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1

Integrated Pest Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

2

Seasonal Integrated Pest Management  

E-print Network

of pesticides. IPM's systematic approach helps growers use information to make sound decisions about pest, fruit injury and note defects for each management unit (e.g., orchard block), recording percentage

3

Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially sex pheromones, have proved most successful as tools for manipulation of pest population dynamics Factors influencing search behavior of natural enemies include habitat characteristics such as crop, associated plants and plant assemblages, host plant characteristics, influence of associated organisms, and characteristics of the searching entomophage Recent studies have shown potential for simultaneous management of a pest species and enhancement of natural enemies using pest pheromones

Greenblatt, J. A.; Lewis, W. J.

1983-01-01

4

Sample NRCS Integrated Pest Management  

E-print Network

: __________________________ Farm number: ___________________________ Tract number: ___________________________ Crop rotation are now in field crop production. Records describing general orchard maintenance and pest managementSample NRCS Integrated Pest Management Conservation Activity Plan Activity Code No. 114 Draft

Isaacs, Rufus

5

The Red Queen in a potato field: integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control.  

PubMed

Originally designed to reconcile insecticide applications with biological control, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) developed into the systems-based judicious and coordinated use of multiple control techniques aimed at reducing pest damage to economically tolerable levels. Chemical control, with scheduled treatments, was the starting point for most management systems in the 1950s. Although chemical control is philosophically compatible with IPM practices as a whole, reduction in pesticide use has been historically one of the main goals of IPM practitioners. In the absence of IPM, excessive reliance on pesticides has led to repeated control failures due to the evolution of resistance by pest populations. This creates the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new compounds, known as the 'insecticide treadmill'. In evolutionary biology, a similar phenomenon is known as the Red Queen principle - continuing change is needed for a population to persevere because its competitors undergo constant evolutionary adaptation. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an insect defoliator of potatoes that is notorious for its ability to develop insecticide resistance. In the present article, a review is given of four case studies from across the United States to demonstrate the importance of using IPM for sustainable management of a highly adaptable insect pest. Excessive reliance on often indiscriminate insecticide applications and inadequate use of alternative control methods, such as crop rotation, appear to expedite evolution of insecticide resistance in its populations. Resistance to IPM would involve synchronized adaptations to multiple unfavorable factors, requiring statistically unlikely genetic changes. Therefore, integrating different techniques is likely to reduce the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new ones. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24817433

Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Baker, Mitchell; Snyder, William E; Menasha, Sandra; Whalon, Mark; Dively, Galen; Moarsi, Wassem F

2014-05-01

6

Integrated Pest Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first Web site is an integrated pest management (IPM) resource from the University of Minnesota Extension Service (1) with a number of regional newsletters and crop specific fact sheets. The next resource from the University of California (2) is a comprehensive overview of IPM dealing with a wide range of topics including weather, weeds, and pesticides. Cornell University's Guide to Natural Enemies in North America (3) (last mentioned in the December 10, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is a tutorial and guide to the beneficial insects that help control weeds, diseases, and pests. The home page for the Center for Integrated Pest Management (4) is a gateway to IPM research. Teachers wishing to incorporate the ecological concepts of IPM into their classrooms may be interested in this curriculum developed by Michigan State University (5) downloadable in Adobe Acrobat Reader format. Users looking to stay current on the subject of IPM may want to check out the IPMnet newsletters (6) from the Consortium for International Crop Protection. Brief reports of several IPM successes are posted on this New York State IPM Web site (7). Lastly, the home gardener may benefit from this (8) Texas A&M University site focusing on IPM for the home vegetable garden.

2002-01-01

7

Pest Management Recommendations for Sheep,  

E-print Network

Pest Management Recommendations for Sheep, Goats, and Swine A Cornell and Penn State Cooperative ..................................................................1 Sheep and Goats--General.........................................1 Sheep Keds (Ticks)................................................2 Lice..........................................................................2 Sheep Nose Bot

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

8

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT CHECK LIST INTRODUCTION  

E-print Network

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT CHECK LIST INTRODUCTION Integrated Pest Management is a preventative advantages and disadvantages of an IPM program over traditional pest management. Traditional pest management. · The environmental improvements made to the facility to implement an IPM program will enhance the long-term stability

Mathis, Wayne N.

9

Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.  

PubMed

The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control. PMID:23156158

Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

2012-10-01

10

Published September 2010 Integrated Pest Management  

E-print Network

Integrated Pest Management Practice standard. Growers enrolled in the Environmental Quality IncentivesPublished September 2010 Integrated Pest Management The PAMS Approach Specific Integrated Pest Management (IPM) tactics are selected to match crop/pest/environment scenarios. Each site should have

Isaacs, Rufus

11

2012 South Carolina Pest Management Handbook  

E-print Network

crop pests based on pesticide labels, their own research or experience, and/or a number of other for Field Crops - 2012 2012 South Carolina Pest Management Handbook The Pest Management Handbook is a setAPT-1 2012 South Carolina Pest Management Handbook #12; Table of Measurements Standard

Duchowski, Andrew T.

12

2013 South Carolina Pest Management andbook  

E-print Network

crop pests based on pesticide labels, their own research or experience, and/or a number of other for Field Crops - 2013 2013 South Carolina Pest Management Handbook The Pest Management Handbook is a setAPT-1 2013 South Carolina Pest Management andbook #12; Table of Measurements and Conversions

Stuart, Steven J.

13

Insect pest management in African agriculture: Challenges in the current millenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest management on a global scale experienced a total revolution after World War II when synthetic organic compounds were in agriculture and public health. However, it soon became apparent that there were many limitations in the use of chemicals for pest management. In agriculture, problems of pest resurgence, secondary pest outbreaks, pest resistance and adverse effects of pesticides on the

O. O. Banwo; R. S. Adamu

2003-01-01

14

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Worldwide, current farm values of crop and animal production are estimated at more than $1.3 trillion. Various authors have suggested farm production losses by arthropod pests that appear to be in the range of 10% to 15% with additional losses of 10% to 40% occurring during post-harvest handling. Th...

15

Hanford site integrated pest management plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

Giddings, R.F.

1996-04-09

16

Adopting Integrated Pest Management in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of an effective Integrated Pest Management program is discussed. Provided are the common goals and procedures involved in adopting an Integrated Pest Management program for schools. (CW)

Currie, William E.

1991-01-01

17

ARS RESEARCH ON NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phytochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Caps...

18

Extension Has Key Role in "Pest" Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Department of Agriculture's new program which provides a combination of biological and cultural pest control techniques in combination with chemicals, as well as long-range pest control research. (Author/JB)

Bay, Ovid

1972-01-01

19

Wildlife and integrated pest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of options are available to those professionals interested in pest management through an integrated approach. The components of this approach are manipulation of vegetation; manipulation of population structure, dynamics, and interaction; and manipulation of the values associated with animal and plant crop production. Each component has numerous methods, which when used alone or in combination, offer a nearly infinite number of alternatives to the successful use of pesticides.

Giles, Robert H.

1980-09-01

20

SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR COCKROACHES  

E-print Network

SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR COCKROACHES *Important Note* According to the Virginia grounds. INTRODUCTION Cockroaches are one of the most common urban pests in Virginia public facilities. Cockroaches are pests for several reasons. First of all, cockroaches, in their search for nourishment, invade

Liskiewicz, Maciej

21

Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.  

PubMed

The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests. PMID:23057183

Gay, Hannah

2012-07-01

22

Arthropod Pest Management in Greenhouses and Interiorscapes  

E-print Network

, Commercial Greenhouse Pests. Aphids Aphids feed on a wide range of greenhouse crops. They are soft. Regardless of species, aphids are normally 1/8 inch or less in length. Most have a pair of cornicles- Arthropod Pest Management in Greenhouses and Interiorscapes ing a hand lens. Aphids feed on buds, leaves

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

23

Coccinellids and the Modern Pest Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the concept of integrated pest control combining chemical and biological methods. Describes many examples of the successful use of coccinellids beetles to control other insects. Cites ecological and physiological research studies related to predator prey relationships involving coccinellids. (EB)

Hodek, Ivo

1970-01-01

24

A Statewide Pest Management Plan for Texas.  

E-print Network

, 111, Mr. Emory P., Area Extension Entomologist, TAEX, Vernon Bowling, Mr. Clarence C., Associate Professor-Entomology, TAES, Beaumont Bremer, Dr. J., Area Extension Weed Specialist, TAEX, Corpus Christi Brints, Mr. Norman W., Area Extension.... Ford, Professor-Weed Science, Soil and Crop Science. TAES, Beaumont Finley, Mr. M. David, Extension Agent-Entomology (Pest Manage- ment). TAEX, Roby Foster, Mr. David G., Extension Agent-Entomology (Pest Manage- ment), TAEX, Stanton Frederiksen...

1981-01-01

25

Geospatial data mining for Agriculture pest management - a framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the problems in addressing pest management is inadequate knowledge about the factors influencing pest population dynamics. To understand pest dynamics, scientists and researchers collect pest surveillance data and related agricultural operations regarding crops, farming practices, weather parameters, etc. These databases contain details of pest incidence, climatic, soil, agricultural practices and serve as repositories of information. Correlations between some

Amiya Kumar Tripathy; J. Adinarayana; D. Sudharsan

2009-01-01

26

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 64:108111 (2008) Susceptibility of lesser mealworm  

E-print Network

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 64:108­111 (2008) Susceptibility of lesser mealworm, NY 14853-0999, USA Abstract BACKGROUND: The susceptibilities of adult and larval lesser mealworms, were examined through exposure on treated plywood panels. Lesser mealworms were collected from four

Kaufman, Phillip E.

27

Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels  

PubMed Central

Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2013-01-01

28

Efficient management of fruit pests by pheromone nanogels.  

PubMed

Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K; Bhattacharya, Santanu

2013-01-01

29

Demonstrating Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

30

DEMONSTRATING INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF HOT PEPPERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

31

Insect pests of tea and their management.  

PubMed

Globally, 1031 species of arthropods are associated with the intensively managed tea Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze monoculture. All parts of the plant, leaf, stem, root, flower, and seed, are fed upon by at least one pest species, resulting in an 11%-55% loss in yield if left unchecked. There has been heavy use of organosynthetic pesticides since the 1950s to defend the plant against these pests, leading to rapid conversion of innocuous species into pests, development of resistance, and undesirable pesticide residues in made tea. As a result of importer and consumer concerns, pesticide residues have become a major problem for the tea industry. Integrated pest management (IPM) may help to overcome the overuse of pesticides and subsequent residues. We review the advances made in our understanding of the biology and ecology of major insect and mite pests of tea, host plant resistance, cultural practices, biocontrol measures, and need-based application of botanicals and safer pesticides to understand the present status of IPM and to identify future challenges to improvement. PMID:19067632

Hazarika, Lakshmi K; Bhuyan, Mantu; Hazarika, Budhindra N

2009-01-01

32

DISEASE AND PEST MANAGEMENT OF MEDICINAL CROPS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article covers various aspects of disease and pest management as they relate specifically to medicinal plants. Typical disease symptoms for fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes are described as well as illustrated on specific medicinal crops. Various research tools recently made accessible...

33

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT FOR NORTH CAROLINA SCHOOLS  

E-print Network

, Extension Associate, Urban IPM Michael Linker, IPM Coordinator, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences State University and North Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. The pest management professionals serving on the North

34

Integrated Pest Management. A Curriculum Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book consists of materials prepared for a conference aimed at developing courses of study in Integrated Pest Management appropriate for use at several levels: secondary schools, MDTA programs, community colleges and technical institutions, baccalaureate programs, and master's and doctoral level programs. The first section (Background Papers)…

McCabe, Robert H., Ed.; And Others

35

he land manager’s handbook on integrated pest management of Melaleuca quinquenervia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The adventive Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake is an invasive pest plant in the greater Everglades region of Florida. Public agencies and organizations responsible for natural areas management have developed effective chemical and mechanical strategies for treating infestati...

36

Cropping Systems and Integrated Pest Management: Examples from Selected Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cropping systems have been central to managing associated pests for centuries. This treatment focuses on the history, concepts, and the integration of available Integrated Pest Management (IPM) tools\\/strategies into cropping systems. Pest assessments\\/diagnoses, IPM-decision-making aids, and examples of pest management in selected crops\\/cropping systems (wheat, soybean, corn, cotton, potato, and strawberry) as well as emerging opportunities and challenges are discussed.

K. R. Barker; C. Sorenson

2003-01-01

37

Insect pest management in forest ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

1983-01-01

38

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN VIRGINIA COTTON, PEANUT, SOYBEAN, AND SORGHUM  

E-print Network

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN VIRGINIA COTTON, PEANUT, SOYBEAN, AND SORGHUM 2013 D. Ames Herbert, Jr., Extension Entomologist, Virginia Tech Examining sorghum for lep larvae Technical Support: Mike Arrington

Liskiewicz, Maciej

39

The Effects of Cultural Measures on Cereal Pests and Their Role in Integrated Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of cultural control measures on invertebrate pests and their natural enemies in cereals (wheat, barley and oats) are described and discussed, with emphasis on the major pests in north-west Europe. Possibilities for additive and synergistic combinations of cultural measures are identified, together with opportunities for integrating cultural measures with chemical and biological control where appropriate. Recent studies confirm

David M. Glen

2000-01-01

40

[Risk assessment and control strategies of pests in Lycium barbarum fields under different managements].  

PubMed

In the risk assessment of pests, both the community structure and the environmental factors should be considered at the same time, because of their mutual effects on the outbreak of disaster pests. This paper established a comprehensive assessment system, including 2 sub-systems, 5 respects, and 14 indices. In the meanwhile, risk assessment indices and experience formula were used to analyze the risk degree of pests in Lycium barbarum fields under different managements. It was found that using risk assessment indices and experience formula could obtain similar results. In abandoned field, Aceria palida, Aphis sp., and Paratrioza sinica were the frequent disaster pests, Lema decempunctata, Neoceratitis asiatica, Jaapiella sp., and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests, and Psylliodes obscurofaciata and Phthorimaea sp. were general pests. In organic field, the frequent disaster pests were the same species as those in abandoned field, while P. indicus, Jaapiella sp. and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests. In chemical control field, A. palida, Aphis sp., P. sinica, and P. indicus were the frequent disaster pests, while Jaapiella sp. and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests. Optimal 5 separations most fitted the division of pest sub-communities in L. barbarum fields, which were infancy period (from March 28 to April 15), outbreak I period (from April 15 to July 18), dormancy period (from July 18 to September 8), outbreak II period (from September 8 to October 15), and recession period (after October 15). The matrix of correlation coefficient showed that the dynamics of pests in L. barbarum fields under different managements were significantly correlated with each other, suggesting that the dynamics of pest populations was similar in different L. barbarum fields, which had two population establishment stages and one exponential growth stage in every year. The optimal controlling stages were from late infancy period to early and middle outbreak I periods, and from late dormancy period to early outbreak II period, which were very critical for pest control. PMID:19565765

Zhao, Zi-Hua; Zhang, Rong; He, Da-Han; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Zong-Shan

2009-04-01

41

© 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. Poultry integrated pest management: Status and future  

E-print Network

manure arthropods, rodents Modern commercial poultry production under large companies is expanding worldwide with similar methods and housing, and the accompanying arthropod and rodent pest problems. The pests increase the cost of production and are factors in the spread of avian diseases. The biology, behavior and control of ectoparasites and premise pests are described in relation to the different housing and production practices for broiler breeders, turkey breeders, growout (broilers and turkeys), caged-layers, and pullets. Ectoparasites include Ornithonyssus fowl mites, Dermanyssus chicken mites, lice, bedbugs, fleas, and argasid fowl ticks. Premise pests include Alphitobius darkling beetles, Der-mestes hide beetles, the house fly and several related filth fly species, calliphorid blow flies, moths, cockroaches, and rodents. Populations of these pests are largely determined by the housing, waste, and flock management prac-tices. An integrated pest management (IPM) approach, tailored to the different production systems, is required for satisfactory poultry pest control. Biosecurity, preventing the introduction of pests and diseases into a facility, is critical. Poultry IPM, based on pest identification, pest population monitoring, and methods of cultural, biological, and chemical control, is elucidated. The structure of the sophisticated, highly integrated poultry industry provides a situation conducive to refinement and wider implementation of IPM.

Richard C. Axtell

1998-01-01

42

Spatial distribution of pest insects in oilseed rape: implications for integrated pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect pests, plant growth and plant yield in a crop of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) were studied to assess the potential value of spatial information in integrated pest management for this crop. Ceutorhynchus assimilis Payk., Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus (Marsh.), Meligethes aeneus (Fab.) and Dasineura brassicae Winn. were sampled from the nodes of a rectangular grid across the crop. Their

Andrew W Ferguson; Zdis?aw Klukowski; Barbara Walczak; Suzanne J Clark; Moira A Mugglestone; Joe N Perry; Ingrid H Williams

2003-01-01

43

IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For years the pest Management Professional has relied on visual and manual inspections to locate insect pest infestations. As building materials have improved, the ability to locate pest problems has become more difficult since building materials are often able to mask the existence of pest infestation. Additionally, these improved building materials have contributed to the pest problem by providing a convenient food and nesting source. Within the past five years, the Pest Management Industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestation by detecting evidence of latent moisture within structures. This paper discusses the use of thermal imaging to detect thermal patterns associated with insect infestation, verification of data and special challenges associated with the inspection process.

Grossman, Jon L.

2005-03-01

44

Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

45

Spatially Optimal Habitat Management For Natural Pest Control Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of crop pests by their natural enemies represents an important ecosystem service that maintains the stability of agricultural systems and has the potential to mitigate pest control costs. Recently, there has been growing interest in enhancing natural control services via habitat management that provides resources for adult natural enemies, such as food and shelter. Management of natural enemy

Wei Zhang; Wopke van derr Werf; Scott M. Swinton

2007-01-01

46

History and ecological basis for areawide pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The traditional approach to pest management is to treat the crop or commodity in a particular management unit before an economically significant infestation of the pest has developed. Determining the need to take corrective action is based on the economic threshold concept, which forms the basis of...

47

Development of Integrated Pest Management in Texas Citrus.  

E-print Network

to develop a more effective and less expensive pest management program. HISTORY OF PEST PROBLEMS California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), ",as the most destructive citrus pest in the LRGV until 1933 (7). Citrus spray oil was the principal... (mainly in dust form) as the controlling agent for citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ash mead). However, the continued use of sulfur resulted in increased populations of armored scales (6, 30). As far back as 1929, parasites and predators had...

Dean, H.A.; French, J. Victor; Meyerdirk, Dale

1983-01-01

48

Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

Parker, Thomas A.

49

The Ohio Schools Pest Management Survey: A Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the Environmental Studies Senior Capstone Seminar class at Denison University helped the state of Ohio work to prevent harmful pesticide use in schools. In cooperation with Ohio State University's Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Schools Program, Denison conducted a statewide survey of school districts to determine current pest…

2001

50

Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

2011-01-01

51

Crop pest management with an aerial imaging system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

52

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 93 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT Jeremy treatments should only be applied when numbers of insect pests reach levels that correspond to the economic K. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist Insect pests are major limiting factors in producing

Stuart, Steven J.

53

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 100 COTTON INSECT MANAGEMENT Jeremy treatments should only be applied when numbers of insect pests reach levels that correspond to the economic K. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist Insect pests are major limiting factors in producing

Duchowski, Andrew T.

54

An Integrated Pest Management survey of Texas school districts  

E-print Network

. Control measures used by schools were categorized as non-chemical and chemical. Non-chemical pest control measures (mechanical and cultural controls) were used by at least 42% of Texas schools. Results of the survey indicated that many different pesticides...

Shodrock, Damon Leon

1994-01-01

55

Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early care and…

California Childcare Health Program, 2011

2011-01-01

56

The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management  

PubMed Central

Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S.; Tatchell, G. Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P.

2011-01-01

57

URBAN PEST MANAGEMENT OF CARPENTER ANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In North America 20 species of Camponotus have been recorded as pest species causing either structural damage or occurring as nuisance species. Structurally damaging species are found in the subgenera: Camponotus. Tmaemyrmex, and Myrmothrix. Carpenter ants causing the most serious damage in eastern United States include C. pennsylvmicus, C. herculeanus, and C. noveboracenris while C. modoc and C. vicinus are

LAUREL D. HANSEN; ROGER D. AKRE

58

2013 GEORGIA PEST MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK Commercial Edition  

E-print Network

AID FOR POISONING 1. Stop the pesticide exposure as quickly as possible. CALL 911 IF SYMPTOMS, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data. label when applying any pesticide. Please send

Arnold, Jonathan

59

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT EDUCATOR PILOT PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

German cockroach is the most common pest of urban, low-income housing and is associated with high pesticide use by residents. Cockroach allergen is implicated in asthma exacerbation and initiation and in the growing social and medical aspects of the disease. A safe and secure home environment is an environmental justice issue, and environmentally sound and effective models of cockroach control

DON RIVARD; H. PATRICIA HYNES; CARRIE CONDON; DANIEL R. BROOKS; JIM MCCARTHY

60

Managing nematode pests in Midsouth soybeans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean producers must contend with nematode pests, several species of which may inhabit a single field. Significant yield losses caused by soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines), southern root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita), reniform (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and other nematodes were estimated at 2.6% (...

61

Safer Schools: Achieving a Healthy Learning Environment through Integrated Pest Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated pest management (IPM) is a program of prevention, monitoring, and control that offers the opportunity to eliminate or drastically reduce hazardous pesticide use. IPM is intended to establish a program that uses cultural, mechanical, biological, and other non-toxic practices, and only introduces least-hazardous chemicals as a last…

2003

62

Stored Grain Insect Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (IPM)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When wheat is mixed with wheat from other locations as it moves through the grain-marketing system, insect infestation can be spread to larger quantities of wheat, which increases the overall cost of insect pest management. In Kansas and Oklahoma, insect infestations currently are managed primarily...

63

Pest management benefits of compost mulch in apple orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of compost application on weed, fungal, and insect pest management in apple orchards was investigated from 1999 to 2001. Composted poultry manure was applied in June 1999 to half of two small research orchards which had previously received little or no management. The compost provided weed control for 1 year after application. There was no effect of compost

M. W. Brown; Thomas Tworkoski

2004-01-01

64

Cockroach Clean-Up Tour . Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy/mix of tatics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests, including human…

Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

65

Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

66

PEST MANAGEMENT Douglas-fir pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis  

E-print Network

PEST MANAGEMENT Douglas-fir pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in North trap types and at different loads for trapping the Douglas-Ã?r pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis Columbia. This moth causes considerable problems in lodgepole pine seed orchards at this location. No signi

Lindgren, Staffan

67

Supplemental Insert for "Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower,"  

E-print Network

full grown (http://entowww.tamu.edu/images/insects/fieldguide/bimg178.html). Biology and Life CycleSupplemental Insert for "Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower," Publication L-1488 (January February 2002 We are preparing this insert to update growers on additional sunflower insect concerns

Mukhtar, Saqib

68

Transgenic Arthropods for Pest Management Programs: Risks and Realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to genetically engineer arthropods using recombinant DNA meopens new opportunities for improving pest management programs but also creates new responsibilities, including evaluation of the potential risks of releasing transgenic arthropods into the environment. It is now becoming easier to transform diverse species of arthropods by a variety of recombinant DNA methods. Useful genes and genetic regulatory elements are

Marjorie A. Hoy

2000-01-01

69

INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS (IGRS) IN PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation is part of the symposium "Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Stored Product Entomology", presented at the 5th National IPM Conference. The use of IGRs as grain protectants, contact insecticides, and aerosols will be described and discussed using examples from current research proj...

70

Managing Insect and Mite Pests in Vegetable Gardens  

E-print Network

Growing your own vegetables is a pleasant and satisfying way to enjoy nature and save money. But managing garden pest populations in the vegetable garden isn't always easy. This publication discusses ways to accomplish that goal. 38 pages and 3...

Jackman, John A.

2008-02-19

71

IPM of mirids in Australian cotton: Why and when pest managers spray for mirids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) aims to maintain pests below an economic threshold to avoid yield loss without resorting to unnecessary insecticide applications, rather than eradicate all pests in a crop. However, convincing growers to spray only if pest numbers exceed a threshold can be difficult, especially if the threshold changes in response to external factors, as in the case of

M. E. A. Whitehouse

2011-01-01

72

Threshold conditions for integrated pest management models with pesticides that have residual effects.  

PubMed

Impulsive differential equations (hybrid dynamical systems) can provide a natural description of pulse-like actions such as when a pesticide kills a pest instantly. However, pesticides may have long-term residual effects, with some remaining active against pests for several weeks, months or years. Therefore, a more realistic method for modelling chemical control in such cases is to use continuous or piecewise-continuous periodic functions which affect growth rates. How to evaluate the effects of the duration of the pesticide residual effectiveness on successful pest control is key to the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) in practice. To address these questions in detail, we have modelled IPM including residual effects of pesticides in terms of fixed pulse-type actions. The stability threshold conditions for pest eradication are given. Moreover, effects of the killing efficiency rate and the decay rate of the pesticide on the pest and on its natural enemies, the duration of residual effectiveness, the number of pesticide applications and the number of natural enemy releases on the threshold conditions are investigated with regard to the extent of depression or resurgence resulting from pulses of pesticide applications and predator releases. Latin Hypercube Sampling/Partial Rank Correlation uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques are employed to investigate the key control parameters which are most significantly related to threshold values. The findings combined with Volterra's principle confirm that when the pesticide has a strong effect on the natural enemies, repeated use of the same pesticide can result in target pest resurgence. The results also indicate that there exists an optimal number of pesticide applications which can suppress the pest most effectively, and this may help in the design of an optimal control strategy. PMID:22205243

Tang, Sanyi; Liang, Juhua; Tan, Yuanshun; Cheke, Robert A

2013-01-01

73

Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…

Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan

2002-01-01

74

Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program  

E-print Network

. Muniappan, program director Larry Vaughan, associate program director Maria Elisa Christie, Women................................................................................................................................14 Regional IPM Program for East Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda....................................................83 Management of the Weed Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) in Eastern and Southern Africa

75

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 233 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL Jeremy K the beans back, and then count and identify insects. Divide by three to get the number of pests per row foot. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist The keys to managing insect pests in soybean are to: Scout fields

Stuart, Steven J.

76

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 245 SOYBEAN INSECT CONTROL Jeremy K the beans back, and then count and identify insects. Divide by three to get the number of pests per row foot. Greene, Research/Extension Entomologist The keys to managing insect pests in soybean are to: 1. Scout

Duchowski, Andrew T.

77

Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower.  

E-print Network

............ 11 INSECTICIDE APPLICATION ............... 12 POLICY FOR MAKING INSECT CONTROL SUGGESTIONS ................. 12 PROTECTING THE BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES ...... 13 INSECTICIDES USED ON SUNFLOWER GROUPED ACCORDING... TO THEIR RELATIVE HAZARDS TO HONEY BEES .... 14 PRECAUTIONS ............................ 15 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I wish to thank Dr. Charlie E. Rogers, USDA ARS research entomologist, whose research and review made this publication possible. MANAGING INSECT TEXAS...

Patrick, Carl D.

1983-01-01

78

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) integrated pest management programs for fruiting vegetables in Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The spread of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) resulted in the worldwide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. Efforts to control the pest and the thrips-vectored tospoviruses with calendar applicat...

79

A systems approach for management of pests and pathogens of nursery crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horticultural nurseries are heterogeneous and spatially complex agricultural systems, which present formidable challenges to management of diseases and pests. Moreover, nursery plants shipped interstate and internationally can serve as important vectors for pathogens and pests that threaten both ag...

80

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 62:673677 (2006) Resistance to cyfluthrin  

E-print Network

and tetrachlorvinphos in the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus, collected from the eastern United States Ronda L mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer), is an important pest in poultry facilities. The toxicity of cyfluthrin and tetrachlorvinphos to five strains of the lesser mealworm was compared with the toxicity

Kaufman, Phillip E.

81

Botanicals in Pest Management: Current Status and Future Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems caused by synthetic pesticides and their residues have increased the need for effective biodegradable pesticides\\u000a with greater selectivity. Alternative strategies have included the search for new types of pesticides which are often effective\\u000a against a limited number of specific target species, are biodegradable into nontoxic products and are suitable for use in\\u000a integrated pest management programs. The natural

Sanjay Guleria; A. K. Tiku

82

Natural Toxins for Use in Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There are highly successful products based on natural compounds in the major pesticide classes. These include the herbicide glufosinate (synthetic phosphinothricin), the spinosad insecticides, and the strobilurin fungicides. These and other examples of currently marketed natural product-based pesticides, as well as natural toxins that show promise as pesticides from our own research are discussed. PMID:22069667

Duke, Stephen O.; Cantrell, Charles L.; Meepagala, Kumudini M.; Wedge, David E.; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Schrader, Kevin K.

2010-01-01

83

Challenges with managing insecticide resistance in agricultural pests, exemplisfied by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci  

PubMed Central

For many key agricultural pests, successful management of insecticide resistance depends not only on modifying the way that insecticides are deployed, but also on reducing the total number of treatments applied. Both approaches benefit from a knowledge of the biological characteristics of pests that promote or may retard the development of resistance. For the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), these factors include a haplodiploid breeding system that encourages the rapid selection and fixation of resistance genes, its breeding cycle on a succession of treated or untreated hosts, and its occurrence on and dispersal from high-value crops in greenhouses and glasshouses. These factors, in conjunction with often intensive insecticide use, have led to severe and widespread resistance that now affects several novel as well as conventional control agents. Resistance-management strategies implemented on cotton in Israel, and subsequently in south-western USA, have nonetheless so far succeeded in arresting the resistance treadmill in B. tabaci through a combination of increased chemical diversity, voluntary or mandatory restrictions on the use of key insecticides, and careful integration of chemical control with other pest-management options. In both countries, the most significant achievement has been a dramatic reduction in the number of insecticide treatments applied against whiteflies on cotton, increasing the prospect of sustained use of existing and future insecticides.

Denholm, I.

