Sample records for chemical pest management

  1. Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

  2. Integrated Pest Management Ideas

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    - cialist, Vegetables and Specialty Crops. Chemical Controls If a pest problem requires chemical controls and Extension Center #12;Integrated Pest Management Ideas for Vegetable Gardens The best way to control insects help you identify the proper and legal pesticide and the method to use it. Beneficial Insects and Mites

  3. INTREGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integrated pest management triangle describes the need for developing a biologically based pest management strategy. Leafy spurge control tools become more expensive and less sustainable as you move from a sound biologically-based management plan....

  4. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Research Summary describes an alternative approach towards pest management--an approach that takes into account both the necessity and the danger of pesticides. Integrated pest management involves the carefully managed use of multiple pest control tactics. It is a highly eff...

  5. Comparison of toxicological impacts of integrated and chemical pest management in Mediterranean greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Antón, A; Castells, F; Montero, J I; Huijbregts, M

    2004-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to assess the relative impacts of pest-control methods in greenhouses, based on current LCA tools. As a case study, the relative impacts of two tomato production methods, chemical pest management (CPM) and integrated pest management (IPM), are assessed. The amount of the active ingredients applied, the fate of the ingredients in the various greenhouse and environmental compartments, the human exposure routes via the various compartments and the inherent toxicity of the ingredients were taken into account in the relative impact calculations. To assess the importance of model selection in the assessment, pesticide-specific fate and exposure factors for humans and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, used to aggregate pesticide emissions, were calculated with two different models: (1) the USES-LCA model, adapted in order to calculate the pesticide transfer from greenhouse air and soil to fruits, and (2) the empirical model critical surface time (CST). Impact scores have in general shown a higher level of potential contamination in greenhouses treated with CPM compared to IPM (a factor of 1.4 to 2.3). Relative impacts have been shown highly dependent on the selection of specific pesticides and crop stage development at the moment of pesticide application. This means that both CPM and IPM could be improved by a careful selection of pesticides. In order to improve the relative impact calculations, future research in pesticide transfer to food will be necessary. PMID:14664852

  6. Cotton insect pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton production is challenged worldwide by a diversity of arthropod pests that require management to prevent or reduce crop damage. Advances in arthropod control technologies and improved insect and crop management systems have dramatically reduced levels of arthropod damage and the need for inse...

  7. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  8. The Red Queen in a potato field: integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control.

    PubMed

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Baker, Mitchell; Snyder, William E; Menasha, Sandra; Whalon, Mark; Dively, Galen; Moarsi, Wassem F

    2015-03-01

    Originally designed to reconcile insecticide applications with biological control, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) developed into the systems-based judicious and coordinated use of multiple control techniques aimed at reducing pest damage to economically tolerable levels. Chemical control, with scheduled treatments, was the starting point for most management systems in the 1950s. Although chemical control is philosophically compatible with IPM practices as a whole, reduction in pesticide use has been historically one of the main goals of IPM practitioners. In the absence of IPM, excessive reliance on pesticides has led to repeated control failures due to the evolution of resistance by pest populations. This creates the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new compounds, known as the 'insecticide treadmill'. In evolutionary biology, a similar phenomenon is known as the Red Queen principle - continuing change is needed for a population to persevere because its competitors undergo constant evolutionary adaptation. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an insect defoliator of potatoes that is notorious for its ability to develop insecticide resistance. In the present article, a review is given of four case studies from across the United States to demonstrate the importance of using IPM for sustainable management of a highly adaptable insect pest. Excessive reliance on often indiscriminate insecticide applications and inadequate use of alternative control methods, such as crop rotation, appear to expedite evolution of insecticide resistance in its populations. Resistance to IPM would involve synchronized adaptations to multiple unfavorable factors, requiring statistically unlikely genetic changes. Therefore, integrating different techniques is likely to reduce the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new ones. PMID:24817433

  9. Integrated Pest Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    The first Web site is an integrated pest management (IPM) resource from the University of Minnesota Extension Service (1) with a number of regional newsletters and crop specific fact sheets. The next resource from the University of California (2) is a comprehensive overview of IPM dealing with a wide range of topics including weather, weeds, and pesticides. Cornell University's Guide to Natural Enemies in North America (3) (last mentioned in the December 10, 1997 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) is a tutorial and guide to the beneficial insects that help control weeds, diseases, and pests. The home page for the Center for Integrated Pest Management (4) is a gateway to IPM research. Teachers wishing to incorporate the ecological concepts of IPM into their classrooms may be interested in this curriculum developed by Michigan State University (5) downloadable in Adobe Acrobat Reader format. Users looking to stay current on the subject of IPM may want to check out the IPMnet newsletters (6) from the Consortium for International Crop Protection. Brief reports of several IPM successes are posted on this New York State IPM Web site (7). Lastly, the home gardener may benefit from this (8) Texas A&M University site focusing on IPM for the home vegetable garden.

  10. Insect Pest Management in Virginia

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Insect Pest Management in Virginia Cotton, Peanut, and Soybean Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station 2011 VT/1211/AREC-7 #12;1 INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN VIRGINIA COTTON, PEANUT, AND SOYBEAN 2011 D. Ames Herbert, Jr., Extension Entomologist

  11. Poultry Pest Management 

    E-print Network

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2007-05-18

    . Poultry operations can be infested by fl ies, mites, lice, bed bugs, fl eas, beetles, red imported fi re ants, chiggers and gnats. But by implementing in- tegrated pest control measures, producers can minimize the damage from these pests. For specifi c... for suppressing other lice will also work for wing lice. Chicken head lice, Cuclutogaster heterogra- phus, are primarily a pest on young birds. They occur on the base of the feathers on the ani- mal?s head and are transmitted through contact. Bed bugs...

  12. 2010 Pest Management Guide for Wine Grapes in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a pest management guide developed for use by vineyard managers in Oregon. This guide represents some of the best recommendations for chemicals, formulations, and usage rates of products that are intended to prevent, manage and control vineyard diseases, insects, weeds, and vertebrate pests. ...

  13. ARS RESEARCH ON NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phytochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Caps...

  14. ARS RESEARCH ON NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR PEST MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research of the Agricultural Research Service of USDA on the use of natural products to manage pests is summarized. Studies of the use of both phtyochemicals and diatomaceous earth to manage insect pests are discussed. Chemically characterized compounds, such as a saponin from pepper (Capsi...

  15. Adopting Integrated Pest Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, William E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of an effective Integrated Pest Management program is discussed. Provided are the common goals and procedures involved in adopting an Integrated Pest Management program for schools. (CW)

  16. Fall armyworm: Management of a genetically complicated migratory pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a neotropical pest that migrates each spring from locations in south Texas and south Florida to the central and eastern U.S. Management of this pest in Florida sweet corn involves tactics such as chemical control, host plant manageme...

  17. BACKGROUND MANAGING EXOTIC PESTS

    E-print Network

    as well as pathogens at bay but occasionally some avoid detection and are transported inland where on identifying the chemical cues that the predator uses to locate its prey ­ ie on the guidance system which are detected by sense organs located on the antennae (Figure 3, overleaf). However, these same

  18. Integrated Management of Structural Pests in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    The state of Illinois is encouraging schools to better inspect and evaluate the causes of their pest infestation problems through use of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) guidelines developed by the Illinois Department of Public Health. This guide reviews the philosophy and organization of an IPM program for structural pests in schools,…

  19. Pest management based on petroleum spray oil in navel orange orchard in Ganzhou, South China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cixiang Chen; Jihuan Zheng; Jinzhao Xie; Xiuting Xie; Runqian Mao

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons between petroleum spray oil (PSO)-based pest management (pest management based on petroleum spray oil) and conventional\\u000a pest management were made in a navel orange orchard from 2004 to 2005 in Ganzhou, Jiangxi province, South China. PSO-based\\u000a management reduced chemical pesticide use and increased the species richness of natural enemies. To control the key pests\\u000a below the economic threshold, PSO

  20. Managing Insect and Mite Pests

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    ......................................................................11 Yellow sugarcane aphid ................................................12 Corn leaf aphid PESTS ....................................................26 Sugarcane borer, southwestern corn borer ....................................................26 Lesser cornstalk borer ...................................................27 Sugarcane rootstock

  1. ENHANCED PEST MANAGEMENT WITH COVER CROP MULCHES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Living and dead plant vegetation on the surface of soils can provide opportunities for regulating pest populations in no-tillage production systems. Cover crops generate substantial quantities of surface vegetation and residue that can be managed to enhance control of pests. Research at the Beltsv...

  2. INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT IN STORED GRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will feature a discussion how the use of insecticides can be optimized through integrated pest management. The primary and major secondary pests of stored grains will be presented as targets for insecticidal control. Current registered insecticides that are used for the various ph...

  3. State-dependent impulsive models of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies and their dynamic consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanyi Tang; Robert A. Cheke

    2005-01-01

    A state-dependent impulsive model is proposed for integrated pest management (IPM). IPM involves combining biological, mechanical, and chemical tactics to reduce pest numbers to tolerable levels after a pest population has reached its economic threshold (ET). The complete expression of an orbitally asymptotically stable periodic solution to the model with a maximum value no larger than the given ET is

  4. Pest Management Recommendations for Dairy Cattle

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Elizabeth W.

    Pest Management Recommendations for Dairy Cattle A Cornell and Penn State Cooperative Extension ....................................................................1 Flies In and Around Livestock Barns..........................2 Flies on Pastured Cattle (Excluding Cattle Grubs) ..............................................5 Cattle Grubs

  5. Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 64:594609 (2008) Gerry Brooks and epoxide hydrolases: four

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    2008-01-01

    Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 64:594­609 (2008) Review Gerry Brooks and epoxide hydrolases for treating hypertension, inflammatory disease and pain. Tight-binding transition-state inhibitors were Management Science in that it traces aspects of the scientific career of our long-term editor, Gerry Brooks

  6. Action and Inaction Levels in Pest Management

    E-print Network

    Sterling, Winfield

    1984-01-01

    concept (137, 138) been extremely useful. Contemporary pest manage systems that have been developed for insect pests and other crops , usually use the economic concept or some modification of it in the m1on-maK1ng process. However, the economic... LOG INSECT DENSITY Figure 3. Schematic of crop yield and pest density (after van Emden 147). Cultivated Acala cotton nomally sheds more than 70 percent of the fruit because the plants cannot meet their carbohydrate demand (40, 81). However, after...

