modeling and managing toxic chemicals in Lake Michigan  

SciTech Connect

Although there have been substantial reductions in loadings and subsequent concentrations of many anthropogenic chemicals in the water, sediment, and ecosystem of Lake Michigan, levels for many remain above established standards or objectives. Also, ecological impacts remain probable as, for example, Lake Michigan lake trout do not reproduce naturally. A preliminary assessment of chemical sources and fate has been completed using a screening model. For PCBs this assessment indicates levels in lake trout will remain above 1 mg/kg even if all point or watershed sources could be eliminated. This is because of estimated atmospheric interaction and exchange. Because of the major ecological and economical consequences, the screening results need to be scientifically validated. This is being done by the Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) in cooperation with the Office of Research and Development (ORD) and other state and academic organizations. A workplan has been prepared for developing and testing a series of more spatially resolved models for PCBs, atrazine, mercury, and trans-nonachlor. In addition, plans include the direct coupling of air and water transport and fate models. A summary of this workplan and preliminary modeling results will be presented and related to the issues of managing toxic substances in Lake Michigan and the Great Lakes.

Richardson, W.; Endicott, D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Grosse Ile, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

444

A multiple shutdown method for managing evacuation in case of major fire accidents in chemical clusters.  

PubMed

This paper may be regarded as the second part of a larger article. The basic decision model developed in the first part of the article by Reniers et al. [G.L.L. Reniers, N. Pauwels, A. Audenaert, B.J.M. Ale, K. Soudan, Management of evacuation in case of fire accidents in chemical industrial areas, J. Hazard. Mater., 147 (2007) 478-487] is extended to determine both the optimal time and the optimal mode to stop the ongoing activities in case of a major fire possibly giving rise to an escalating event. Chemical plants have multiple modes to stop their production processes, differing with respect to the resulting costs, and with respect to the required time and personnel to complete the shutdown operations. The existence of an additional and more economic (but slower) shutdown mode might encourage the decision maker to stop the production processes earlier, in a less intervening manner, whereas the availability of an additional faster (but less economic) shutdown procedure might stimulate the decision maker to stop the production processes later, in a more intervening manner. PMID:17728062

Reniers, G L L; Audenaert, A; Pauwels, N; Ale, B J M; Soudan, K

2008-04-01

445

Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells.  

PubMed

Chemically tuned inorganic-organic hybrid materials, based on CH3NH3(?MA)Pb(I(1-x)Br(x))3 perovskites, have been studied using UV-vis absorption and X-ray diffraction patterns and applied to nanostructured solar cells. The band gap engineering brought about by the chemical management of MAPb(I(1-x)Br(x))3 perovskites can be controllably tuned to cover almost the entire visible spectrum, enabling the realization of colorful solar cells. We demonstrate highly efficient solar cells exhibiting 12.3% in a power conversion efficiency of under standard AM 1.5, for the most efficient device, as a result of tunable composition for the light harvester in conjunction with a mesoporous TiO2 film and a hole conducting polymer. We believe that the works highlighted in this paper represent one step toward the realization of low-cost, high-efficiency, and long-term stability with colorful solar cells. PMID:23517331

Noh, Jun Hong; Im, Sang Hyuk; Heo, Jin Hyuck; Mandal, Tarak N; Seok, Sang Il

2013-04-10

446

Suggested Insecticides for Managing Cotton Insects in the Lower Rio Grande Valley - 2008  

E-print Network

This bulletin lists suggested insecticides (by brand name) and application rates for controlling cotton pests found in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. This publication should be used in conjunction with publiation E-7 (non-chemical pest...

Cattaneo, Manda; Kerns, David L.

2008-04-29

447

Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry  

PubMed Central

In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.