1998-01-01

84

IPM: Integrated Pest Management Kit for Building Managers. How To Implement an Integrated Pest Management Program in Your Building(s).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This management kit introduces building managers to the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), and provides the knowledge and tools needed to implement an IPM program in their buildings. It discusses the barriers to implementing an IPM program, why such a program should be used, and the general guidelines for its implementation. Managerial…

Mitchell, Brad

85

Integrated pest management and weed management in the United States and Canada.  

PubMed

There is interest in more diverse weed management tactics because of evolved herbicide resistance in important weeds in many US and Canadian crop systems. While herbicide resistance in weeds is not new, the issue has become critical because of the adoption of simple, convenient and inexpensive crop systems based on genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant crop cultivars. Importantly, genetic engineering has not been a factor in rice and wheat, two globally important food crops. There are many tactics that help to mitigate herbicide resistance in weeds and should be widely adopted. Evolved herbicide resistance in key weeds has influenced a limited number of growers to include a more diverse suite of tactics to supplement existing herbicidal tactics. Most growers still emphasize herbicides, often to the exclusion of alternative tactics. Application of integrated pest management for weeds is better characterized as integrated weed management, and more typically integrated herbicide management. However, adoption of diverse weed management tactics is limited. Modifying herbicide use will not solve herbicide resistance in weeds, and the relief provided by different herbicide use practices is generally short-lived at best. More diversity of tactics for weed management must be incorporated in crop systems. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25346235

Owen, Micheal Dk; Beckie, Hugh J; Leeson, Julia Y; Norsworthy, Jason K; Steckel, Larry E

2014-10-27

86

Bug Off: A Guide for Integrated Pest Management in Granville Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes options for the Granville schools when dealing with pests. It is based on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a philosophy that employs safe and practical pest control methods. The guide can be used to incorporate IPM philosophy into the school systems. The first section provides the environmental context for an interest in…

2001

87

7. Rodenticides — Their Role in Rodent Pest Management in Tropical Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rodents are serious pests of tropical agriculture. Most crops are attacked, particularly those grown for food by smallholders in the tropics. Globally, principal pest species include Sigmodon hispidus , Arvicanthis niloticus , Mastomys natalensis , Meriones spp., Bandicota spp., Rattus argentiventer and Microtus spp. Crop protection specialists usually recommend control programs based on integrated pest management (IPM) technologies involving the

Alan P. Buckle

88

Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests  

PubMed Central

Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. Abbreviation: MFR Maximum field rate PMID:16341246

Brunner, J. F.; Beers, E. H.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

2005-01-01

89

Role of imidacloprid in integrated pest management of California citrus.  

PubMed

Portions of three commercial citrus orchards were treated for 1 yr with foliar imidacloprid or for 2 yr with a systemic formulation in a replicated plot design to determine the impact of this neonicotinoid on the San Joaquin Valley California citrus integrated pest management (IPM) program. Foliar-applied imidacloprid had little effect on California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell); cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell; or citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), populations. Short-term suppression of the parasitoids Aphytis melinus DeBach and Comperiella bifasciata Howard; vedalia, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant); and the predacious mite Euseius tularensis (Congdon) were observed. Suppression of natural enemies allowed scales and mites to maintain higher populations in the treated areas compared with the nontreated areas. Thus, foliar imidacloprid did not exhibit control of these citrus pest species, and it disrupted biological control. Systemically applied imidacloprid suppressed California red scale and citricola scale populations 2-3 mo after treatment. Suppression of parasitoids of the California red scale also was observed. Thus, treatments of systemic imidacloprid applied in areawide management programs for invasive pests would provide a benefit of California red scale and citricola scale suppression. However, this treatment provided only single-season control of citricola scale, it was somewhat disruptive of biological control, and it did not suppress densities of either scale as low as a treatment of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos for citricola scale or the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen for California red scale. Insecticides with longer periods of efficacy and greater IPM compatibility than imidacloprid should be used for a sustainable IPM approach in California citrus. PMID:18459411

Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Robillard, S M; Gorden, J M

2008-04-01

90

The Case of the Wild House Mouse. Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy and mix of tactics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests. These include…

Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

91

Bacterial Endophytic Communities in the Grapevine Depend on Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

2014-01-01

92

Integrated pest management in field vegetable crops in northern Europe — with focus on two key pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in (1) insecticide application, (2) supervised control, and (3) pest forecasting systems have each helped to reduce considerably the amounts of insecticides required to control fly, caterpillar and aphid infestations in vegetable crops in northern Europe. By growing plants that are partially resistant to certain major pests, it is now possible to apply even less insecticide than the dose

S Finch; R. H Collier

2000-01-01

93

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 TOBACCO DISEASE MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 276 TOBACCO DISEASE MANAGEMENT Bruce Fortnum, Extension Specialist General Information Endemic diseases such as black shank, bacterial wilt and root-knot nematodes always cause significant disease losses in South Carolina. These important

Stuart, Steven J.

94

Green BulletinGreen Bulletin Information for pest management professionals and pesticide applicatorsInformation for pest management professionals and pesticide applicators  

E-print Network

directly onto concrete surfaces, or water or wind can transfer pesticide residues onto concrete following for pesticide residues to contaminate runoff water. This arti professionals and pesticide applicatorsInformation for pest management professionals and pesticide applicators

Ishida, Yuko

95

Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.  

PubMed

Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied. PMID:17523143

Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

2007-08-01

96

Farmer's perceptions of rodents as crop pests : Knowl- edge, attitudes and practices in rodent pest management in Tanzania and Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted using a structured questionnaire to obtain information about the nature and extent of rodent damage to crops, farmer's perceptions of crop pests and their knowledge, attitudes and practices to their management in Tanzania and Ethiopia. The study was carried out in five localities (Makuyu -Central Tanzania; Chunya-Southwest Tanzania; Ziway and Adami Tulu (south of Addis Ababa)

Rhodes H. Makundi; Afework Bekele; Herwig Leirs; Winnie Rwamugira; Loth S. Mulungu

97

Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Child Care Providers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children and early care and education (ECE) staff are exposed to pesticides used to manage pests in ECE facilities in the United States and elsewhere. The objective of this pilot study was to encourage child care programs to reduce pesticide use and child exposures by developing and evaluating an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Toolkit for…

Alkon, Abbey; Kalmar, Evie; Leonard, Victoria; Flint, Mary Louise; Kuo, Devina; Davidson, Nita; Bradman, Asa

2012-01-01

98

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 62:4656 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/ps.1126  

E-print Network

risks of pesticides: the utility of a Risk Quotient ranking approach across refinements of exposure risks among pesticides would change if refinements of exposure are incorporated into the RQ calculations of the degree of exposure refinement. 2005 Society of Chemical Industry Keywords: pesticide exposure; pesticide

Peterson, Robert K. D.

99

Particle films for managing arthropod pests of apple.  

PubMed

A two-season study showed that a calendar-based spray program to manage arthropod pests with kaolin (60 g/liter) applied at the rate of 450 liters/ha was effective against European apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae); apple red bug, Lygidea mendax Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae); pear plant bug, Lygocoris communis (Knight) (Heteroptera: Miridae); and the apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Although it reduced Curculionidae damage, the level of damage was still too high. It had no effect on apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae); codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); and tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae). Laboratory studies showed fewer gravid twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and fewer eggs laid by these females. The study also showed no effect of kaolin on Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). PMID:18330129

Bostanian, N J; Racette, G

2008-02-01

100

Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.  

PubMed

Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good. PMID:25423598

Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

2015-01-01

101

Potential of mass trapping for long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species.  

PubMed

Semiochemical-based pest management programs comprise three major approaches that are being used to provide environmentally friendly control methods of insect pests: mass trapping, "lure and kill," and mating disruption. In this article, we review the potential of mass trapping in long-term pest management as well as in the eradication of invasive species. We discuss similarities and differences between mass trapping and other two main approaches of semiochemical-based pest management programs. We highlight several study cases where mass trapping has been used either in long-term pest management [e.g., codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders); bark beetles, palm weevils, corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.); and fruit flies] or in eradication of invasive species [e.g., gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.); and boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). We list the critical issues that affect the efficacy of mass trapping and compare these with previously published models developed to investigate mass trapping efficacy in pest control. We conclude that mass trapping has good potential to suppress or eradicate low-density, isolated pest populations; however, its full potential in pest management has not been adequately realized and therefore encourages further research and development of this technology. PMID:17066782

El-Sayed, A M; Suckling, D M; Wearing, C H; Byers, J A

2006-10-01

102

Integrated pest management in the U.S.: progress and promise.  

PubMed Central

In the U.S., where heavy use of insecticides has been commonplace for years, the development of proper integrated insect pest control cannot get underway unless there is a changed use pattern for such chemicals. A changed use pattern, however, cannot be accomplished without much study to establish the requirements for integrated control for each major crop situation. In this paper recent developments in a number of crop areas in the U.S. in which the necessary study has been begun are reviewed. Important phases in the development of integrated control programs include: the single tactics phase, the multitactic phase, phase, the biological monitoring phase, the modeling phase, the management and optimization phase, and the implementation phase. Several crops are discussed in relation to how far along we are in the development of practical programs of insect pest control. These are cotton, apples, alfalfa, soybeans, citrus, corn, cereal grains, tobacco and pine forests. Several of these programs have already made substantial headway, e.g., those for cotton, alfalfa, apples, tobacco, and soybeans, although the accomplishments have not been even or parellel with respect to the phases of development where progress has been good. The review of developments in these crops suggests that programs of control for individual crops and perhaps for complexes of associated crops will be developed according to specific needs of the crop, the geographic area and the pests, the technologies available and the socioeconomic and political factors of relevance. The tendency will be toward greater use of science in pest control decision-making, with extensive use of biological monitoring to establish realistic levels of threatened damage to the crop, and greater concern given to possible profit reductions and environmental disturbances of applying an insecticide, as well as the possible gain from doing so. PMID:789064

Huffaker, C B; Croft, B A

1976-01-01

103

Integrated pest management in the U.S.: progress and promise.  

PubMed

In the U.S., where heavy use of insecticides has been commonplace for years, the development of proper integrated insect pest control cannot get underway unless there is a changed use pattern for such chemicals. A changed use pattern, however, cannot be accomplished without much study to establish the requirements for integrated control for each major crop situation. In this paper recent developments in a number of crop areas in the U.S. in which the necessary study has been begun are reviewed. Important phases in the development of integrated control programs include: the single tactics phase, the multitactic phase, phase, the biological monitoring phase, the modeling phase, the management and optimization phase, and the implementation phase. Several crops are discussed in relation to how far along we are in the development of practical programs of insect pest control. These are cotton, apples, alfalfa, soybeans, citrus, corn, cereal grains, tobacco and pine forests. Several of these programs have already made substantial headway, e.g., those for cotton, alfalfa, apples, tobacco, and soybeans, although the accomplishments have not been even or parellel with respect to the phases of development where progress has been good. The review of developments in these crops suggests that programs of control for individual crops and perhaps for complexes of associated crops will be developed according to specific needs of the crop, the geographic area and the pests, the technologies available and the socioeconomic and political factors of relevance. The tendency will be toward greater use of science in pest control decision-making, with extensive use of biological monitoring to establish realistic levels of threatened damage to the crop, and greater concern given to possible profit reductions and environmental disturbances of applying an insecticide, as well as the possible gain from doing so. PMID:789064

Huffaker, C B; Croft, B A

1976-04-01

104

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 CORN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 43 CORN INSECT CONTROL Francis to prevent or avoid injury, transgenic Bt corn, at-planting insecticides (including seed treatments in each field where corn is to be planted. Major insect pests of corn in South Carolina. Insect

Duchowski, Andrew T.

105

POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT Public Service Assistant: Integrated Pest Management and Forest Health Program  

E-print Network

POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT Public Service Assistant: Integrated Pest Management and Forest Health: Twelve month, non- tenure track Public Service Assistant with responsibilities in Integrated Pest and Ecosystem Health at UGA and serve as Assistant Director of the Southern Region IPM Center. Specific

Arnold, Jonathan

106

Integrating augmentative biocontrol and inherited sterility for management of lepidopteran pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pest management can benefit from the integration of biological control agents and the release of sterile insect pests (hosts). Released sterile or semi-sterile insects and their sterile progeny may augment natural enemies by serving as hosts for build-up of the natural enemies prior to the t...

107

RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF STORED-GRAIN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Automation of grain sampling for insect pests should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management programs. Currently, there are acoustic sensors and electronic grain probe traps that are available for monitoring insects in stored grain. Both the acoustic and electronic g...

108

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

Agnello, Arthur M.

109

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

Agnello, Arthur M.

110

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

Agnello, Arthur M.

111

2012 IPM Internships Texas AgriLife Extension Service and Texas Pest Management Association  

E-print Network

2012 IPM Internships Texas AgriLife Extension Service and Texas Pest Management Association Number Available: Up to 9 Majors Eligible to Participate: IPM, Entomology, Soil and Crop Sciences, Plant Pathology Responsibilities: Interns have a variety of responsibilities including scouting for pests, providing leadership

Behmer, Spencer T.

112

Insect pest problems in tropical agroforestry systems: Contributory factors and strategies for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agroforestry trees are attacked by a wide spectrum of insects at all stages of their growth just like other annual and perennial crops. Pest management in agroforestry has not received much attention so far, but recent emphasis on producing high value tree products in agroforestry and using improved germplasm in traditional systems, and emergence of serious pest problems in some

M. R. Rao; M. P. Singh; R. Day

2000-01-01

113

Bird cherry-oat aphid (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Aphidinae): Biology, pest status, and management in wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a worldwide pest of wheat and other small grains. This paper provides an overview of BCOA life history, reviews its pest status in wheat, synthesizes and integrates information on different management strategies, and gives up-to-date inf...

114

Pest Management and Environmental Quality. Course 181. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture, Family Living and Community Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…

Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others

115

Possible impact of radar on pest management operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radar in making and maintaining contact with the most important populations of major pests in different stages of flight is presented. The desert locust and the African armyworm are discussed in understanding problems and developing a more effective control of pests.

Rainey, R. C.

1979-01-01

116

Manipulation of arthropod pathogens for integrated pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms and nematodes has been developed for microbial biological control of insect and other arthropod pests. These control agents have many characteristics that determine their capacities to provide reliable pest control, and these characteristics must be ta...

117

Sirex woodwasp: a model for evolving management paradigms of invasive forest pests.  

PubMed

The Sirex woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, and its fungal mutualist, Amylostereum areolatum, together constitute one of the most damaging invasive pests of pine. Despite a century of research and well-established management programs, control remains unpredictable and spread continues to new areas. Variable success in managing this pest has been influenced by complex invasion patterns, the multilayered nature of biological interactions, the varying local ecologies, and microevolutionary population processes in both the biocontrol organisms and in the wasps. Recent research findings are challenging the historical perspectives on methods to manage the Sirex woodwasp, calling for management programs to incorporate the variable local dynamics affecting this pest complex. In this regard, the Sirex woodwasp provides a superb model to illustrate the need for a different approach to develop efficient and sustainable management tools to deal with the growing and global nature of pest invasions in forests and plantations. PMID:25386723

Slippers, Bernard; Hurley, Brett P; Wingfield, Michael J

2015-01-01

118

Who Wants To Be an IPM Super Sleuth? Integrated Pest Management Educational Activities & Resources for Kids of All Ages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents games and activities on integrated pest management (IPM) for home targeting grades 1-7. The activities and games use a problem-solving approach based on pest knowledge to develop an understanding of pest management. Three cases are presented: (1) "Inspection is the Key to IPM Success" includes two activities--"Word Searches"…

Walejko, Gina K.; Colon, Joseph L.

119

Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

120

MONTANA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION Title: Developing Integrated Pest Management Programs for Insects in the Western  

E-print Network

1 MONTANA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION Title: Developing Integrated Pest Management Programs for Insects in the Western Triangle Agricultural Area of Montana Organizing Department: Department of Research and Superintendent, Western Triangle Ag Research Center (WTARC), Montana State University. Cooperating Departments

Maxwell, Bruce D.

121

Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

122

Use of Airborne Multi-Spectral Imagery in Pest Management Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

123

INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN STORED PRODUCTS USING REDUCED-RISK INSECTICIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In recent years there has been increased interest throughout most developed countries in replacing older conventional neurotoxic insecticides used in pest management programs, including those used for stored products. Registrations for older compounds are being either withdrawn completely or altere...

124

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 163 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut Herbicide Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 164 Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut

Duchowski, Andrew T.

125

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 152 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut Herbicide/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut (cont) Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode of Action Preharvest

Stuart, Steven J.

126

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 270 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant (Incorporated) Herbicides for Weed Management in Tobacco Pretransplant (Surface Applied) Herbicides for Weed Management in Tobacco Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode

Duchowski, Andrew T.

127

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 257 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant (Incorporated) Herbicides for Weed Management in Tobacco for Weed Management in Tobacco Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode of Action Preharvest Interval Restricted

Stuart, Steven J.

128

Intensive olive orchards on sloping land: good water and pest management are essential.  

PubMed

There is intensive cultivation of olives on sloping land in Jaen-Granada (Spain), Basilicata (Italy) and Western Crete (Greece). The intensive olive groves here are characterised by a tree density of about 250treesha(-1), yearly fertilisation and pruning, several chemical sprays for pest control, soil tillage once to thrice per year and irrigation up to 2700m3ha(-1)yr(-1). Intensive management results in high yields of 3600-6500kgha(-1) but also higher labour costs of 1154-1590euroha(-1)yr(-1), varying per area. The major environmental concerns in this system are related to chemical residues in the fruit, the extinction of useful insects, the depletion of groundwater resources, the pollution of soil and water and the erosion of soil. This paper describes the impact of intensive orchard management on natural resources and gives recommendations for soil and water conservation, reduction of chemicals use and biodiversity enhancement. The specific recommendations for the relevant stakeholders--farmers, technicians, agricultural services and policy makers--are based on the experimental evaluation of different agricultural practices and a socio-economic analysis of local and global production and markets. PMID:17923248

Metzidakis, I; Martinez-Vilela, A; Castro Nieto, G; Basso, B

2008-11-01

129

A handheld decision support system to facilitate improved insect pest management in Australian cotton systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision support systems (DSS) are widely accepted in the Australian cotton industry for assisting with integrated pest management (IPM), crop nutrition and other aspects of information transfer. EntomoLOGIC, part of the CottonLOGIC software suite, is one example. To operate EntomoLOGIC, users select sample areas in their cotton fields and collect information on the types of beneficial and ‘pest’ insects present,

M. P Bange; S. A Deutscher; D Larsen; D Linsley; S Whiteside

2004-01-01

130

SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR ANTS *Important Note*  

E-print Network

and help control other pests, including fly larvae, crickets, and termites. Some species of ants colonies. Males die soon after mating. Winged ants are often confused with termites (see Figure 2). However, ants are distinguished from termites by three distinct features. First, ants have elbowed antennae

Liskiewicz, Maciej

131

Phytochemicals for pest management: current advances and future opportunities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review provides examples of natural product-based pesticides that are now commercial successes, as well as a few examples of the many natural compounds that we have studied which are active against pests. Our group’s research is but a small sampling of the extensive, international effort to di...

132

Plant essential oils for pest and disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain essential plant oils, widely used as fragrances and flavors in the perfume and food industries, have long been reputed to repel insects. Recent investigations in several countries confirm that some plant essential oils not only repel insects, but have contact and fumigant insecticidal actions against specific pests, and fungicidal actions against some important plant pathogens. As part of an

Murray B. Isman

2000-01-01

133

BIOLOGICALLY-BASED INSECTICIDES FOR PECAN PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insects and mites can cause severe crop losses in pecan, Carya illinoensis Wang., K. Koch. Use of broad spectrum insecticides can be harmful to beneficial natural enemy populations (e.g., lady beetles and lacewings) and lead to outbreaks of non-targeted pests (e.g., aphids). Thus, due to lack of t...

134

Farm operator perceptions of water quality protective pest management practices: Selected survey findings  

SciTech Connect

The use of pesticides in agriculture often poses a tension between water quality and environmental protection goals on the one hand and the viability of food supplies on the other hand. Pesticides used for field crops (e.g., corn, soy beans and wheat) have been detected in waterbodies, and according to some studies, are apparently finding their way into water supplies. A considerable amount of discretion is allowed in farm operator`s choice of pest management practices, and voluntary behavior becomes an important factor in promoting environmentally protective practices. Thus, it is important to know the attitudes of farmers who make pest management decisions including pesticide choices, toward the use of various water quality protective pest management practices. A number of studies show that more general environmental attitudes reflect a general world view that shapes attitudes toward particular environmental issues. This paper addresses the relationship between the more general environmental attitudes of farmers to their attitudes toward water quality issues and pest management practices which are protective of water quality. Some of the personal tradeoffs farmers are willing to make to enhance environmental controls on pesticides are also explored. Results are based on preliminary findings from a survey of farm operators who grow corn, soybeans and other field crops in three eastern states. The survey was conducted via a mail questionnaire to 2,700 farmers with telephone follow-up during the Fall of 1994. Implications of the findings for pest management in general are discussed.

Zimmerman, R. [Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, New York, NY (United States); Blair, J.; Webb, B. [Univ. of Maryland Survey Research Center, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

135

HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Comparative Study of Integrated Pest Management and Baiting for  

E-print Network

for German Cockroach Management in Public Housing CHANGLU WANG AND GARY W. BENNETT Center for Urban-wide cockroach integrated pest management (IPM) program compared with bait alone treatment in public housing. In total, 12 buildings (66 apartments) were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over 7 mo

Wang, Changlu

136

Concepts of sustainability, motivations for pest management approaches, and implications for communicating change  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effective communication with farmers is an essential component of impacting their decision processes and encouraging changes in pest management practices, but requires a system of research and extension management that differs from that to which most biological scientists are accustomed. We present...

137

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN COTTON  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 63 WEED CONTROL IN COTTON Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Cotton Herbicide any time prior to planting. For best results, apply to weeds that are less than 4 inches tall (less

Stuart, Steven J.

138

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 205 WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Soybean Herbicide time before planting. For best results, apply when weeds are less than 4 inches tall (less than 3 inch

Stuart, Steven J.

139

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 249 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Sunflowers anytime before planting when weeds are small. Use a higher rate for larger weeds. Add a COC (1-2 gal per

Stuart, Steven J.

140

The Probabilistic Economic Injury Level: Incorporating Uncertainty into Pest Management Decision-Making  

E-print Network

is the management costs per production unit (e.g., $/ha), V is the market value per production unit (e.g., $/kg), IFORUM The Probabilistic Economic Injury Level: Incorporating Uncertainty into Pest Management and to use estimates of uncertainty in the determination of EILs. In this paper, we deÃ?ne the probabilistic

Peterson, Robert K. D.

141

Integrated Pest Management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vines<\\/TT>throughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The aim of the research project was to gain insight in the biology and ecology of sweetpotato weevils and, based on

N. E. J. M. Smit

1997-01-01

142

Integrated pest management with stochastic birth rate for prey species  

PubMed Central

Song and Xiang (2006) developed an impulsive differential equations model for a two-prey one-predator model with stage structure for the predator. They demonstrate the conditions on the impulsive period for which a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution exists, as well as conditions on the impulsive period for which the prey species is permanently maintained under an economically acceptable threshold. We extend their model by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. As in Song and Xiang (2006), we find the conditions under which a globally asymptotically stable pest eradication periodic solution exists. In addition, we numerically show the relationship between the stochastically varying birth rate of the prey and the necessary efficacy of the pesticide for which the probability of eradication of the prey species is above 90%. This is significant because the model recognizes varying environmental and climatic conditions which affect the resources needed for pest eradication. PMID:23964194

Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D.; Hrozencik, Daniel

2013-01-01

143

TURFGRASS PEST SCIENCE 2013 (11:776:408; 4 cr.)  

E-print Network

1 TURFGRASS PEST SCIENCE­ 2013 (11:776:408; 4 cr.) Biology, ecology, etiology, and management of Integrated Pest Management (including cultural, biological, and chemical controls) and how it applies insecticide resistance in turfgrass management. Earthworms and golf course management: friend or foe

Chen, Kuang-Yu

144

The ABCs of Non-Toxic Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pest management approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…

Cooper, Susan

1990-01-01

145

The applicability of remote sensing to Earth biological problems. Part 2: The potential of remote sensing in pest management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.

Polhemus, J. T.

1980-01-01

146

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research in application technology for pest management.  

PubMed

A research summary is presented that emphasizes ARS achievements in application technology over the past 2-3 years. Research focused on the improvement of agricultural pesticide application is important from the standpoint of crop protection as well as environmental safety. Application technology research is being actively pursued within the ARS, with a primary focus on application system development, drift management, efficacy enhancement and remote sensing. Research on application systems has included sensor-controlled hooded sprayers, new approaches to direct chemical injection, and aerial electrostatic sprayers. For aerial application, great improvements in on-board flow controllers permit accurate field application of chemicals. Aircraft parameters such as boom position and spray release height are being altered to determine their effect on drift. Other drift management research has focused on testing of low-drift nozzles, evaluation of pulsed spray technologies and evaluation of drift control adjuvants. Research on the use of air curtain sprayers in orchards, air-assist sprayers for row crops and vegetables, and air deflectors on aircraft has documented improvements in application efficacy. Research has shown that the fate of applied chemicals is influenced by soil properties, and this has implications for herbicide efficacy and dissipation in the environment. Remote sensing systems are being used to target areas in the field where pests are present so that spray can be directed to only those areas. Soil and crop conditions influence propensity for weeds and insects to proliferate in any given field area. Research has indicated distinct field patterns favorable for weed growth and insect concentration, which can provide further assistance for targeted spraying. PMID:12846320

Smith, L A; Thomson, S J

2003-01-01

147

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 CORN INSECT CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 42 CORN INSECT CONTROL Francis P. F PHI PGI COMMENTS Armyworm (fall armyworm) Bt-resistant corn AGRISURE CB AGRISURE GT 3000 AGRISURE VIPTERA 3111 AGRISURE VIPTERA 3110 HERCULEX I HERCULEX XTRA YIELDGARD CORN BORER YIELDGARD PLUS YIELDGARD

Stuart, Steven J.

148

Can Pesticide Delivery Methods Play a Role in Sustainable Pest Management?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Conventional insecticides continue to play an important role in greenhouse pest management programs. Penetrating a dense plant canopy can be difficult with a handgun, and there is some evidence that boom sprayers or broadcast applications result in a more uniform deposition than handguns. A large-...

149

German Cockroach Allergen Levels in North Carolina Schools: Comparison of Integrated Pest Management and Conventional  

E-print Network

FORUM German Cockroach Allergen Levels in North Carolina Schools: Comparison of Integrated Pest Management and Conventional Cockroach Control GODFREY NALYANYA, J. CHAD GORE,1 H. MICHAEL LINKER, AND COBY. Med. Entomol. 46(3): 420Ð427 (2009) ABSTRACT Cockroach suppression is fundamental to cockroach

150

Potential for Nonhost Volatiles as Repellents in Integrated Pest Management of Ambrosia Beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiochemical-based mass trapping of the striped ambrosia beetle, Trypodendron lineatum (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), has been the cornerstone of an integrated pest management (IPM) programme for ambrosia beetles on the British Columbia coast since 1981. However, there is no available tactic of protecting logs from attack that could be incorporated into the IPM programme. We tested nonhost volatiles (NHVs) from the

John H. Borden; Leslie J. Chong; Regine Gries; Harold D. Pierce

2001-01-01

151

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 GRASS FORAGE WEED CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 116 GRASS FORAGE WEED CONTROL Mike to control of annual broadleaves and grasses (up to 4" in height). Add a surfactant at 1 pt per 100 gallons Season Grasses Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode of Action Preharvest Interval Restricted Entry Interval

Stuart, Steven J.

152

Initiation of a USDA, ARS Area-Wide Methyl Bromide Alternatives Pest Management Project  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In March, 2006 USDA, ARS decided to establish a 5-year AW Pest Management Project on alternatives to MB. The work will focus on pre-plant alternatives to MB for soil fumigation and occur in the most severely impacted agricultural production systems in South Atlantic and Pacific regions of the U.S.,...

153

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 SOYBEAN DISEASE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 243 SOYBEAN DISEASE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Soybean Pathologist Soybeans can be affected by diseases throughout the growing season. In general seedling diseases are only a problem in fields planted very early when soil temperatures are low

Stuart, Steven J.

154

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 COTTON DISEASE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 108 COTTON DISEASE CONTROL John D. Mueller, Extension Cotton Pathologist SEEDLING DISEASE Seedling diseases occur on cotton in South Carolina pathogens are present in almost every cotton field. Disease incidence and severity in a given field

Stuart, Steven J.

155

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 PEANUT DISEASE CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 177 PEANUT DISEASE CONTROL W. Scott Monfort, Extension Peanut Specialist Seedling Diseases: All peanut seed should be treated with a fungicide diseases such as Cylindrocladium, Aspergillus crown rot, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia. Vitavax PC (Captan

Stuart, Steven J.

156

MANAGING TROPICAL RICE PESTS THROUGH CONSERVATION OF GENERALIST NATURAL ENEMIES AND ALTERNATIVE PREY1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cultivation of tropical Asian rice, which may have originated 9000 yr ago, represents an agricultural ecosystem of unrivaled ecological complexity. We undertook a study of the community ecology of irrigated tropical rice fields on Java, Indonesia, as a supporting study for the Indonesian National Integrated Pest Management Programme, whose purpose is to train farmers to be better agronomists and

WILLIAM H. SETTLE; HARTIAHYO ARIAWAN; ARIEF LUKMAN HAKIM; DADAN HINDAYANA; SRI LESTARI

1996-01-01

157

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL  

E-print Network

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 284 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Jack M. Whetstone, Extension Aquatic Specialist W. Cory Heaton, County Agent Aquatic weeds in ponds or lakes can will depend on factors such as target weeds, non-target plants, and what the water is used for. Physical

Stuart, Steven J.

158

USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2002 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION  

E-print Network

sprays were applied to the plots. In growing areas where there were insufficient numbers of private cropUSDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2002 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION that may eventually demand IPM protocols for market access. Private crop consultants (J. Misiti, R. Paddock

Agnello, Arthur M.