  7. Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  8. A Practical Guide to Management of Common Pests in Schools. Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This 3-part manual is designed to assist school officials understand the principles of Integrated Pest Management and aid them in implementing those principles into a comprehensive pest control program in their facilities. Developed for Illinois, this guide can be applied in part or in total to other areas of the country. Part 1 explains what an…

  9. Demonstrating Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  10. he land manager’s handbook on integrated pest management of Melaleuca quinquenervia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adventive Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake is an invasive pest plant in the greater Everglades region of Florida. Public agencies and organizations responsible for natural areas management have developed effective chemical and mechanical strategies for treating infestati...

  11. PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC PLAN FOR HONEY BEES

    E-print Network

    Tarpy, David R.

    PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC PLAN FOR HONEY BEES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC STATES (DE, MD, NC, NJ, PA, SC .........................................................................................................................................3 SUMMARY OF PRIORITIES FOR HONEY BEES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC STATES ................................4.......................................................................33 EFFICACY TABLES AND HONEY BEE ACTIVITIES TIMELINE

  12. Integrated Pest Management. A Curriculum Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Robert H., Ed.; And Others

    This book consists of materials prepared for a conference aimed at developing courses of study in Integrated Pest Management appropriate for use at several levels: secondary schools, MDTA programs, community colleges and technical institutions, baccalaureate programs, and master's and doctoral level programs. The first section (Background Papers)…

  13. SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR COCKROACHES

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR COCKROACHES *Important Note* According to the Virginia, it is illegal for uncertified teachers, staff, administrators, or contractors to apply pesticides on school human food resources. By invading human food and contaminating it with feces and saliva, cockroaches

  14. Integrated Pest Management and Genetically Engineered Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Schütte

    Summary 1. EU directives lay down, that genetically engineered (GE) organisms should neither cause direct nor indirect negative (acute or long-term) effects and pesticide use should be founded on the principles of integrated pest management (IPM). IPM is an important international political goal. 2. Results of field tests and studies on integrated farming and on the agricultural practice in GE

  15. Comparing conventional and biotechnology-based pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management has changed dramatically during the past 15 years by the introduction of transgenes into crops for the purpose of pest management. Transgenes for herbicide resistance or for production of one or more Bt toxins are the predominant pest management traits currently available. These two ...

  16. Management of Stored Wheat Insect Pests in the USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Hagstrum; Carl Reed; Phil Kenkel

    1999-01-01

    Management of stored-grain insect pests by farmers or elevator managers should be based upon a knowledge of the grain storage environment and the ecology of insect pests. Grain storage facilities and practices, geographical location, government policies, and marketing demands for grain quality are discussed as factors influencing stored-grain insect pest management decisions in the United States. Typical practices include a

  17. A Statewide Pest Management Plan for Texas.

    E-print Network

    1981-01-01

    Management Plan seeks to organize, in a comprehensive way, the future direc- tion for IPM programs within the state. The plan includes IPM systems for cotton, sorghum, corn, pea- nuts, rice, riceland mosquitoes, soybeans, citrus, pecans, timber, small... around cotton, sorghum, corn and pea- nuts, rice and riceland mosquitoes, soybeans, citrus, pecans, timber, small grains, sunflowers and forage grass also are considered. This plan does not attempt to detail all of the pest management needs. Important...

  18. Pest Control in the School Environment: Adopting Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    As the public becomes more aware of the health and environmental risks pesticides may pose, its interest in seeking the use of equally effective alternative pest control methods increases. School administrators and other persons who have pest control decision-making responsibilities for school buildings and grounds can use this guide to become…

  19. Inspect, Detect, Correct: Structural Integrated Pest Management Strategies at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Describes a model integrated pest management (IPM) program for schools used in Monroe County, Indiana. Addresses how to implement an IPM program, specific school problem areas, specific pest problems and solutions, and common questions. (EV)

  20. IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Jon L.

    2005-03-01

    For years the pest Management Professional has relied on visual and manual inspections to locate insect pest infestations. As building materials have improved, the ability to locate pest problems has become more difficult since building materials are often able to mask the existence of pest infestation. Additionally, these improved building materials have contributed to the pest problem by providing a convenient food and nesting source. Within the past five years, the Pest Management Industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestation by detecting evidence of latent moisture within structures. This paper discusses the use of thermal imaging to detect thermal patterns associated with insect infestation, verification of data and special challenges associated with the inspection process.

  1. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard...Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard...management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not...

  2. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard...Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard...management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not...

  3. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard...Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard...management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not...

  4. Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    1999-02-15

    Insect pests are often a major limiting factor in Texas sunflower production. This publication describes the major insect pests infesting the sunflower head, stalk, foliage and roots, and offers suggestions for controlling them, including a table...

  5. Spatially Optimal Habitat Management For Natural Pest Control Services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhang; Wopke van derr Werf; Scott M. Swinton

    2007-01-01

    The control of crop pests by their natural enemies represents an important ecosystem service that maintains the stability of agricultural systems and has the potential to mitigate pest control costs. Recently, there has been growing interest in enhancing natural control services via habitat management that provides resources for adult natural enemies, such as food and shelter. Management of natural enemy

  6. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  7. Global Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Forum Summary Report and Recommendations

    E-print Network

    Global Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Forum Summary Report and Recommendations This forum;Global Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Forum Acknowledgements This report was compiled by Dr. Karim Landis, MSU IPM Program (Moderador) Dr. Helga Blanco, University of Costa Rica (Co-Moderator) Ms

  8. HIGH PLAINS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT GUIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many diseases affect crops grown in the High Plains region. This guide is intended to provide current effective management options for plant diseases affecting all major field crops grown in the High Plains region. Chemical and non-chemical control practices, when available, are described in detai...

  9. Forest pest management in a changing world Andrew M. Liebhold*

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    in the implementation of forest pest management. First, human dimensions will continue to play a key role in most pest) describing their biology and the damage they cause; and (3) developing methods for killing them. In the post with highly effective pesticides, provided a combination that offered re- markable possibilities for killing

  10. Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Thomas A.

    This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

  11. SPUR: Moving San Diego, California Schools toward Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    The preparation of a report, slide show, and brochure to promote awareness of the hazards of toxic pest control for school pest management personnel in the San Diego Unified School District is discussed. The future plans of the coalition are proposed. (CW)

  12. PEST MANAGEMENT Effects of Landscape Composition and Rotation Distance on

    E-print Network

    Mladenoff, David

    12128 ABSTRACT Knowledge of the Colorado potato beetleÕs, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), relation to previous season potato. Colorado potato beetle count data were collected in 1998 and 2008 and distance integrated pest man- agement programs. KEY WORDS Colorado potato beetle, integrated pest management, crop

  13. Image processing for distance diagnosis in pest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Koumpouros; B. D. Mahaman; M. Maliappis; H. C. Passam; A. B. Sideridis; V. Zorkadis

    2004-01-01

    Image processing for pest management (IPPM) is an interactive distance diagnostic tool for the diagnosis and identification of diseases and insects. The objective of the IPPM was the automation of the diagnostic process based on interaction of growers and experts via the Internet, to enable pest diagnosis in crops at the earliest possible stage, using photographs produced by growers, coupled

  14. The Ohio Schools Pest Management Survey: A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    In 2001, the Environmental Studies Senior Capstone Seminar class at Denison University helped the state of Ohio work to prevent harmful pesticide use in schools. In cooperation with Ohio State University's Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Schools Program, Denison conducted a statewide survey of school districts to determine current pest

  15. Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

  16. Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower.

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    1983-01-01

    THE HEAD Sunflower Moth .......................... 4 Sunflower Bud Moth (Suleimaj ........ . . 5 Headclipper Weevil .................... 6 Seed Weevils ......................... 6 INSECT PESTS INFESTING THE STALK Stem Weevil... Saltmarsh Catel-pillar ...... . .............. 9 Beet Armyworm ......................... 10 Grasshopper ..................... .... .. . 10 INSECT PESTS INFESTING THE ROOTS Carrot Beetle ............................ 11 Root-Boring Moth (Eucosmaj...

  17. Crop pest management with an aerial imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  18. Integrated pest management for certified organic production in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...

  19. An Integrated Pest Management survey of Texas school districts

    E-print Network

    Shodrock, Damon Leon

    1994-01-01

    . Control measures used by schools were categorized as non-chemical and chemical. Non-chemical pest control measures (mechanical and cultural controls) were used by at least 42% of Texas schools. Results of the survey indicated that many different pesticides...

  20. Integrated Pest Management: Conducting Urban Rodent Surveys i Suggested citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Integrated pest management: conducting urban

    E-print Network

    #12;Integrated Pest Management: Conducting Urban Rodent Surveys i Suggested citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Integrated pest management: conducting urban rodent surveys. Atlanta: US...........................................................................................................................2 Characteristics of Urban Rodent Surveys

  1. Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Childcare Health Program, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early care and…

  2. Participatory research in integrated pest management: Lessons from the IPM CRSP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George W. Norton; Edwin G. Rajotte; Victor Gapud

    1999-01-01

    Integrated pest management has emerged as an important means of managing agricultural pests. Since the mid-1980s, the emphasis in IPM has shifted toward biologically-intensive and participatory research and extension approaches. Finding better means for solving pest problems is high on the agenda for most farmers, and farmers often have significant pest management knowledge and interest in IPM experimentation. This paper

  3. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S.; Tatchell, G. Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

  4. Safer Schools: Achieving a Healthy Learning Environment through Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is a program of prevention, monitoring, and control that offers the opportunity to eliminate or drastically reduce hazardous pesticide use. IPM is intended to establish a program that uses cultural, mechanical, biological, and other non-toxic practices, and only introduces least-hazardous chemicals as a last…

  5. The Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Practices among Texas Cotton Growers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes integrated pest management (IPM), a more advanced approach than chemical pesticide. Applies diffusion and farming-systems theories to create analytical model to explain IPM's adoption, use, and implications for agricultural change. Telephone surveys of Texas cotton growers on IPM practices found different sources of IPM information…

  6. Building Blocks for School IPM: A Least-Toxic Pest Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Becky, Ed.; Owens, Kagan, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of original and republished materials from numerous individuals and organizations working on pesticide reform and integrated pest management (IPM)--using alternatives to prevailing chemical-intensive practices. The manual provides comprehensive information on implementing school IPM, including a practical guide to…

  7. Farmers' perceptions of insect pests and pest management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Arshad; Anjum Suhail; M. Dildar Gogi; M. Yaseen; M. Asghar; M. Tayyib; Haider Karar; Faisal Hafeez; Unsar Naeem Ullah