2014-01-01

448

Controlling Cotton's Insect Pests: A New System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton is more heavily treated with insecticides than any other crop in the United States. In southern Texas, this heavy treatment resulted in insecticide-resistant strains of major pests which almost destroyed the industry in the late 1960's and early 1970's. An integrated insect control program based on new short-season cotton varieties and traditional cultural practices has restored production in the

Perry L. Adkisson; George A. Niles; J. Knox Walker; Luther S. Bird; Helen B. Scott

1982-01-01

449

Pesticide application practices, pest knowledge, and cost-benefits of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, Costa Rica  

SciTech Connect

The use of pesticides in the cultivation of cash crops such as banana and plantain is increasing, in Costa Rica and worldwide. Agrochemical use and occupational and environmental exposures in export banana production have been documented in some parts of Central America. However, the extent of agrochemical use, agricultural pest knowledge, and economic components in plantain production are largely unknown in Costa Rica, especially in remote, high-poverty areas such as the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories. Our objective was to integrate a rapid rural appraisal of indigenous farmer pesticide application practices and pest knowledge with a cost-benefit analysis of plantain production in the Bribri-Cabecar Indigenous Territories, for the development of better agricultural management practices and improved regulatory infrastructure. Interviews conducted with 75 households in 5 indigenous communities showed that over 60% of participants grew plantain with agrochemicals. Of these plantain farmers, over 97% used the insecticide chlorpyrifos, and 84% applied nematicides, 64% herbicides, and 22% fungicides, with only 31% of participants reporting the use of some type of protective clothing during application. The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) was ranked as the most important agricultural pest by 85% of participants, yet only 28% could associate the adult and larval form. A cost-benefit analysis conducted with a separate group of 26 plantain farmers identified several national markets and one export market for plantain production in the Indigenous Territories. Yearly income averaged US$6200/ha and yearly expenses averaged US$1872/ha, with an average cost-benefit ratio of 3.67 for plantain farmers. Farmers applied an average of 9.7 kg a.i./ha/yr of pesticide products and 375 kg/ha/yr of fertilizer, but those who sold their fruit to the national markets applied more nematicides, herbicides, and fertilizers than those who sold primarily to export markets, suggesting a lack of appropriate application knowledge. Results indicate that the quantity of agrochemicals applied in plantain cultivation is less than that applied in export banana, but the absence of appropriate agrochemical application practices in plantain cultivation may pose serious risks to human and environmental health. Culturally appropriate farmer education and certification programs are needed as well as the development of safe-handling practices, regulatory infrastructure, and adequate agrochemical storage, transport, and waste disposal facilities. Long-term solutions however, are dependent on the development of policies and infrastructure that support non-chemical pest management, alternatives to pesticides, and the identification of organic plantain markets.

Polidoro, Beth A. [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, P.O. Box 442339, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Department of Agroforestry, Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE), Turrialba (Costa Rica)], E-mail: bethpolidoro@vandals.uidaho.edu; Dahlquist, Ruth M. [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, P.O. Box 442339, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Department of Agroforestry, Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE), Turrialba (Costa Rica); Castillo, Luisa E. [Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances (IRET), Universidad Nacional, Heredia (Costa Rica); Morra, Matthew J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, P.O. Box 442339, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States); Somarriba, Eduardo [Department of Agroforestry, Tropical Agricultural Research and Higher Education Center (CATIE), Turrialba (Costa Rica); Bosque-Perez, Nilsa A. [Department of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, University of Idaho, P.O. Box 442339, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (United States)

2008-09-15

450

A pan-European study of capabilities to manage mass casualties from the release of chemical agents: the MASH project.  