159

Evaluation of water quality in an agricultural watershed as affected by almond pest management practices  

E-print Network

June 2008 Keywords: Water quality Pest management practices Organophosphate Pyrethroid SWAT a b s t r a c t In the last decade, the detection of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in the San Joaquin River prac- tices (PMPs), such as the application of organophosphate (OP) pesticides and oil mixtures during

Zhang, Minghua

160

South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 PEANUT DISEASE CONTROL  

E-print Network

.5-1.0 lb or Orthene 97 6-12 oz. Strip-tillage - surface crop residue reduces the number of thrips landingSouth Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 187 PEANUT DISEASE CONTROL W. Scott row ft (or at least 5/ft for large seeded Virginia types) into good soil moisture. Uniform emergence

Duchowski, Andrew T.

161

Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

162

Pest management systems affect composition but not abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards.  

PubMed

We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus. PMID:24248910

Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor

2014-04-01

163

Insect and Mite Pests of Grain Sorghum -- Management Approaches.  

E-print Network

BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES ............. 22 POLICY STATEMENT FOR MAKING CHEMICAL CONTROL SUGGESTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 24 This publication was prepared by entomologists of the Texas Ag ricultural... regarding possible phytotoxic effects. Where extensive phytotoxicity has occurred in re search programs, the chemicals involved have been eliminated from the recommendations in this publica tion. PROTECTING BEES AND OTHER POLLINATORS FROM INSECTICIDES...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

164

Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.

Altieri, M. A.; Whitcomb, W. H.

1980-11-01

165

Strawberries from integrated pest management and organic farming: phenolic composition and antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

Consumer awareness, pesticide and fertilizer contaminations and environmental concerns have resulted in significant demand for organically grown farm produce. Consumption of berries has become popular among health-conscious consumers due to the high levels of valuable antioxidants, such as anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds. The present study evaluated the influence that organic farming (OF) and integrated pest management (IPM) practise exert on the total phenolic content in 22 strawberry samples from four varieties. Postharvest performance of OF and IPM strawberries grown in the same area in the centre of Portugal and harvested at the same maturity stage were compared. Chemical profiles (phenolic compounds) were determined with the aid of HPLC-DAD/MS. Total phenolic content was higher for OF strawberry extracts. This study showed that the main differences in bioactive phytochemicals between organically and IPM grown strawberries concerned their anthocyanin levels. Organically grown strawberries were significantly higher in antioxidant activity than were the IPM strawberries, as measured by DPPH and FRAP assays. PMID:23442640

Fernandes, Virgínia C; Domingues, Valentina F; de Freitas, Victor; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Mateus, Nuno

2012-10-15

166

MONITORING FOR PEST ACTIVITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Integrated pest management programs for food processing and storage facilities depend on an effective pest-monitoring program. In turn, the foundation of a pest-monitoring program is an understanding of pest behavior and ecology. In this presentation, I will cover issues related to determining pes...

167

Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

168

'Predator-In-First’: A novel bioControl strategy for managing thrips and other key pests in pepper crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pest management in the vegetable and ornamental plant industries in Florida is facing great challenges due to the recent introduction of several invasive pests. Among them, chilli thrips is causing major problems due to its polyphagous nature, lack of effective residual insecticides, and limited ava...

169

German Cockroach Allergen Levels in North Carolina Schools: Comparison of Integrated Pest Management and Conventional Cockroach Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cockroach suppression is fundamental to cockroach allergen mitigation in infested homes. The effects of various cockroach control strategies on cockroach populations and allergen concentration have not been examined in schools. This study was conducted to compare the effec- tiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) and conventional pest control in controlling German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) infestations and concentrations of the

Godfrey Nalyanya; J. Chad Gore; H. Michael Linker; Coby Schal

2009-01-01

170

Intercropping for management of insect pests of castor, Ricinus communis, in the semi-arid tropics of India.  

PubMed

Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On-farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi-arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

Rao, M Srinivasa; Rama Rao, C A; Srinivas, K; Pratibha, G; Vidya Sekhar, S M; Sree Vani, G; Venkateswarlu, B

2012-01-01

171

Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India  

PubMed Central

Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

2012-01-01

172

Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests  

PubMed Central

The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Bonning, Bryony C.

2012-01-01

173

Toxins for transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.  

PubMed

The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests. PMID:22822455

Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Bonning, Bryony C

2012-06-01

174

The role of databases in areawide pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A database is a comprehensive collection of related data organized for convenient access, generally in a computer. The evolution of computer software and the need to distinguish the specialized computer systems for storing and manipulating data, stimulated development of database management systems...

175

IMPACT OF AERATION ON INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN STORED RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aeration is the introduction of low-volume ambient air to cool stored grain and manage temperature during storage. The optimal developmental range for most stored grain insects is between 24 and 32°C, and development stops at about 15°C. This temperature is often used as the target for initial aerat...

176

Potential of "lure and kill" in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species.  

PubMed

"Lure and kill" technology has been used for several decades in pest management and eradication of invasive species. In lure and kill, the insect pest attracted by a semiochemical lure is not "entrapped" at the source of the attractant as in mass trapping, but instead the insect is subjected to a killing agent, which eliminates affected individuals from the population after a short period. In past decades, a growing scientific literature has been published on this concept. This article provides the first review on the potential of lure and kill in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species. We present a summary of lure and kill, either when used as a stand-alone control method or in combination with other methods. We discuss its efficacy in comparison with other control methods. Several case studies in which lure and kill has been used with the aims of long-term pest management (e.g., pink bollworm, Egyptian cotton leafworm, codling moth, apple maggot, biting flies, and bark beetles) or the eradication of invasive species (e.g., tephritid fruit flies and boll weevils) are provided. Subsequently, we identify essential knowledge required for successful lure and kill programs that include lure competitiveness with natural odor source; lure density; lure formulation and release rate; pest population density and risk of immigration; and biology and ecology of the target species. The risks associated with lure and kill, especially when used in the eradication programs, are highlighted. We comment on the cost-effectiveness of this technology and its strengths and weaknesses, and list key reasons for success and failure. We conclude that lure and kill can be highly effective in controlling small, low-density, isolated populations, and thus it has the potential to add value to long-term pest management. In the eradication of invasive species, lure and kill offers a major advantage in effectiveness by its being inverse density dependent and it provides some improvements in efficacy over related control methods. However, the inclusion of insecticides or sterilants in lure and kill formulations presents a major obstacle to public acceptance. PMID:19610395

El-Sayed, A M; Suckling, D M; Byers, J A; Jang, E B; Wearing, C H

2009-06-01

177

An economic analysis of the integrated pest management program for Texas pecans  

E-print Network

Christian University M. A. , Texas ARM University Chair of Advisory Committee; Paul B. Thompson Pecans are an important cash crop in Texas. As such there are many pressures on producers to produce in a pesticide intensive environment. At the same time...AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM POR TEXAS PECANS A Thesis by SCOTT RAYMOND STEELE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM university in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

Steele, Scott Raymond

2012-06-07

178

Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa  

PubMed Central

Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

2013-01-01

179

Pest and Disease Management: Why We Shouldn't Go against the Grain  

PubMed Central

Given the wide range of scales and mechanisms by which pest or disease agents disperse, it is unclear whether there might exist a general relationship between scale of host heterogeneity and spatial spread that could be exploited by available management options. In this model-based study, we investigate the interaction between host distributions and the spread of pests and diseases using an array of models that encompass the dispersal and spread of a diverse range of economically important species: a major insect pest of coniferous forests in western North America, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae); the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, one of the most-widespread and best-studied bacterial plant pathogens; the mosquito Culex erraticus, an important vector for many human and animal pathogens, including West Nile Virus; and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Our model results reveal an interesting general phenomenon: a unimodal (‘humpbacked’) relationship in the magnitude of infestation (an index of dispersal or population spread) with increasing grain size (i.e., the finest scale of patchiness) in the host distribution. Pest and disease management strategies targeting different aspects of host pattern (e.g., abundance, aggregation, isolation, quality) modified the shape of this relationship, but not the general unimodal form. This is a previously unreported effect that provides insight into the spatial scale at which management interventions are most likely to be successful, which, notably, do not always match the scale corresponding to maximum infestation. Our findings could provide a new basis for explaining historical outbreak events, and have implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness. PMID:24098739

Skelsey, Peter; With, Kimberly A.; Garrett, Karen A.

2013-01-01

180

Exploitation of Insect Vibrational Signals Reveals a New Method of Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726

Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

2012-01-01

181

Flowers for better pest control? Effects of apple orchard groundcover management on mites (Acari), leafminers (Lepidoptera, Scitellidae) and fruit pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowering companion plants provide nectar, pollen, alternative prey, shelter and overwintering habitat for arthropod natural enemies and thus might increase their abundance and efficacy in pest control in agricultural fields. We report results of a six-year study on the effects of annual and perennial flowering herbs sown in alleys of an apple orchard on phytophagous and predacious mites, leafminer moths

Viktor Markó; Gábor Jenser; Krisztina Mihályi; Tamás Hegyi; Klára Balázs

2011-01-01

182

Flowers for better pest control? Effects of apple orchard groundcover management on mites (Acari), leafminers (Lepidoptera, Scitellidae), and fruit pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flowering companion plants provide nectar, pollen, alternative prey, shelter, and overwintering habitat for arthropod natural enemies and thus might increase their abundance and efficacy in pest control in agricultural fields. We report the results of a 6-year study on the effects of annual and perennial flowering herbs sown in alleys of an apple orchard on phytophagous and predacious mites, leafminer

Viktor Markó; Gábor Jenser; Krisztina Mihályi; Tamás Hegyi; Klára Balázs

2012-01-01

183

Wildlife as valuable natural resources vs. intolerable pests: A suburban wildlife management model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Management of wildlife in suburban environments involves a complex set of interactions between both human and wildlife populations. Managers need additional tools, such as models, that can help them assess the status of wildlife populations, devise and apply management programs, and convey this information to other professionals and the public. We present a model that conceptualizes how some wildlife populations can fluctuate between extremely low (rare, threatened, or endangered status) and extremely high (overabundant) numbers over time. Changes in wildlife abundance can induce changes in human perceptions, which continually redefine species as a valuable resource to be protected versus a pest to be controlled. Management programs thatincorporate a number of approaches and promote more stable populations of wildlife avoid the problems of the resource versus pest transformation, are less costly to society, and encourage more positive and less negative interactions between humans and wildlife. We presenta case example of the beaver Castor canadensis in Massachusetts to illustrate how this model functions and can be applied. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

DeStefano, S.; Deblinger, R.D.

2005-01-01

184

Conventional and New Biological and Habitat Interventions for Integrated Pest Management Systems: Review and Case Studies using Eldana saccharina Walker(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional Integrated Pest Management (IPM) systems have concentrated on controlling pests through informed use of cultural\\u000a and biological control and host plant resistance characteristics to minimise pesticide interventions. The basic foundation\\u000a of successful IPM systems is a thorough knowledge of the target pest’s life cycle, and its ecological and behavioral interactions\\u000a with the environment and natural controlling factors in both

D. E. Conlong; R. S. Rutherford

185

A three-year field validation study to improve the integrated pest management of hot pepper.  

PubMed

To improve the integrated pest management (IPM) of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control). The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper. PMID:25288956

Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

2013-09-01

186

Optimum timing for integrated pest management: Modelling rates of pesticide application and natural enemy releases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors including pest natural enemy ratios, starting densities, timings of natural enemy releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications and instantaneous killing rates of pesticides on both pests and natural enemies can affect the success of IPM control programmes. To address how such factors influence successful pest control, hybrid impulsive pest–natural enemy models with different frequencies of pesticide sprays

Sanyi Tang; Guangyao Tang; Robert A. Cheke

2010-01-01

187

An economic analysis of integrated pest management strategies for Texas pecans  

E-print Network

vin . Harris (Member) Thomas O. K i (Member) niel I. adberg (Head of De rtment) May 1988 ABSTRACT An Economic Analysis of Pest Management Strategies for Texas Pecans. (May 1988) Timothy A. Woods, B. S. , Purdue University Chair of Advisory... of the Texas Pecan IPM program. Acknowledgement must be made as well for Dr. Joe Pena and his contribution to the budget analysis and for Dr. Carl Shafer for his direction and insight into the price analysis. The writer wishes to thank Marian Schneider...

Woods, Timothy Alan

1988-01-01

188

Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales.  

PubMed

Portions of two commercial citrus orchards were treated for two consecutive years with buprofezin or three consecutive years with pyriproxyfen in a replicated plot design to determine the long-term impact of these insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the San Joaquin Valley California integrated pest management program. Pyriproxyfen reduced the target pest, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, to nondetectable levels on leaf samples approximately 4 mo after treatment. Pyriproxyfen treatments reduced the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach to a greater extent than the parasitoid Comperiella bifasciata Howard collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 33% direct mortality of the parasitoid, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Three years of pyriproxyfen treatments did not maintain citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), below the treatment threshold and cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, was slowly but incompletely controlled. Buprofezin reduced California red scale to very low but detectable levels approximately 5 mo after treatment. Buprofezin treatments resulted in similar levels of reduction of the two parasitoids A. melinus and C. bifasciata collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 7% mortality of the parasitoids, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Citricola scale was not present in this orchard, and cottony cushion scale was slowly and incompletely controlled by buprofezin. These field plots demonstrated that IGRs can act as organophosphate insecticide replacements for California red scale control; however, their narrower spectrum of activity and disruption of coccinellid beetles can allow other scale species to attain primary pest status. PMID:16813306

Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Stewart, J R; Olsen, K D

2006-06-01

189

Plant host associations of Penthaleus species and Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) and implications for integrated pest management.  

PubMed

Integrated pest management programs seek to minimise reliance on pesticides and provide effective long-term control of pests. Cultural control strategies, such as crop rotations, trap and border crops, and weed management, require a thorough understanding of pest host associations. This paper examines the effects of different plant hosts on the persistence and reproduction of blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp., and the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker), which are major agricultural pests in southern Australia. Field and shade-house experiments were conducted testing several crop and plant types. All species survived and reproduced from one mite season to the next when confined to pasture. Canola and a common weed, 'bristly ox-tongue', were suitable hosts for H. destructor and Penthaleus falcatus (Qin and Halliday), whereas Penthaleus sp. x and Penthaleus major (Dugés) failed to persist on these plants. A mixture of wheat and oats sustained P. sp. x and H. destructor, but not P. falcatus or P. major. Lentils were generally a poor host plant for all mite species. These findings show that earth mite species differ in their ability to persist on different plant types, highlighting the importance of distinguishing mite species before implementing control strategies. Results are discussed with respect to cultural control options for the management of these winter pests. PMID:15285134

Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A

2004-01-01

190

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

191

Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.  

PubMed

The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique. PMID:23342117

Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

2013-01-01

192

Science and Management of Pest Insects, Plant Pathogens and Goal: Colorado State University will enhance its focus and depth in undergraduate education, graduate education, research,  

E-print Network

Science and Management of Pest Insects, Plant Pathogens and Weeds Goal: Colorado State University contributions of courses to undergraduate agricultural degrees and introductions to plants, insects in Colorado. Purpose: Management of weeds, insect pests and plant pathogens is one of the most costly inputs

193

Susceptibility of Aphelinus certus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) to neonicotinoid seed treatments used for soybean pest management.  

PubMed

Soybean aphid is an economic pest of soybean in North America. Currently, management of soybean aphid is achieved through the use of foliar- and seed-applied insecticides. However, natural enemies play an important role in regulating soybean aphid populations, and may be adversely affected by insecticides. The effects of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam seed treatments on the soybean aphid parasitoid, Aphelinus certus Yasnosh, were examined using a tritrophic bioassay. A. certus was able to parasitize soybean aphids feeding on imidacloprid- and thiamethoxam-treated plants 5 and 6 wk after planting, respectively. However, up to 10 wk after planting, overall parasitism rates were reduced by 69-88% compared with the control. Therefore, neonicotinoid seed treatments may reduce the effectiveness of A. certus as a natural enemy of soybean aphid in seed-treated crops. PMID:25195435

Frewin, Andrew J; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Hallett, Rebecca H

2014-08-01

194

WILLINGNESS-TO-PAY FOR AN AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM TO CONTROL THE ASIAN TIGER  

E-print Network

WILLINGNESS-TO-PAY FOR AN AREA-WIDE INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PROGRAM TO CONTROL THE ASIAN TIGER tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. We estimated commonly as the Asian tiger mosquito, is a day-biting, black and white mosquito, native to East and South

195

Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

196

Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

197

Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

198

A Multilevel System for Delivering Biodiversity Knowledge, Data Analysis and Pest Management Recommendations to Growers, for Environmentally Sustainable Crop Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural systems in Canada are extensive in area, but not monitored or managed intensively. We developed informatics methods to better anticipate the severity, timing and geography of emerging pest risks to crops. The target insects, grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae), present special challenges in North America, as well as in China, because they occur as a complex of many species, only some

D. Johnson; G. Duke; P. Irvine; D. Kaminski; J. Boldt; S. Wismath; M. Goodwin; J. Davidson; B. Wirzba; G. Moulton; B. Reamsbottom; T. Heaton

2010-01-01

199

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN POST-HARVEST MAIZE: A CASE STUDY FROM THE REPUBLIC OF TOGO (WEST AFRICA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A large-scale experiment on maize storage systems was carried out in Atakpamé (Plateaux region of Togo), between autumn 1996 and spring 1997. An integrated pest management (IPM) approach, based on research findings at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and intended to control...

200

Education of Best Management Practices in the Arroyo Colorado Watershed  

E-print Network

included: the principles of integrated pest management, non-chemical alternatives, pest features, ground and surface water protection, laws and regulations, pesticide labels, endangered species protection, Worker Protection Standards, record keeping...), and irrigation management 125 1/25/2006 2/22/2006 2/24/2006 CEU Workshops CHW To train people in the safe use of crop protection chemicals including: the principles of integrated pest management, non-chemical alternatives, pest features, ground and surface...

201

New dispenser types for integrated pest management of agriculturally significant insect pests: an algorithm with specialized searching capacity in electronic data bases.  

PubMed

Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pest management efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks. PMID:23885431

Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G

2012-01-01

202

Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies.  

PubMed

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests'. This six-year CRP (2008-2013) focused on research aimed at under-pinning the Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) of populations of tsetse and screwworm flies, and this introductory paper to the Special Issue integrates the findings of the CRP participants and discusses them in a broader context. The tools and techniques for mapping and modelling the distributions of genetically-characterised populations of tsetse and screwworm flies are increasingly used by researchers and managers for more effective decision-making in AW-IPM programmes, as illustrated by the reports in this Special Issue. Currently, the insect pests are often characterized only by neutral genetic markers suitable for recognizing spatially isolated populations that are sometimes associated with specific environments. Two challenges for those involved in AW-IPM are the standardization of best practice to permit the efficient application of GIS and genetic tools by regional teams, and the need to develop further the mapping and modelling of parasite and pest phenotypes that are epidemiologically important. PMID:24713196

Feldmann, U; Ready, P D

2014-10-01

203

Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).  

PubMed

The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies. PMID:24498750

Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

2013-12-01

204

Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

205

Training Childcare Center Administrators about Integrated Pest Management through Greener Environmental Communication Venues and Collecting Pesticide Use Data in the Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many people assume that schools and childcare centers are environmentally safe places for children to learn. However, adverse health effects from pest allergy related illnesses or pesticide exposure incidents can demonstrate the need for safer and more effective pest management strategies. The goal of this research is to measure the efficacy of…

Anderson, Marcia

2014-01-01

206

PHYLOGEOGRAPHY AND GENETIC STRUCTURE OF THE INVASIVE WHEAT STEM SAWFLY, CEPHUS CINCTUS NORTON, (HYMENOPTERA: CEPHIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL MANAGEMENT OF THIS PEST  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) was originally recovered from wild grasses but has become a chronic pest of wheat in the northern region of the North American Great Plains. Effective and economical pest management practices remain elusive, therefore biological co...

207

The development of integrated pest management for the control of mushroom sciarid flies, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) and Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock), in cultivated mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are susceptible to a range of diseases and pests that can cause serious crop loss. Effective pest and pathogen control is a very important factor for the maintenance of efficient production of cultivated mushrooms. Integrated pest management in mushrooms is reliant upon four main principals/elements: sanitation, exclusion, monitoring and pest control. Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock) and Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) are major pests of cultivated mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. These pests cause losses in yield through larval damage of the compost, mycelium and sporophores, and affect the structural features of the compost itself. Adult flies of these species also act as vectors for the introduction of mites and fungal diseases in cultivated mushrooms. PMID:20597099

Shamshad, Afsheen

2010-10-01

208

1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

209

Can Vetiver Grass be Used to Manage Insect Pests on Crops?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from its well known soil conservation properties, vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty; syn. Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) is reported to be repellent to many insect species. However, infestation of vetiver by pests of other crops has been recorded and concerns raised about vetiver grass being a refuge for insects pests. This paper addresses the benefits that vetiver may

J. Van den Berg; C. Midega; L. J. Wadhams; Z. R. Khan

210

Chemical Control of Insect Pests and Insecticide Resistance in Oilseed Rape  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Public concerns about environmental hazards and widespread resistance in pollen beetle populations on oilseed rape in Europe\\u000a are threatening the availability of a variety of insecticidal modes of action for pest control on the crop. For a sustainable\\u000a use of insecticides any overuse has to be avoided to minimize risk of resistance development. Pollen beetles are present in\\u000a the crop

Thomas Thieme; Udo Heimbach; Andreas Müller

211

Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.  

PubMed

A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry. PMID:24665711

Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

2014-02-01

212

Research Effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Controlling Cockroaches, Mice, and Allergens in New York City Public Housing  

E-print Network

Bac k g r o u n d: Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. Objectives: We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. Me t h o d s: We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Res u l t s: Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control

Daniel Kass; Wendy Mckelvey; Elizabeth Carlton; Marta Hern; Ginger Chew; Sean Nagle; Robin Garfinkel; Brian Clarke; Julius Tiven; Christian Espino; David Evans

213

The Hawaii Area-Wide Fruit Fly Pest Management Programme: Influence of Partnerships and a Good Education Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) launched the Hawaii Area-wide\\u000a Fruit Fly Pest Management (HAW-FLYPM) programme. Its aim was to suppress populations of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to levels below economic thresholds while reducing the use of organophosphate insecticides. The

R. F. L. Mau; E. B. Jang; R. I. Vargas

214

Pesticide residues in conventional, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown and organic foods: insights from three US data sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of pesticide residue data was performed to describe and quantify differences between organically grown and non-organic fresh fruits and vegetables. Data on residues in foods from three different market categories (conventionally grown, integrated pest management (IPM)-grown\\/no detectable residues (NDR), and organically grown) were compared using data from three test programmes: The Pesticide Data Program of the US Department

B. P. Bakery; C. M. Benbrook; E. Groth III; K. Lutz Benbrook

2002-01-01

215

As any experienced grower knows only too well, nursery management is a con-tinuous process of solving problems. One recurring problem is pests. In the past,  

E-print Network

of solving problems. One recurring problem is pests. In the past, nursery managers waited for an insect damping-off (A), Phytophthora root canker (B), fungal rust on `hi`a leaves (C), and Botrytis blight (D

216

Pathogen and biological contamination management in plant tissue culture: phytopathogens, vitro pathogens, and vitro pests.  

PubMed

The ability to establish and grow plant cell, organ, and tissue cultures has been widely exploited for basic and applied research, and for the commercial production of plants (micro-propagation). Regardless of whether the application is for research or commerce, it is essential that the cultures be established in vitro free of biological contamination and be maintained as aseptic cultures during manipulation, growth, and storage. The risks from microbial contamination are spurious experimental results due to the effects of latent contaminants or losses of valuable experimental or commercial cultures. Much of the emphasis in culture contamination management historically focussed on the elimination of phytopathogens and the maintenance of cultures free from laboratory contamination by environmental bacteria, fungi (collectively referred to as "vitro pathogens", i.e. pathogens or environmental micro-organisms which cause culture losses), and micro-arthropods ("vitro pests"). Microbial contamination of plant tissue cultures is due to the high nutrient availability in the almost universally used Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) basal medium or variants of it. In recent years, it has been shown that many plants, especially perennials, are at least locally endophytically colonized intercellularly by bacteria. The latter, and intracellular pathogenic bacteria and viruses/viroids, may pass latently into culture and be spread horizontally and vertically in cultures. Growth of some potentially cultivable endophytes may be suppressed by the high salt and sugar content of the Murashige and Skoog basal medium and suboptimal temperatures for their growth in plant tissue growth rooms. The management of contamination in tissue culture involves three stages: disease screening (syn. disease indexing) of the stock plants with disease and endophyte elimination where detected; establishment and pathogen and contaminant screening of established initial cultures; observation, random sampling, and culture screening for micro-organism in multiplication and stored cultures. The increasing accessibility of both broad-spectrum and specific molecular diagnostics has resulted in advances in multiple pathogen and latent contaminant detection. The hazard analysis critical control point management strategy for tissue culture laboratories is underpinned by staff training in aseptic technique and good laboratory practice. PMID:22610620

Cassells, Alan C

2012-01-01

217

Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests. PMID:17478091

Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

2008-04-01

218

Potential for microbial biological control of coleopteran and hemipteran pests of potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous insects in the orders Coleoptera and Hemiptera are major pests of potato, Solanum tuberosum, worldwide. Although these pests are currently managed almost exclusively with chemical insecticides, there is continuing demand for alternative controls that pose lower environmental and health ris...

219

Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits.  

PubMed

A multitude of insects and mites attack fruit crops throughout the tropics. The traditional method for controlling most of these pests is the application of chemical pesticides. Growing concern on the negative environmental effects has encouraged the development of alternatives. Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. The majority of the research and applications in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citrus, banana, coconut, and mango. Successful microbial control initiatives of citrus pests and mites have been reported. Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. Key pests of mango that have been controlled with microbial control agents include fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (with EPNs and fungi), and other pests. Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. The challenge towards a broader application of entomopathogens is the development of successful combinations of entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids along with other interventions to produce effective and sustainable pest management. PMID:17607448

Dolinski, Claudia; Lacey, Lawrence A

2007-01-01

220

Population Dynamics of the Boll Weevil and Modified Cotton Types: Implications for Pest Management.  

E-print Network

to be based on the pomise of effecti~e an2 continuecl insecticidal pest control. There was litrk concern that the certain insects hacl developed rcdv. ance to DDT a few years after the insecticicle war fir.' used in the 1940's. By the mid-l95OPs, the...

Walker, J. K. Jr.; Niles, G. A.

1971-01-01

221

From a technology focus to innovation development : the management of cocoa pests and diseases in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghana is a major producer of cocoa in the world and relies heavily on the crop for foreign exchange revenue. However, production levels declined from the mid 1960s reaching the lowest level in 1983. The decline in production was a result of decreasing areas under cultivation, and low yields. Pests and diseases are inadequately controlled, and the use of synthetic

E. N. A. Dormon

2006-01-01

222

Insect Pest Management in Postharvest Ecosystems in the United States of America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Postharvest entomology can involve grain and grain-based commodities, tree fruits and nuts, citrus fruits, pome fruits, and vegetables. The insect pests and associated control strategies can vary depending on the specific host commodity, and the quarantine aspects associated with export of fresh fru...

223

Growth and yield response of pecan to three levels of pest management in Central Texas  

E-print Network

in the Southeastern United States. Insect pests added in 1940 to the USDA' spray recommendations included spittlebugs (~C1 sto ta a oht sa), p a t ca(as (Catocala spp. ), th s Ply (P ri 11 t ~a i ice(tie) a e paean phyllo e a (~ph llo era spp. ). The 1940 spray...

Cooper, John Norman

1984-01-01

224

The Integrated Pest Management Educator Pilot Project in Boston Public Housing: Results and Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German cockroach is the most common pest of urban, low-income housing in the United States and is associated with high pesticide use by residents. Cockroach allergen is implicated in asthma exacerbation and initiation and in the growing social and medical aspects of the disease. A safe and secure home environment is an environmental justice issue, and environmentally sound and

Carrie Condon; H. Patricia Hynes; Daniel R. Brooks; Don Rivard; Jim Mccarthy

2007-01-01

225

Foliar insect pest management on cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata Walpers) in simulated varietal mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments were established in which cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walpers) was treated with a series of partial insecticide (carbofuran) application treatments to simulate (susceptible\\/resistant) varietal mixtures and a series of inter-crops with soybean (Glycine max). Treatments were sampled for damage by the foliage pests Ootheca mutabilis Sahlberg and Aphis craccivora Koch and for flower production. The soybean is likely to

A Ward; S Morse; I Denholm; R Thompson; N McNamara

2002-01-01

226

BIOLOGY AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF THE SUNFLOWER STEM WEEVILS IN THE GREAT PLAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sunflower stem weevil is an insect pest that has caused economic damage to sunflower in the northern and southern Great Plains of the United States and into Canada. It is native to North America and well adapted to wild and cultivated sunflowers, feeding on the plant tissues of the stem and leav...

227

Plant species diversity for sustainable management of crop pests and diseases in agroecosystems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farmers are facing serious plant protection issues and phytosanitary risks, in particular in the tropics. Such issues are\\u000a food insecurity, lower income in traditional low-input agroecosystems, adverse effects of pesticide use on human health and\\u000a on the environment in intensive systems and export restrictions due to strict regulations on quarantine pests and limits on\\u000a pesticide residues. To provide more and

Alain Ratnadass; Paula Fernandes; Jacques Avelino; Robert Habib

228

Evaluation of components of an integrated pest management system in cotton in the Brazos River Valley  

E-print Network

and Glower discovered boll weevil resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbons. In the 1960's, populations of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F. ), a minor pest until then, developed resistance to organophosphate insecticides, and DDT became useless..., resulting in increased yields (Ignoffo et al. 1965, Chapman and Bell 13 Chamberlain and Dutky (1958) tested the Heliothis NPV for H. virescens control in a tobacco field. Applications of 5x10 PIB's per plant gave IOOX mortality in 13 days. e m BT...