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) examine the factors involved in the adoption or non-adoption of Bt cotton, (2) identify sources of Bt cotton seed acquisition, and (3) evaluate farmers' knowledge and perception of insect pests incidence and management practices in Bt cotton in the Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 150 farmers growing Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac protein

  8. Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program August 2013 PEST NOTES Publication 74164

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    , dry regions, eye gnats may be present year- round. Ideal temperatures for eye gnat activity Pest Management for Home Gardeners and Landscape Professionals EyE Gnats Eye gnats, including heavy rains result in large increases in the insect's population. Eye gnats have become more of a prob

  9. Integrated Pest Management in a Predator-Prey System with Allee Effects.

    PubMed

    Costa, M I S; Dos Anjos, L

    2015-08-01

    A commonly used biocontrol strategy to control invasive pests with Allee effects consists of the deliberate introduction of natural enemies. To enhance the effectiveness of this strategy, several tactics of control of invasive species (e.g., mass-trapping, manual removal of individuals, and pesticide spraying) are combined so as to impair pest outbreaks. This combination of strategies to control pest species dynamics are usually named integrated pest management (IPM). In this work, we devise a predator-prey dynamical model in order to assess the influence of the intensity of chemical killing on the success of an IPM. The biological and mathematical framework presented in this study can also be analyzed in the light of species conservation and food web dynamics theory. PMID:26045054

  10. Crop pest management and food security in Nigerian agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Alabi; O. O. Banwo; S. O. Alabi

    2006-01-01

    Pests damage crops at different stages of growth on the field, at harvest, during transportation and in storage. This leads to 5 – 40% crop loss yearly and has a serious effect on the food security for the ever-increasing population of the country. The management of pests in crops to obtain a better yield is paramount for food security. The resource-poor farmers

  11. UrbanSolutionsCenter Managing Red Imported Fire Ants and Other Landscape Pests

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    UrbanSolutionsCenter Managing Red Imported Fire Ants and Other Landscape Pests in Urban Areas and safety. This project looks at insect pests found in urban landscapes, from fire ants to insect pests Background Pesticides make possible control of many pests that are difficult to manage through biological

  12. Cockroach Clean-Up Tour . Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy/mix of tatics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests, including human…

  13. Improving pest management in pet food mills using accurate monitoring and spatial analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Consuelo Belda; Manel Ribes-Dasi; Jordi Riudavets

    2011-01-01

    Preventing the presence of pests in the final product of a food company requires appropriate pest management throughout the different stages of production and in all areas of the facility. Sampling and monitoring pests over time and space is therefore very important for implementing a correct pest management programme. In this study, we present the results of monitoring a pet

  14. Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower. 

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    1983-01-01

    Saltmarsh Catel-pillar ...... . .............. 9 Beet Armyworm ......................... 10 Grasshopper ..................... .... .. . 10 INSECT PESTS INFESTING THE ROOTS Carrot Beetle ............................ 11 Root-Boring Moth (Eucosmaj... of true legs. Pupation occurs in the soil. The adult moth has a wingspread of 1 inch. The forewings are grayish brown with a pale spot in the mid-front margin. The hind wings are white with a dark anterior margin. Control of pigweed in and around...

  15. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 PASTURE AND HAY INSECT MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 142 PASTURE AND HAY INSECT Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 143 ARMYWORMS [True Armyworms (Pseudaletia MANAGEMENT Jay Crouch, Area Agronomy Agent, Brian Beer, Area Livestock Agent, and Robert Bellinger, Ph

  16. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  17. Managing Insect Pests of Texas Sunflower 

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.

    1999-02-15

    , white stripes; more mature worms have green and black stripes. These armyworms can best be identified by the black spot on the side of the larva above the second pair of true legs. Pupation occurs in the soil. The adult moth has a wingspread of 1 inch.... Forewings are gray- ish brown with a pale spot in the mid-front mar- gin; hind wings are white with a dark anterior margin. Controlling pigweed in and around sun- flower will reduce this pest. Grasshopper Heavy infestations of grasshoppers periodically...

  18. Managing Insects and Related Pests of Roses 

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Pemberton, Brent; Cole, Charles L.

    1999-07-12

    or petals; n Wilted appearance of plant or plant parts; n Curled, malformed leaves and petals; and n Shiny, sticky ?honeydew? or black-colored coating of sooty mold. Chewing pests, such as caterpillars, beetles, grasshoppers and leaf-cutter bees, produce... inch long with relatively long legs and antennae. Species vary in color from black, green, yellow to even pinkish. Some aphids lay eggs; others give birth to live young that mature in 7 to 8 days. Because aphids breed continuously, populations grow...

  19. Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

  20. Threshold conditions for integrated pest management models with pesticides that have residual effects.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sanyi; Liang, Juhua; Tan, Yuanshun; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations (hybrid dynamical systems) can provide a natural description of pulse-like actions such as when a pesticide kills a pest instantly. However, pesticides may have long-term residual effects, with some remaining active against pests for several weeks, months or years. Therefore, a more realistic method for modelling chemical control in such cases is to use continuous or piecewise-continuous periodic functions which affect growth rates. How to evaluate the effects of the duration of the pesticide residual effectiveness on successful pest control is key to the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) in practice. To address these questions in detail, we have modelled IPM including residual effects of pesticides in terms of fixed pulse-type actions. The stability threshold conditions for pest eradication are given. Moreover, effects of the killing efficiency rate and the decay rate of the pesticide on the pest and on its natural enemies, the duration of residual effectiveness, the number of pesticide applications and the number of natural enemy releases on the threshold conditions are investigated with regard to the extent of depression or resurgence resulting from pulses of pesticide applications and predator releases. Latin Hypercube Sampling/Partial Rank Correlation uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques are employed to investigate the key control parameters which are most significantly related to threshold values. The findings combined with Volterra's principle confirm that when the pesticide has a strong effect on the natural enemies, repeated use of the same pesticide can result in target pest resurgence. The results also indicate that there exists an optimal number of pesticide applications which can suppress the pest most effectively, and this may help in the design of an optimal control strategy. PMID:22205243

  1. Integrated Pest Management of Wheat Stem Sawfly in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a major wheat pest in North Dakota and the northern Great Plains causing significant yield and quality losses. Damage is caused by larval feeding within the stem. Wheat stem sawfly management includes the selection and use of r...

  2. SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR WASPS AND BEES

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    SCHOOLS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) FOR WASPS AND BEES *Important Note* According on school grounds. INTRODUCTION Bees and wasps experience "complete metamorphosis". This means. Finally, the bees and wasps emerge from the pupae as fully developed adults. Wasps and bees are both

  3. Consumer response to integrated pest management and certification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Anderson; C. S. Hollingsworth; V. Van Zee; W. M. Coli; M. Rhodes

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated consumer awareness of integrated pest management (IPM) and the effects of two marketing strategies. Specific objectives were to find whether eastern Massachusetts farmstand and farmers' market customers purchasing sweet corn care how their food is grown, whether they are aware of IPM, whether they would prefer to buy IPM-certified sweet corn and why, and whether the marketing

  4. Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan

    2002-01-01

    This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…

  5. Microbial management of arthropod pests of tea: current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable tea cultivation will rely increasingly on alternatives to conventional chemical insecticides for pest management that are environment-friendly and reduce the amount of pesticide residues in made tea. Entomopathogens can provide effective control, conserve biodiversity, and serve as alternatives to chemical insecticides under several conditions. Due to their specificity for insects, these pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and fungi are ideal candidates for incorporation in the integrated pest management strategies for tea where their effects on other natural enemies will be minimal. Biological and ecological characteristics of several dominant natural entomopathogenic microorganisms have been well documented throughout the tea-growing countries particularly China, Japan, and India. But research to convert them to microbial insecticide formulations for tea pest control by evolving suitable techniques for production, standardization, formulation, and application has not progressed well except in Japan and China to some extent. Increased use of microbial control will depend on a variety of factors including improvements in the pathogens' virulence, formulation, delivery, etc. and an increased awareness of their attributes by growers and the general public. In this review, we provide an overview of microbial control of the key insect pests of tea and also the scope for future studies for their better utilization. PMID:24760230

  6. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) integrated pest management programs for fruiting vegetables in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) resulted in the worldwide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. Efforts to control the pest and the thrips-vectored tospoviruses with calendar applicat...

  7. As any experienced grower knows only too well, nursery management is a con-tinuous process of solving problems. One recurring problem is pests. In the past,

    E-print Network

    or disease to appear and then sprayed some toxic chemical to wipe out the pest or disease. This approach, however, also wipes out natural predators of the pest, resulting in an expensive and repeating pesticide): · Problem Prevention Through Cultural Measures--through good sanitation, proper scheduling, management

  8. Botanicals in Pest Management: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Guleria; A. K. Tiku

    The problems caused by synthetic pesticides and their residues have increased the need for effective biodegradable pesticides\\u000a with greater selectivity. Alternative strategies have included the search for new types of pesticides which are often effective\\u000a against a limited number of specific target species, are biodegradable into nontoxic products and are suitable for use in\\u000a integrated pest management programs. The natural

  9. CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS OF TRAP CROPPING IN PEST MANAGEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Shelton; F. R. Badenes-Perez

    2006-01-01

    ? Abstract Interest in trap cropping, a traditional tool of pest management, has increased considerably,in recent years. In this review we propose,a broader definition of trap cropping,that encompasses,the inherent characteristics of the trap crop plants themselves,as well as the strategies associated with their deployment. Inherent char- acteristics of a trap crop may,include not only natural differential attractiveness for oviposition and

  10. Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knipling, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

  11. Strategic Communication for Integrated Pest Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdelaziz Lagnaoui; Emanuele Santi; Fabio Santucci

    This paper is adapted from a paper first presented at the Annual Conference of the International Association for Impact Assessment in Vancouver, Canada (IAIA 2004) under the conference theme of Public Involvement and Risk Management Abstract Farmers and consumers in developing countries are too often faced with a serious dilemma: they must either sacrifice a significant share of their crops

  12. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25582991

  13. Natural Toxins for Use in Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Stephen O.; Cantrell, Charles L.; Meepagala, Kumudini M.; Wedge, David E.; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Schrader, Kevin K.