PubMed

The European Union (EU) Mass Casualties and Health (MASH) project that ran between 2008 and 2010 was designed to study the management of mass casualties from chemical and radiological releases and associated health implications. One area of study for this project concerned arrangements within EU Member States for the management of mass casualties following a chemical release. This was undertaken via a confidential online questionnaire that was sent to selected points of contact throughout the EU. Responses were obtained from 18 states from respondents holding senior positions in chemical planning and incident response. Information gathered shows a lack of uniformity within the EU about the organization of responses to chemical releases and the provision of medical care. This article presents the overall findings of the study demonstrating differences between countries on planning and organization, decontamination, prehospital emergency medical responses, clinical diagnoses, and therapy and aftercare. Although there may be an understandable reluctance from national respondents to share information on security and other grounds, the findings, nevertheless, revealed substantial differences between current planning and operational responses within the EU states for the management of mass chemical casualties. The existing international networks for response to radiation incidents are not yet matched by equivalent networks for chemical responses yet sufficient information was available from the study to identify potential deficiencies, identify common casualty management pathways, and to make recommendations for future operations within the EU. Improvements in awareness and training and the application of modern information and communications will help to remedy this situation. Specialized advanced life support and other medical care for chemical casualties appear lacking in some countries. A program of specialized training and action are required to apply the findings revealed by the MASH study into a unified cross-border emergency medical response. PMID:23716370

Baker, David J; Murray, Virginia S G; Carli, Pierre A

2013-01-01

451

Soil chemical and physical properties as indicators of sustainable land management under sugar cane in Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of land management was assessed for a sugar cane plantation using soil chemical and physical properties as indicators. The plantation (6000 ha) was established in 1979 on a broad alluvial plain and the majority of the soils are classified as Eutric and Mollic Fluvisols (73%) and Eutric Vertisols (23%). Average annual rainfall is about 2000 mm with a

Alfred E. Hartemink

1998-01-01

452

Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program July 2013 PEST NOTES Publication 7455  

E-print Network

and are bloodsucking parasites that feed on a wide variety of domestic and wild animals, plus humans. In California individuals bites from conenose bugs can produce allergic reactions that are potentially danger- ous and life feeds primarily on other insects and doesn't seek warm-blooded animals or require a blood meal in order

Ishida, Yuko

453

Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program August 2013 PEST NOTES Publication 7448  

E-print Network

, and wet mulch piles. Females lay tiny eggs in moist organic debris or potting soil. Larvae (Figure 4) have- fest soil, potting mix, other container media, and other sources of organic decomposition. Their larvae primarily feed on fungi and organic matter in soil, but also chew roots and can be a problem in greenhouses

Ishida, Yuko

454

Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program August 2013 PEST NOTES Publication 74164  

E-print Network

- ed for egg production. Eye gnats don't bite (tear or break intact skin), but have mouthparts that act to scrape the skin, increasing the flow of some body secretions. Females begin to lay eggs within 5 to 8 days after hatching, laying the eggs below the surface of freshly turned soil in groups of up to 50

Ishida, Yuko

455

Mercury and Chemical Management in Schools: Teachers and School Administrators Participant's Manual in Southeast Asia. EPA 747-R-08-001  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed as a "Participant's Manual" to be used as part of a "Chemical and Mercury Management in Schools Training," this document focuses on the policies and programs needed at the school and district level for safe and sustainable chemical and mercury management practices. This document is designed primarily for school administrators (principals…

US Environmental Protection Agency, 2008

2008-01-01

456

Management of Imported Fire Ants in Cattle Production Systems  

E-print Network

This publication can help ranch managers develop integrated pest management plans for managing fire ant problems in cattle operations. It covers the specifics of managing fire ants in hay pastures and rangelands, around farm ponds, and near...

Fuchs, Thomas W.; Drees, Bastiaan M.

2004-03-31

457

Controlling Cotton's Insect Pests: A New System.  

PubMed

Cotton is more heavily treated with insecticides than any other crop in the United States. In southern Texas, this heavy treatment resulted in insecticide- resistant strains of major pests which almost destroyed the industry in the late 1960's and early 1970's. An integrated insect control program based on new short-season cotton varieties and traditional cultural practices has restored production in the area. The new system has been widely implemented because it produces greater net returns by reducing the use of insecticides, fertilizer, and irrigation. PMID:17809777

Adkisson, P L; Niles, G A; Walker, J K; Bird, L S; Scott, H B

1982-04-01

458

The effects of organic farming on pest and non-pest butterfly abundance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butterfly transects were conducted on eight pairs of organic and conventional farms in the UK in 1994, and ten pairs of farms in 1995. Each transect included areas of conventional and organic farmland. All species seen, and the abundance of each species, were recorded separately for the uncropped field boundary and the crop edge. In both years, significantly more non-pest

R. E. Feber; L. G. Firbank; P. J. Johnson; D. W. Macdonald

1997-01-01

459

Comparison of pathogenicity of two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliaeon adult Sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps Puton.).  