Gan, Michal Roni

1983-01-01

229

Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp  

SciTech Connect

Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Entomology and Nematology, P.O. Box 110630, Gainesville, FL 32611-0630 (United States); Adjei, M.B. [University of Florida, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, 3401 Experiment Station, Ona, FL 33865-9706 (United States); Vicente, N.E. [University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box 9030, Mayaguez, PR 00681-9030 (Puerto Rico)

2007-03-15

230

Development of reference transcriptomes for the major insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in West Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cowpea crops are widely cultivated and a major nutritional source of protein for indigenous human populations in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include Anoplocnemis curvipes, Aphis craccivora, Cl...

231

Agile Safety Management System of Chemicals Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper develops an architecture of Agile Safety Management System of Chemicals Transportation (ASMSCT) based on multi-agent based model and software reusability. The decision maker can be an alliance which deal with management activities involving proactive risk analysis, emergency response and regular safety information service. The top level information model and control model are studied in detail and the system

Tao Yang; Zhongding Huang

2009-01-01

232

Development and statistical evaluation of models in forecasting moth phenology of major lepidopterous peach pest complex for Integrated Pest Management programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-parameter Boltzman and a 4-parameter Logistic non-linear regression model were constructed to simulate the emergences and seasonal dynamics of the major moth pest complex of peach including Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), Grapholitha (Cydia) molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Adoxophyes orana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Model development used 4 yr (2004–2007) climatic data and field observations in peach orchards located in two separate

Petros T. Damos; Matilda Savopoulou-Soultani

2010-01-01

233

Lantana and Verbena: How to Combat Insect and Mite Pests  

E-print Network

than you?d like. In the mean- time, the plants are damaged and become stressed. To manage the pest population more quickly, you may employ a mechanical control method such as a ?water wand? sprayer or chemical control methods such as an insecticide...

Mott, Dale; Merchant, Michael E.

2005-02-21

234

NONTARGET ARTHROPODS CAPTURED IN CUE-LURE-BAITED BUCKET TRAPS AT AREA-WIDE PEST MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION SITES IN KAMUELA AND KULA, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seventy and 2,371 specimens or about 1.1 and 34.4 individuals per day were captured in melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), cue-lure monitoring/suppression traps at two area-wide integrated pest management implementation sites in Kula (Maui Island) and Kamuela (Hawaii Island), respectively...

235

Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

236

The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

2002-01-01

237

Perceived Consequences of Herbicide-Tolerant and Insect-Resistant Crops on Integrated Pest Management Strategies in the Western United States: Results of an Online Survey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We conducted an online survey to assess the potential effects of herbicide-tolerant (HT) and insect-resistant (IR) crops on integrated pest management (IPM) practices in the Western United States. For HT crops, participants perceived a decrease in several IPM practices, including crop and herbicide ...

238

Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

239

Roles of bootstrap resampling, measure of central tendency, and method for calculating thermal units when developing phenology models for pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful development of phenology models from field studies depends on many factors, some of which are entirely under the control of pest managers. For example, one such factor is the choice of method for calculating thermal units. In this study, we have demonstrated that four methods for calculating thermal units provided for acceptable predictions of one phenological event of

DE Legg; SM Van Vleet; DW Ragsdale; RW Hansen; LC Skinner; TR Collier; JE Lloyd

2003-01-01

240

Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control. PMID:21882700

Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

2011-08-01

241

Management of chemical toxic wastes  

SciTech Connect

Two regimes of vertical shaft furnace operation can be employed to slag encapsulate hazardous chemical wastes. One of these is similar to a method applicable to radioactive wastes, involving the pouring of hot molten slag from a coal reactor over the hazardous matter contained in a suitable designed crucible. The other method is especially appropriate for the treatment of chemical wastes that have become mixed with a great deal of soil or other diluent as must be handled as in the case of the love canal incident. It consists of feeding the contaminated solid mass into the coal reactor with a predetermined amount of coal and limestone that will still admit an adequate heat balance to generate a carefully tailored slag to incorporate the reacted waste feedstock.

Gold, L.

1982-05-25

242

September 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 2 -Chemical Management  

E-print Network

. Material Safety Data Sheet/Safety Data Sheet (MSDS/SDS)..........2-6 C. CHEMICAL PROCUREMENTSeptember 2013 Laboratory Safety Manual Section 2 - Chemical Management Page 2-1 Section 2 - Chemical Management Contents A. BASIC LABORATORY SAFETY PRACTICES

Wilcock, William

243

European Red Mite Pest Introduction  

E-print Network

important fruit pests in the U.S. and Canada. Undersized fruit, foliage loss and weakened fruit buds can generations each year in New Hampshire. Control Refer to the New England Apple Pest Management Guide buds, leaves Overwintering Stage: Egg Number of generations per year 4-9 Time of year when damage done

New Hampshire, University of

244

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.  

PubMed

The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated during the final year of the areawide program. Based on data from 533 bins, SGA Pro accurately predicted which bins were at low, moderate or high risk. Only in two out of 533 bins did SGA Pro incorrectly predict bins as being low risk and, in both cases, insect density was only high (> two insects kg(-1)) at the surface, which suggested recent immigration. SGA Pro is superior to calendar-based management because it ensures that grain is only treated when insect densities exceed economic thresholds (two insects kg(-1)). This approach will reduce the frequency of fumigation while maintaining high grain quality. Minimizing the use of fumigant improves worker safety and reduces both control costs and harm to the environment. PMID:12846311

Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

2003-01-01

245

Thermal biology, population fluctuations and implications of temperature extremes for the management of two globally significant insect pests.  

PubMed

The link between environmental temperature, physiological processes and population fluctuations is a significant aspect of insect pest management. Here, we explore how thermal biology affects the population abundance of two globally significant pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis capitata (medfly) and C. rosa (Natal fruit fly), including irradiated individuals and those expressing a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that are used in the sterile insect technique. Results show that upper and lower lethal temperatures are seldom encountered at the field sites, while critical minimum temperatures for activity and lower developmental thresholds are crossed more frequently. Estimates of abundance revealed that C. capitata are active year-round, but abundance declines markedly during winter. Temporal autocorrelation of average fortnightly trap captures and of development time, estimated from an integrated model to calculate available degree days, show similar seasonal lags suggesting that population increases in early spring occur after sufficient degree-days have accumulated. By contrast, population collapses coincide tightly with increasing frequency of low temperature events that fall below critical minimum temperatures for activity. Individuals of C. capitata expressing the tsl mutation show greater critical thermal maxima and greater longevity under field conditions than reference individuals. Taken together, this evidence suggests that low temperatures limit populations in the Western Cape, South Africa and likely do so elsewhere. Increasing temperature extremes and warming climates generally may extend the season over which these species are active, and could increase abundance. The sterile insect technique may prove profitable as climates change given that laboratory-reared tsl flies have an advantage under warmer conditions. PMID:24080125

Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Weldon, Christopher W; Chown, Steven L; le Roux, Peter C; Terblanche, John S

2013-12-01

246

Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2?) and ozonide radical ion (*O3?) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

2013-02-01

247

Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.  

PubMed

A diverse set of parasites and pathogens affects productivity and survival of Apis mellifera honeybees. In beekeeping, traditional control by antibiotics and molecules of synthesis has caused problems with contamination and resistant pathogens. In this research, different Laurus nobilis extracts are tested against the main honeybee pests through an integrated point of view. In vivo effects on bee survival are also evaluated. The ethanol extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 208 to 416 ?g/mL, having the best antimicrobial effect on Paenibacillus larvae among all substances tested. Similarly, this leaf extract showed a significant antiparasitic activity on Varroa destructor, killing 50 % of mites 24 h after a 30-s exposure, and on Nosema ceranae, inhibiting the spore development in the midgut of adult bees ingesting 1?×?10(4) ?g/mL of extract solution. Both ethanol extract and volatile extracts (essential oil, hydrolate, and its main component) did not cause lethal effects on adult honeybees. Thus, the absence of topical and oral toxicity of the ethanol extract on bees and the strong antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and miticidal effects registered in this study place this laurel extract as a promising integrated treatment of bee diseases and stimulates the search for other bioactive phytochemicals from plants. PMID:24288051

Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Porrini, Martín P; Gende, Liesel B; Álvarez, Estefanía; Buffa, Franco; Brasesco, Constanza; Maggi, Matías D; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

2014-02-01

248

Soil fertility management and pest responses: a comparison of organic and synthetic fertilization.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of fertilization (organic or synthetic) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea L., cultivars ('K-Y cross' and 'Summer Summit') on the chemistry of cabbage and on the responses of a cabbage specialist Pieris rapae crucivora Boisduval. Cabbages were grown from seeds in the greenhouse with either organic, synthetic, or no fertilizer treatments. Trials of ovipositional preference and larval feeding were conducted to evaluate the effect of foliage quality on insect responses. In addition, the foliar chemistry (water, nitrogen, total nonstructural carbohydrates, sinigrin, and anthocyanin) was measured during the insect bioassays. The results indicated that butterflies preferred to lay eggs on foliage of fertilized plants. The larvae grew faster on plants fertilized with synthetic fertilizer, but there was no evidence that contents of sinigrin delayed the developmental time of the larvae. However, plants that received organic fertilizer had higher biomass. In summary, the results of this study suggested that proper organic treatment can increase a plant's biomass production and may have a lower pest occurrence. PMID:19253632

Hsu, Yu-Tzu; Shen, Tse-Chi; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

2009-02-01

249

IMPACT OF LAND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOILBORNE PESTS AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TOMATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In July 2000, a field experiment was initiated in Fort Pierce, Florida to measure the impacts of agricultural land management practices and alternative tomato production systems on parameters of soil health and yields of fresh market tomato. Five land management treatments were arranged in a randomi...

250

Habitat Management to Conserve Natural Enemies of Arthropod Pests in Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many agroecosystems are unfavorable environments for natural ene- mies due to high levels of disturbance. Habitat management, a form of conservation biological control, is an ecologically based approach aimed at favoring natural ene- mies and enhancing biological control in agricultural systems. The goal of habitat management is to create a suitable ecological infrastructure within the agricultural landscape to provide resources

Douglas A. Landis; Stephen D. Wratten; Geoff M. Gurr

2000-01-01

251

Software for pest-management science: computer models and databases from the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.  

PubMed

We present an overview of USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) computer models and databases related to pest-management science, emphasizing current developments in environmental risk assessment and management simulation models. The ARS has a unique national interdisciplinary team of researchers in surface and sub-surface hydrology, soil and plant science, systems analysis and pesticide science, who have networked to develop empirical and mechanistic computer models describing the behavior of pests, pest responses to controls and the environmental impact of pest-control methods. Historically, much of this work has been in support of production agriculture and in support of the conservation programs of our 'action agency' sister, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service). Because we are a public agency, our software/database products are generally offered without cost, unless they are developed in cooperation with a private-sector cooperator. Because ARS is a basic and applied research organization, with development of new science as our highest priority, these products tend to be offered on an 'as-is' basis with limited user support except for cooperating R&D relationship with other scientists. However, rapid changes in the technology for information analysis and communication continually challenge our way of doing business. PMID:12846319

Wauchope, R Don; Ahuja, Lajpat R; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Bingner, Ron; Lowrance, Richard; van Genuchten, Martinus T; Adams, Larry D

2003-01-01

252

Development of a precision areawide pest management decision system for cotton - Preliminary study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop models simulate growth and development, and provide relevant information for the routine management of the crop. Integrating crop models with other information technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS), variable rate technology, remote sensing, and global positioning systems (G...

253

Contribution of Biological Control to Integrated Pest Management of Tephritid Fruit Flies in the Tropics and Subtropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological control of pest tephritid flies using parasitoids has been successful in relatively few subtropical and tropical regions. The best documented successes were in Hawaii and Florida, USA, Fiji and southern Europe. There were relatively limited successes in Australia, Costa Rica and Mexico. With the accidental establishment of new pest tephritids, such as Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) in Hawaii or

Mary F. Purcell

1998-01-01

254

Resurgance of soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber after application of methyl bromide chemical alternatives and solarization in tomato.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field studies were conducted during four consectutive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-cucumber (Cucumis sativus) rotations to examine the long-term residual effects of tomato methyl bromide alternatives on soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber. Four treatments were established in tomato field...

255

Managing pests and their resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis: Can transgenic crops be better than sprays?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can now be deployed either in sprays or transgenic plants. Some entomologists and environmentalists have argued that the sprays are preferable to plants because they are less likely to cause resistance. However Bt sprays are not generally competitive with chemical insecticides and seem unlikely to displace them. In contrast, transgenic plants appear to be

Richard T. Roush

1994-01-01

256

Exploitation of Insect Vibrational Signals Reveals a New Method of Pest Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels

Anna Eriksson; Gianfranco Anfora; Andrea Lucchi; Francesco Lanzo; Meta Virant-Doberlet; Valerio Mazzoni

2012-01-01

257

Monitoring insect pests in retail stores by trapping and spatial analysis.  

PubMed

Stored-product insects are a perennial problem in retail stores, where they damage and contaminate susceptible merchandise such as food products and animal feed. Historically, pest management in these stores has relied heavily on chemical insecticides, but environmental and health issues have dictated use of safer methods, and these require better monitoring. A monitoring procedure that employs an array of moth and beetle traps combined with spatial (contour) analysis of trap catch was tested in three department stores and two pet stores. The rate of capture increased with the level of infestation but was essentially constant over 4- to 5-d trapping periods. Contour analysis effectively located foci of infestation and reflected population changes produced by applications of the insect growth regulator (S)-hydroprene. The most abundant insects were Plodia interpunctella (Hiibner), Lasioderma serricorne (F.), Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Cryptolestes pusillus (Schönherr). The results indicate that contour analysis of trap counts provides a useful monitoring tool for management of storage pests in retail stores. It identifies trouble spots and permits selection, timing, and precision targeting of control measures to achieve maximum pest suppression with minimum pesticide risk. It permits managers and pest control operators to visualize pest problems over an entire store, to monitor changes over time, and to evaluate the effectiveness of control intervention. The contour maps themselves, along with records of control applications and stock rotation, provide permanent documentation of pest problems and the effectiveness of pest management procedures. PMID:11057728

Arbogast, R T; Kendra, P E; Mankin, R W; McGovern, J E

2000-10-01

258

Adaptive release of natural enemies in a pest-natural enemy system with pesticide resistance.  

PubMed

Integrated pest management options such as combining chemical and biological control are optimal for combating pesticide resistance, but pose questions if a pest is to be controlled to extinction. These questions include (i) what is the relationship between the evolution of pesticide resistance and the number of natural enemies released? (ii) How does the cumulative number of natural enemies dying affect the number of natural enemies to be released? To address these questions, we developed two novel pest-natural enemy interaction models incorporating the evolution of pesticide resistance. We investigated the number of natural enemies to be released when threshold conditions for the extinction of the pest population in two different control tactics are reached. Our results show that the number of natural enemies to be released to ensure pest eradication in the presence of increasing pesticide resistance can be determined analytically and depends on the cumulative number of dead natural enemies before the next scheduled release time. PMID:23943345

Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A; Wu, Jianhong

2013-11-01

259

The potential efficiency of irrigation management and propargyl bromide in controlling three soil pests: Tylenchulus semipenetrans, Fusarium oxysporum and Echinochloa crus-galli.  

PubMed

Propargyl bromide (3-bromopropyne, 3BP) is a potential alternative for methyl bromide. Little information is available about its efficiency in controlling pests. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the 3BP dose required for killing three pests and to compare the efficiency of water management approaches to that of fumigation. The pests, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht (fungus), Echinochloa crus-galli (L) Beauv (grass) and Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb (nematode) were exposed to different 3BP concentrations in a sandy loam at 30 degrees C in a closed system. The lethal dose for killing 90% of the population (LD90) was calculated from the total applied mass, and varied from 0.3 microg g(-1) soil for the nematode, 3 microg g(-1) for the grass, and 9 microg g(-1) for the fungus. The concentration-time index for killing 90% of the population (CT90) was 11 microg g(-1) h for the nematode, 112 microg g(-1) h for the grass and 345 microg g(-1) h for the fungus. 3BP seems as efficient as other fumigant alternatives in controlling these pests. Using an open system, it was shown that the volume of soil in which the pests were controlled varied for different irrigation managements. Even 96 h after fumigation (with a concentration 10 times higher than would potentially be applied in the field), more than 20% of the soil volume had not reached the fungus and grass CT90 of the non-irrigated soil. The soil underneath the furrow and the bed reached CT90 only slowly in all irrigated treatments even though techniques for increasing efficiency were used (tarping, surface sealing with water and high application rate). PMID:15912563

Allaire, Suzanne E; Yates, Scott R; Zhang, Ping; Ernst, Fred F

2005-08-01

260

Comparative effectiveness of an integrated pest management system and other control tactics for  

E-print Network

, and to be safe to C. carnea (Reddy and Manjunatha 2000). Sharanabasava et al. (1999) reported that neem oil (5% for managing the spider mite Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) on eggplant G.V.P. REDDY Department-mail: G.Reddy@uku.fi; phone: 358-17-163205; fax: 358-17-163191) Received 23 January 2001; accepted

Reddy, Gadi VP

261

Comparative assessment of pest management practices in potato production at farmer field schools  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Farmer field schools (FFS) and other participatory approaches are useful methods for rapid delivery of agricultural technologies in resource-constrained agro-ecosystems. Cultivar selection, weekly fungicide applications and integrated disease management (IDM) based on a disease monitoring strategy w...

262

Functional expression of lepidopteran-selective neurotoxin in baculovirus: Potential for effective pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant baculovirus expressing insect-selective neurotoxins derived from venomous animals are considered as an attractive alternative to chemical insecticides for efficient insect control agents. Recently we identified and characterized a novel lepidopteran-selective toxin, Buthus tamulus insect-selective toxin (ButaIT), having 37 amino acids and eight half cysteine residues from the venom of the South Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus. The synthetic toxin

Wudayagiri Rajendra; Kevin J. Hackett; Ellen Buckley; Bruce D. Hammock

2006-01-01

263

Development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Strategies for Whitefly ( Bemisia tabaci )Transmissible Geminiviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Worldwide outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci whiteflies, especially biotype B, have facilitated the emergence of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (WTG). These viruses\\u000a cause economically important diseases of vegetable and fiber crops, especially in tropical and subtropical regions of the\\u000a world. Because small populations of whiteflies can efficiently spread WTGs, management of these diseases is more challenging\\u000a than for whiteflies alone. In this chapter,

Robert L. Gilbertson; Maria Rojas; Eric Natwick

264

Total chemical management in photographic processing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mission of the U. S. Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center is to produce high-quality photographs of the earth taken from aircraft and Landsat satellite. In order to meet the criteria of producing research-quality photographs, while at the same time meeting strict environmental restrictions, a total photographic chemical management system was installed. This involved a three-part operation consisting of the design of a modern chemical analysis laboratory, the implementation of a chemical regeneration system, and the installation of a waste treatment system, including in-plant pretreatment and outside secondary waste treatment. Over the last ten years the result of this program has yielded high-quality photographs while saving approximately 30,000 per year and meeting all Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) restrictions.

Luden, Charles; Schultz, Ronald

1985-01-01

265

Pesticide compatibility with natural enemies for pest management in greenhouse gerbera daisies.  

PubMed

Pesticides commonly used in commercial greenhouse management were evaluated for compatibility with two biological control agents: a leafminer parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea [Walker]), and a predatory mite (Neoseiulus californicus [McGregor]). These natural enemies were exposed to miticides, fungicides, and insecticides targeting leafminers, thrips, and whiteflies, according to label directions in laboratory vial assays, after which mortality at 12, 24, and 48 h was recorded. Greater mortality of predatory mites than leafminer parasitoids was observed overall, illustrating that fewer pesticides were compatible with predatory mites compared with the parasitoid. However, some commonly used pesticides were found to cause high mortality to both the leafminer parasitoid and predatory mites. Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestations often disrupt leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii [Burgess]) biocontrol programs. Therefore, potentially compatible miticides (bifenazate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, acequinocyl, etoxazole, and clofentezine) identified in laboratory trials were also evaluated in a greenhouse study and found to be compatible with leafminer biocontrol. PMID:24020270

Abraham, Cheri M; Braman, S K; Oetting, R D; Hinkle, N C

2013-08-01

266

Functional expression of lepidopteran-selective neurotoxin in baculovirus: potential for effective pest management.  

PubMed

Recombinant baculovirus expressing insect-selective neurotoxins derived from venomous animals are considered as an attractive alternative to chemical insecticides for efficient insect control agents. Recently we identified and characterized a novel lepidopteran-selective toxin, Buthus tamulus insect-selective toxin (ButaIT), having 37 amino acids and eight half cysteine residues from the venom of the South Indian red scorpion, Mesobuthus tamulus. The synthetic toxin gene containing the ButaIT sequence in frame to the bombyxin signal sequence was engineered into a polyhedrin positive Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) genome under the control of the p10 promoter. Toxin expression in the haemolymph of infected larvae of Heliothis virescens and also in an insect cell culture system was confirmed by western blot analysis using antibody raised against the GST-ButaIT fusion protein. The recombinant NPV (ButaIT-NPV) showed enhanced insecticidal activity on the larvae of Heliothis virescens as evidenced by a significant reduction in median survival time (ST50) and also a greater reduction in feeding damage as compared to the wild-type AcMNPV. PMID:16406338

Rajendra, Wudayagiri; Hackett, Kevin J; Buckley, Ellen; Hammock, Bruce D

2006-02-01

267

Analysis of 1,3-Dichloropropene for Control of Meloidogyne spp. in a Tobacco Pest Management System  

PubMed Central

1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) and nonfumigant nematicides were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne spp. and soil and foliar insects in a tobacco pest management system. In a field with a high Meloidogyne spp. population density (root gall index 4.0 to 4.5 on a 0 to 10 scale in untreated controls), tobacco yields and crop values increased (482 kg/ha and $1,784/ha for 1, 3-D; 326 kg/ha and $1,206/ha for fenamiphos; 252 kg/ha and $933/ha for ethoprop) with nematicide application over an untreated control. In fields with a low population density of Meloidogyne arenaria or M. incognita (root gall index 2.3 to 2.5 in untreated controls), yields ranged from 1,714 to 2,027 kg/ha and were not altered by fumigant or nonfumigant nematicide application. Carbofuran, a soil-applied nonfumigant nematicide/insecticide, reduced the number of foliar insecticide applications required to keep insect populations below treatment threshold (3.8 vs. 4.5, respectively, for treated vs. untreated). Carbofuran reduced the cost ($23/ha) of foliar insecticide treatments when compared to an untreated control. Although nonfumigant nematicides provided some soil and foliar insect control, the cost of using a fumigant plus a lower insecticidal rate of a soil insecticide/nematicide was comparable to the least expensive non-fumigant nematicide when the cost of foliar insecticide applications was included in the cost estimates. Savings in foliar insecticide cost by use of soil-applied nonfumigant nematicide/insecticides were small ($23/ha) in comparison to potential value reductions by root-knot nematodes when the nonfumigant nematicides fenamiphos or ethoprop ($578/ha and $851/ha, respectively) were used instead of 1,3-D. PMID:19265897

Fortnum, B. A.; Johnson, A. W.; Lewis, S. A.

2001-01-01

268

Classical biological control of an invasive forest pest: a world perspective of the management of Sirex noctilio using the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae).  

PubMed

Classical biological control is a key method for managing populations of pests in long-lived crops such as plantation forestry. The execution of biological control programmes in general, as the evaluation of potential natural enemies remains, to a large extent, an empirical endeavour. Thus, characterizing specific cases to determine patterns that may lead to more accurate predictions of success is an important goal of the much applied ecological research. We review the history of introduction, ecology and behaviour of the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides. The species is a natural enemy of Sirex noctilio, one of the most important pests of pine afforestation worldwide. We use an invasion ecology perspective given the analogy between the main stages involved in classical biological control and the biological invasion processes. We conclude that success in the establishment, a common reason of failure in biocontrol, is not a limiting factor of success by I. leucospoides. A mismatch between the spread capacity of the parasitoid and that of its host could nevertheless affect control at a regional scale. In addition, we suggest that given its known life history traits, this natural enemy may be a better regulator than suppressor of the host population. Moreover, spatial and temporal refuges of the host population that may favour the local persistence of the interaction probably reduce the degree to which S. noctilio population is suppressed by the parasitoid. We emphasize the fact that some of the biological attributes that promote establishment may negatively affect suppression levels achieved. Studies on established non-native pest-parasitoid interactions may contribute to defining selection criteria for classical biological control which may prove especially useful in integrated pest management IPM programmes of invasive forest insects. PMID:24923367

Fischbein, D; Corley, J C

2015-02-01

269

Integrated chemical management system: A tool for managing chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

SciTech Connect

The Integrated Chemical Management System is a computer-based chemical information at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Chemical containers are identified by bar code labels and information on the type, quantity and location of chemicals are tracked on individual data bases in separate buildings. Chemical inventories from multiple buildings are uploaded to a central sitewide chemical data base where reports are available from Product, Waste, and Chemical Use modules. Hazardous chemical information is provided by a separate Material Safety Data Sheet module and excess chemicals are traded between chemical owners and users with the aid of the Chemical Exchange Module.

Costain, D. [Kaiser-Hill Co., Golden, CO (United States)

1995-07-01

270

Sandia National Laboratories, California Chemical Management Program annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL\\/CA) Chemical Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL\\/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Chemical Management Program, one of

Brynildson; Mark E

2012-01-01

271

Current status and future perspectives on sunflower insect pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

While occasional insect pests of cultivated sunflowers may be managed by conventional or reduced-risk insecticides, the cumulative costs and risks of relying on insecticides to suppress perennial or severe pests (common in North America) call for exploration of broader pest management strategies. Re...

272

Integrated Pest Management Ideas  

E-print Network

Assassin bug - Reduviidaye - The assassin bug feeds mainly on aphids, caterpillars, Colorado potato beetles on aphids, leafhoppers, mites, and caterpillars. Big-eyed bug - Lygaeidae - Big-eyed bugs feed on aphids - Syrphidae - Fly larvae of this species feed on aphids and mealybugs. Lady beetle - Hippodamia convergens

Liskiewicz, Maciej

273

BACKGROUND MANAGING EXOTIC PESTS  

E-print Network

as well as pathogens at bay but occasionally some avoid detection and are transported inland where are a particular threat because they can be concealed in imported timber. The most damaging species tunnel to form wind tunnels we were able to show that this frass is highly attractive to the predator, much more so

274

PURDUE EXTENSION Managing Pests  

E-print Network

: Apple Peter Hirst, Purdue Extension Pear Utah State University Extension IPM Program (dormant, swollen bud, bud burst, green cluster, white bud, bloom); and Mark Longstroth, Michigan IPM Program Cherry Utah State University Extension IPM Program (dormant, swollen bud, tight

275

Balancing pest management and forest biodiversity: Vole populations and habitat in clearcut vs. variable retention harvested sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voles of the genus Microtus are long-standing pests in temperate and boreal forests of North America, Europe, and Asia where they feed on newly planted trees on cutover forest land. Clearcutting (CC) dominates forest harvesting and produces homogeneous habitats for voles. Variable retention (VR) harvests involve various partial cutting practices that produce heterogeneous habitat patterns compared with CC. This study

Thomas P. Sullivan; Druscilla S. Sullivan

2011-01-01

276

Increasing organic cotton production in Benin West Africa with a supplementary food spray product to manage pests and beneficial insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic cotton is considered a high-value crop in Benin, West Africa, but problems of high costs and reduced yield arising from the lack of effective pest control have left cotton farmers with low profit margins. We have developed a novel supplementary food spray product (Benin Food Product, BFP) to attract and retain beneficial insects on these crops to improve the

R. K. Mensah; D. S. Vodouhe; D. Sanfillippo; G. Assogba; P. Monday

2012-01-01

277

Winter cover crops in a vegetable cropping system: Impacts on nitrate leaching, soil water, crop yield, pests and management costs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-soil relationships in the surface soil layer affect other processes in agroecosystems, including crop productivity, nitrate leaching and plant-pest interactions. This study investigated the effect of altering surface soil dynamics, using a winter cover crop rotation, on biotic and abiotic characteristics of the soil profile. Two cover crop treatments, phacelia and Merced rye (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. ‘Phaci’, and Secale cereale

L. J. Wyland; L. E. Jackson; W. E. Chaney; K. Klonsky; S. T. Koike; B. Kimple

1996-01-01

278

Economic Evaluation of an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program to Control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey  

PubMed Central

Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8. PMID:25338065

Shepard, Donald S.; Halasa, Yara A.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P.; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

2014-01-01

279

Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution  

E-print Network

are narrow-spectrum and control a fungus (Escovopsis) that parasitizes the ants' fungal symbiont, and (ii) MG secretions have broad-spectrum activity and protect ants and brood. We assessed the relative importance

Bermingham, Eldredge

280

A review of the natural enemies of beetles in the subtribe Diabroticina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): implications for sustainable pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabroticina is a speciose subtribe of New World Chrysomelidae (Subfamily Galerucinae: Tribe Luperini) that includes pests such as corn rootworms, cucumber beetles and bean leaf beetles (e.g. Diabrotica, Acalymma, Cerotoma species). The evolution and spread of pesticide resistance, the European invasion of Diabrotica v. virgifera LeConte, and possible development of resistance due to the large-scale deployment of Diabrotica-active Bt maize

S. Toepfer; T. Haye; M. Erlandson; M. Goettel; J. G. Lundgren; R. G. Kleespies; D. C. Weber; G. Cabrera Walsh; A. Peters; R.-U. Ehlers; H. Strasser; D. Moore; S. Keller; S. Vidal; U. Kuhlmann

2009-01-01

281

Formulating microbial agents for pest control applications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microbial biological control is the use of beneficial microbes to control pests and pathogens. The development of biological control products for use in pest management requires technology to produce, handle, store, and disperse large amounts of microbial propagules. Production can be accomplished...

282

Evaluation of two least toxic integrated pest management programs for managing bed bugs (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) with discussion of a bed bug intercepting device.  