    2010-01-01

    Natural toxins are a source of new chemical classes of pesticides, as well as environmentally and toxicologically safer molecules than many of the currently used pesticides. Furthermore, they often have molecular target sites that are not exploited by currently marketed pesticides. There are highly successful products based on natural compounds in the major pesticide classes. These include the herbicide glufosinate (synthetic phosphinothricin), the spinosad insecticides, and the strobilurin fungicides. These and other examples of currently marketed natural product-based pesticides, as well as natural toxins that show promise as pesticides from our own research are discussed. PMID:22069667

  14. Chilled versus ambient aeration and fumigation of stored popcorn part 2: Pest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. Mason; R. A. Rulon; D. E. Maier

    1997-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, a prototype grain chiller was tested to determine its efficacy as a pest management tool and its economic competitiveness with conventional pest management techniques. Four popcorn bins (121.5 tonnes) at a commercial facility were utilized. Two bins were managed using traditional ambient aeration and fumigation. The remaining two bins were managed with chilled aeration. Insect

  15. Bug Off: A Guide for Integrated Pest Management in Granville Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide describes options for the Granville schools when dealing with pests. It is based on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a philosophy that employs safe and practical pest control methods. The guide can be used to incorporate IPM philosophy into the school systems. The first section provides the environmental context for an interest in…

  16. Use of infochemicals in pest management with special reference to the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM TINZAARA; MARCEL DICKE; ARNOLD VAN HUIS; CLIFFORD S. GOLD

    2002-01-01

    Infochemicals play an important role in the biology of many insect species. An understanding of their role in plant-herbivore-carnivore interactions can be used in the development of tools for the enhancement of environmentally benign alternatives to synthetic pesticides. This review discusses how chemical information mediates ecological interactions between organisms and the role of infochemicals in integrated pest management. Infochemicals can

  17. Integrated pest management in an urban community: a successful partnership for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Barbara L; Markowitz, Steven; Rivera, Maribel; Romero, Harry; Weeks, Matthew; Sanchez, Elizabeth; Deych, Elena; Garg, Anjali; Godbold, James; Wolff, Mary S; Landrigan, Philip J; Berkowitz, Gertrud

    2003-01-01

    Pesticides, applied in large quantities in urban communities to control cockroaches, pose potential threats to health, especially to children, who have proportionately greater exposures and unique, developmentally determined vulnerabilities. Integrated pest management (IPM) relies on nonchemical tools--cleaning of food residues, removal of potential nutrients, and sealing cracks and crevices. Least toxic pesticides are used sparingly. To evaluate IPM's effectiveness, the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center, in partnership with two community health centers in East Harlem, New York City (NY, USA), undertook a prospective intervention trial. Families (n = 131) enrolled when mothers came to the centers for prenatal care. Household cockroach infestation was measured by glue traps at baseline and 6 months afterward. The intervention group received individually tailored IPM education, repairs, least-toxic pest control application, and supplies, with biweekly pest monitoring for 2 months and monthly for 4 months. The control group, residing in East Harlem and demographically and socioeconomically similar to the intervention group, received an injury prevention intervention. The proportion of intervention households with cockroaches declined significantly after 6 months (from 80.5 to 39.0%). Control group levels were essentially unchanged (from 78.1 to 81.3%). The cost, including repairs, of individually tailored IPM was equal to or lower than traditional chemically based pest control. These findings demonstrate that individually tailored IPM can be successful and cost-effective in an urban community. PMID:14527845

  18. The Case of the Wild House Mouse. Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy and mix of tactics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests. These include…

  19. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, J. F.; Beers, E. H.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

    2005-01-01

    Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. Abbreviation: MFR Maximum field rate PMID:16341246

  20. Bacterial Endophytic Communities in the Grapevine Depend on Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

  1. State-dependent impulsive models of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies and their dynamic consequences.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2005-03-01

    A state-dependent impulsive model is proposed for integrated pest management (IPM). IPM involves combining biological, mechanical, and chemical tactics to reduce pest numbers to tolerable levels after a pest population has reached its economic threshold (ET). The complete expression of an orbitally asymptotically stable periodic solution to the model with a maximum value no larger than the given ET is presented, the existence of which implies that pests can be controlled at or below their ET levels. We also prove that there is no periodic solution with order larger than or equal to three, except for one special case, by using the properties of the LambertW function and Poincare map. Moreover, we show that the existence of an order two periodic solution implies the existence of an order one periodic solution. Various positive invariant sets and attractors of this impulsive semi-dynamical system are described and discussed. In particular, several horseshoe-like attractors, whose interiors can simultaneously contain stable order 1 periodic solutions and order 2 periodic solutions, are found and the interior structure of the horseshoe-like attractors is discussed. Finally, the largest invariant set and the sufficient conditions which guarantee the global orbital and asymptotic stability of the order 1 periodic solution in the meaningful domain for the system are given using the Lyapunov function. Our results show that, in theory, a pest can be controlled such that its population size is no larger than its ET by applying effects impulsively once, twice, or at most, a finite number of times, or according to a periodic regime. Moreover, our theoretical work suggests how IPM strategies could be used to alter the levels of the ET in the farmers' favour. PMID:15480671

  2. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops 2013 FARM-STORED GRAIN INSECT MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops ­ 2013 290 FARM-STORED GRAIN INSECT MANAGEMENT Robert G. Bellinger, Extension Entomologist The quality of farm-stored grain is at its peak when. At harvest, for instance, make sure that your harvesting equipment is adjusted to minimize breaking

  3. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 TOBACCO DISEASE MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 276 TOBACCO DISEASE MANAGEMENT wilt and root-knot nematodes always cause significant disease losses in South Carolina. These important, these losses substantially reduce farm income! Losses to the three major diseases in South Carolina

  4. Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

    2007-08-01

    Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied. PMID:17523143

  5. Coupled Information Diffusion–Pest Dynamics Models Predict Delayed Benefits of Farmer Cooperation in Pest Management Programs

    PubMed Central

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' “diffusion of innovation theory”. In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations. PMID:22022258

  6. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Forage Crops

    E-print Network

    Muegge, Mark A.; Robinson, James V.

    2002-10-09

    This publication describes and illustrates common pests of forage crops in Texas. It discusses treatment options and pesticide application techniques as well as specific insecticides labeled to treat specific pests....

  7. An integrated pest management program for burrowing shrimp control in oyster aquaculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett R. Dumbauld; Steven Booth; Daniel Cheney; Andrew Suhrbier; Hector Beltran

    2006-01-01

    Integrated pest management is widely applied in terrestrial agriculture, but less so in aquaculture. Parallels to insect control in agricultural fields were exploited in this application of integrated pest management principles to control burrowing shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis in Pacific Northwest U.S.A. oyster aquaculture. The pesticide carbaryl has been applied to oyster aquaculture tracts to control burrowing shrimp

  8. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 113 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL John D AVAILABLE IN SOUTH CAROLINA FOR CONTROL OF NEMATODES. SEE LABELS FOR SPECIFIC SPECIES CONTROLLED BY EACH;South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 115 NEMATICIDES AVAILABLE IN SOUTH

  9. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 123 COTTON NEMATODE CONTROL John D pressure. #12;South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 124 FUMIGANT, GRANULAR, AND LIQUID NEMATICIDES AVAILABLE IN SOUTH CAROLINA FOR CONTROL OF NEMATODES. SEE LABELS FOR SPECIFIC SPECIES

  10. Biofumigation and Enhanced Biodegradation: Opportunity and Challenge in Soilborne Pest and Disease Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John N. Matthiessen; John A. Kirkegaard

    2006-01-01

    Management of soilborne pests and diseases in cropping systems is often highly challenging—in implementation of acceptable methodologies and in dealing with secondary problems. The phase-out of methyl bromide brings this into particularly sharp focus. There is a need for diversified options and alternatives to fill different roles across the soilborne pest and disease management spectrum, but flexibility is limited, as

  11. Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Child Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Abbey; Kalmar, Evie; Leonard, Victoria; Flint, Mary Louise; Kuo, Devina; Davidson, Nita; Bradman, Asa

    2012-01-01

    Young children and early care and education (ECE) staff are exposed to pesticides used to manage pests in ECE facilities in the United States and elsewhere. The objective of this pilot study was to encourage child care programs to reduce pesticide use and child exposures by developing and evaluating an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Toolkit for…

  12. POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT Public Service Assistant: Integrated Pest Management and Forest Health Program

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    POSITION ANNOUNCEMENT Public Service Assistant: Integrated Pest Management and Forest Health funded integrated pest management (IPM) and forest health programs for the Center for Invasive Species. The successful candidate must have a strong background of relevant course work, a strong record of achievement

  13. Particle films for managing arthropod pests of apple.

    PubMed

    Bostanian, N J; Racette, G

    2008-02-01

    A two-season study showed that a calendar-based spray program to manage arthropod pests with kaolin (60 g/liter) applied at the rate of 450 liters/ha was effective against European apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae); apple red bug, Lygidea mendax Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae); pear plant bug, Lygocoris communis (Knight) (Heteroptera: Miridae); and the apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Although it reduced Curculionidae damage, the level of damage was still too high. It had no effect on apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae); codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); and tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae). Laboratory studies showed fewer gravid twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and fewer eggs laid by these females. The study also showed no effect of kaolin on Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). PMID:18330129

  14. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-01

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good. PMID:25423598

  15. HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Regulations and Basic Information: How to Use this Pest Management Guide 1-1

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HOME GROUNDS & ANIMALS 2014 Regulations and Basic Information: How to Use this Pest Management Guide 1-1 How to Use this Pest Management Guide for Home Grounds and Animals Michael J. Weaver incorporating beneficial insects, animals, and other organisms into a pest management plan to fight off harmful

  16. Assessing Integrated Pest Management Adoption: Measurement Problems and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM—for whatever reason—and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption—weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management—and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

  17. Integrated pest management in the U.S.: progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Huffaker, C B; Croft, B A

    1976-04-01

    In the U.S., where heavy use of insecticides has been commonplace for years, the development of proper integrated insect pest control cannot get underway unless there is a changed use pattern for such chemicals. A changed use pattern, however, cannot be accomplished without much study to establish the requirements for integrated control for each major crop situation. In this paper recent developments in a number of crop areas in the U.S. in which the necessary study has been begun are reviewed. Important phases in the development of integrated control programs include: the single tactics phase, the multitactic phase, phase, the biological monitoring phase, the modeling phase, the management and optimization phase, and the implementation phase. Several crops are discussed in relation to how far along we are in the development of practical programs of insect pest control. These are cotton, apples, alfalfa, soybeans, citrus, corn, cereal grains, tobacco and pine forests. Several of these programs have already made substantial headway, e.g., those for cotton, alfalfa, apples, tobacco, and soybeans, although the accomplishments have not been even or parellel with respect to the phases of development where progress has been good. The review of developments in these crops suggests that programs of control for individual crops and perhaps for complexes of associated crops will be developed according to specific needs of the crop, the geographic area and the pests, the technologies available and the socioeconomic and political factors of relevance. The tendency will be toward greater use of science in pest control decision-making, with extensive use of biological monitoring to establish realistic levels of threatened damage to the crop, and greater concern given to possible profit reductions and environmental disturbances of applying an insecticide, as well as the possible gain from doing so. PMID:789064

  18. Integrating augmentative biocontrol and inherited sterility for management of lepidopteran pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect pest management can benefit from the integration of biological control agents and the release of sterile insect pests (hosts). Released sterile or semi-sterile insects and their sterile progeny may augment natural enemies by serving as hosts for build-up of the natural enemies prior to the t...