PubMed

Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae), is one of the major wheat pest in Iran and neighboring countries. In order to control this pest, every year hundred of thousands hectares of wheat crop are sprayed with synthetic pesticides in Iran. Biocontrol, the use of living organisms as pest control agents, became an important alternative to the use of chemical pesticides and, therefore, a potential means of reducing pesticide use and its undesirable effects on human health and the environment. Especially, entomopathogenic fungi offer exciting possibilities as biocontrol agents because of their damaging effects on the target insect host and their ability to cause epizootics. So, in the current study, pathogencity of two isolates (M189, 4556) of Metarhiziurn anisopliae (Metschnikoff) with five concentrations (1x10(4), lx10(5), lx 10(6), 1x 10(7), 1x 10(8)) on adult Sunn pest was evaluated. Each treatment consisted of 30 adults that replicated three times. The adults were dipped in the conidia concentrations for about 10-15 seconds, then were taken and transfered to filter paper to drain off excess liquid. Controls were treated only with distilled water plus Tween 80 (0.02 % ). Treated adults were maintained in growth chamber (25+/-1 degrees C, RH 80+/-5 %) and mortality was recorded daily over two weeks. Probit analysis showed that LCso for M 189 and 4556 were 7.704x10(5) and 3.38x10(5), respectively. The results revealed that isolate 4556 was more effective on Sunn pest than the M189 isolate. Our results showed that different isolates of M. anisopliae have different effects on Sunn pest adult. So, identification, application and screening of different isolates in bioassays will provide a promising potential for finding of efficient isolate to be used in field studies as bio-pesticides. PMID:17385522

Bandani, A R; Tork, M; Rassoulian, G R

2006-01-01

460

IMPLICATIONS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN HEALTH RISKS OF CHEMICALS IN THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT  

PubMed Central

Global climate change (GCC) is likely to alter the degree of human exposure to pollutants and the response of human populations to these exposures, meaning that risks of pollutants could change in the future. The present study, therefore, explores how GCC might affect the different steps in the pathway from a chemical source in the environment through to impacts on human health and evaluates the implications for existing risk-assessment and management practices. In certain parts of the world, GCC is predicted to increase the level of exposure of many environmental pollutants due to direct and indirect effects on the use patterns and transport and fate of chemicals. Changes in human behavior will also affect how humans come into contact with contaminated air, water, and food. Dietary changes, psychosocial stress, and coexposure to stressors such as high temperatures are likely to increase the vulnerability of humans to chemicals. These changes are likely to have significant implications for current practices for chemical assessment. Assumptions used in current exposure-assessment models may no longer apply, and existing monitoring methods may not be robust enough to detect adverse episodic changes in exposures. Organizations responsible for the assessment and management of health risks of chemicals therefore need to be more proactive and consider the implications of GCC for their procedures and processes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:62–78. © 2012 SETAC PMID:23147420

Balbus, John M; Boxall, Alistair BA; Fenske, Richard A; McKone, Thomas E; Zeise, Lauren

2013-01-01

461

ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH IN THE US EPA'S OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are receiving increasing media and scientific attention. Concerns about these chemicals stem from the possibility of serious human and wildlife effects and environmental persistence. The US EPA Office of Research and Development's National ...