PubMed

The cost and effectiveness of two bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) integrated pest management (IPM) programs were evaluated for 10 wk. Sixteen bed bug-infested apartments were chosen from a high-rise low-income apartment building. The apartments were randomly divided into two treatment groups: diatomaceous earth dust-based IPM (D-IPM) and chlorfenapyr spray-based IPM (S-IPM). The initial median (minimum, maximum) bed bug counts (by visual inspection) of the two treatment groups were 73.5 (10, 352) and 77 (18, 3025), respectively. A seminar and an educational brochure were delivered to residents and staff. It was followed by installing encasements on mattresses and box springs and applying hot steam to bed bug-infested areas in all 16 apartments. Diatomaceous earth dust (Mother Earth-D) was applied in the D-IPM group 2 d after steaming. In addition, bed bug-intercepting devices were installed under legs of infested beds or sofas or chairs to intercept bed bugs. The S-IPM group only received 0.5% chlorfenapyr spray (Phantom) after the nonchemical treatments. All apartments were monitored bi-weekly and retreated when necessary. After 10 wk, bed bugs were eradicated from 50% of the apartments in each group. Bed bug count reduction (mean +/- SEM) was 97.6 +/- 1.6 and 89.7 +/- 7.3% in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Mean treatment costs in the 10-wk period were $463 and $482 per apartment in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Bed bug interceptors trapped an average of 219 +/- 135 bed bugs per apartment in 10 wk. The interceptors contributed to the IPM program efficacy and were much more effective than visual inspections in estimating bed bug numbers and determining the existence of bed bug infestations. PMID:19496428

Wang, Changlu; Gibb, Timothy; Bennett, Gary W

2009-05-01

283

Sandia National Laboratories, California Chemical Management Program annual report.  

SciTech Connect

The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Chemical Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Chemical Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. SNL/CA is responsible for tracking chemicals (chemical and biological materials), providing Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and for regulatory compliance reporting according to a variety of chemical regulations. The principal regulations for chemical tracking are the Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the California Right-to-Know regulations. The regulations, the Hazard Communication/Lab Standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are also key to the CM Program. The CM Program is also responsible for supporting chemical safety and information requirements for a variety of Integrated Enabling Services (IMS) programs primarily the Industrial Hygiene, Waste Management, Fire Protection, Air Quality, Emergency Management, Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Prevention programs. The principal program tool is the Chemical Information System (CIS). The system contains two key elements: the MSDS library and the chemical container-tracking database that is readily accessible to all Members of the Sandia Workforce. The primary goal of the CM Program is to ensure safe and effective chemical management at Sandia/CA. This is done by efficiently collecting and managing chemical information for our customers who include Line, regulators, DOE and ES and H programs to ensure compliance with regulations and to streamline customer business processes that require chemical information.

Brynildson, Mark E.

2012-02-01

284

Stratified entomological sampling in preparation for an area-wide integrated pest management program: the example of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the Niayes of Senegal.  

PubMed

The riverine tsetse species Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank 1949 (Diptera: Glossinidae) inhabits riparian forests along river systems in West Africa. The government of Senegal has embarked on a project to eliminate this tsetse species, and African animal trypanosomoses, from the Niayes area using an area-wide integrated pest management approach. A stratified entomological sampling strategy was therefore developed using spatial analytical tools and mathematical modeling. A preliminary phytosociological census identified eight types of suitable habitat, which could be discriminated from LandSat 7 ETM+ satellite images and denominated wet areas. At the end of March 2009, 683 unbaited Vavoua traps had been deployed, and the observed infested area in the Niayes was 525 km2. In the remaining area, a mathematical model was used to assess the risk that flies were present despite a sequence of zero catches. The analysis showed that this risk was above 0.05 in 19% of this area that will be considered as infested during the control operations. The remote sensing analysis that identified the wet areas allowed a restriction of the area to be surveyed to 4% of the total surface area (7,150 km2), whereas the mathematical model provided an efficient method to improve the accuracy and the robustness of the sampling protocol. The final size of the control area will be decided based on the entomological collection data. This entomological sampling procedure might be used for other vector or pest control scenarios. PMID:20695269

Bouyer, Jérémy; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Elhadji Youssou; Guerrini, Laure; Vreysen, Marc J B

2010-07-01

285

Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

286

Phenology and distribution of the apple leafcurling midge (Dasineura mali (Kieffer)) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and its natural enemies on apples under biological and integrated pest management in Central Otago, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage by apple leafcurling midge Dasineura mali, and the numbers of its predators Orius vicinus and Sejanus albisignata, were monitored from 1994 to 1998 on terminal, lateral, spur, and fruiting shoots of a range of apple cultivars under integrated and organic pest management at Clyde, Central Otago. The predators were also monitored using beating trays. The phenology of egg laying

C. H. Wearing; R. R. Marshall; B. Attfield; C. Colhoun

2012-01-01

287

Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Control and Management Materials. A Symposium Sponsored by ASTM Committee E-35 on Pesticides, American Society for Testing and Materials, Monterey, California, March 8, 1976.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first symposium on "Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Management" was held in March, 1976. Much of the thrust was toward explaining and defining the "state of the art." Concerns included rodents and rabbits, predators, scavengers, and large game animals, and a variety of bird species. Environments were as restricted as a laboratory cage or pen…

Jackson, W. B., Ed.; Marsh, R. E., Ed.

288

Dispersal Behavior of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae on Tomato at Several Spatial Scales and Densities: Implications for Integrated Pest Management  

PubMed Central

Studying distribution is necessary to understand and manage the dynamics of species with spatially structured populations. Here we studied the distribution in Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae, two mite pests of tomato, in the scope of evaluating factors that can influence the effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management strategies. We found greater positive density-dependent distribution with T. evansi than T. urticae when assayed on single, detached tomato leaves. Indeed, T. evansi distribution among leaflets increased with initial population density while it was high even at low T. urticae densities. Intensity and rate of damage to whole plants was higher with T. evansi than T. urticae. We further studied the circadian migration of T. evansi within plant. When T. evansi density was high the distribution behavior peaked between 8 am and 3 pm and between 8 pm and 3 am local time of Kenya. Over 24 h the total number of mites ascending and descending was always similar and close to the total population size. The gregarious behavior of T. evansi combined with its rapid population growth rate, may explain why few tomato plants can be severely damaged by T. evansi and how suddenly all the crop can be highly infested. However the localisation and elimination of the first infested plants damaged by T. evansi could reduce the risk of outbreaks in the entire crop. These findings suggest also that an acaricide treated net placed on the first infested plants could be very effective to control T. evansi. Moreover circadian migration would therefore accentuate the efficiency of an acaricide treated net covering the infested plants. PMID:24743580

Azandémè-Hounmalon, Ginette Y.; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Fiaboe, Komi K. M.; Subramanian, Sevgan; Kungu, Miriam; Martin, Thibaud

2014-01-01

289

Dispersal behavior of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae on tomato at several spatial scales and densities: implications for integrated pest management.  

PubMed

Studying distribution is necessary to understand and manage the dynamics of species with spatially structured populations. Here we studied the distribution in Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae, two mite pests of tomato, in the scope of evaluating factors that can influence the effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management strategies. We found greater positive density-dependent distribution with T. evansi than T. urticae when assayed on single, detached tomato leaves. Indeed, T. evansi distribution among leaflets increased with initial population density while it was high even at low T. urticae densities. Intensity and rate of damage to whole plants was higher with T. evansi than T. urticae. We further studied the circadian migration of T. evansi within plant. When T. evansi density was high the distribution behavior peaked between 8 am and 3 pm and between 8 pm and 3 am local time of Kenya. Over 24 h the total number of mites ascending and descending was always similar and close to the total population size. The gregarious behavior of T. evansi combined with its rapid population growth rate, may explain why few tomato plants can be severely damaged by T. evansi and how suddenly all the crop can be highly infested. However the localisation and elimination of the first infested plants damaged by T. evansi could reduce the risk of outbreaks in the entire crop. These findings suggest also that an acaricide treated net placed on the first infested plants could be very effective to control T. evansi. Moreover circadian migration would therefore accentuate the efficiency of an acaricide treated net covering the infested plants. PMID:24743580

Azandémè-Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Fiaboe, Komi K M; Subramanian, Sevgan; Kungu, Miriam; Martin, Thibaud

2014-01-01

290

Implementation and evaluation of HortIPM: a World Wide Web based interactive integrated pest management resource  

E-print Network

to overcome the challenges associated with maintaining a current database of chemical and non-chemical control options. This web-based approach provided the opportunity for real-time corrections in labeling changes, new products and deletions. An on...

Files, Priscilla Josephine

2001-01-01

291

A New Data Management System for Biological and Chemical Oceanography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created to serve PIs principally funded by NSF to conduct marine chemical and ecological research. The new office is dedicated to providing open access to data and information developed in the course of scientific research on short and intermediate time-frames. The data management system developed in support of U.S. JGOFS

R. C. Groman; C. Chandler; D. Allison; D. M. Glover; P. H. Wiebe

2007-01-01

292

The Management of Chemical Waste in a University Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis describes a study of the management of chemical waste at the State University of New York at Binghamton. The study revealed that the majority of chemical waste at the university is in the form of hazardous waste. It was hypothesized that the volume, related costs, and potential long-term liability associated with the disposal of…

Coons, David Michael

293

Peanut-Cotton-Rye Rotations and Soil Chemical Treatment for Managing Nematodes and Thrips  

PubMed Central

In the southeastern United States, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult) infested primarily with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. Continuous peanut, continuous cotton, cotton-peanut rotation, or peanut-cotton rotation were used as main plots; winter rye or fallow as sub-plots; and cotton with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha), or peanut with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha) plus flutolanil (1.12 kg a.i./ha), as sub-sub-plots. Population densities of M. incognita and B. longicaudatus declined rapidly after the first crop in continuous peanut and remained low thereafter. Neither rye nor soil chemical treatment affected M. incognita or B. longicaudatus population density on peanut or cotton. Cotton and peanut yields from the cotton-peanut rotation were 26% and 10% greater, respectively, than those from monoculmre over the 7-year study. Cotton and peanut yields were improved 9% and 4%, respectively, following rye vs. fallow. Soil chemical treatments increased yields of cotton 23% and peanut 32% over those of untreated plots. Our data demonstrate the sustainable benefits of using cotton-peanut rotations, winter rye, and soil chemical treatments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes and other pests and pathogens and improve yield of both cotton and peanut. PMID:19274213

Johnson, A. W.; Minton, N. A.; Brenneman, T. B.; Todd, J. W.; Herzog, G. A.; Gascho, G. J.; Baker, S. H.; Bondari, Y.

1998-01-01

294

Emergency management of chemical weapons injuries.  

PubMed

The potential for chemical weapons to be used in terrorism is a real possibility. Classes of chemical weapons include nerve agents, vesicants (blister agents), choking agents, incapacitating agents, riot control agents, blood agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The nerve agents work by blocking the actions of acetylcholinesterase leading to a cholinergic syndrome. Nerve agents include sarin, tabun, VX, cyclosarin, and soman. The vesicants include sulfur mustard and lewisite. The vesicants produce blisters and also damage the upper airways. Choking agents include phosgene and chlorine gas. Choking agents cause pulmonary edema. Incapacitating agents include fentanyl and its derivatives and adamsite. Riot control agents include Mace and pepper spray. Blood agents include cyanide. The mechanism of toxicity for cyanide is blocking oxidative phosphorylation. Toxic industrial chemicals include agents such as formaldehyde, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonia. PMID:22080590

Anderson, Peter D

2012-02-01

295

Safety management and risk assessment in chemical laboratories.  

PubMed

The present paper highlights a new safety management program, MICE (Management, Information, Control and Emergency), which has been specifically adapted for the academic environment. The process starts with an exhaustive hazard inventory supported by a platform assembling specific hazards encountered in laboratories and their subsequent classification. A proof of concept is given by a series of implementations in the domain of chemistry targeting workplace health protection. The methodology is expressed through three examples to illustrate how the MICE program can be used to address safety concerns regarding chemicals, strong magnetic fields and nanoparticles in research laboratories. A comprehensive chemical management program is also depicted. PMID:22026190

Marendaz, Jean-Luc; Friedrich, Kirstin; Meyer, Thierry

2011-01-01

296

FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant  

SciTech Connect

FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

Not Available

2004-07-01

297

2050-12-31 Thermal tolerance of Ceratitis Rosa nad Ceratits Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa : implications for population dynamics and pest management.  

E-print Network

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis rosa (Karsch) (Diptera: Tephritidae) are economic pests affecting numerous commercially-grown fruits in Africa including deciduous and citrus crops.… (more)

Nyamukondiwa, Casper

2011-01-01

298

Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: An introduction  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease r...

299

Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 9 1 Identification of Hazardous Chemical Waste  

E-print Network

Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 9 1 · Identification of Hazardous Chemical Waste OBJECTIVES Do you know how to do the following? If you do, skip ahead to Minimization of Hazardous Waste section. If you do not, continue on in this section. · Determine whether

Ford, James

300

Parasitism Performance and Fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): Implications in Integrated Pest Management Strategy  

PubMed Central

The diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM) strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hym., Braconidae) can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1) and their progeny (F2) had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control. PMID:24968125

Kermani, Nadia; Abu Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Suhaimi, Amalina; Abuzid, Ismail; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Ghani, Idris Abd

2014-01-01

301

Combined treatments of spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl for management of resistant psocid pests (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) of stored grain.  

PubMed

The combined efficacy of spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl was determined against four storage psocid pests belonging to genus Liposcelis. This research was undertaken because of the increasing importance of these psocids in stored grain and the problem of finding grain protectants to control resistant strains. Firstly, mortality and reproduction were determined for adults exposed to wheat freshly treated with either spinosad (0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1)) or chlorpyrifos-methyl (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) or combinations of spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl at 30 degrees C and 70% RH. There were significant effects of application rate of spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl, both individually and in combination, on adult mortality and progeny reduction of all four psocids. Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and L. decolor (Pearman) responded similarly, with incomplete control of adults and progeny at both doses of spinosad but complete control in all chlorpyrifos-methyl and combined treatments. In L. entomophila (Enderlein) and L. paeta Pearman, however, complete control of adults and progeny was only achieved in the combined treatments, with the exception of spinosad 0.5 mg kg(-1) plus chlorpyrifos-methyl 2.5 mg kg(-1) against L. entomophila. Next, combinations of spinosad (0.5 and 1 mg kg(-1)) and chlorpyrifos-methyl (2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) in bioassays after 0, 1.5 and 3 months storage of treated wheat were evaluated. The best treatment was 1 mg kg(-1) of spinosad plus 10 mg kg(-1) of chlorpyrifos-methyl, providing up to 3 months of protection against infestations of all four Liposcelis spp. on wheat. PMID:17089330

Nayak, Manoj K; Daglish, Gregory J

2007-01-01

302

Cotton pest management practices and the selection of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae population in Northern Benin  

PubMed Central

Background Pyrethroid insecticides, carbamate and organophosphate are the classes of insecticides commonly used in agriculture for crop protection in Benin. Pyrethroids remain the only class of insecticides recommended by the WHO for impregnation of bed nets. Unfortunately, the high level of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l., threatens to undermine the success of pyrethroid treated nets. This study focuses on the investigation of agricultural practices in cotton growing areas, and their direct impact on larval populations of An. gambiae in surrounding breeding sites. Methods The protocol was based on the collection of agro-sociological data where farmers were subjected to semi-structured questionnaires based on the strategies used for crop protection. This was complemented by bioassay tests to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to various insecticides. Molecular analysis was performed to characterize the resistance genes and the molecular forms of An. gambiae. Insecticide residues in soil samples from breeding sites were investigated to determine major factors that can inhibit the normal growth of mosquito larvae by exposing susceptible and resistant laboratory strains. Results There is a common use by local farmers of mineral fertilizer NPK at 200 kg/ha and urea at 50 kg/hectare following insecticide treatments in both the Calendar Control Program (CCP) and the Targeted Intermittent Control Program (TICP). By contrast, no chemicals are involved in Biological Program (BP) where farmers use organic and natural fertilizers which include animal excreta. Susceptibility test results confirmed a high resistance to DDT. Mean mortality of An. gambiae collected from the farms practicing CCP, TICP and BP methods were 33%, 42% and 65% respectively. An. gambiae populations from areas using the CCP and TICP programs showed resistance to permethrin with mortality of 50% and 58% respectively. By contrast, bioassay test results of An. gambiae from BP areas gave a high level of susceptibility to permethrin with an average mortality of 94%. Molecular analysis identified An. gambiae s.s, and An. arabiensis with a high predominance of An. gambiae s.s (90%). The two molecular forms, M and S, were also determined with a high frequency of the S form (96%). The Kdr gene seemed the main target- site resistance mechanism detected in CCP, TICP, and BP areas at the rates ranging from 32 to 78%. The frequency of ace-1R gene was very low (< 0.1). The presence of inhibiting factors in soil samples under insecticide treatments were found and affected negatively in delaying the development of An. gambiae larval populations. Conclusions This research shows that Kdr has spread widely in An. gambiae, mainly in CCP and TICP areas where pyrethroids are extensively used. To reduce the negative impact of pesticides use in cotton crop protection, the application of BP-like programs, which do not appear to select for vector resistance would be useful. These results could serve as scientific evidence of the spread of resistance due to a massive agricultural use of insecticides and contribute to the management of pesticides usage on cotton crops hence reducing the selection pressure of insecticides on An. gambiae populations. PMID:21489266

2011-01-01

303

From IBM to IPM: Using individual-based models to design the spatial arrangement of traps and crops in integrated pest management strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of alternative pest-control strategies based on the spatial design of cropping systems requires a thorough understanding of the spatial links between the pest and its environment. Mechanistic models, especially individual-based models (IBMs), are powerful tools for integrating key behaviours, such as habitat selection and dispersal, with spatial heterogeneity. In this paper, we used an IBM calibrated and evaluated

Fabrice Vinatier; Françoise Lescourret; Pierre-François Duyck; Philippe Tixier

304

Policy Name: Chemical Pesticide Use Originating / Responsible Department: Facilities Management and Planning  

E-print Network

Policy Name: Chemical Pesticide Use Originating / Responsible Department: Facilities Management-President (Facilities Management and Planning), Manager, Maintenance Services Policy: Chemical pesticide use from unnecessary exposure to hazardous substances. Purpose: The purpose of this policy is to ensure

Carleton University

305

Connecting scales: Achieving in-field pest control from areawide and landscape ecology studies.  

PubMed

Areawide management has a long history of achieving solutions that target pests, however, there has been little focus on the areawide management of arthropod natural enemies. Landscape ecology studies that show a positive relationship between natural enemy abundance and habitat diversity demonstrate landscape-dependent pest suppression, but have not yet clearly linked their findings to pest management or to the suite of pests associated with crops that require control. Instead the focus has often been on model systems of single pest species and their natural enemies. We suggest that management actions to capture pest control from natural enemies may be forth coming if: (i) the suite of response and predictor variables focus on pest complexes and specific management actions; (ii) the contribution of "the landscape" is identified by assessing the timing and numbers of natural enemies immigrating and emigrating to and from the target crop, as well as pests; and (iii) pest control thresholds aligned with crop development stages are the benchmark to measure impact of natural enemies on pests, in turn allowing for comparison between study regions, and generalizations. To achieve pest control we will need to incorporate what has been learned from an ecological understanding of model pest and natural enemy systems and integrate areawide landscape management with in-field pest management. PMID:25099692

Schellhorn, Nancy A; Parry, Hazel R; Macfadyen, Sarina; Wang, Yongmo; Zalucki, Myron P

2015-02-01

306

Chemical Inventory Management at NASA Lewis Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chemical Management System (CMS) is a client/server application developed with Power Builder and Sybase for the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). Power Builder is a client-server application development tool, Sybase is a Relational Database Management System. The entire LeRC community can access the CMS from any desktop environment. The multiple functions and benefits of the CMS are addressed.

Kraft, Shirley S.; Homan, Joseph R.; Bajorek, Michael J.; Dominguez, Manuel B.; Smith, Vanessa L.

1997-01-01

307

Estimating the risks and benefits of pesticides: considering the agroecosystem and integrated pest management in the use of EBDC fungicides on apples.  

PubMed

Calculating the risks and benefits of agricultural pesticides determines whether a pesticide will be registered for use on commodities. Historically, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has used very conservative estimates of health risks, particularly in the absence of data regarding actual use patterns of the pesticide and actual pesticide residue at the point of food purchase. However, when grower groups and manufacturers were faced with the problem of losing the ethylene bisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides, they approached EPA offering to provide hard data in place of estimates. Plant pathologists familiar with apple agroecosystems pointed out that different fungicides have highly specific uses in integrated pest management (IPM) programs, and that banning EBDC use on apples would probably raise total pesticide use in apples by compromising the pesticide reductions obtained under existing IPM programs. In addition, an early study showed that use-patterns could significantly reduce the amount of EBDC residue on apples. This approach led to a more realistic appraisal of both risks and benefits of the fungicides, lowering risks and raising benefits. The process ended with a registration prescribing use-patterns which result in minimal residue at harvest, thus providing valuable tools for use in IPM programs. PMID:15091544

Cooley, D R; Manning, W J

1995-01-01

308

Pest Insect Olfaction in an Insecticide-Contaminated Environment: Info-Disruption or Hormesis Effect  

PubMed Central

Most animals, including pest insects, live in an “odor world” and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests. PMID:22457653

Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Thany, Steeve Hervé; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

2012-01-01

309

Chemical composition of cottonseed affected by cropping management practices  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cottonseed is a valuable raw material for a range of food, animal feed, and industrial (such as adhesives) products. Chemical composition is one of the critical parameters to evaluate cottonseed's quality and potential end use. However, the information on the impacts of cropping management practices...

310

Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso: consequences for area-wide integrated pest management.  

PubMed

African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoé and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoé. Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoé River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F(ST)=0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoé, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s). PMID:20060501

Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie; Guerrini, Laure; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Sidibé, Issa; Vreysen, Marc J B; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry

2010-03-01

311

Obligate symbiont involved in pest status of host insect.  

PubMed

The origin of specific insect genotypes that enable efficient use of agricultural plants is an important subject not only in applied fields like pest control and management but also in basic disciplines like evolutionary biology. Conventionally, it has been presupposed that such pest-related ecological traits are attributed to genes encoded in the insect genomes. Here, however, we report that pest status of an insect is principally determined by symbiont genotype rather than by insect genotype. A pest stinkbug species, Megacopta punctatissima, performed well on crop legumes, while a closely related non-pest species, Megacopta cribraria, suffered low egg hatch rate on the plants. When their obligate gut symbiotic bacteria were experimentally exchanged between the species, their performance on the crop legumes was, strikingly, completely reversed: the pest species suffered low egg hatch rate, whereas the non-pest species restored normal egg hatch rate and showed good performance. The low egg hatch rates were attributed to nymphal mortality before or upon hatching, which were associated with the symbiont from the non-pest stinkbug irrespective of the host insect species. Our finding sheds new light on the evolutionary origin of insect pests, potentially leading to novel approaches to pest control and management. PMID:17567556

Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

2007-08-22

312

Integrated control of date palm pests in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of efforts to develop an integrated control program for successful pest management of date palms in\\u000a Israel. Work has been concentrated on biological control of the key pestP. blanchardi, and on alternative control operations for the remaining pests. The fact that date fruit is concentrated in bunches was used\\u000a successfully to enable efficient control of fruit

M. Kehat; E. Swirski; D. Blumberg; S. Greenberg

1974-01-01

313

Quantifying Russian wheat aphid pest intensity across the Great Plains.  

PubMed

Wheat, the most important cereal crop in the Northern Hemisphere, is at-risk for an approximate 10% reduction in worldwide production because of animal pests. The potential economic impact of cereal crop pests has resulted in substantial research efforts into the understanding of pest agroecosystems and development of pest management strategy. Management strategy is informed frequently by models that describe the population dynamics of important crop pests and because of the economic impact of these pests, many models have been developed. Yet, limited effort has ensued to compare and contrast models for their strategic applicability and quality. One of the most damaging pests of wheat in North America is the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov). Eighteen D. noxia population dynamic models were developed from the literature to describe pest intensity. The strongest models quantified the negative effects of fall and spring precipitation on aphid intensity, and the positive effects associated with alternate food source availability. Population dynamic models were transformed into spatially explicit models and combined to form a spatially explicit, model-averaged result. Our findings were used to delineate pest intensity on winter wheat across much of the Great Plains and will help improve D. noxia management strategy. PMID:23321099

Merrill, Scott C; Peairs, Frank B

2012-12-01

314

Chrysomelids American diabroticines Hosts and natural enemies. Biology-feasibility for control of pest species (Crisomelidos Diabroticinos americanos Hospederos y enemigos naturales Biologia y factibili manejo especies plagas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chrysomelids in the Diabroticites include some of the most important pest species of the American continent. The chemical and management techniques used to date to control them are: crop rotation to prevent re-infection of host crops, especially in the species that display an egg diapause; insec...

315

NSF-Sponsored Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem research projects are inherently interdisciplinary and benefit from improved access to well-documented data. Improved data sharing practices are important to the continued exploration of research themes that are a central focus of the ocean science community and are essential to interdisciplinary and international collaborations that address complex, global research themes. In 2006, the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to serve the data management requirements of scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to manage marine biogeochemical, ecological, and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research. These valuable data sets are documented, stored, disseminated, and protected over short and intermediate time frames. One of the goals of the BCO-DMO is to facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange through improved data discovery, access, display, downloading, and interoperability. In May 2010, NSF released a statement to the effect that in October 2010, it is planning to require that all proposals include a data management plan in the form of a two-page supplementary document. The data management plan would be an element of the merit review process. NSF has long been committed to making data from NSF-funded research publicly available and the new policy will strengthen this commitment. BCO-DMO is poised to assist in creating the data management plans and in ultimately serving the data and information resulting from NSF OCE funded research. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: geospatial and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data export and download utilities; and strategic use of controlled vocabularies to facilitate data integration and improve interoperability.

Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Glover, D. M.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Work, T. T.; Biological; Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

2010-12-01

316

Risk management programs in the chemical industry from Bhopal onward  

SciTech Connect

Chemical process safety has long been a consideration in industry but the tragedy at Bhopal in late 1984 resulted in significantly increased attention from industry, government, and the public. Whereas Bhopal had a major effect on regulations in the US, two earlier, highly publicized accidents affected regulations in the United Kingdom and Europe. A 1974 cyclohexane explosion at a chemical manufacturing plant in Flixborough, England, caused a number of fatalities, while a 1976 runaway reaction at a chemical works near Sevesco, Italy, contaminated surrounding farmland and water supplies with dioxin. Although the public's interest can be fickle, the residual concern from all these incidents has been sufficient to affect important regulatory and industry initiatives in the US and abroad. The development of the most important of the US initiatives are reviewed here. Common elements in various process safety management programs are noted and the latest regulatory developments reported. Application can be made to the nuclear industry.

Cramer, J.J. (Brown and Root, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Greenberg, H.R. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., New York, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

317

Preparedness for terrorism: managing nuclear, biological and chemical threats.  

PubMed

The management of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) terrorism events is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in the next decade; however, initial patient care considerations and protective actions for staff are unfamiliar to most front-line clinicians. High explosive events (bomb and blast) remain the most common type of terrorism and are easy to detect. Conversely, some types of terrorist attacks are more likely to be unsuspected or covert. This paper explains the current threat of terrorism and describes clues for detection that an event has occurred. Specific criteria that should lead to a high suspicion for terrorism are illustrated. The manuscript outlines initial actions and clinical priorities for management and treatment of patients exposed to nuclear/radiological, biological, chemical and combined agents (for example an explosion involving a chemical agent). Examples of terrorist events include: a nuclear explosion, an aerosolised release of anthrax (biological), dissemination of sarin in a subway (chemical), and the detonation of a radiologic dispersion device or "dirty bomb" (combined explosive and radiological). Basic principles of decontamination include potential risks to healthcare providers from secondary exposure and contamination. Unique issues may hinder clinical actions. These include coordination with law enforcement for a crime scene, public health entities for surveillance and monitoring, hazardous materials teams for decontamination, and the media for risk communications. Finally, the importance of personal preparedness is discussed. PMID:20052435

Koenig, Kristi L

2009-12-01

318

PEST NOTES Publication 7498 University of California  

E-print Network

SUDDEN OAK DEATH IN CALIFORNIA Integrated Pest Management in the Landscape Sudden oak death is the name (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (Q. kelloggii), and Shreve oak (Q. parvula var. shrevei oak death has been confirmed in Alameda, Marin, Mendocino, Monterey, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara

California at Berkeley, University of

319

Insect Pests Models and Insecticide Application  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the past, the dominant approach in theoretical pest management ecology has emphasized the use of simple analytical or mathematical models and the analysis of systems in equilibrium. Recent advancements in computer technology have provided the opportunity for ecological insect modelers to move aw...