  19. POTENTIAL OF MASS TRAPPING FOR LONG-TERM PEST MANAGEMENT AND ERADICATION OF INVASIVE SPECIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Semiochemical-based pest management programs comprise three major approaches including mass trapping, “lure and kill”, and mating disruption that are being used to provide environmentally friendly control methods of insect pests. We discuss similarities and differences between the three approaches o...

  20. RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES FOR MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF STORED-GRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automation of grain sampling for insect pests should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management programs. Currently, there are acoustic sensors and electronic grain probe traps that are available for monitoring insects in stored grain. Both the acoustic and electronic g...

  1. Bird cherry-oat aphid (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Aphidinae): Biology, pest status, and management in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a worldwide pest of wheat and other small grains. This paper provides an overview of BCOA life history, reviews its pest status in wheat, synthesizes and integrates information on different management strategies, and gives up-to-date inf...

  2. Determination of factors influencing integrated pest management adoption in coffee berry borer in Colombian farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Chaves; J Riley

    2001-01-01

    Integrated pest management is promoted in coffee plantations to control pests and disease in a manner less harmful to the environment than the use of pesticides alone. The rate of adoption of these practices is variable, possibly influenced by different social, economic, environmental and institutional factors. This was explored by fitting standard non-linear curves to uptake data for each of

  3. USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2004 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

  4. Evaluation of Pest Management Tactics for Organic Apple Production A. Agnello, H. Reissig, and D. Combs

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Evaluation of Pest Management Tactics for Organic Apple Production A. Agnello, H. Reissig, and D number of both native and introduced insect and mite species attack apples grown in commercial apple orchards. Control of this pest complex is particularly challenging, because unlike the more arid apple

  5. USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2005 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

  6. USDA RAMP PROJECT -New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    USDA RAMP PROJECT - New York 2003 REDUCED-RISK PEST MANAGEMENT IN APPLES USING PHEROMONE DISRUPTION of a seasonal program to control insect and mite pests of apples using selective (non-OP, carbamate sites set up in 2002 in all major apple growing areas of New York: Western NY (Russell, Appleton; Lamont

  7. Growth and yield response of pecan to three levels of pest management in Central Texas 

    E-print Network

    Cooper, John Norman

    1984-01-01

    check treatment receiving zinc but no fungicides or insecticides was used to determine the effects of not using pesticides in pecan production. The crop management and pest management treatments were superior to the check treatment in: shoot growth... pecan nut casebearer Z, F, I 6/20 - 7/10 Water stage First hickory shuckworm Second hickory shuckworm F, I F, I F, I 7/25 - 7/30 8/10 - 8/25 8/25 - 9/5 *Z = zinc, F = fungicide, I = insecticide Pest Mana ement Treatment The pest management...

  8. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  9. Forest Nursery Notes Summer 2014 Integrated pest management, better known as IPM,

    E-print Network

    the first people to make beer. Around 300 B.C., the Chinese encouraged natural enemies to control crop pests. This expose resulted in her receiving death threats from chemical companies but generated such a public outcry

  10. Sirex woodwasp: a model for evolving management paradigms of invasive forest pests.

    PubMed

    Slippers, Bernard; Hurley, Brett P; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The Sirex woodwasp, Sirex noctilio, and its fungal mutualist, Amylostereum areolatum, together constitute one of the most damaging invasive pests of pine. Despite a century of research and well-established management programs, control remains unpredictable and spread continues to new areas. Variable success in managing this pest has been influenced by complex invasion patterns, the multilayered nature of biological interactions, the varying local ecologies, and microevolutionary population processes in both the biocontrol organisms and in the wasps. Recent research findings are challenging the historical perspectives on methods to manage the Sirex woodwasp, calling for management programs to incorporate the variable local dynamics affecting this pest complex. In this regard, the Sirex woodwasp provides a superb model to illustrate the need for a different approach to develop efficient and sustainable management tools to deal with the growing and global nature of pest invasions in forests and plantations. PMID:25386723

  11. Who Wants To Be an IPM Super Sleuth? Integrated Pest Management Educational Activities & Resources for Kids of All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walejko, Gina K.; Colon, Joseph L.

    This guide presents games and activities on integrated pest management (IPM) for home targeting grades 1-7. The activities and games use a problem-solving approach based on pest knowledge to develop an understanding of pest management. Three cases are presented: (1) "Inspection is the Key to IPM Success" includes two activities--"Word Searches"…

  12. UrbanSolutionsCenter Pest Management Information for Consumers

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    , reaching tens of thousands of consumers monthly. · The Two-step method for fire ant control, developed and information about the best ways to control pests. Entomologists at the Urban Solutions Center are committed to providing the public with the best information available about pests and their control. Objectives · Help

  13. Possible impact of radar on pest management operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainey, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Radar in making and maintaining contact with the most important populations of major pests in different stages of flight is presented. The desert locust and the African armyworm are discussed in understanding problems and developing a more effective control of pests.

  14. Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  15. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  16. Use of Airborne Multi-Spectral Imagery in Pest Management Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  17. Proceedings of the 2008 Wisconsin Fertilizer, Aglime and Pest Management Conference

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Fertilizer Research Fund for research conducted by faculty within the University of Wisconsin System Association Distinguished Service Awards Distinguished Organization Award Wisconsin River Agronomy LLC Steve Salzwedel, Landmark Agronomy Proc. of the 2008 Wisconsin Fertilizer, Aglime & Pest Management

  18. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-03-11

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  19. MANAGING AVOCADO PESTS WITH ROMANCE, INTRIGUE AND WAR - INTEGRATING PHEROMONES, ASSASSINS AND WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoff Waite

    SUMMARY Avocado growers continually wage war on pests that ravage their crops. For the last 60 years, crop protection tradition fostered by the generally excellent results achieved, has been to use weapons of mass destruction in the form of chemical pesticides to combat the enemy. Issues of chemical resistance development in target species, chemical residues in fruit and the environment,

  20. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production...but not limited to: (1) Removal of pest habitat, food sources, and breeding areas; (2) Prevention...

  1. PEST MANAGEMENT Douglas-fir pitch moth, Synanthedon novaroensis

    E-print Network

    Lindgren, Staffan

    (Henry Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in a lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon variety) (Lepidop- tera: Sesiidae), is a signiÞcant pest of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon variety

  2. Managing Insects and Mite Pests of Texas Sorghum 

    E-print Network

    Cronholm, Gregory B.; Knutson, Allen E.; Parker, Roy D.; Pendleton, Bonnie

    2007-06-20

    Chinch bug .....................................................................16 Corn earworm and fall armyworm (whorlworms) .......17 Banks grass mite ...........................................................18 GRAIN HEAD INSECT PESTS... .......................................................19 Sorghum midge ............................................................19 Corn earworm and fall armyworm (headworms) ........22 Sorghum webworm ........................................................24 Grain head-feeding bugs...

  3. Three years monitoring survey of pesticide residues in Sardinia wines following integrated pest management strategies.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a pesticide monitoring survey on wine grapes from the 2008-2010 vintage from vineyards grown according to integrated pest management strategies. A multi-residue gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method in electron ionization and chemical ionization mode has been used for the determination of 30 pesticides in wine samples. The analytical method showed good recoveries and allowed a good separation of the selected pesticides. Repeatability and intermediate precision showed good results with CV < 20 %. The instrumental method limits of determination (LOD) and of quantification (LOQ) were below the maximum residue levels set in wine. The analysis of the wines showed that pesticide residues were below the instrumental LOQ, and most of them were undetectable (

  4. Green BulletinGreen Bulletin Information for pest management professionals and pesticide applicatorsInformation for pest management professionals and pesticide applicators

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    professionals and pesticide applicatorsInformation for pest management professionals and pesticide applicators WHAT'S INSIDE ... Pesticides on Concrete | Page 2 New Resources | Page 4 Pesticides with Fewer Risks and pesticides that have inadvertently entered the landscape drainage system directly or indirectly

  5. The ABCs of Non-Toxic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pest management approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…

  6. Mendel’s legacy lives through management of sugarcane pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomology and classical Mendelian genetics have had a long association and Mendel’s legacy continues to live through sugarcane pests. In this paper, we discuss examples of that legacy as applied to conventional and molecular approaches to breeding for insect resistance. We also discuss the applicat...

  7. Pests or valued resources? Conflicts in management of deer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Nugent; K. W Fraser

    1993-01-01

    Wild deer are used to illustrate the conflicts that arise when an animal is both a pest and a valued resource. At present there are c. 250 000 wild deer in New Zealand. These are pursued by c. 37 000 hunters who spend more than $20 million annually to harvest c. 70 000 deer. Nearly two-thirds of the harvest is

  8. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Small Grains 

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Carl D.; Knutson, Allen E.

    2006-07-05

    Chinch bug and false chinch bug ........................................................................................... 22 Grasshopper... stubble and control- ling volunteer plants and summer weeds will Seasonal Small Grains Pest Profile Planting and crop establishment Harvesting Land preparation Soil insects Hessian fly Flea beetles Fall armyworm Armyworm Greenbug Grasshopper Brown...

  9. Collaborating with wheat producers in demonstrating areawide integrated pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the fall of 2001, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) initiated a five-year areawide demonstration program for suppression of two significant pests of winter wheat, the Russian wheat aphid and greenbug. A cooperative research team was assembled from five universities—the University...

  10. MANAGING INSECT PESTS OF POTATO Ricky E. Foster, Extension Entomologist

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Vegetable Insects E-96-W PURDUE EXTENSION Colorado potato beetle (l) larva and (r) adult (Photo Credit: J BEETLE The most devastating pest of potato in Indiana is the Colorado potato beetle (CPB). The adult tolerate more than 6-8% defoliation. Colorado potato beetle damage (Photo Credit: W. Cranshaw) #12

  11. Insect Pest Management in Food Legumes: Future Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food legumes such as chickpea, pigeonpea, cowpea, field pea, lentil, faba bean, blackgram, greengram, grasspea, and Phaseolus beans play an important role in the daily diets of people worldwide. A large number of insect pests attack these crops and cause extensive losses, namely Helicoverpa pod bo...