462

Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control  

PubMed Central

Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control because non-crop habitats provide requisites for a broad spectrum of natural enemies, and the exchange of natural enemies between crop and non-crop habitats is likely to be diminished in landscapes dominated by arable cropland. In this review, we test the hypothesis that natural pest control is enhanced in complex patchy landscapes with a high proportion of non-crop habitats as compared to simple large-scale landscapes with little associated non-crop habitat. In 74% and 45% of the studies reviewed, respectively, natural enemy populations were higher and pest pressure lower in complex landscapes versus simple landscapes. Landscape-driven pest suppression may result in lower crop injury, although this has rarely been documented. Enhanced natural enemy activity was associated with herbaceous habitats in 80% of the cases (e.g. fallows, field margins), and somewhat less often with wooded habitats (71%) and landscape patchiness (70%). The similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. We conclude that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function. PMID:16790403

Bianchi, F.J.J.A; Booij, C.J.H; Tscharntke, T

2006-01-01

463

Estimation of the number of founders of an invasive pest insect population: the fire ant Solenopsis invicta in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the number of founders responsible for the establishment of invasive populations is important for developing biologically based management practices, predicting the invasive potential of species, and making inferences about ecological and evolutionary processes. The fire ant Solenopsis invicta is a major invasive pest insect first introduced into the USA from its native South American range in the mid-1930s.

Kenneth G. Ross; D. DeWayne Shoemaker

2008-01-01

464

Feasibility, limitation and possible solutions of RNAi-based technology for insect pest control.  

PubMed

Numerous studies indicate that target gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) could lead to insect death. This phenomenon has been considered as a potential strategy for insect pest control, and it is termed RNAi-mediated crop protection. However, there are many limitations using RNAi-based technology for pest control, with the effectiveness target gene selection and reliable double-strand RNA (dsRNA) delivery being two of the major challenges. With respect to target gene selection, at present, the use of homologous genes and genome-scale high-throughput screening are the main strategies adopted by researchers. Once the target gene is identified, dsRNA can be delivered by micro-injection or by feeding as a dietary component. However, micro-injection, which is the most common method, can only be used in laboratory experiments. Expression of dsRNAs directed against insect genes in transgenic plants and spraying dsRNA reagents have been shown to induce RNAi effects on target insects. Hence, RNAi-mediated crop protection has been considered as a potential new-generation technology for pest control, or as a complementary method of existing pest control strategies; however, further development to improve the efficacy of protection and range of species affected is necessary. In this review, we have summarized current research on RNAi-based technology for pest insect management. Current progress has proven that RNAi technology has the potential to be a tool for designing a new generation of insect control measures. To accelerate its practical application in crop protection, further study on dsRNA uptake mechanisms based on the knowledge of insect physiology and biochemistry is needed. PMID:23955822

Zhang, Hao; Li, Hai-Chao; Miao, Xue-Xia

2013-02-01

465

Brazilian free-tailed bats as insect pest regulators in transgenic and conventional cotton crops.  

PubMed

During the past 12000 years agricultural systems have transitioned from natural habitats to conventional agricultural regions and recently to large areas of genetically engineered (GE) croplands. This GE revolution occurred for cotton in a span of slightly more than a decade during which a switch occurred in major cotton production areas from growing 100% conventional cotton to an environment in which 95% transgenics are grown. Ecological interactions between GE targeted insects and other insectivorous insects have been investigated. However, the relationships between ecological functions (such as herbivory and ecosystem transport) and agronomic benefits of avian or mammalian insectivores in the transgenic environment generally remain unclear, although the importance of some agricultural pest management services provided by insectivorous species such as the Brazilian free-tailed bat, Tadarida brasiliensis, have been recognized. We developed a dynamic model to predict regional-scale ecological functions in agricultural food webs by using the indicators of insect pest herbivory measured by cotton boll damage and insect emigration from cotton. In the south-central Texas Winter Garden agricultural region we find that the process of insectivory by bats has a considerable impact on both the ecology and valuation of harvest in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic and nontransgenic cotton crops. Predation on agricultural pests by insectivorous bats may enhance the economic value of agricultural systems by reducing the frequency of required spraying and delaying the ultimate need for new pesticides. In the Winter Garden region, the presence of large numbers of insectivorous bats yields a regional summer dispersion of adult pest insects from Bt cotton that is considerably reduced from the moth emigration when bats are absent in either transgenic or non-transgenic crops. This regional decrease of pest numbers impacts insect herbivory on a transcontinental scale. With a few exceptions, we find that the agronomics of both Bt and conventional cotton production is more profitable when large numbers of insectivorous bats are present. PMID:18536245