320

The importance of economic injury levels in the development of integrated pest control programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Although economic injury levels have long been considered of importance in determining the needs for pest control measures, they take on added significance in integrated pest control programs. The designation of damage tolerance levels defines the goals of the integrated control effort. These management goals should be defined in terms of damage not numbers of pests. Although insect numbers

Ray F. Smith

1969-01-01

321

G95-1251 Biological Control of Insect and Mite Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and disadvantages of the three forms of biological control of insect and mite pests -- classical, augmentation and conservation -- are discussed.\\u000aBiological control is the conscious use of living beneficial organisms, called natural enemies, to control pests. Biological control should be an important part of any integrated pest management program, an approach which combines a variety of

Robert J Wright

1995-01-01

322

Insect Pest Management in Virginia  

E-print Network

, Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC David Owens, Agricultural Technician, Virginia Tech Tidewater AREC Jessica, Virginia Beach Edward Winslow, Belvidere, NC Gary Respass, Beaufort Co., NC Barry Bryant, Jackson, NC Kelly

Liskiewicz, Maciej

323

Insect Pest Management in Virginia  

E-print Network

Student, Virginia Tech Dept. of Entomology Jessica Samler, Graduate Student, Virginia Tech Dept. Ray Clarke, Dinwiddie Co. Donald Turner, Dinwiddie Co. Greg Jenkins, Gloucester Co. Kirby Farms Shepard, Orange Co. Steve Rosbicki, Prince George Co. David Wells, Prince George Co. Ray Davis

Liskiewicz, Maciej

324

Management of insect pests of soybean: effects of sowing date and intercropping on damage and grain yield in the Nigerian Sudan savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were carried out during the 2001–2002 cropping seasons at Maiduguri, Nigeria, to determine the effects of defoliation and pod damage by insect pests on grain yield of soybean. The factorial experiments consisted of four sowing dates (31 July, 7, 14 and 21 August in 2001 and 21 and 28 July and 4 and 11 August in 2002), four

B. M. Sastawa; M. Lawan; Y. T. Maina

2004-01-01

325

Dynamic models of pest propagation and pest control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a pest propagation model to investigate the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates. A pest aggregate grows by self-monomer birth, and it may fragment into two smaller ones. The kinetic evolution behaviours of pest aggregates are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory. For a system with a self-birth rate kernel I(k) = Ik and a fragmentation rate kernel L(i, j) = L, we find that the total number M0A(t) and the total mass of the pest aggregates M1A(t) both increase exponentially with time if L ? 0. Furthermore, we introduce two catalysis-driven monomer death mechanisms for the former pest propagation model to study the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates under pesticide and natural enemy controlled pest propagation. In the pesticide controlled model with a catalyzed monomer death rate kernel J1(k) = J1k, it is found that only when I < J1B0 (B0 is the concentration of catalyst aggregates) can the pests be killed off. Otherwise, the pest aggregates can survive. In the model of pest control with a natural enemy, a pest aggregate loses one of its individuals and the number of natural enemies increases by one. For this system, we find that no matter how many natural enemies there are at the beginning, pests will be eliminated by them eventually.

Yin, Ming; Lin, Zhen-Quan; Ke, Jian-Hong

2011-08-01

326

A New Data Management System for Biological and Chemical Oceanography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created to serve PIs principally funded by NSF to conduct marine chemical and ecological research. The new office is dedicated to providing open access to data and information developed in the course of scientific research on short and intermediate time-frames. The data management system developed in support of U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs is being modified to support the larger scope of the BCO-DMO effort, which includes ultimately providing a way to exchange data with other data systems. The open access system is based on a philosophy of data stewardship, support for existing and evolving data standards, and use of public domain software. The DMO staff work closely with originating PIs to manage data gathered as part of their individual programs. In the new BCO-DMO data system, project and data set metadata records designed to support re-use of the data are stored in a relational database (MySQL) and the data are stored in or made accessible by the JGOFS/GLOBEC object- oriented, relational, data management system. Data access will be provided via any standard Web browser client user interface through a GIS application (Open Source, OGC-compliant MapServer), a directory listing from the data holdings catalog, or a custom search engine that facilitates data discovery. In an effort to maximize data system interoperability, data will also be available via Web Services; and data set descriptions will be generated to comply with a variety of metadata content standards. The office is located at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and web access is via http://www.bco-dmo.org.

Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C.; Allison, D.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.

2007-12-01

327

The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanography and marine ecosystem research are inherently interdisciplinary fields of study that generate and require access to a wide variety of measurements. In late 2006 the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Geosciences Directorate Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). In late 2010 additional funding was contributed to support management of research data from the NSF Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program. The BCO-DMO is recognized in the 2011 Division of Ocean Sciences Sample and Data Policy as one of several program specific data offices that support NSF OCE funded researchers. BCO-DMO staff members offer data management support throughout the project life cycle to investigators from large national programs and medium-sized collaborative research projects, as well as researchers from single investigator awards. The office manages and serves all types of oceanographic data and information generated during the research process and contributed by the originating investigators. BCO-DMO has built a data system that includes the legacy data from several large ocean research programs (e.g. United States Joint Global Ocean Flux Study and United States GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics), to which data have been contributed from recently granted NSF OCE and OPP awards. The BCO-DMO data system can accommodate many different types of data including: in situ and experimental biological, chemical, and physical measurements; modeling results and synthesis data products. The system enables reuse of oceanographic data for new research endeavors, supports synthesis and modeling activities, provides availability of "real data" for K-12 and college level use, and provides decision-support field data for policy-relevant investigations. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: map-based and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data export and download utilities; and strategic use of controlled vocabularies to facilitate data integration and to improve data system interoperability.

Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.; Gegg, S. R.

2011-12-01

328

Improving the cost-effectiveness, trade and safety of biological control for agricultural insect pests using nuclear techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

If appropriately applied, biological control offers one of the most promising, environmentally sound, and sustainable control tactics for arthropod pests and weeds for application as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. Public support for biological control as one of the preferred methods of managing non-indigenous and indigenous pests is increasing in many countries. An FAO\\/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

Jorge Hendrichs; Kenneth Bloem; Gernot Hoch; James E. Carpenter; Patrick Greany; Alan S. Robinson

2009-01-01

329

Probabilistic spill occurrence simulation for chemical spills management.  

PubMed

Inland chemical spills pose a great threat to water quality in worldwide area. A sophisticated probabilistic spill-event model that characterizes temporal and spatial randomness and quantifies statistical uncertainty due to limited spill data is a major component in spill management and associated decision making. This paper presents a MATLAB-based Monte Carlo simulation (MMCS) model for simulating the probabilistic quantifiable occurrences of inland chemical spills by time, magnitude, and location based on North America Industry Classification System codes. The model's aleatory and epistemic uncertainties were quantified through integrated bootstrap resampling technique. Benzene spills in the St. Clair River area of concern were used as a case to demonstrate the model by simulating spill occurrences, occurrence time, and mass expected for a 10-year period. Uncertainty analysis indicates that simulated spill characteristics can be described by lognormal distributions with positive skewness. The simulated spill time series will enable a quantitative risk analysis for water quality impairments due to the spills. The MMCS model can also help governments to evaluate their priority list of spilled chemicals. PMID:24095991

Cao, Weihua; Li, James; Joksimovic, Darko; Yuan, Arnold; Banting, Doug

2013-11-15

330

PEST ALERT: Glycaspis brimblecombei  

E-print Network

PEST ALERT: Glycaspis brimblecombei Red Gum Lerp Psyllid The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis on Eucalyptus. Native to Australia, the red gum lerp psyllid has been accidentally introduced into various. Females of the red gum lerp psyllid lay between 45 and 700 eggs. The eggs hatch in 10 to 20 days

331

The War Against Pests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

Smith, Ray F.

1973-01-01

332

Vegetable Pests I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 63 images of pest beetles that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae,eggs, and the insect damage. Many illustrate rarely photographed insects; most of are good quality, some are excdeptional. Photos are provided in 3 resolutions and formats; one includes text with photographer's information, etc. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0000-00-00

333

The pest status and distribution of three cryptic blue oat mite species (Penthaleus spp.) and redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) in southeastern Australia.  

PubMed

Earth mites are pests of crops and pastures in southeastern Australia. Recent studies show differences between earth mite species in their mode of reproduction, preferred hosts and pesticide tolerance. This paper examines the distribution and pest status of each species. The southeastern Australian distribution for each species is mapped, incorporating new data from eastern New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. A new population of an undescribed species previously identified from northwestern Victoria was found in northern New South Wales. CLIMEX was used to identify climatic factors limiting the distribution of P. major and P. falcatus, the most broadly distributed species. This analysis suggests tolerance to heat and desiccation limits the inland distribution of these two species. A three-year survey of agricultural outbreaks indicates that all Penthaleus species are major agricultural pests although their pest status on crop types appears to differ. All species contributed to chemical control failures. However P. falcatus, previously identified in laboratory tests as having increased tolerance to pesticides, was the most common species associated with control failures. A laboratory experiment indicated that mites are sometimes pests on crops on which they cannot persist for a generation. Results are discussed with respect to management of these agricultural pests. PMID:12206582

Robinson, M T; Hoffmann, A A

2001-01-01

334

Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

Kantzes, James G.; And Others

335

Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.  

PubMed

Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options. PMID:25273517

Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

2014-10-01

336

Unexpected Effects of Low Doses of a Neonicotinoid Insecticide on Behavioral Responses to Sex Pheromone in a Pest Insect  

PubMed Central

In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an “info-disruptor” by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

Rabhi, Kaouther K.; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

2014-01-01

337

Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.  

PubMed

In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

Rabhi, Kaouther K; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

2014-01-01

338

Automatic monitoring of insect pests in stored grain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Manual sampling of insects in stored grain is a laborious and time consuming process. Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management. To make accurate insect management decisions, managers need to know both the insect species and numbers ...

339

Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.  

SciTech Connect

Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

1999-05-07

340

Vegetable Pests II  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 96 images of pests that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs; and what the insect damage looks like. Covers mites, true bugs, hoppers, whiteflies, aphids, grasshoppers, crickets, and thrips. Most of the images are of good quality; some are exceptional. Some images depict frequently photographed insects, but several are unique. Images are offered in 3 resolutions and file formats. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0000-00-00

341

Stored Product Pest Images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 81 images of pests of stored products, including eggs, larvae and pupae and damage photos. Mites, beetles, moths, and psocids are included. A web browser and CD-ROM drive are required to view the images. Images are of high quality and the accompanying text is generally accurate and informative. The larval lesser mealworm is mis-captioned as an adult. Navigation of the images is easy.

0002-11-30

342

Short-range movement of major agricultural pests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

Vansteenwyk, R.

1979-01-01

343

Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 11 Empty Container Decision Tree  

E-print Network

Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 11 Empty Container Decision Tree Chemical waste materials must be handled as hazardous unless they are on the Non-Hazardous Waste hazard? Rinse the container and manage the rinsate as a hazardous waste. Put a H azardous W aste label

Ford, James

344

Modelling cropping system effects on crop pest dynamics: How to compromise between process analysis and decision aid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Managing crop pests (weeds, insects, pathogens, etc.) to limit both crop production loss and environmental impacts is a major challenge of agriculture. Because of the large number of factors and the complexity of interactions, models are invaluable tools to synthesize our knowledge on pests and to quantify the effects of cropping systems on pest dynamics. These models must be able

Nathalie Colbach

2010-01-01

345

Natural compounds for pest and weed control.  

PubMed

The control of insect pests and invasive weeds has become more species-selective because of activity-guided isolation, structure elucidation, and total synthesis of naturally produced substances with important biological activities. Examples of isolated compounds include insect pheromones, antifeedants, and prostaglandins, as well as growth regulators for plants and insects. Synthetic analogues of natural substances have been prepared to explore the relationships between chemical structure and observed biological activity. Recent scientific advances have resulted from better methods for the chemical synthesis of target compounds and better analytical methods. The capability of analytical instrumentation continues to advance rapidly, enabling new insights. PMID:19719128

Petroski, Richard J; Stanley, David W

2009-09-23

346

Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

347

Vegetable Pests III  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Photographic gallery containing 108 images of lepidopteran pests that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs of most; pictures of damage also accompany many species. Covers caterpillars and moths/butterflies. Most of the photos are of good quality with some of excelletn quality; several species included are rarely photographed, while others are frequently documented and may be found in other sources. Images are offered in three resolutions and formats, including one with text acknowledging the phtographer. The depiction of the neonate tobacco hornworm may be a tomato hornwomr; it is difficult to tell from the picture. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

0000-00-00

348

Pest Ants and Cockroaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pest ants and cockroaches. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers acrobat ant, Argentine ant, bigheaded ant, crazy ant, Florida carpenter ant, ghost ant, imported fire ant, little fire ant, native fire ant and Pharaoh ant, American cockroach, Australian cockroach, brown cockroach, brownbanded cockroach, Cuban cockroach, Florida woods cockroaches, German cockroach, oriental cockroach, smokybrown cockroach and Surinam cockroach. Requires Windows. program must be downloaded on to hardrive, but once installed is intuitive. many of the species depicted in these tutorials are restricted to Florida and the extreme southern U.S. $15. Part number SW 157.

0002-11-30

349

Evaluation of Chemical Controls of Lygus hesperus in Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

When other means fail to avoid damaging levels of an insect pest population, chemical control becomes necessary. Chemical control is a variable farm input which should be optimized to reduce economic damage by the pest while maxi- mizing profit and minimizing exposure to secondary pest outbreaks, pest resur- gence, and risks of insecticide resistance. To best balance these needs, a

Peter C. Ellsworth

350

Keep Pests from Becoming a Problem in Your School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the use of pesticides in an integrated pest management (IPM) program. The three steps to creating an IPM are discussed along with IPM personnel communication requirements, and the need for written policies managed by a knowledgeable coordinator. Additional resources for information about IPMs are included. (GR)

James, Allen

2000-01-01

351

Less is Better. Laboratory Chemical Management for Waste Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An objective of the American Chemical Society is to promote alternatives to landfilling for the disposal of laboratory chemical wastes. One method is to reduce the amount of chemicals that become wastes. This is the basis for the "less is better" philosophy. This bulletin discusses various techniques involved in purchasing control, inventory…

American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

352

A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

To date, research on suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has focused on determining health effects in humans and wildlife and on occurrence of these chemicals in the environment. There is strong evidence that certain chemicals are causing endocrine-related effects in...

353

Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book, developed by experts from academia and industry, provides guidance on planning procedures for the handling, storage, and disposal of chemicals. The book offers prudent practices designed to promote safety and includes practical information on assessing hazards, managing chemicals, disposing of wastes, and more. This book is intended to serve as the leading source of chemical safety guidelines for people working with laboratory chemicals: research chemists, technicians, safety officers, educators, and students.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2011-01-01

354

Pest Risk Maps for Invasive Alien Species: A Roadmap for Improvement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pest risk maps are powerful visual communication tools to describe where invasive alien species might arrive, establish, spread, or cause harmful impacts. These maps inform strategic and tactical pest management decisions, such as potential restrictions on international trade or the design of pest surveys and domestic quarantines. Diverse methods are available to create pest risk maps, and can potentially yield different depictions of risk for the same species. Inherent uncertainties about the biology of the invader, future climate conditions, and species interactions further complicate map interpretation. If multiple maps are available, risk managers must choose how to incorporate the various representations of risk into their decisionmaking process, and may make significant errors if they misunderstand what each map portrays. This article describes the need for pest risk maps, compares pest risk mapping methods, and recommends future research to improve such important decision-support tools.

Robert Venette (USDA; Forest Service)

2010-05-03

355

Insecticide susceptibility of three species of cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pests of grapes.  

PubMed

Climbing cutworms in the genus Abagrotis are economically important pests of grapes in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia (BC). Grapes are recently introduced into many areas of the region, and the association between crop and pest is new and still evolving. This has led to limited information being available on pest management strategies, including the evaluation of chemical controls compatible with local production practices. Few insecticides are currently registered in Canada for cutworm control on grapes, and our study was initiated to provide information on the efficacy of potential control materials. We were also interested in the relative susceptibilities of the three most common cutworm species attacking grape buds in BC--Abagrotis orbis (Grote), Abagrotis reedi Buckett, and Abagrotis nefascia (Smith). Dose-response bioassays with nine insecticides were conducted on neonate larvae using Bok Choy leaf disks, and on fourth-instar larvae using diet incorporation. There were considerable differences in the toxicity of insecticides within species for neonates and fourth instars. For some materials, the relative toxicity to neonates and fourth instars were not correlated. Response to insecticides among the three species showed variation as well, and correct identification of the species complex present in individual locations is important in choosing the best available control material. PMID:24224256

Smirle, Michael J; Zurowski, Cheryl L; Lowery, D Thomas; Mostafa, Ayman M

2013-10-01

356

New monitoring and control tools for simultaneously managing possums, rats and mice in New Zealand.  

E-print Network

??Simultaneously managing multiple pest species within one control operation is the most beneficial way to effectively manage New Zealand???s introduced mammalian pest species. Multi-species pest… (more)

Sam, Shona

2011-01-01

357

Whitefly Management with Insect Growth Regulators and the Influence of Lygus Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three keys to whitefly management are sampling, effective chemical use, and avoidance. This study examines factors relevant to the latter two keys in the con- text of Arizona's cotton pest spectrum. Insect growth regulators (IGRs) are cen- tral to Arizona's success in whitefly management. The basic usage guidelines developed for the IGRs—initial treatment timing, prescribed intervals between successive uses,

Peter C. Ellsworth; Steve E. Naranjo

358

The Case for Proactive Chemicals Management in REI Operations.  

E-print Network

??REI???s CSR framework involves seven environmental lenses: climate change, energy use, waste, water, chemicals, land use, and social impacts. REI currently measures, tracks, and systematically… (more)

Yang, David

2013-01-01

359

HOUSEHOLD PESTICIDE CONTAMINATION FROM INDOOR PEST CONTROL APPLICATIONS IN URBAN LOW-INCOME PUBLIC HOUSING DWELLINGS: A COMMUNITY-BASED PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH  

PubMed Central

We designed this community-based participatory research (CBPR) project aiming to generate evidence-based research results in order to encourage residents living in urban low-income public housing dwellings engaging in a community-wide integrated pest management (IPM) program with the intention to improve their health and quality of life, as well as household conditions. We enrolled 20 families and their children in this study in which we utilized environmental exposure assessment (surface wipe and indoor air) tools to quantitatively assessing residential pesticide exposure in young children before the implementation of an IPM program. We analyzed those samples for 19 organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. The most commonly detected pesticides were pyrethroids, particularly permethrin and cypermethrin with average concentrations of 2.47 and 3.87 µg/m2, respectively. In many dwellings, we detected OPs, which are no longer available on the market, however, their levels are significantly lower than those of pyrethroids. None of the 20 families was free from pesticide contamination in their households, and pesticides were commonly detected in living room and children’s bedroom. The correlation among household hygienic conditions, the sighting of live pests/pest debris, and the degree of indoor pesticide contamination highlights the failure of conventional chemical-based applications for pest controls. The results from the current study, as well as other recent studies, conducted in low-income public housing, child care centers, and randomly selected homes in the U.S. should accentuate the need for alternative pest management programs that incorporate safer and more sustainable protocols for pest controls. PMID:23363037

Adamkiewicz, Gary; Attfield, Kathleen; Kapp, Michaela; Spengler, John D; Tao, Lin; Xie, Shao Hua

2013-01-01

360

Prioritizing chemicals for environmental management in China based on screening of potential risks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid development of China's chemical industry has created increasing pressure to improve the environmental management of chemicals. To bridge the large gap between the use and safe management of chemicals, we performed a comprehensive review of the international methods used to prioritize chemicals for environmental management. By comparing domestic and foreign methods, we confirmed the presence of this gap and identified potential solutions. Based on our literature review, we developed an appropriate screening method that accounts for the unique characteristics of chemical use within China. The proposed method is based on an evaluation using nine indices of the potential hazard posed by a chemical: three environmental hazard indices (persistence, bioaccumulation, and eco-toxicity), four health hazard indices (acute toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity), and two environmental exposure hazard indices (chemical amount and utilization pattern). The results of our screening agree with results of previous efforts from around the world, confirming the validity of the new system. The classification method will help decisionmakers to prioritize and identify the chemicals with the highest environmental risk, thereby providing a basis for improving chemical management in China.

Yu, Xiangyi; Mao, Yan; Sun, Jinye; Shen, Yingwa

2014-03-01

361

The effect of transitional organic production practices on soilborne pests of tomato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The perceived risk of pest resurgence upon transition from conventional to organic-based farming systems remains a critical obstacle to expanding organic vegetable production, particularly where chemical fumigants have provided soilborne pest and disease control. Microplots were used to study the ef...

362

Biotic Agents as Key Mortality Factors in Integrated Control of Pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pest control strategies based solely on the use of modern organic pesticides do not generally take into account the importance of various biotic agents, mainly parasites and predators, that play a key role in regulating pest populations and may themselves be adversely affected, directly or indirectly, by broad spectrum toxic chemicals. The indiscriminate use of these pesticides may also create

T. Sankaran

1977-01-01

363

Prevention methods for pest control and their use in Poland.  

PubMed

Prevention methods can still be a cost-effective and efficient tool for pest control. Rational use of prevention methods is a feasible way to reduce dependency on chemical protection in agriculture. Costs, workload and farmers' awareness are key issues, however. In Poland, crop rotation is used as a method for pest control only to a limited extent owing to the high share of cereals in the crop structure. The choice of resistant varieties is satisfactory, but farmers should make use of qualified seed material more often. Liming is recommended on the majority of farms on account of widespread soil acidity. Favourable aspects as regards the prevention of pest development are biodiversity and the popularity of prevention cultivation techniques. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24729297

Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

2014-04-11

364

Resisting insects: shifting strategies in chemical control.  

PubMed

Throughout the 20th century, scientists developed a variety of chemical compounds to kill insects and other menaces of agriculture and public health. Yet, in many cases, the target insects outmaneuvered the scientists by developing resistance to insecticides--in much the same way as some bacteria can tolerate antibiotics. Insecticide resistance research has involved scientists from a range of disciplines and a variety of institutional contexts that have often guided research strategy. For example, entomologists working at agricultural stations and universities concentrated on insect physiology and evolutionary genetics, while industrial chemists continued the development of novel compounds capable of killing resistant pests. Collaboration between the two groups beginning in the 1940s did not provide a solution to the resistance, but did lead to a strategic shift from pest control to pest management that continues to the present. PMID:15036923

Ceccatti, John S

2004-03-01

365

CHEMICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT POWWER EVAPORATION-CATALYTIC OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report evaluates the ability of the Chemical Waste Management POWWER System to reduce the volume of aqueous waste and catalytically oxidize volatile contaminants. his evaluation is based on treatment performance and cost data from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluati...

366

Managing Auditory Risk from Acoustically Impulsive Chemical Demonstrations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chemical demonstrations are an integral part of the process of how students construct meaning from chemical principles, but may introduce risks to students and presenters. Some demonstrations are known to be extremely loud and present auditory hazards; little has been done to assess the risks to educators and students. Using laboratory-grade…

Macedone, Jeffrey H.; Gee, Kent L.; Vernon, Julia A.

2014-01-01

367

The importance of arthropod pests in Belgian pome fruit orchards.  

PubMed

Located in temperate, maritime climate with frequent rainfall, crop protection in Belgian orchards is dominated by fungicides. Though, the importance of arthropod pests should not be underestimated. Pcfruit, the former Research station of Gorsem, has been maintaining a warning system for fruit pests in Belgium since 1944. Therefore, various pests and beneficial's and their life cycle stages have been monitored in Gorsem and in different observation posts across Belgium, being part of a monitoring network. Although up to 3000 arthropod species are present in pome fruit orchards, about 25% can be considered as harmful and another 25% as beneficial. Out of those species, around 100 harmful and 50 beneficial organisms are omnipresent. The list of monitored species is extended yearly for upcoming or difficult to control organisms. Integrated pest management was introduced in the eighties, with the accent on using selective pesticides and saving beneficial organisms. A shift in pesticide use affected the importance of secondary pests, together with recent exceptional climatic conditions. Following many years of monitoring insects and mites and editing warning bulletins in our station, a ranking of the economical importance of different pest species is presented. PMID:19226798

Bangels, Eva; De Schaetzen, Charles; Hayen, Guy; Paternotte, Edouard; Gobin, Bruno

2008-01-01

368

Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. To address the facility-specific and site-specific vulnerabilities, responsible DOE and site-contractor line organizations have developed initial site response plans. These plans, presented as Volume 2 of this Management Response Plan, describe the actions needed to mitigate or eliminate the facility- and site-specific vulnerabilities identified by the CSV Working Group field verification teams. Initial site response plans are described for: Brookhaven National Lab., Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Lab., Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Los Alamos National Lab., Oak Ridge Reservation, Rocky Flats Plant, Sandia National Laboratories, and Savannah River Site.

Not Available

1994-09-01

369

SYSTEMS TO ADVANCE AND ENHANCE EXOTIC PEST CONTROL-A CASE STUDY OF A GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP IN DEVELOPING MONITORING SYSTEMS FOR USE IN SIT MANAGEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN FRUIT FLY.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increased plant importation, tourism, and trade in agricultural commodities have increased the incidence of introduction of exotic insect pests into pest-free areas of the world, threatening crop and ornamental plant production. The threat of invasion is very pronounced in areas of the world that ...

370

Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation.

Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

2014-09-01

371

HIT THE BULL'S EYE: KNOW PEST, PLANT CANOPY, AND PESTICIDE TO BOOST SPRAYER EFFICIENCY IN VEGETABLES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Understanding the performance of machinery used to deliver pest management materials is critical to selecting the best equipment for each application. The pesticide, target, and pest problem largely dictate the delivery technique. Field studies using fresh market peppers were established to evalua...

372

Disease and pest control in the bioenergy crops poplar and willow  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the population ecology, genetics and epidemiology of pests and pathogens is necessary for the development of reliable and effective pest and disease management systems in energy crops. Rust diseases are among the most devastating on poplars and willows. Analysis of forms of the Melampsora rust pathogens has revealed a complex array of species, form species, races and

DJ Royle; ME Ostry

1995-01-01

373

Transport and fate of methyl iodide a its pest control in soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

For fumigants, information on transport and fate, as well as pest control, is needed to develop management practices with the fewest human and environmental health risks while offering sufficient pest control efficacy. For this purpose, a 2-D soil chamber (60 cm wide, 60 cm long, and 6 cm thick) wit...

374

Development of an embryonic lethality system for transgenic sit in the fruit pest, ceratitis capitata  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ceratitis capitata, known as one of the world's most destructive insect pest, costs farmers billions of dollars annually. Improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of area-wide pest management. Transgenic methodology should enhance and widen the applicability of the sterile ...

375

Radiation sources supporting the use of natural enemies for biological control of agricultural pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Augmentative biological control as a component of integrated pest management programmes involves the release of natural enemies of the pest, such as parasitoids and predators. Several potential uses for nuclear techniques have been identified which can benefit such programmes; these benefits include facilitating trade, protecting the environment and increasing the overall efficacy of the programmes. This may involve sterilising feed

Kishor Mehta

2009-01-01

376

Pest damage and arthropod community structure in organic vs. conventional tomato production in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. To test common assumptions that the reduction in agrochemicals on organic farms allows (i) the conservation of biodiversity but (ii) has some cost in terms of increased pest damage, we compared arthropod communities and pest damage levels to fresh market tomato Lycopersicon esculentum on 18 commercial farms. These farms repre- sented a range of management practices, with half

D. K. Letourneau; B. Goldstein

2001-01-01

377

Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of several alternativ...

378

Influences of trees on abundance of natural enemies of insect pests: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we review the use of natural enemies in crop pest management and describe research needed to better meet information needs for practical applications. Endemic natural enemies (predators and parasites) offer a potential but understudied approach to controlling insect pests in agricultural systems. With the current high interest in environmental stewardship, such an approach has special appeal as

M. E. Dix; R. J. Johnson; M. O. Harrell; R. M. Case; R. J. Wright; L. Hodges; J. R. Brandle; M. M. Schoeneberger; N. J. Sunderman; R. L. Fitzmaurice; L. J. Young; K. G. Hubbard

1995-01-01

379

Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

380

Nursery Crop Production Problems & Issues - Insect Pests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What insects present problems in nursery crop production, how can they be identified, and how can they be best controlled? First, let's look at the following scenarios to gain an understanding of insect problems that can occur within nursery crop production. Nursery Crop Production Insect Pest Management Scenarios Now read Plant Farm Nursery Website to identify the insect described in the first scenario. Next, read Tree Shrub Damage to identify the insect issue described within the second scenario. Read Extension Service Website to gain a better understanding ...

Mr. Wells

2012-04-05

381

Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

Not Available

1994-09-01

382

The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors,

Stephen Richards; Richard A. Gibbs; George M. Weinstock; Susan J. Brown; Robin Denell; Richard W. Beeman; G. Bucher; M. Friedrich; C. J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen; M. Klingler; M. D. Lorenzen; S. Roth; R. Schroder; D. Tautz; E. M. Zdobnov; D. Muzny; T. Attaway; S. Bell; C. J. Buhay; M. N. Chandrabose; D. Chavez; K. P. Clerk-Blankenburg; A. Cree; M. Dao; C. Davis; J. Chacko; H. Dinh; S. Dugan-Rocha; G. Fowler; T. T. Garner; J. Garnes; A. Gnirke; A. Hawes; J. Hernandez; S. Hines; M. Holder; J. Hume; S. N. Jhangiani; V. Joshi; Z. M. Khan; L. Jackson; C. Kovar; A. Kowis; S. Lee; L. R. Lewis; J. Margolis; M. Morgan; L. V. Nazareth; N. Nguyen; G. Okwuonu; D. Parker; S. J. Ruiz; J. Santibanez; J. Savard; S. E. Scherer; B. Schneider; E. Sodergren; S. Vattahil; D. Villasana; C. S. White; R. Wright; J. Lord; B. Oppert; S. Brown; L. J. Wang; Y. Liu; K. Worley; C. G. Elsik; J. T. Reese; E. Elhaik; G. Landan; D. Graur; P. Arensburger; P. Atkinson; J. Beidler; J. P. Demuth; D. W. Drury; Y. Z. Du; H. Fujiwara; V. Maselli; M. Osanai; H. M. Robertson; Z. Tu; J. J. Wang; S. Z. Wang; H. Song; L. Zhang; D. Werner; M. Stanke; B. Morgenstern; V. Solovyev; P. Kosarev; G. Brown; H. C. Chen; O. Ermolaeva; W. Hlavina; Y. Kapustin; B. Kiryutin

2008-01-01

383

Control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruit with entomopathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A plethora of arthropods attack fruit crops throughout the tropics and sub-tropics. The predominant method for controlling most of these pests is the application of broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Growing concern over the negative environmental effects has encouraged development of alternative c...

384

BIOTECHNOLOGY AND THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER: MEASURING HISTORICAL FARMER PERCEPTIONS AND ADOPTION OF TRANSGENIC BT CORN AS A PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A three-year, multi-state survey of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn farmers was conducted to evaluate perceptions of Bt corn performance and its utility as a European corn borer management option. A questionnaire was sent to farmers who had grown Bt corn during the previous field season...