  12. Phytochemicals for pest management: current advances and future opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review provides examples of natural product-based pesticides that are now commercial successes, as well as a few examples of the many natural compounds that we have studied which are active against pests. Our group’s research is but a small sampling of the extensive, international effort to di...

  13. Diamondback moth–host plant interactions: Implications for pest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sarfraz; L. M. Dosdall; B. A. Keddie

    2006-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), is a destructive insect pest of cruciferous crops with a cosmopolitan distribution. Its genetic elasticity has enabled it to develop resistance to almost every insecticide applied in the field. Its natural host range is limited to cultivated and wild Brassicaceae that are characterized by having glucosinolates, sulfur-containing secondary plant compounds. Adults utilize an

  14. MANAGEMENT OF INSECT AND MITE PESTS OF AVOCADO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. McMurtry

    A large number of pest species is known from California avocado orchards (2) but most are seldom noticed. Species which are usually present but of minor or no economic significance include the omnivorous looper, Subulodes caberata Guenee, the amorbia, Amorbia essigana Busck, the latania scale, Hemiberlesia lataniae Signoret, the brown soft scale Coccus hesperidum L., the long-tailed mealybug Pseudococcus adonidum

  15. PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Colorado Potato Beetle

    E-print Network

    PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Colorado Potato Beetle (Coleoptera to the suggestion of spatially variable within-Þeld management of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and long-term maintenance of susceptibility. KEY WORDS Colorado potato beetle, global positioning systems

  16. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Comparative Study of Integrated Pest Management and Baiting for

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    for German Cockroach Management in Public Housing CHANGLU WANG AND GARY W. BENNETT Center for Urban-wide cockroach integrated pest management (IPM) program compared with bait alone treatment in public housing. In total, 12 buildings (66 apartments) were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over 7 mo

  17. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 163 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut Herbicide time before planting. For best results, apply when weeds are less than 4 inches tall (less than 3 inch

  18. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 215 WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Soybean Herbicide time before planting. For best results, apply when weeds are less than 4 inches tall (less than 3 inch

  19. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN COTTON

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 70 WEED CONTROL IN COTTON Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Cotton Herbicide any time prior to planting. For best results, apply to weeds that are less than 4 inches tall (less

  20. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 257 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant (Incorporated) Herbicides for Weed Management in Tobacco by shallow disking. Controls pigweed, ragweed and other broadleaf weeds. Use the higher rate for fields

  1. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 249 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Sunflowers anytime before planting when weeds are small. Use a higher rate for larger weeds. Add a COC (1-2 gal per

  2. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 262 WEED CONTROL IN SUNFLOWER Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Sunflowers anytime before planting when weeds are small. Use a higher rate for larger weeds. Add a COC (1-2 gal per

  3. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 205 WEED CONTROL IN SOYBEAN Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Soybean Herbicide time before planting. For best results, apply when weeds are less than 4 inches tall (less than 3 inch

  4. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTRL IN FIELD CORN

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 17 WEED CONTRL IN FIELD CORN Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Corn solution for weeds 3 inches or less in height. BALANCE FLEXX may be tank mixed with PARAQUAT, GLYPHOSATE

  5. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 152 WEED CONTROL IN PEANUT Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Peanut Herbicide time before planting. For best results, apply when weeds are less than 4 inches tall (less than 3 inch

  6. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN GRAIN SORGHUM

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 137 WEED CONTROL IN GRAIN SORGHUM Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant/Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Grain and cutleaf evening primrose than GLYPHOSATE. Add NIS at 1 qt/100 gal of spray mix. Weed and Cover Crop

  7. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 270 WEED CONTROL IN TOBACCO Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant (Incorporated) Herbicides for Weed Management in Tobacco by shallow disking. Controls pigweed, ragweed and other broadleaf weeds. Use the higher rate for fields

  8. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 WEED CONTROL IN COTTON

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 63 WEED CONTROL IN COTTON Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Preplant Burndown Herbicides for Weed Management in Cotton Herbicide any time prior to planting. For best results, apply to weeds that are less than 4 inches tall (less

  9. Turfgrass species and varieties for Integrated Pest Management of Scandinavian putting greens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trygve S. Aamlid; Gudni Thorvaldsson; Frank Enger; Trond Pettersen

    2012-01-01

    EU requirements for Integrated Pest Management (IPM), perhaps even pesticide-free management, have implications for choice of turfgrass species and varieties for golf courses. This paper reports results from variety testing for putting greens in the southern Nordic zone comprising Denmark and coastal areas in south Sweden and south Norway, and the northern zone comprising Finland, Iceland and remaining regions of

  10. Managing Insect and Mite Pests in Vegetable Gardens

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2008-02-19

    . Most of the insect-resistant transgenic vegetable varieties incorporate genes of the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, making them resistant to some caterpillar pests. This resistance inhibits the growth of caterpillars feeding on these plants...), Green Light? Bioganic? series, Bonide? Bio-Neem, and some insecticidal soaps. Monterey? Worm-Ender? is a Bacillus thuringi- ensis product that is simply labeled for caterpil- lars (often referred to as worms) on vegetables. These products...

  11. Integrated Pest Management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. J. M. Smit

    1997-01-01

    Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vines<\\/TT>throughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The aim of the research project was to gain insight in the biology and ecology of sweetpotato weevils and, based on

  12. Development of Integrated Pest Management in Texas Citrus. 

    E-print Network

    Dean, H.A.; French, J. Victor; Meyerdirk, Dale

    1983-01-01

    throughout (Diathane? Z-78, zineb; Metacide, methyl parathion; and Nialate, ethion excepted) for the convenience of readers (4). Common names of insects and mites as approved by Entomological Society of America (68) will be used. 2Reference should.... Methyl parathion stimulatecl reproduction of brown soft scale (46). Road dust frOl frequently traveled roads can settle on adjacent citrus trees and act as a drying agent thus causing eradication of natural enemies. A discussion of secondary pests...

  13. Integrated Agricultural Pest Management Through Remote Sensing And Spatial Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maggi Kelly; Qinghua Guo

    Modern agriculture is influenced by both the pressure for increased productivity and increased stresses caused by plant pests.\\u000a Geographical Information Systems and Global Positioning Systems are currently being used for variable rate application of\\u000a pesticides, herbicide and fertilizers in Precision Agriculture applications, but the comparatively lesser-used tools of Remote\\u000a Sensing and Spatial Analyses can be of additional value in integrated

  14. The applicability of remote sensing to Earth biological problems. Part 2: The potential of remote sensing in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhemus, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.

  15. Can Pesticide Delivery Methods Play a Role in Sustainable Pest Management?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional insecticides continue to play an important role in greenhouse pest management programs. Penetrating a dense plant canopy can be difficult with a handgun, and there is some evidence that boom sprayers or broadcast applications result in a more uniform deposition than handguns. A large-...

  16. Social Capital and Geography of Learning: Roles in Accelerating the Spread of Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Florencia G.; Morin, Stephen; Hossain, Mahabub

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to show the relevance of spatial proximity and social capital in accelerating the spread of agricultural technologies such as integrated pest management (IPM). The research was done in response to the problem of slow diffusion of agricultural technologies. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in investigating the…

  17. MANAGING TROPICAL RICE PESTS THROUGH CONSERVATION OF GENERALIST NATURAL ENEMIES AND ALTERNATIVE PREY1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM H. SETTLE; HARTIAHYO ARIAWAN; ARIEF LUKMAN HAKIM; DADAN HINDAYANA; SRI LESTARI

    1996-01-01

    The cultivation of tropical Asian rice, which may have originated 9000 yr ago, represents an agricultural ecosystem of unrivaled ecological complexity. We undertook a study of the community ecology of irrigated tropical rice fields on Java, Indonesia, as a supporting study for the Indonesian National Integrated Pest Management Programme, whose purpose is to train farmers to be better agronomists and

  18. Proceedings of the 2006 Wisconsin Fertilizer, Aglime and Pest Management Conference

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Fertilizer Research Fund for research conducted by staff members in the Departments of Soil ScienceProceedings of the 2006 Wisconsin Fertilizer, Aglime and Pest Management Conference 17-19 January.M. Laboski Department of Soil Science Chris Boerboom Department of Agronomy Cooperative Extension University

  19. Proceedings of the 2005 Wisconsin Fertilizer, Aglime and Pest Management Conference

    E-print Network

    Balser, Teri C.

    Fertilizer Research Fund for research conducted by staff members in the Departments of Soil ScienceProceedings of the 2005 Wisconsin Fertilizer, Aglime and Pest Management Conference 18-20 January.M. Laboski Department of Soil Science Chris Boerboom Department of Agronomy Cooperative Extension University

  20. The Problem. Genetic Pest Management (GPM) offers the potential to alter and control

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    The Problem. Genetic Pest Management (GPM) offers the potential to alter and control mosquitoes to that system. Students will receive a PhD in a home doctoral program and a graduate minor in Genetic on the program and application process see: http://GeneticEngSoc.ncsu.edu/ email questions to: GES

  1. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  2. PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Inventorying and Estimating Subcanopy Spider Diversity Using

    E-print Network

    Coddington, Jonathan A.

    PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Inventorying and Estimating Subcanopy Spider Diversity Using-based and unrestricted (plot-less) sampling on an inventory of a megadiverse taxon, spiders, in an Afrotropical forest, eight collectors sampled spiders for 350 h and 800 pitfall "trap-days." Two hundred hours of sampling

  3. German Cockroach Allergen Levels in North Carolina Schools: Comparison of Integrated Pest Management and Conventional

    E-print Network

    FORUM German Cockroach Allergen Levels in North Carolina Schools: Comparison of Integrated Pest Management and Conventional Cockroach Control GODFREY NALYANYA, J. CHAD GORE,1 H. MICHAEL LINKER, AND COBY. Med. Entomol. 46(3): 420Ð427 (2009) ABSTRACT Cockroach suppression is fundamental to cockroach

  4. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2014 297 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Jack M. Whetstone, Extension Aquatic Specialist W. Cory Heaton, County Agent Aquatic weeds in ponds or lakes can will depend on factors such as target weeds, non-target plants, and what the water is used for. Physical

  5. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 284 AQUATIC WEED CONTROL Jack M. Whetstone, Extension Aquatic Specialist W. Cory Heaton, County Agent Aquatic weeds in ponds or lakes can will depend on factors such as target weeds, non-target plants, and what the water is used for. Physical

  6. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2013 GRASS FORAGE WEED CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops - 2013 116 GRASS FORAGE WEED CONTROL Mike Marshall, Extension Weed Specialist Newly Sprigged Bermudagrass Herbicide Rate/Acre Broadcast Mode: Apply OUTRIDER at 1.33 oz/A to control johnsongrass, yellow and purple nutsedge, and other weeds

  7. The Impact of Integrated Pest Management Programs on Pesticide Use in California, USA

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Minghua

    173 Chapter 7 The Impact of Integrated Pest Management Programs on Pesticide Use in California, USA as a method to reduce agricultural pesticide use. Cali- fornia has a public infrastructure for supporting IPM's Department Contents 7.1 Trends in Agricultural Pesticide Use in California from 1993 to 2010

  8. Vol. 99, No. 5, 2009 597 Disease Control and Pest Management

    E-print Network

    Schuerger, Andrew C.