Federico, Paula; Hallam, Thomas G; McCracken, Gary F; Purucker, S Thomas; Grant, William E; Correa-Sandoval, A Nelly; Westbrook, John K; Medellin, Rodrigo A; Cleveland, Cutler J; Sansone, Chris G; López, Juan D; Betke, Margrit; Moreno-Valdez, Arnulfo; Kunz, Thomas H

2008-06-01

466

Population ecology and the control of pests  

PubMed Central

An understanding of the factors responsible for the numbers of animals observed is essential for effective integrated control of pests. An ecological study need not, however, be complete for it to be useful; many incomplete such studies have led to clues that have served as important guides in control programmes. However, it is important that the study of animal numbers be undertaken with a completely general model in mind. Some ecological models suggested are too restricted to be generally applicable. The generalized model proposed by the author is based on the proposition that the chance to survive and multiply depends on environment, which may be effectively studied as having five components: resources, climate, numbers of the same species, numbers of other species, and hazards. Any of these components may be important and different components may be important at different times in the history of an animal population. Populations are most often limited by inaccessibility of resources and by the shortage of time during which the environment is favourable to an increase in numbers. An understanding of these factors suggests ways in which numbers may be further restricted. The student of pest control must determine if such ways can be economically used in a programme of integrated control. PMID:20604164

Birch, L. C.

1963-01-01

467

AGRI-SCIENCE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY  

E-print Network

be applied across the agri-sciences, (defined in this context as plant, fungal and insect sciences through translation of chemical biology tools and technologies Control weeds, disease and pests Minimise photosynthetic efficiency Improve chemical agronomic and agro-ecological control measures Modelling

468

[Controlling effects of multiple species coexistence on rice diseases, pests and weeds in paddy field ecosystem].  

PubMed

Establishing a species-diversified cropping system to control crop diseases, insect pests and weeds is an important approach to sustainable agricultural development. This paper reviewed the researches on paddy field species-diversified cropping systems at home and abroad, and discussed the controlling effects and mechanisms of multiple species coexistence on rice diseases, pests and weeds control. The multiple species coexistence models such as rice-fish, rice-duck, rice-azolla-fish and rice-azolla-duck had effective controlling effects on Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk, Nilaparata lugens Stal, Chaphalocrocis medinalis Gueneeand, and weeds. Other models like intercropping rice with Zizania caduciflora L. and with other wetland crops also had effective effects in controlling the occurrence and spread of Pyricularia grisea. It was suggested that further studies should be strengthened from the viewpoints of crop culture, molecular biology, and chemical ecolo- PMID:17650871

Wang, Han; Tang, Jian-jun; Xie, Jian; Chen, Xin

2007-05-01

469

Evaluation of a chemically inducible promoter for developing a within-plant refuge for resistance management.  

PubMed

Chemically inducible production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in transgenic plants may provide considerable benefits in preventing or delaying the evolution of insect resistance to Bt crops by creating within-plant temporal refuges. We examined the effect of inducible cry1Ab expression on survival of different genotypes (RR, RS, and SS) of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), in transgenic broccoli, Brassica oleracea L., plants transformed with a PR-1a/cry1Ab expression cassette. Spraying leaves of these plants with the inducer acibenzolar-s-methyl [= benzo (1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester] (ASM) resulted in high levels of Bt toxin, and detached leaves from fully induced plants caused 100% mortality to all