385

Integrated applications of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. tenebrionis and Beauveria bassiana for biologically-based integrated pest management of Colorado potato beetle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research conducted over the past decade has indicated a low level of synergism and potentially high degree of complementarity between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- and Beauveria bassiana (Bb)-based biopesticides applied for management of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. In view...

386

Managing Turfgrass Insects of the Northeast  

E-print Network

management Sanitation Mechanical/physical control Biological control Conservation Introduction Augmentative is the considered and coordinated use of pest control tactics in turf management. The goal of IPM is to maintain making and management system. #12;Environment Turf management Pests Insect Pests Pathogens Weeds

Wang, Changlu

387

Utilizing the assassin bug, Pristhesancus plagipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), as a biological control agent within an integrated pest management programme for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Creontiades spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) in cotton.  

PubMed

Helicoverpa spp. and mirids, Creontiades spp., have been difficult to control biologically in cotton due to their unpredictable temporal abundance combined with a cropping environment often made hostile by frequent usage of broad spectrum insecticides. To address this problem, a range of new generation insecticides registered for use in cotton were tested for compatibility with the assassin bug, Pristhesancus plagipennis (Walker), a potential biological control agent for Helicoverpa spp. and Creontiades spp. Indoxacarb, pyriproxifen, buprofezin, spinosad and fipronil were found to be of low to moderate toxicity on P. plagipennis whilst emamectin benzoate, abamectin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and omethaote were moderate to highly toxic. Inundative releases of P. plagipennis integrated with insecticides identified as being of low toxicity were then tested and compared with treatments of P. plagipennis and the compatible insecticides used alone, conventionally sprayed usage practice and an untreated control during two field experiments in cotton. The biological control provided by P. plagipennis nymphs when combined with compatible insecticides provided significant (P<0.001) reductions in Helicoverpa and Creontiades spp. on cotton and provided equivalent yields to conventionally sprayed cotton with half of the synthetic insecticide input. Despite this, the utilization of P. plagipennis in cotton as part of an integrated pest management programme remains unlikely due to high inundative release costs relative to other control technologies such as insecticides and transgenic (Bt) cotton varieties. PMID:17524159

Grundy, P R

2007-06-01

388

An index method to evaluate growers' pesticide use for identifying on-farm innovations and effective alternative pest management strategies: a case study of winegrape in Madera County, California.  

PubMed

Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUI and PUIM. It was found that both PUI and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI?10 and 34 with 1060, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds, which indicated that their pest controls heavily depended on pesticides rather than on-farm management. Through the case study, the proposed approach proved to be useful for analyzing the growers' pesticide use intensities and interpreting their pesticide use behaviors, which led to a new start point for further investigation of searching ways to reduce pesticide environmental risk. PMID:21370508

Li, Wen-juan; Qin, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Browde, Joe

2011-03-01

389

CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Sex Pheromone of the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, and  

E-print Network

CHEMICAL ECOLOGY Sex Pheromone of the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, and Its Potential aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, has seriously threatened soybean production in North America, afterCanada.ControlofA.glycineshasfocusedonapplicationsofinsecticides, which are not a long-term solution to soybean aphid pest management. In autumn, soybean aphids start

390

Imported Fire Ants: An Agricultural Pest and a  

E-print Network

Imported Fire Ants: An Agricultural Pest and a Human Health Hazard Imported fire ants (Solenopsis. The black imported fire ant was brought to Mobile, AL, in 1918. The red imported fire ant arrived) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) for advice about how to manage imported fire ants

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

391

Forest Pest Control and Timber Treatment Category Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The document is a compilation of pamphlets and circulars which discuss forest management, control of undesirable woody plants, herbicides in forestry, diseases and insect pests, and equipment for pesticide application. (CS)

Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

392

Chemical healthcare waste management in small Brazilian municipalities.  

PubMed

The disposal of healthcare waste (HCW) seems to have been solved in developed countries, while in most developing countries the problem persists because the disposal methods are expensive and larger than the budget of small- and medium-sized municipalities. The current study evaluates the encapsulation process for the disposal of medical chemical waste. The experiment was developed in the Piraí municipality (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) and the chemical wastes were produced in the local public hospital, as well as the 12 units of primary care health services. Chemical waste generated at health services units may include the liquid waste from cleaning materials and disinfectants, expired and unused pharmaceutical products, and cytotoxins. These are all considered hazardous waste products and they must be disposed of via an authorised system at approved sites (e.g. industrial landfills). The process of encapsulating chemical medical waste in concrete (cement, crushed stones and sand) followed by their disposal at sanitary landfills is a procedure that is not considered in Brazilian Legislation. Despite the oversight, this method of disposal was used in the municipality of Piraí, with the approval of the Rio de Janeiro State Agency for Environmental Control. The safety aspects of this method and the limits of its applicability, particularly in small municipalities, were evaluated in this study. The results indicate that, within certain parameters, this method may provide a viable solution for the disposal of HCW in small municipalities. PMID:22977125

Ferreira, João A; Bila, Danielle M; Ritter, Elisabeth; Braga, Ana Cs

2012-12-01

393

Changing patterns in insect pests on trees in The Netherlands since 1946 in relation to human induced habitat changes and climate factors—An analysis of historical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In The Netherlands, insect pests on trees and shrubs are being monitored continuously since 1946. During these years, almost all insect pest populations showed marked changes, which may be the result of changes in forest management, shifts in forest composition, climate change and the arrival of new pests from the Mediterranean region or from other continents. In order to generate

Leen G. Moraal; Gerard A. J. M. Jagers op Akkerhuis

2011-01-01

394

Integrating Environmental Management in Chemical Engineering Education by Introducing an Environmental Management System in the Student's Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this work we show how specific challenges related to sustainable development can be integrated into chemical engineering education by introducing an environmental management system in the laboratory where the students perform their experimental lessons. It is shown how the system has been developed and implemented in the laboratory, what role…

Montanes, Maria T.; Palomares, Antonio E.

2008-01-01

395

Opportunities to assist developing countries in the proper use of agricultural and industrial chemicals. Report of the Committee on Health and Environment. Volume 1. Research paper(Final)  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to examine opportunities for promoting the proper use of agricultural and industrial chemicals, and of alternatives such as integrated pest management. Volume one provides an overview of the economic, health, and environmental costs developing countries incur from improper pesticide and chemical use and presents detailed action recommendations for the Agency for International Development (AID). Volume two provides source information: included are sections on AID's and other donors' environmental policies, the activities of other US government agencies operating abroad, and lessons learned from integrated pest management programs, along with a 35-page bibliography.

Not Available

1988-02-18

396

Safety in the Chemical Laboratory--Chemical Management: A Method for Waste Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods for reducing or eliminating waste disposal problems in the chemistry laboratory, considering both economic and environmental aspects of the problems. Proposes inventory control, shared use, solvent recycling, zero effluent, and various means of disposing of chemicals. (JM)

Pine, Stanley H.

1984-01-01

397

PRECISION CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOILS TO SUPPORT PRECISION MANAGEMENT DECISIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Technological advances in application of fertilizers and crop cultivars have expanded the potential for more precise management of soil. Resin-extraction, an alternative method of characterizing soils, coupled with inductively coupled plasma (ICP) provides information about the relative activity of ...

398

Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled

G. Frey; G. Mohrman; B. R. Templin

1999-01-01

399

Preparedness of emergency departments in northwest England for managing chemical incidents: a structured interview survey  

PubMed Central

Background A number of significant chemical incidents occur in the UK each year and may require Emergency Departments (EDs) to receive and manage contaminated casualties. Previously UK EDs have been found to be under-prepared for this, but since October 2005 acute hospital Trusts have had a statutory responsibility to maintain decontamination capacity. We aimed to evaluate the level of preparedness of Emergency Departments in North West England for managing chemical incidents. Methods A face-to-face semi-structured interview was carried out with the Nurse Manager or a nominated deputy in all 18 Emergency Departments in the Region. Results 16/18 departments had a written chemical incident plan but only 7 had the plan available at interview. All had a designated decontamination area but only 11 felt that they were adequately equipped. 12/18 had a current training programme for chemical incident management and 3 had no staff trained in decontamination. 13/18 could contain contaminated water from casualty decontamination and 6 could provide shelter for casualties before decontamination. Conclusion We have identified major inconsistencies in the preparedness of North West Emergency Departments for managing chemical incidents. Nationally recognized standards on incident planning, facilities, equipment and procedures need to be agreed and implemented with adequate resources. Issues of environmental safety and patient dignity and comfort should also be addressed. PMID:18096030

Williams, Jane; Walter, Darren; Challen, Kirsty

2007-01-01

400

Biological pest control in Mexico.  

PubMed

Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico. PMID:22974068

Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A

2013-01-01

401

Optical chemical sensors for environmental control and system management.  

PubMed

Several fiber optic based chemical sensors have been developed for use in plant growth systems and enclosed life support systems. Optical chemical sensors offer several distinct advantages in terms of sensitivity, calibration stability, immunity to biofouling and electrical interference, and ease of multiplexing sensors for multipoint/multiparameter analysis. Also, the ability to locate fiber optic sensors in close proximity to plant roots or leaves should improve the measurement reliability by obviating the need for handling and transport which can compromise sample integrity. Polestar Technologies and GEO-CENTERS have developed and tested many types of optical chemical sensors which utilize novel glass and polymeric materials as the sensor substrate. Analytes are detected using immobilized colorimetric indication systems or molecular recognition elements. Typically transduction is via wavelength specific absorption changes with multiwavelength detection for drift compensation. Sensors have been developed for solution pH, NH3, ethylene, CO2, and dissolved metal ions. In addition, unique PC-compatible optoelectronic interfaces, as well as distributed measurement systems, so that integrated detection systems are now available. In this paper recent efforts to develop sensors for critical nutrient ions are presented. PMID:11538788

Tabacco, M B; DiGiuseppe, T G

1996-01-01

402

Evaluation of the effects, on canopy arthropods, of two agricultural management systems to control pests in olive groves from north-east of Portugal.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the effect of management regime on canopy arthropod community of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.). Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2002 and 2003, in two olive groves, one under organic farming and the other under integrated protection. The integrated protection grove was sprayed once a year in June, with dimethoate, to control the anthophagous generation of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bern.). From April to November of each year, the canopy arthropods were sampled weekly. PRC method was used to analyse the effect of management regime at the community level and results showed that taxa responded differently to insecticide application suggesting that the organic grove was a more suitable habitat for the arthropods than the integrated protection grove. Abundance of arthropods peaked in May and June for both years but, after spraying with dimethoate, decreased significantly in integrated protection grove, recovering very slowly thereafter. Psocoptera, Miridae, Formicidae and Coccinellidae were the most sensitive taxa to insecticide application. Their decreasing in abundance was more evident in the second year of the trial. On the other hand chrysopids showed some tolerance to insecticide applications. These results suggest that the timing of spray is of utmost importance in reducing the side effects of spraying on beneficial arthropods. Moreover, differences in population susceptibility as well as in life cycle patterns must be considered. PMID:17095048

Santos, Sónia A P; Pereira, José A; Torres, Laura M; Nogueira, António J A

2007-02-01

403

Effectiveness of the High Dose/Refuge Strategy for Managing Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Plants Expressing One or Two Toxins  

PubMed Central

To delay resistance development to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing their own insecticide, the application of the Insect Resistance Management strategy called “High Dose/Refuge Strategy” (HD/R) is recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). This strategy was developed for Bt plants expressing one toxin. Presently, however, new Bt plants that simultaneously express two toxins are on the market. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficiency of the HD/R strategy for both these Bt toxins. As the current two-toxin Bt plants do not express two new Cry toxins but reuse one toxin already in use with a one-toxin plant, we estimated the spread of resistance when the resistance alleles are not rare. This study assesses: (i) whether the two toxins have to be present in high concentration, and (ii) the impact of the relative size of the refuge zone on the evolution of resistance and population density. We concluded that for Bt plants expressing one toxin, a high concentration is an essential condition for resistance management. For the pyramided Bt plants, one toxin could be expressed at a low titer if the two toxins are used for the first time, and a small refuge zone is acceptable. PMID:23162699

Gryspeirt, Aiko; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

2012-01-01

404

Pathogenicity of Fusarium semitectum against crop pests and its biosafety to non-target organisms.  

PubMed

Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no influence on the composting ability and growth of E. foetida. F. semitectum, in general, expressed its selectivity against sucking pests and proved its eco-friendly characteristics to the beneficial organisms and especially safe to Sericulture, Apiculture and Vermiculture industries in Karnataka, India. This novel fungus can be well incorporated as a viable tactics into the integrated management programmes of crop pests. PMID:17385514

Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

2006-01-01

405

Incidence of Sitophilus oryzae and other stored-product pests on cowpea in local markets in Accra: management strategies employed by retailers.  

PubMed

In recent times, the unusual presence of Sitophilus on cowpea has become an issue in Ghana as it constitutes a threat to food sufficiency and food security; this, by extension, necessitated the execution of this survey to establish the specific identity of the insect and its incidence, on stored cowpea in Ghana and consequently assess the level of awareness of traders and the management strategies employed. Using internal morphological identification techniques, the insect was identified as Sitophilus oryzae with an incidence rate of 12, 22 and 20% as against 50, 41 and 42% incidence rate of Callosobruchus maculatus after 30, 60 and 90 days respectively, of undisturbed storage of cowpea within the marketing systems in Accra, Ghana. Relatively low number of retailers (35.44%, N = 79) was aware of this occurrence, with 91.14% of this employing the energy-demanding and time-consuming sieving techniques as their main control strategies. This paper draws attention to the possible worsening of food insecurity already eminent in Africa for insects are no respecters of international or geo-political boundaries as they can spread to other countries, should this observation be left unchecked. PMID:24498808

Egbon, I N; Ayertey, J N

2013-05-01

406

Adaptive management of pest resistance by Helicoverpa species (Noctuidae) in Australia to the Cry2Ab Bt toxin in Bollgard II® cotton  

PubMed Central

In Australia, monitoring Helicoverpa species for resistance to the Cry2Ab toxin in second generation Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton has precisely fulfilled its intended function: to warn of increases in resistance frequencies that may lead to field failures of the technology. Prior to the widespread adoption of two-gene Bt cotton, the frequency of Cry2Ab resistance alleles was at least 0.001 in H. armigera and H. punctigera. In the 5 years hence, there has been a significant and apparently exponential increase in the frequency of alleles conferring Cry2Ab resistance in field populations of H. punctigera. Herein we review the history of deploying and managing resistance to Bt cotton in Australia, outline the characteristics of the isolated resistance that likely impact on resistance evolution, and use a simple model to predict likely imminent resistance frequencies. We then discuss potential strategies to mitigate further increases in resistance frequencies, until the release of a third generation product. These include mandating larger structured refuges, applying insecticide to crops late in the season, and restricting the area of Bollgard II® cotton. The area planted to Bt-crops is anticipated to continue to rise worldwide; therefore the strategies being considered in Australia are likely to relate to other situations. PMID:25567948

Downes, Sharon; Mahon, Rodney J; Rossiter, Louise; Kauter, Greg; Leven, Tracey; Fitt, Gary; Baker, Geoff

2010-01-01

407

Influence of Herbicide Tolerant Soybean Production Systems on Insect Pest Populations and Pest-Induced Crop Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional soybean weed management and transgenic herbicide-tolerant manage- ment were examined to assess their effects on soybean insect pest populations in south Georgia in 1997 and 1998.Soybean variety had very little impact on the insect species observed, except that maturity group effects were observed for stink bug, primarily Nezara viridula (L.), population densities on some sampling dates.Stink bugs were more

R. M. McPherson; W. C. Johnson; B. G. MULLINIX JR.; W. A. Mills; F. S. Peebles

2003-01-01

408

Evaluation of methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps with solid lure and insecticide dispensers for fruit fly monitoring and male annihilation in the Hawaii Areawide Pest Management Program.  

PubMed

Methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) traps with solid lure dispensers were deployed in areas with low and high populations of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), respectively. In low-density areas, standard Jackson traps or Hawaii Fruit Fly Areawide Pest Management (AWPM) traps with FT Mallet ME wafers impregnated with dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) or AWPM traps with Scentry ME cones and vapor tape performed equally as well as standard Jackson traps with liquid ME/C-L and naled. Standard Jackson traps or AWPM traps with FT Mallet C-L wafers impregnated with DDVP or AWPM traps with Scentry C-L plugs with vapor tape performed equally as well as standard Jackson traps with a lure-naled solution. In high density areas, captures with traps containing FT Mallet wafers (ME and C-L) outperformed AWPM traps with Scentry cones and plugs (ME and C-L) with DDVP insecticidal strips over a 6-mo period. Captures of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae with wafers containing both ME and raspberry ketone (FT Mallet MC) were equivalent to those containing separate lures. From a worker safety and convenience standpoint, FT Mallet ME and C-L wafers with DDVP or Scentry plugs, with or without DDVP vapor tape, are more convenient and safer to handle than standard liquid insecticide formulations used for monitoring and male annihilation programs in Hawaii, and for detections traps used on the U.S. mainland. Furthermore, the FT Mallet MC wafer might be used in a single trap in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and C-L responding fruit flies. PMID:20429456

Vargas, Roger I; Mau, Ronald F L; Stark, John D; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc; Souder, Steven K

2010-04-01

409

Mechanisms for flowering plants to benefit arthropod natural enemies of insect pests: prospects for enhanced use in agriculture.  

PubMed

Reduction of noncrop habitats, intensive use of pesticides and high levels of disturbance associated with intensive crop production simplify the farming landscape and bring about a sharp decline of biodiversity. This, in turn, weakens the biological control ecosystem service provided by arthropod natural enemies. Strategic use of flowering plants to enhance plant biodiversity in a well-targeted manner can provide natural enemies with food sources and shelter to improve biological control and reduce dependence on chemical pesticides. This article reviews the nutritional value of various types of plant-derived food for natural enemies, possible adverse effects on pest management, and the practical application of flowering plants in orchards, vegetables and field crops, agricultural systems where most research has taken place. Prospects for more effective use of flowering plants to maximize biological control of insect pests in agroecosystem are good but depend up on selection of optimal plant species based on information on the ecological mechanisms by which natural enemies are selectively favored over pest species. PMID:23955976

Lu, Zhong-Xian; Zhu, Ping-Yang; Gurr, Geoff M; Zheng, Xu-Song; Read, Donna M Y; Heong, Kong-Luen; Yang, Ya-Jun; Xu, Hong-Xing

2014-02-01

410

Testing for multiple invasion routes and source populations for the invasive brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam: implications for pest management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) population on the Pacific island of Guam has reached iconic status as one of the most destructive invasive species of modern times, yet no published works have used genetic data to identify a source population. We used DNA sequence data from multiple genetic markers and coalescent-based phylogenetic methods to place the Guam population within the broader phylogeographic context of B. irregularis across its native range and tested whether patterns of genetic variation on the island are consistent with one or multiple introductions from different source populations. We also modeled a series of demographic scenarios that differed in the effective size and duration of a population bottleneck immediately following the invasion on Guam, and measured the fit of these simulations to the observed data using approximate Bayesian computation. Our results exclude the possibility of serial introductions from different source populations, and instead verify a single origin from the Admiralty Archipelago off the north coast of Papua New Guinea. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis thatB. irregularis was accidentally transported to Guam during military relocation efforts at the end of World War II. Demographic model comparisons suggest that multiple snakes were transported to Guam from the source locality, but that fewer than 10 individuals could be responsible for establishing the population. Our results also provide evidence that low genetic diversity stemming from the founder event has not been a hindrance to the ecological success of B. irregularis on Guam, and at the same time offers a unique ‘genetic opening’ to manage snake density using classical biological approaches.

Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Wood, Dustin A.; Stanford, James W.; Fisher, Robert N.

2014-01-01

411

Managing the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in wastewater-impacted streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A revolution in analytical instrumentation circa 1920 greatly improved the ability to characterize chemical substances. This analytical foundation resulted in an unprecedented explosion in the design and production of synthetic chemicals during and post-World War II. What is now often referred to as the 2nd Chemical Revolution has provided substantial societal benefits; with modern chemical design and manufacturing supporting dramatic advances in medicine, increased food production, and expanding gross domestic products at the national and global scales as well as improved health, longevity, and lifestyle convenience at the individual scale. Presently, the chemical industry is the largest manufacturing sector in the United States (U.S.) and the second largest in Europe and Japan, representing approximately 5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in each of these countries. At the turn of the 21st century, the chemical industry was estimated to be worth more than $1.6 trillion and to employ over 10 million people, globally. During the first half of the 20th century, the chemical sector expanded rapidly, the chemical industry enjoyed a generally positive status in society, and chemicals were widely appreciated as fundamental to individual and societal quality of life. Starting in the 1960s, however, the environmental costs associated with the chemical industry increasingly became the focus, due in part to the impact of books like “Silent Spring” and “Our Stolen Future” and to a number of highly publicized environmental disasters. Galvanizing chemical industry disasters included the 1976 dioxin leak north of Milan, Italy, the Love Canal evacuations in Niagara, New York beginning in 1978, and the Union Carbide leak in Bhopal, India in 1984. Understanding the environmental impact of synthetic compounds is essential to any informed assessment of net societal benefit, for the simple reason that any chemical substance that is in commercial production or use will eventually find its way to the environment. Not surprisingly given the direct link to profits, manufacturers intensely investigate and routinely document the potential benefits of new chemicals and chemical products. In contrast, the environmental risks associated with chemical production and uses are often investigated less intensely and are poorly communicated. An imbalance in the risk-benefit analysis of any synthetic chemical substance or naturally occurring chemical, which presence and concentration in the environment largely reflects human activities and management, is a particular concern owing to the fundamental link between chemistry and biology. Biological organisms are intrinsically a homeostatic balance of innumerable internal and external chemical interactions and, thus, inherently sensitive to changes in the external chemical environment.

Bradley, Paul M.; Kolpin, Dana W.

2013-01-01

412

Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

Coleman, V. Rodney

413

Insect Pests of Ornamental Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tutorials on pests of ornamentals. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers spider mites, broad mites, thrips, lace bugs, mealybugs, aphids and whiteflies. Requires Windows. $15. Tutorials are easy to use once loaded on the hard drive. Images are of high quality. Part number SW 162.

0000-00-00

414

Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

415

General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

416

Forest Pest Control. Sale Publication 4072.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The forest pests discussed in this guide are weeds, insects, diseases, and vertebrates. The guide gives information about types of forests, characteristics of common forest pests, pest control methods, pesticides and application equipment used in forestry, and environmental and human hazards. (Author/BB)

Stimmann, M. W., Ed.

417

Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of…

Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

418

Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

419

Major Arthropod Pests of North Carolina  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A comprehensive listing of arthropod pests arranged and searchable by commodity type. The listing includes pests of small fruits, ornamental plants, flowers, forests, corn, tobacco, turf, peanuts, cotton, and much more. Pests are listed by common and species name with life history data, images, and control strategies.

0000-00-00

420

Retargeting of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cyt2Aa against hemipteran insect pests  

PubMed Central

Although transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins have been used successfully for management of lepidopteran and coleopteran pest species, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. To overcome this limitation, we demonstrate that addition of a short peptide sequence selected for binding to the gut of the targeted pest species serves to increase toxicity against said pest. Insertion of a 12-aa pea aphid gut-binding peptide by adding to or replacing amino acids in one of three loops of the Bt cytolytic toxin, Cyt2Aa, resulted in enhanced binding and toxicity against both the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. This strategy may allow for transgenic plant-mediated suppression of other hemipteran pests, which include some of the most important pests of global agriculture. PMID:23650347

Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Li, Huarong; Liu, Sijun; Linz, Lucas B.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Meade, Thomas; Bonning, Bryony C.

2013-01-01

421

Structural Concepts for Trust, Contract and Security Management for a Virtual Chemical Engineering Organisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports on ongoing research into the development of a management system to co-ordinate a set of activities of a virtual organisation for the production of chemicals. The paper reports on the authors' experience in considering a real virtual organisation and raises issues of co-ordinating atomic activities that span across organisational boundaries and deals with systems that possess a

Panayiotis Periorellis; Christopher J. W. Townson; Philip English

2004-01-01

422

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: X*TRAX MODEL 200 THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEMS - CHEMICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The X*TRAX? Mode! 200 Thermal Desorption System developed by Chemical Waste Management, Inc. (CWM), is a low-temperature process designed to separate organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and other solid media. The X*TRAX? Model 200 is fully transportable and consists of thre...

423

Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood  

E-print Network

Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood (FINAL.7 Costs 54 II.8 Feedback from Wood Treaters and Large-End Users 56 CHAPTER III, DISPOSAL.3 Resource Book for the Wood Disposal Sector 85 CHAPTER IV IV.1 Conclusion and Recommendations IV.2

Florida, University of

424

Management plan for Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program Medical Course (Re)Design  

SciTech Connect

Under the Interagency Agreement between the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been tasked with the preparation of a chemical-agent-specific course (and a complementary train-the trainer'' program) for civilian emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and paramedics in Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP)-impacted communities in the 10 CSEPP states. This course is to be based on the Centers for Disease Control course Medical Management of Chemical Exposures'' and the US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense (MRICD) course entitled Medical Management of Chemical Casualties.'' Though the course materials will be based strongly on the above courses that have already undergone review and approval from the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Army, they will have to be redeveloped to a significant degree. The redevelopment will change the orientation from on-site conditions to potential off-site conditions and will allow the courses or course modules to be used in the variety of instructional conditions outlined, the most difficult condition being the ability to be used by an individual without an instructor present. This necessitates the development of self-study guides for each module as well as instructional materials geared to group interactions and instructor-controlled presentation. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

Copenhaver, E.D.

1991-05-01

425

Effects of crop species richness on pest-natural enemy systems based on an experimental model system using a microlandscape.  

PubMed

The relationship between crop richness and predator-prey interactions as they relate to pest-natural enemy systems is a very important topic in ecology and greatly affects biological control services. The effects of crop arrangement on predator-prey interactions have received much attention as the basis for pest population management. To explore the internal mechanisms and factors driving the relationship between crop richness and pest population management, we designed an experimental model system of a microlandscape that included 50 plots and five treatments. Each treatment had 10 repetitions in each year from 2007 to 2010. The results showed that the biomass of pests and their natural enemies increased with increasing crop biomass and decreased with decreasing crop biomass; however, the effects of plant biomass on the pest and natural enemy biomass were not significant. The relationship between adjacent trophic levels was significant (such as pests and their natural enemies or crops and pests), whereas non-adjacent trophic levels (crops and natural enemies) did not significantly interact with each other. The ratio of natural enemy/pest biomass was the highest in the areas of four crop species that had the best biological control service. Having either low or high crop species richness did not enhance the pest population management service and lead to loss of biological control. Although the resource concentration hypothesis was not well supported by our results, high crop species richness could suppress the pest population, indicating that crop species richness could enhance biological control services. These results could be applied in habitat management aimed at biological control, provide the theoretical basis for agricultural landscape design, and also suggest new methods for integrated pest management. PMID:23838809

Zhao, ZiHua; Shi, PeiJian; Men, XingYuan; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

2013-08-01

426

Interactions of biological and herbicidal management of Melaleuca quinquenervia with fire: Consequences for ecosystem services  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An example of a successful integrated pest plant management program is the Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake project in the Florida Everglades. Mechanical, chemical, and biological control methods have been used in concert to eliminate large monotypic stands while containing future population ex...

427

Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities  

PubMed Central

Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework. PMID:23914197

Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph

2013-01-01

428

Pest and Disease Management of Soilless Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to cultivation of plants in soil, any soilless cropping system requires a continuous supply of water and nutrients in open or closed circulation. The technical set-up of open systems is simple and the spread of root infesting pathogens is limited. But excessive nutrient solution run off causes environmental damage. Recirculating nutrient solution has ecological benefits but requires exact crop

Wilfried H. Schnitzler

429

Integrated Pest Management for Iowa Schools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IPM lesson plans are divided into sections devoted to elementary school ages, middle school, and finally high school level. Topics range from recognizing arthropods and insects, to observing butterflies in the field, to understanding ecosystems, and pesticide regulations. As of this writing a few of the links to PDFs are not operating, but seem to direct to other university websites. The plans for the high school exercises are probably of most utility at the university level. The exercises are well designed; however, some of the activities relying on government web-sites may be cumbersome.

0002-11-30

430

Pest management through tropical tree conservation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When discussing the need to improve conservation programs for native forests, arguments such as the role of vegetation in water catchment and soil conservation or as sources of food, medicines, firewood and lumber, and habitat for wildlife are commonly used. Here we argue that many native species o...

431

Applications of acoustics in insect pest management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Acoustic technology has been applied for many years in studies of insect communication and in the monitoring of calling-insect population levels, geographic distributions, and diversity, as well as in the detection of cryptic insects in soil, wood, container crops, and stored products. Acoustic devi...

432

DAIRY PEST MANAGEMENT (ARTHROPODS) Phillip E. Kaufman  

E-print Network

significant damage to no observed effect. Additionally, observed weight losses have been shown to be offset by supplementing animal diets with grain. It has been es- timated that stable flies annually result in losses. Direct damage includes blood loss, introduction of salivary secretions, tissue damage, reduced value

Kaufman, Phillip E.

433

Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks  

PubMed Central

Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

2013-01-01

434

HISTORY OF PINK BOLLWORM (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE) CONTROL IN THE SOUTHWESTERN COTTON GROWING AREAS OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF TRANSGENIC (BT) COTTON ON INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The pink bollworm (PBW), Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), has been a key pest in the cotton, Gossypium spp. growing areas of Arizona and southern California for almost 40 years. Control costs and lint yield and quality losses have been excessive. PBW is also found in almost every cotton growin...

435

Understanding heliothine (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) pests: what is a host plant?  