    Vol. 99, No. 5, 2009 597 Disease Control and Pest Management Use of Cross-Flow Membrane Filtration. Use of cross-flow membrane filtration in a recirculating hydroponic system to suppress root disease greenhouses. Zoospore cysts of Pythium myriotylum Drechsler were used to evaluate the effectiveness of cross-flow

  9. LEGISLATIVE AND REGULATORY ACTIONS AFFECTING INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT FOR POST-HARVEST SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) has resulted in policy interpretations and regulatory decisions that have severely impacted insect pest management programs for stored products in the United States. The food safety aspects of this law, especially as targeted to children and other vulnerab...

  10. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    E-print Network

    Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures Peter Dalin1 *, Oskar compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural willow habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings: The study was conducted in 1999

  11. PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Phenology-Based Field Monitoring for Consperse Stink Bug

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    PEST MANAGEMENT AND SAMPLING Phenology-Based Field Monitoring for Consperse Stink Bug (Hemiptera development of the consperse stink bug Euschistus conspersus Uhler were studied in laboratory growth chambers the skin is peeled back. Stink bugs are also capable of transmitting a pathogenic yeast (Nemato- spora sp

  12. Comparative effectiveness of an integrated pest management system and other control tactics for

    E-print Network

    Reddy, Gadi VP

    resistance, IPM, Neem oil, Tetranychidae, Tetranychus ludeni Abstract. The effect of an integrated pest management (IPM) package, host plant resistance, Chrysop- erla carnea predation and neem oil were evaluated. carnea plus neem oil), the standard (susceptible) eggplant variety (MDU1) grown by farmers and treated

  13. Science and Management of Pest Insects, Plant Pathogens and Goal: Colorado State University will enhance its focus and depth in undergraduate education, graduate education, research,

    E-print Network

    , high quality, integrated pest management system encompassing the disciplines of entomology, plant and a systems approach will be ongoing. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the application of disciplinaryScience and Management of Pest Insects, Plant Pathogens and Weeds Goal: Colorado State University

  14. Comparative assessment of pest management practices in potato production at Farmer Field Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Modesto Olanya; Rebecca Nelson; Johnson Hakiza; Peter Ewell; Ramzy El-Bedewy; Rogers Kakuhenzire; Samuel Namanda; Imelda Kasheija; Williams Wagoire; Brima Ngombe; Charles Musoke

    2010-01-01

    Farmer field schools (FFS) and other participatory approaches are useful methods for rapid delivery of agricultural technologies,\\u000a knowledge, and information in resource-constrained agro-ecosystems. Cultivar selection, weekly fungicide applications and\\u000a integrated disease management (IDM) based on a disease monitoring strategy were evaluated at FFS for late blight control.\\u000a Farmers’ knowledge and perceptions of pest management and agronomic practices were also assessed

  15. Use of Airborne MultiSpectral Imagery in Pest Management Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Huang; Y. Lan; W. C. Hoffmann

    A multi-spectral imaging system for use on agricultural aircraft was developed and tested to provide images of fields and help farmers and crop consultants manage agricultural lands. The results of this research indicate that the airborne MS4100 multi-spectral imaging system has a great potential for use in areawide pest management systems, such as weed control or detection of insect damage.

  16. Destroying managed and feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies to eradicate honey bee pests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle A. Taylor; R. Mark Goodwin; Heather M. McBrydie; Harlan M. Cox

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on trials conducted to kill managed and feral honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies to eradicate unwanted honey bee pests. The effectiveness of Pestigas?P™ (natural pyrethrum) for the destruction of managed colonies was assessed. Pestigas?P™ was effective when applied as a single 15?s spray into an empty three?quarter?depth super and across the top of the frames. This allowed

  17. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  18. Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, M. A.; Whitcomb, W. H.

    1980-11-01

    Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.

  19. Evaluating environmental and economic consequences of alternative pest management strategies: results of modeling workshops

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Richard L.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.L.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.; McNamee, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The model conceptualized at the first workshop simulates the effect of corn agrecosystem decisions on crop production, economic returns, and environmental indicators. The model is composed of five interacting submodels: 1) a Production Strategies submodel which makes decisions concerning tillage, planting, fertilizer and pesticide applications, and harvest; 2) a Hydrology/Chemical Transport submodel which represents soil hydrology, erosion, and concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides in the soil, runoff, surface waters, and percolation; 3) a Vegetation submodel which simulates growth of agricultural crops (corns and soybeans) and weeds; 4) a Pests submodel which calculates pest population levels and resulting crop damage; and 5) an Environmental Effects submodel which calculates indicators of potential fish kills, human health effects, and wildlife habitat. The most persistent data gaps encountered in quantifying the model were coefficients to relate environmental consequences to alternative pest management strategies. While the model developed in the project is not yet accurate enough to be used for real-world decisions about the use of pesticides on corn, it does contain the basic structure upon which such a model could be built. More importantly at this stage of development, the project has shown that very complex systems can be modeled in short periods of time and that the process of building such models increases understanding among disciplinary specialists and between diverse institutional interests. This process can be useful to EPA as the agency cooperates with other institutions to meet its responsibilities in less costly ways. Activities at the second 2 1/2-day workshop included a review of the model, incorporation of necessary corrections, simulation of policy scenarios, and examination of techniques to address remaining institutional conflicts. Participants were divided into three groups representing environmental, production or industry, and regulatory interests. Each group developed scenarios that would be most appealing to their particular interest and the scenarios were simulated by the agroecosystem computer model. Negotiators from each of the interest groups decided whether a hypothetical herbicide should be relabeled and if certain restrictions should be imposed on its use. Other participants functioned as experts and consultants on caucus teams. A solution to the hypothetical problem was successfully negotiated. Workshop participants and project staff agreed that the model and processes developed during the project should be used in training students, extension specialists, farmers, researchers, and chemical producers in collaborative problem solving methods. More productive research can be planned, and more realistic models of complex systems can be built in this way. More importantly, greater trust of decisionmakers in computer models, better understanding by technical experts about disciplines other than their own, and improved cooperation between institutional interests can be achieved. This trust, understanding, and cooperation are critical ingredients in solving problems that are too complex to be resolved by independent disciplinary activity and unilateral decision authority.

  20. Implementation and evaluation of HortIPM: a World Wide Web based interactive integrated pest management resource 

    E-print Network

    Files, Priscilla Josephine

    2001-01-01

    An interactive website, HortIPM (http://hortipm.tamu.edu), was developed to address the principles of integrated pest management (IPM) as they relate to the production of commercial nursery and floral crops. A web-based ...

  1. The role of databases in areawide pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A database is a comprehensive collection of related data organized for convenient access, generally in a computer. The evolution of computer software and the need to distinguish the specialized computer systems for storing and manipulating data, stimulated development of database management systems...

  2. Chemical Waste Management and Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    1988-01-01

    Describes simple, efficient techniques for treating hazardous chemicals so that nontoxic and nonhazardous residues are formed. Discusses general rules for management of waste chemicals from school laboratories and general techniques for the disposal of waste or surplus chemicals. Lists specific disposal reactions. (CW)

  3. Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S.; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N.; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa. PMID:24278221

  4. Bridging Disciplines, Knowledge Systems and Cultures in Pest Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Will; Ogilvie, Shaun; Blackie, Helen; Smith, Des; Sam, Shona; Doherty, James; McKenzie, Don; Ataria, James; Shapiro, Lee; MacKay, Jamie; Murphy, Elaine; Jacobson, Chris; Eason, Charles

    2014-02-01

    The success of research in integrated environmental and natural resource management relies on the participation and involvement of different disciplines and stakeholders. This can be difficult to achieve in practice because many initiatives fail to address the underlying social processes required for successful engagement and social learning. We used an action research approach to support a research-based group with a range of disciplinary and stakeholder expertise to critically reflect on their engagement practice and identify lessons around how to collaborate more effectively. This approach is provided here as a guide that can be used to support reflective research practice for engagement in other integration-based initiatives. This paper is set in the context of an integrated wildlife management research case study in New Zealand. We illustrate how multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches can provide a framework for considering the different conversations that need to occur in an integrated research program. We then outline rubrics that list the criteria required in inter- and trans-disciplinary collaborations, along with examples of effective engagement processes that directly support integration through such efforts. Finally, we discuss the implications of these experiences for other researchers and managers seeking to improve engagement and collaboration in integrated science, management and policy initiatives. Our experiences reaffirm the need for those involved in integrative initiatives to attend to the processes of engagement in both formal and informal settings, to provide opportunities for critical reflective practice, and to look for measures of success that acknowledge the importance of effective social process.