PubMed

Heliothine moths (Lepidoptera: Heliothinae) include some of the world's most devastating pest species. Whereas the majority of nonpest heliothinae specialize on a single plant family, genus, or species, pest species are highly polyphagous, with populations often escalating in size as they move from one crop species to another. Here, we examine the current literature on heliothine host-selection behavior with the aim of providing a knowledge base for research scientists and pest managers. We review the host relations of pest heliothines, with a particular focus on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), the most economically damaging of all heliothine species. We then consider the important question of what constitutes a host plant in these moths, and some of the problems that arise when trying to determine host plant status from empirical studies on host use. The top six host plant families in the two main Australian pest species (H. armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren) are the same and the top three (Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae) are ranked the same (in terms of the number of host species on which eggs or larvae have been identified), suggesting that these species may use similar cues to identify their hosts. In contrast, for the two key pest heliothines in the Americas, the Fabaceae contains approximately 1/3 of hosts for both. For Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), the remaining hosts are more evenly distributed, with Solanaceae next, followed by Poaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae, and Rosaceae. For Heliothis virescens (F.), the next highest five families are Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Convolvulaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Again there is considerable overlap in host use at generic and even species level. H. armigera is the most widely distributed and recorded from 68 plant families worldwide, but only 14 families are recorded as a containing a host in all geographic areas. A few crop hosts are used throughout the range as expected, but in some cases there are anomalies, perhaps because host plant relation studies are not comparable. Studies on the attraction of heliothines to plant odors are examined in the context of our current understanding of insect olfaction, with the aim of better understanding the connection between odor perception and host choice. Finally, we discuss research into sustainable management of pest heliothines using knowledge of heliothine behavior and ecology. A coordinated international research effort is needed to advance our knowledge on host relations in widely distributed polyphagous species instead of the localized, piecemeal approaches to understanding these insects that has been the norm to date. PMID:25026644

Cunningham, John Paul; Zalucki, Myron P

2014-06-01

436

Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.  

PubMed

Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n?=?192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control. PMID:25279278

Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

2014-01-01

437

Field Guide to Common Insect Pests of Urban Trees in the Northeast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For each insect, the following information is presented: host plant, photographs, damage information, life cycle, and management recommendations. This is an excellent collection of tree pests, and the species accounts are accurate, well-laid out, informative, and well illustrated. However, in the table of contents, white pine aphid and white pine weevil are mis-placed under "sawflies," and the heading for "Honeylocust Insect Pests" and the link for "Honeylocust Plant Bug" are transposed.

0002-11-30

438

Quantifying secondary pest outbreaks in cotton and their monetary cost with causal-inference statistics.  

PubMed

Secondary pest outbreaks occur when the use of a pesticide to reduce densities of an unwanted target pest species triggers subsequent outbreaks of other pest species. Although secondary pest outbreaks are thought to be familiar in agriculture, their rigorous documentation is made difficult by the challenges of performing randomized experiments at suitable scales. Here, we quantify the frequency and monetary cost of secondary pest outbreaks elicited by early-season applications of broad-spectrum insecticides to control the plant bug Lygus spp. (primarily L. hesperus) in cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA. We do so by analyzing pest-control management practices for 969 cotton fields spanning nine years and 11 private ranches. Our analysis uses statistical methods to draw formal causal inferences from nonexperimental data that have become popular in public health and economics, but that are not yet widely known in ecology or agriculture. We find that, in fields that received an early-season broad-spectrum insecticide treatment for Lygus, 20.2% +/- 4.4% (mean +/- SE) of late-season pesticide costs were attributable to secondary pest outbreaks elicited by the early-season insecticide application for Lygus. In 2010 U.S. dollars, this equates to an additional $6.00 +/- $1.30 (mean +/- SE) per acre in management costs. To the extent that secondary pest outbreaks may be driven by eliminating pests' natural enemies, these figures place a lower bound on the monetary value of ecosystem services provided by native communities of arthropod predators and parasitoids in this agricultural system. PMID:22073658

Gross, Kevin; Rosenheim, Jay A

2011-10-01

439

Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

1994-09-01

440

Reducing Pest Problems in Schools by Reducing Clutter Pests and Clutter  

E-print Network

Reducing Pest Problems in Schools by Reducing Clutter Pests and Clutter Schools and day care centers by their nature are prone to accumulating clutter. Boxes, papers, posters, books, and a myriad of clutter will result which can create pest issues. Stored materials that are left undisturbed for long

Ginzel, Matthew

441

Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

2012-01-01

442

Modeling and managing toxic chemicals: The Lake Michigan mass balance study  

SciTech Connect

The control and management of anthropogenic chemicals in the Great Lakes is an issue of great concern for 2 nations, 9 states and provinces, and 33 million people. As loadings from identified sources have been reduced, sometimes dramatic declines in toxic chemical concentrations have been observed to follow. However, human health and ecological effects from toxic chemicals remain topics of concern. There is also scientific debate regarding what factors control current toxic chemical concentrations in biotic and abiotic components of the Great lakes ecosystem. To address this latter issue, mathematical models are being developed to simulate the sources, transport, bioavailability, and bioaccumulation of four target chemicals (atrazine, mercury, PCBs, and trans-nonachlor). Preliminary modeling assessment by the authors suggested that PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan lake trout would remain greater than 1 mg/kg, even if all point and nonpoint sources in the watershed were eliminated. 2 factors control this result: (1) atmospheric sources are the largest PCB load component, and (2) the release of PCBs from the lake sediments by resuspension represents a huge internal mass flux. However, current data does not allow accurate estimation of either quantity. Because of the major ecological and economical consequences of decisions based upon the mass balance assessment, the modeling results require scientific confirmation.

Endicott, D.D.; Richardson, W.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Grosse Ile, MI (United States)

1995-12-31

443

77 FR 4982 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Smith-Lever 3(d) Extension Integrated Pest...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U...Protection, Institute of Food Production and Sustainability...National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U...diversity of subjects, and to aid participants in scheduling...Extension Integrated Pest Management Coordination and...

2012-02-01

444

Activity of eight strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) against five stored product pests.  

PubMed

Stored product pests are responsible for losses that can amount 10% during cereal storage in the world. Aiming to find an alternative method to the chemicals used for the stored-product pests, eight strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) were tested against five species of stored product pests. The bioassays were conducted in microtubes containing paper, inoculated with EPNs and insect diet. All the insect species were susceptible to the EPNs strains. Anagasta kuehniella and Tenebrio molitor larvae and Acanthoscelides obtectus adults were highly sensitive to the higher doses with most species and/or strains of EPNs. Adults of Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais were relatively less sensitive to all EPNs. Therefore, EPNs show as potential control agents for stored products pests in prophylactic applications in warehouses. PMID:23567251

de Carvalho Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth; Negrisoli Júnior, Aldomario Santo; Bernardi, Daniel; Garcia, Mauro Silveira

2013-07-01

445

Predicting habitat distribution of five heteropteran pest species in Iran.  

PubMed

In agroecosystems, potential species distribution models are extensively applied in pest management strategies, revealing species ecological requirements and demonstrating relationships between species distribution and predictive variables. The Maximum Entropy model was used to predict the potential distribution of five heteropteran key pests in Iran, namely Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), Lygus pratensis (L.), Apodiphus amygdali (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), Nezara viridula (L.), and Nysius cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). A total of 663 samples were collected from different parts of Iran. The altitude and climate variable data were included in the analysis. Based on test and training data, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were above 0.80, the binomial omission test with the lowest presence threshold for all species was statistically significant (< 0.01), and the test omission rates were less than 3%. The suitability of areas in Iran for A. amygdale (Germar) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), N. cymoides (Spinola) (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), A. lineolatus (Goeze) (Hemiptera: Miridae), L. pratensis (L.), and N. viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), ranked as 78.86%, 68.78%, 43.29%, 20%, and 15.16%, respectively. In general, central parts of Iran including salt lakes, deserts, and sand dune areas with very high temperatures and windy weather were predicted to be less suitable, while other regions, mainly northern parts, were most suitable. These new data could be applied practically for the design of integrated pest management and crop development programs. PMID:24735397

Solhjouy-Fard, Samaneh; Sarafrazi, Alimorad; Minbashi Moeini, Mehdi; Ahadiyat, Ali

2013-01-01

446

A novel approach to evaluation of pest insect abundance in the presence of noise.  

PubMed

Evaluation of pest abundance is an important task of integrated pest management. It has recently been shown that evaluation of pest population size from discrete sampling data can be done by using the ideas of numerical integration. Numerical integration of the pest population density function is a computational technique that readily gives us an estimate of the pest population size, where the accuracy of the estimate depends on the number of traps installed in the agricultural field to collect the data. However, in a standard mathematical problem of numerical integration, it is assumed that the data are precise, so that the random error is zero when the data are collected. This assumption does not hold in ecological applications. An inherent random error is often present in field measurements, and therefore it may strongly affect the accuracy of evaluation. In our paper, we offer a novel approach to evaluate the pest insect population size under the assumption that the data about the pest population include a random error. The evaluation is not based on statistical methods but is done using a spatially discrete method of numerical integration where the data obtained by trapping as in pest insect monitoring are converted to values of the population density. It will be discussed in the paper how the accuracy of evaluation differs from the case where the same evaluation method is employed to handle precise data. We also consider how the accuracy of the pest insect abundance evaluation can be affected by noise when the data available from trapping are sparse. In particular, we show that, contrary to intuitive expectations, noise does not have any considerable impact on the accuracy of evaluation when the number of traps is small as is conventional in ecological applications. PMID:24619808

Embleton, Nina; Petrovskaya, Natalia

2014-03-01

447

The Trojan female technique: a novel, effective and humane approach for pest population control  

PubMed Central

Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such ‘fertility control’ strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. ‘Trojan females’ carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce ‘sterile-male’-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan female technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control. PMID:24174117

Gemmell, Neil J.; Jalilzadeh, Aidin; Didham, Raphael K.; Soboleva, Tanya; Tompkins, Daniel M.

2013-01-01

448

The use of chemical composition data in waste management planning - A case study  

SciTech Connect

As the waste industry continues to move from a disposal-based system to one based on a combination of recovery options, the need for information on the composition of waste increases and this is reflected by the amount of information on the physical composition of municipal solid wastes that is now available. However, there is far less information on the chemical composition of municipal solid waste. The results from a number of chemical surveys from Europe are compared and show a reasonable degree of agreement, but several problems were identified with the data. Chemical and physical compositional data are combined in a case study example to investigate the flow of key potential pollutants in an integrated solid waste management system that uses materials recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling. This case study has shown that an integrated waste management strategy diverts lead and cadmium away from composting and recycling to incineration, which effectively isolates these elements from the environment through efficient capture of the pollutants followed by secure landfilling or recycling of the residues. However, further work is needed to determine the distribution of mercury in incineration residues and its fate when the residues are landfilled.

Burnley, S.J. [Department of Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.j.burnley@open.ac.uk

2007-07-01

449

Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

Parker, Robert C., Comp.

450

Drought and arthropod pests of crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water deficit can make otherwise arable regions less, or nonarable, from lack of life-sustaining water and it can also affect the extent to which crops are afflicted by arthropod pests. The effects of drought on host plant availability and nutrititive value influence arthropod pests of crops in a v...

451

Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

French, John C.; And Others

452

Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

453

Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

454

Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

455

Termite Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 96.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite pest control category. The text discusses general pests, especially ants, and wood-destroying organisms such as termites, beetles, and fungi. (CS)

Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

456

Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

457

The Bad Guys: Landscape Pest ID Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty common landscape pests are presented on summary cards containing identification, host range, life cycle, related species, and other information. Information is sound. Emphasis on biological control and tolerance of pests causing only cosmetic damage is good. Physical cards with the same information on them as this electronic version can be purchased.

0000-00-00

458

Household and Structural Pests. MEP 307.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is a non-technical description of common household arthropod pests in Maryland. Since most of the pests can be found in houses throughout North America, this publication has a wide geographic range of use. General discussions of arthropod structure, growth and development, and metamorphosis are given before the pages on specific…

Wood, F. E.

459

Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.  

PubMed

Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions. PMID:24952967

Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

2014-06-01

460

Risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in chemical industrial parks based on catastrophe theory.  

PubMed

According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

2012-12-01

461

Risk Assessment and Hierarchical Risk Management of Enterprises in Chemical Industrial Parks Based on Catastrophe Theory  

PubMed Central

According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

2012-01-01

462

UVM chemical use planning form.docx; 2012 Version 4 Page 1 of 6 Risk Management & Safety  

E-print Network

UVM chemical use planning form.docx; 2012 Version 4 Page 1 of 6 Risk Management & Safety Your spill control equipment emergency exits emergency contact information V. Medical Monitoring and Exposure Environmental Management Plan I. Laboratory Information: Laboratory Supervisor: Department: Building: Room

Hayden, Nancy J.

463

Influence of herbicide tolerant soybean production systems on insect pest populations and pest-induced crop damage.  

PubMed

Conventional soybean weed management and transgenic herbicide-tolerant management were examined to assess their effects on soybean insect pest populations in south Georgia in 1997 and 1998. Soybean variety had very little impact on the insect species observed, except that maturity group effects were observed for stink bug, primarily Nezara viridula (L.), population densities on some sampling dates. Stink bugs were more abundant on the early maturing varieties in mid-season. Velvetbean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), and grasshoppers Melanoplus spp. were more numerous on either conventional or herbicide-tolerant varieties on certain dates, although these differences were not consistent throughout the season. Soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), threecornered alfalfa hopper, Spissistilus festinus (Say), and whitefringed beetles, Graphognathus spp , demonstrated no varietal preference in this study. Few weed treatment differences were observed, but if present on certain sampling dates, then pest numbers were higher in plots where weeds were reduced (either postemergence herbicides or preplant herbicide plus postemergence herbicide). The exception to this weed treatment effect was grasshoppers, which were more numerous in weedy plots when differences were present. In post emergence herbicide plots, there were no differences in insect pest densities between the conventional herbicides (e.g., Classic, Select, Cobra, and Storm) compared with specific gene-inserted herbicide-tolerant materials (i.e., Roundup and Liberty). Defoliation, primarily by velvetbean caterpillar, was different between soybean varieties at some test sites but not different between herbicide treatments. We did not observe differences in seasonal abundance of arthropod pests between conventional and transgenic herbicide-tolerant soybean. PMID:12852606

McPherson, R M; Johnson, W C; Mullinix, B G; Mills, W A; Peebles, F S

2003-06-01

464

Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves  

PubMed Central

Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems. PMID:23904994

Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

2013-01-01

465

Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves.  

PubMed

Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems. PMID:23904994

Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

2013-01-01

466

Susceptibility of 15 mango (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) cultivars to the attack by Anastrepha ludens and Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the role of underdeveloped fruit as pest reservoirs: management implications.  

PubMed

We evaluated the susceptibility of 15 mango cultivars to the attack of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the main tephritid pests of this crop in Mexico. In a field experiment, bagged fruit-bearing branches were exposed to gravid females of both fly species. Infestation rates, developmental time, adult eclosion, and F1 adult longevity, fecundity, and fertility were recorded, ranking cultivars in terms of susceptibility to fly attack and development. We also compared the volatile profile in selected resistant and susceptible cultivars in search of possible correlations. In a second experiment, clutch size for A. ludens was determined in each cultivar. Infestation rates, developmental time, and F1 demographic parameters varied sharply among cultivars and between fly species for bagged fruit. Cultivars 'Vishi,' '74-82,' and 'Brooks' were most susceptible to A. ludens infestation while "Tommy,' 'Sensation,' and 'Ataulfo "niño"' (parthenocarpic fruit) were most susceptible to A. obliqua infestation. 'Edward,' 'Kent,' 'Brooks late,' 'Palmer, and 'Ataulfo' exhibited tolerance to attack of both fly species. Fruit of susceptible and resistant cultivars exhibited unique volatile profiles. Fly development and F1 adult demographic parameters varied significantly among cultivars. A. ludens females laid larger clutches in larger and harder fruit. We highlight the important role of Ataulfo "niño" as pest reservoir if fruit is left unharvested on trees. We discuss the possible use of highly resistant cultivars as trap crops or egg sinks. PMID:24665723

Aluja, M; Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F; Birke, A; Rull, J; Niogret, J; Epsky, N

2014-02-01

467

Ecoinformatics can reveal yield gaps associated with crop-pest interactions: a proof-of-concept.  

PubMed

Farmers and private consultants execute a vast, decentralized data collection effort with each cropping cycle, as they gather pest density data to make real-time pest management decisions. Here we present a proof of concept for an ecoinformatics approach to pest management research, which attempts to harness these data to answer questions about pest-crop interactions. The impact of herbivory by Lygus hesperus on cotton is explored as a case study. Consultant-derived data satisfied a 'positive control' test for data quality by clearly resolving the expected negative relationship between L. hesperus density and retention of flower buds. The enhanced statistical power afforded by the large ecoinformatics dataset revealed an early-season window of crop sensitivity, during which L. hesperus densities as low as 1-2 per sample were associated with yield loss. In contrast, during the mid-season insecticide use by farmers was often unnecessary, as cotton compensated fully for moderate L. hesperus densities. Because the dataset emerged from the commercial production setting, it also revealed the limited degree to which farmers were willing to delay crop harvest to provide opportunities for compensatory fruiting. Observational approaches to pest management research have strengths and weaknesses that complement those of traditional, experimental approaches; combining these methods can contribute to enhanced agricultural productivity. PMID:24260408

Rosenheim, Jay A; Meisner, Matthew H

2013-01-01

468

Ecoinformatics Can Reveal Yield Gaps Associated with Crop-Pest Interactions: A Proof-of-Concept  

PubMed Central

Farmers and private consultants execute a vast, decentralized data collection effort with each cropping cycle, as they gather pest density data to make real-time pest management decisions. Here we present a proof of concept for an ecoinformatics approach to pest management research, which attempts to harness these data to answer questions about pest-crop interactions. The impact of herbivory by Lygus hesperus on cotton is explored as a case study. Consultant-derived data satisfied a ‘positive control’ test for data quality by clearly resolving the expected negative relationship between L. hesperus density and retention of flower buds. The enhanced statistical power afforded by the large ecoinformatics dataset revealed an early-season window of crop sensitivity, during which L. hesperus densities as low as 1-2 per sample were associated with yield loss. In contrast, during the mid-season insecticide use by farmers was often unnecessary, as cotton compensated fully for moderate L. hesperus densities. Because the dataset emerged from the commercial production setting, it also revealed the limited degree to which farmers were willing to delay crop harvest to provide opportunities for compensatory fruiting. Observational approaches to pest management research have strengths and weaknesses that complement those of traditional, experimental approaches; combining these methods can contribute to enhanced agricultural productivity. PMID:24260408

Rosenheim, Jay A.; Meisner, Matthew H.

2013-01-01

469

Odorant receptors of a primitive hymenopteran pest, the wheat stem sawfly.  

PubMed

The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, is an herbivorous hymenopteran that feeds exclusively on members of the Graminae family. Synanthropically, it has become one of the most important insect pests of wheat grown in the northern Great Plains region of the USA and Canada. Insecticides are generally ineffective because of the wheat stem sawfly's extended adult flight period and its inaccessible larval stage, during which it feeds within the wheat stems, making it virtually intractable to most pest management strategies. While research towards integrated pest management strategies based on insect olfaction has proved promising, nothing is known about the molecular basis of olfaction in this important pest species. In this study we identified 28 unique odorant receptor (Or) transcripts from an antennal transcriptome. A phylogenetic analysis with the predicted Ors from the honey bee and jewel wasp genomes revealed at least four clades conserved amongst all three Hymenoptera species. Antennal expression levels were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR, and one male-biased and five female-biased Ors were identified. This study provides the basis for future functional analyses to identify behaviourally active odours that can be used to help develop olfactory-mediated pest management tools. PMID:23964849

Gress, J C; Robertson, H M; Weaver, D K; Dlaki?, M; Wanner, K W

2013-12-01

470

CHEMICAL HAZARD EVALUATION FOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A METHOD FOR RANKING AND SCORING CHEMICALS BY POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Between 60,000 and 100,000 of the over than 8,000,000 chemicals listed by the Chemical Abstracts Services Registry are commercially produced and are potential environmental pollutants. Risk-based evaluation for these chemicals is often required to evaluate the potential impacts...

471

Myco-Biocontrol of Insect Pests: Factors Involved, Mechanism, and Regulation  

PubMed Central

The growing demand for reducing chemical inputs in agriculture and increased resistance to insecticides have provided great impetus to the development of alternative forms of insect-pest control. Myco-biocontrol offers an attractive alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Myco-biocontrol agents are naturally occurring organisms which are perceived as less damaging to the environment. Their mode of action appears little complex which makes it highly unlikely that resistance could be developed to a biopesticide. Past research has shown some promise of the use of fungi as a selective pesticide. The current paper updates us about the recent progress in the field of myco-biocontrol of insect pests and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of insect pests. PMID:22567344

Sandhu, Sardul Singh; Sharma, Anil K.; Beniwal, Vikas; Goel, Gunjan; Batra, Priya; Kumar, Anil; Jaglan, Sundeep; Sharma, A. K.; Malhotra, Sonal

2012-01-01

472

Making Data Available via the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office - Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created from the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS) and the U.S. GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC) Data Management Offices. The BCO-DMO is a NSF funded project that provides support for scientists funded by either the NSF's Biological or Chemical Oceanography Program Office to facilitate making their projects' data publically accessible. To extend the domains of the U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs and to enable new capacities, the BCO-DMO formalized our metadata collection efforts and designed and created the BCO-DMO metadata database. This database, together with our new website content (http://www.bco-dmo.org) and a geospatial interface based on the University of Minnesota's MapServer software, currently provide access to information and data from nine science programs and their associated 27 projects. This presentation provides an overview and summary of the data discovery, data access, display, download options, interoperability features, and capabilities of the BCO-DMO data system.

Groman, R. C.; Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.

2008-12-01

473

An Introduction to the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO- DMO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BCO-DMO (http://www.bco-dmo.org) was created to serve PIs funded by the NSF Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections as a facility where marine biogeochemical and ecological data and information developed in the course of scientific research can easily be disseminated, protected, and stored on short and intermediate time-frames. The Data Management Office also strives to provide research scientists and others with the tools and systems necessary to work with marine biogeochemical and ecological data from heterogeneous sources with increased efficacy. To accomplish this, two data management offices (former- U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC) have been united and enhanced to provide a venue for contribution of electronic data/metadata and other information for open distribution via the World Wide Web. The JGOFS/GLOBEC Client/Server distributed data management system software is used to serve data and information to every investigator, regardless of computing platform. In addition, Web services are provided for data discovery, and development has begun on a machine-to-machine application programming interface (API) to allow interoperability between Web-based data systems. The BCO-DMO will manage existing and new data sets from individual scientific investigators, collaborative groups of investigators, and data management offices of larger multi-institutional projects via any standard Web browser. The office will work with principal investigators on data quality control; maintain an inventory and program thesaurus of strictly defined field names; generate metadata (e.g. Directory Interchange Format (DIF) ) records required by Federal agencies; ensure submission of data to national data centers; support and encourage data synthesis by providing new, online, Web-based display tools; facilitate interoperability among different data portals; and facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange.

Chandler, C.; Glover, D.; Groman, R.; Wiebe, P.

2007-12-01

474

Evaluation of pest vulnerability of 'Benning' soybean value added and insect resistant near isogenic lines.  

PubMed

Crop enhancement with value added traits may affect vulnerability to insects, and evaluating the susceptibility levels of the various value added traits in elite germplasm would aid in developing integrated pest management strategies. During 2007-2008, five 'Benning' soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) lines with different value added nutritional traits and four insect resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL) lines were evaluated in an effort to determine their pest vulnerability under artificial and natural insect pest populations. The lines showed variable susceptibility to lepidopterous insect pests classified as defoliators and stem feeders in replicated greenhouse and field tests. The study was carried out in Athens and Midville, GA. The green cloverworm (Hypena scabra (F.)) was the most common lepidopteran defoliator occurring in the fields. Other caterpillar pests found included the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)), the bollworm (Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)), and the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner)). Data indicated that there was no significantly increased pest susceptibility among the value added cultivars with improved nutritional qualities, with the insect resistant quantitative trait loci lines Benning M and Benning MGH consistently being less susceptible to lepidopterous (Noctuidae) leaf injury. PMID:23786071

Samuel-Foo, Michelle; All, John N; Boerma, H Roger

2013-04-01

475

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

Not Available

1994-09-01

476

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 62:434439 (2006) Efficacy of noviflumuron gel bait  

E-print Network

for control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) ­ laboratory studies, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA Abstract: The insecticidal activity of a cockroach gel strains of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Noviflumuron gel bait (0.01­5 mg g-1 ) caused

Wang, Changlu

477

Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 63:943953 (2007) Ecological network analysis: an  

E-print Network

. Ecological systems consist of a large number of species, linked together by interactions between them of the ecological system.3 Examples of such species interactions are predator­prey interactions (i.e. one species acts as a food source for another species), competitive interactions (i.e. two species compete

Andras, Peter

478

Conservation biological control and pest performance in lawn turf: does mowing height matter?  

PubMed

With >80 million United States households engaged in lawn and gardening activities, increasing sustainability of lawn care is important. Mowing height is an easily manipulated aspect of lawn management. We tested the hypothesis that elevated mowing of tall fescue lawn grass promotes a larger, more diverse community of arthropod natural enemies which in turn provides stronger biological control services, and the corollary hypothesis that doing so also renders the turf itself less suitable for growth of insect pests. Turf-type tall fescue was mowed low (6.4 cm) or high (10.2 cm) for two growing seasons, natural enemy populations were assessed by vacuum sampling, pitfall traps, and ant baits, and predation and parasitism were evaluated with sentinel prey caterpillars, grubs, and eggs. In addition, foliage-feeding caterpillars and root-feeding scarab grubs were confined in the turf to evaluate their performance. Although some predatory groups (e.g., rove beetles and spiders) were more abundant in high-mowed grass, predation rates were uniformly high because ants, the dominant predators, were similarly abundant regardless of mowing height. Lower canopy temperatures in high-mowed grass were associated with slower growth of grass-feeding caterpillars. Higher lawn mowing reduces fuel consumption and yard waste, and promotes a deep, robust root system that reduces need for water and chemical inputs. Although in this study elevated mowing height did not measurably increase the already-high levels of predation, it did suggest additional ways through which bottom-up effects on insect pest growth might interact with natural enemies to facilitate conservation biological control. PMID:24390143

Dobbs, Emily K; Potter, Daniel A

2014-03-01

479

Chemical phosphorus removal: a clean strategy for piggery wastewater management in Brazil.  

PubMed

The intensive production of animal protein is known to be an environmental polluting activity, especially if the wastewater produced is not managed properly. Swine production in Brazil is growing, and technologies to manage all pollutants present in the wastewater effluent are needed. This work presents a case of study of phosphorus (P) removal from piggery wastewater using Ca(OH)2, and demonstrates the feasibility of this strategy for P management. The effluent of a swine manure treatment plant was treated with Ca(OH)2. According to the addition of Ca(OH)2 the pH of the effluent ranged from 8.0 to 10.0. Different conditions of sludge dewatering were evaluated, and the chemical composition of sludge was investigated. Ion chromatography analysis of effluent samples showed that 92% of total P (TP) was present as soluble P (SP) whereas 75% of SP species were present as phosphate. The efficiency of P removal was typically 90% at pH 8.5 and higher than 98% at pH 10.5. The sludge was separated by sedimentation, centrifugation or filtration and dried. The TP content of dried sludge was 9.3% (w/w). X-ray diffraction analysis of the dry sludge showed the presence of amorphous compounds of Ca and P, which is an indication that the sludge obtained from the swine manure treatment has a potential for application as biofertilizer. PMID:22988628

Fernandes, Gabriela Wendler; Kunz, Airton; Steinmetz, Ricardo Luís Radis; Szogi, Ariel; Vanotti, Matias; Flores, Erico Marlon de Moraes; Dressler, Valderi Luiz

2012-01-01

480

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated...the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for scientific purposes...

2011-04-01

481

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated...the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for scientific purposes...

2013-04-01

482

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

...MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated...the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for scientific purposes...

2014-04-01

483

19 CFR 12.31 - Plant pests.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.31 Plant pests. The importation in a live state of insects which are injurious to cultivated...the eggs, pupae, or larvae of such insects, except for scientific purposes...

2012-04-01

484

Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

485

Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems  

PubMed Central

Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA) and denitrifying (nirK) genes), greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil. A high impact of land use was observed in soil under the common burnt cane management. The green cane soil also presented different profiles compared to the control soil, but to at a lesser degree. PMID:22873209

2012-01-01

486

Active solarization as a nonchemical alternative to soil fumigation for controlling pests  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deterioration of soil, water, and air resources by soil fumigants represents a serious threat to agricultural production in semiarid regions due to their high volatility and high emission rates. New pest control methods are needed that do not rely on fumigant chemicals. Soil heating via solarization...

487

Robustness of risk maps and survey networks to knowledge gaps about a new invasive pest.  

PubMed

In pest risk assessment it is frequently necessary to make management decisions regarding emerging threats under severe uncertainty. Although risk maps provide useful decision support for invasive alien species, they rarely address knowledge gaps associated with the underlying risk model or how they may change the risk estimates. Failure to recognize uncertainty leads to risk-ignorant decisions and miscalculation of expected impacts as well as the costs required to minimize these impacts. Here we use the information gap concept to evaluate the robustness of risk maps to uncertainties in key assumptions about an invading organism. We generate risk maps with a spatial model of invasion that simulates potential entries of an invasive pest via international marine shipments, their spread through a landscape, and establishment on a susceptible host. In particular, we focus on the question of how much uncertainty in risk model assumptions can be tolerated before the risk map loses its value. We outline this approach with an example of a forest pest recently detected in North America, Sirex noctilio Fabricius. The results provide a spatial representation of the robustness of predictions of S. noctilio invasion risk to uncertainty and show major geographic hotspots where the consideration of uncertainty in model parameters may change management decisions about a new invasive pest. We then illustrate how the dependency between the extent of uncertainties and the degree of robustness of a risk map can be used to select a surveillance network design that is most robust to knowledge gaps about the pest. PMID:19732395

Yemshanov, Denys; Koch, Frank H; Ben-Haim, Yakov; Smith, William D

2010-02-01

488

Landscape Management: Field Specialist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the second volume in a series of three publications on landscape management. The module contains five instructional units that cover the following topics: orientation; equipment; irrigation systems and maintenance; plant material identification and pests; and turf identification and pests. Each instructional unit follows a standard…

Newton, Deborah; Newton, Steve

489