  5. Bridging disciplines, knowledge systems and cultures in pest management.

    PubMed

    Allen, Will; Ogilvie, Shaun; Blackie, Helen; Smith, Des; Sam, Shona; Doherty, James; McKenzie, Don; Ataria, James; Shapiro, Lee; MacKay, Jamie; Murphy, Elaine; Jacobson, Chris; Eason, Charles

    2014-02-01

    The success of research in integrated environmental and natural resource management relies on the participation and involvement of different disciplines and stakeholders. This can be difficult to achieve in practice because many initiatives fail to address the underlying social processes required for successful engagement and social learning. We used an action research approach to support a research-based group with a range of disciplinary and stakeholder expertise to critically reflect on their engagement practice and identify lessons around how to collaborate more effectively. This approach is provided here as a guide that can be used to support reflective research practice for engagement in other integration-based initiatives. This paper is set in the context of an integrated wildlife management research case study in New Zealand. We illustrate how multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches can provide a framework for considering the different conversations that need to occur in an integrated research program. We then outline rubrics that list the criteria required in inter- and trans-disciplinary collaborations, along with examples of effective engagement processes that directly support integration through such efforts. Finally, we discuss the implications of these experiences for other researchers and managers seeking to improve engagement and collaboration in integrated science, management and policy initiatives. Our experiences reaffirm the need for those involved in integrative initiatives to attend to the processes of engagement in both formal and informal settings, to provide opportunities for critical reflective practice, and to look for measures of success that acknowledge the importance of effective social process. PMID:24122099

  6. Exploitation of insect vibrational signals reveals a new method of pest management.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Anna; Anfora, Gianfranco; Lucchi, Andrea; Lanzo, Francesco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems. PMID:22457726

  7. Pest and Disease Management: Why We Shouldn't Go against the Grain

    PubMed Central

    Skelsey, Peter; With, Kimberly A.; Garrett, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Given the wide range of scales and mechanisms by which pest or disease agents disperse, it is unclear whether there might exist a general relationship between scale of host heterogeneity and spatial spread that could be exploited by available management options. In this model-based study, we investigate the interaction between host distributions and the spread of pests and diseases using an array of models that encompass the dispersal and spread of a diverse range of economically important species: a major insect pest of coniferous forests in western North America, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae); the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, one of the most-widespread and best-studied bacterial plant pathogens; the mosquito Culex erraticus, an important vector for many human and animal pathogens, including West Nile Virus; and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Our model results reveal an interesting general phenomenon: a unimodal (‘humpbacked’) relationship in the magnitude of infestation (an index of dispersal or population spread) with increasing grain size (i.e., the finest scale of patchiness) in the host distribution. Pest and disease management strategies targeting different aspects of host pattern (e.g., abundance, aggregation, isolation, quality) modified the shape of this relationship, but not the general unimodal form. This is a previously unreported effect that provides insight into the spatial scale at which management interventions are most likely to be successful, which, notably, do not always match the scale corresponding to maximum infestation. Our findings could provide a new basis for explaining historical outbreak events, and have implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness. PMID:24098739

  8. Pest and disease management: why we shouldn't go against the grain.

    PubMed

    Skelsey, Peter; With, Kimberly A; Garrett, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Given the wide range of scales and mechanisms by which pest or disease agents disperse, it is unclear whether there might exist a general relationship between scale of host heterogeneity and spatial spread that could be exploited by available management options. In this model-based study, we investigate the interaction between host distributions and the spread of pests and diseases using an array of models that encompass the dispersal and spread of a diverse range of economically important species: a major insect pest of coniferous forests in western North America, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae); the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, one of the most-widespread and best-studied bacterial plant pathogens; the mosquito Culex erraticus, an important vector for many human and animal pathogens, including West Nile Virus; and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Our model results reveal an interesting general phenomenon: a unimodal ('humpbacked') relationship in the magnitude of infestation (an index of dispersal or population spread) with increasing grain size (i.e., the finest scale of patchiness) in the host distribution. Pest and disease management strategies targeting different aspects of host pattern (e.g., abundance, aggregation, isolation, quality) modified the shape of this relationship, but not the general unimodal form. This is a previously unreported effect that provides insight into the spatial scale at which management interventions are most likely to be successful, which, notably, do not always match the scale corresponding to maximum infestation. Our findings could provide a new basis for explaining historical outbreak events, and have implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness. PMID:24098739

  9. 5) Management i) Chemical control

    E-print Network

    Nowak, Robert S.

    Mitosis inhibitors #12;5) Management c) Control i) Chemical control Which herbicide to use? · Herbicide families · Mode of action Auxin mimics Mitosis inhibitors Photosynthesis inhibitors #12;5) Management c Mitosis inhibitors Photosynthesis inhibitors Amino acid synthesis inhibitors #12;5) Management c) Control

  10. Pests in and Around the Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Knowledgebase of urban, structure, lawn and landscape pests. Includes sections on pest management theory; biting and stinging insects; pests of food, fabric and wood; occasional invaders; lawn pests; landscape pests, and some vertebrate pests. Includes pest identification keys. This is an excellent resource, although much of the material is specific to Florida. Vertebrate pest management sections are also of high quality and interesting. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser. $25.

  11. Nematology—Status and Prospects: The Role of Nematology in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Bird, G. W.

    1980-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is an interdisciplinary science dealing with the development, evaluation, and implementation of pest control strategies that result in favorable economic, ecologic, and sociologic consequences. IPM has received considerable attention during the past few years, and this has led to recommendations directly related to the growth of the science of hematology. This report describes the current state of IPM in relation to the role of hematology, with special emphasis on scientific personnel requirements. All current indications are that IPM will continue to grow, very likely at an increased rate. This will place additional research, extension, and teaching demands on current hematology programs and should result in an expended resource base for nematology. PMID:19300691

  12. EFFECT OF SOLARIZATION AND COVER CROPPING ON PESTS, BENEFICIALS AND PEPPER YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices that maintain soil health are becoming increasingly importatnt as non-chemical alternatives to methyl bromide. Objectives of this research were to examine effects of non-chemical pest management strategies on several key soil-borne pests and beneficial soil organisms using nemat...

  13. Integrated pest management concepts for red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Drees, Bastiaan M; Calixto, Alejandro A; Nester, Paul R

    2013-08-01

    Management of imported fire ant species has evolved since their accidental introduction into the United States and currently uses integrated pest management concepts to design, implement, and evaluate suppression programs. Although eradication is the management goal in certain isolated infestation sites, localized goals vary dramatically in larger infestations where reinvasion of treated areas is likely. These goals are influenced by regulatory policies, medical liabilities, ecological impact, and/or economic considerations. Tactics employed in fire ant management programs presented here include cultural and biological control options along with judicious use of site-specific insecticide products. In addition, program design considerations that include management goal(s), action level(s), ant form (monogyne or polygyne), presence of nontarget ant species, size of treatment area, seasonality, implementation cost, and environmental impact are also presented. Optimally, elegant IPM programs are target specific, threshold driven, environmentally friendly and cost-effective. PMID:23955939

  14. Bioeconomics of managing the spread of exotic pest species with barrier zones.

    PubMed

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2004-08-01

    Exotic pests are serious threats to North American ecosystems; thus, economic analysis of decisions about eradication, stopping, or slowing their spread may be critical to ecosystem management. The proposed bioeconomic model assumes that the rate of population expansion can be reduced (even to negative values in a case of eradication) if certain management actions are taken along the population front. The area of management can be viewed as a dynamic barrier zone that moves together with the population front. The lower is the target rate of spread, the higher would be both benefits and costs of the project. The problem is to find the optimal target rate of spread at which the present value of net benefits from managing population spread reaches its maximum value. If a population spreads along an infinite habitat strip, the target rate of spread is optimal if the slope of the cost function versus the rate of spread is equal to the ratio of the average pest-related damage per unit time and unit area to the discount rate. In a more complex model where the potential area of expansion is limited, two local maxima of net benefits may exist: one for eradication and another for slowing the spread. If both maxima are present, their heights are compared and the strategy that corresponds to a higher value of net benefits is selected. The optimal strategy changes from eradication to slowing the spread and finally to doing nothing as the area occupied by the species increases. The model shows that slowing the spread of pest species generates economic benefits even if a relatively small area remains uninfested. The cost of slowing the spread can be estimated from a model of population expansion via establishment of isolated colonies beyond the moving front. The model is applied to managing the spread of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) populations in the United States. PMID:15357807

  15. Wildlife as valuable natural resources vs. intolerable pests: A suburban wildlife management model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Deblinger, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Management of wildlife in suburban environments involves a complex set of interactions between both human and wildlife populations. Managers need additional tools, such as models, that can help them assess the status of wildlife populations, devise and apply management programs, and convey this information to other professionals and the public. We present a model that conceptualizes how some wildlife populations can fluctuate between extremely low (rare, threatened, or endangered status) and extremely high (overabundant) numbers over time. Changes in wildlife abundance can induce changes in human perceptions, which continually redefine species as a valuable resource to be protected versus a pest to be controlled. Management programs thatincorporate a number of approaches and promote more stable populations of wildlife avoid the problems of the resource versus pest transformation, are less costly to society, and encourage more positive and less negative interactions between humans and wildlife. We presenta case example of the beaver Castor canadensis in Massachusetts to illustrate how this model functions and can be applied. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  16. DIARES-IPM: a diagnostic advisory rule-based expert system for integrated pest management in Solanaceous crop systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Mahaman; H. C. Passam; A. B. Sideridis; C. P. Yialouris

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a DIagnostic Advisory Rule-based Expert System for Integrated Pest Management (DIARES-IPM) in Solanaceous crops. DIARES-IPM is an operational automatic identification tool that helps non-experts to identify pests (insects, diseases, nutritional deficiencies and beneficial insects) and suggest the appropriate treatments. The objective of this expert system was to serve as a diagnostic, extension and educational tool in vegetable

  17. Chemical Management of Western Snowberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Llewellyn L. Manske

    Western snowberry colonies invade and spread rapidly by means of extensive rhizome systems in pastures managed by traditional grazing practices that weaken the competitive abilities of grass plants. The aerial stem canopy cover of healthy western snowberry colonies shades sunlight from the grass understory, reducing the forage biomass production in a pasture and decreasing the livestock carrying capacity. Chemical management

  18. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Legumes, Grasses and Forage Crops in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Neeb, Charles W.; Thomas, John G.

    1982-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Webworms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Grasshoppers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Blister Beetles... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Above-Ground Pests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Greenbugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Grasshoppers...

  19. Preprint of the article published in Crop Protection 27 (2008) 1269 1276 Effectiveness and chemical pest control of Bt-cotton

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2008-01-01

    and chemical pest control of Bt-cotton in the Yangtze River Valley, China 1 2 3 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 . Introduction In China, genetically modified cotton (GMC) was first marketed in 1997, with varieties integrating Bt genes (Bt-cotton) to control some cotton pests, notably Helicoverpa

  20. A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Guoping; Chen, Lansun; Xu, Weijian; Fu, Gang

    2015-06-01

    A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control is investigated. We get the sufficient condition for the existence of the order-1 periodic solution by differential equation geometry theory and successor function. Further, we obtain a new judgement method for the stability of the order-1 periodic solution of the semi-continuous systems by referencing the stability analysis for limit cycles of continuous systems, which is different from the previous method of analog of Poincarè criterion. Finally, we analyze numerically the theoretical results obtained.

  1. Comparative study of integrated pest management and baiting for German cockroach management in public housing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Bennett, Gary W

    2006-06-01

    This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of a building-wide cockroach integrated pest management (IPM) program compared with bait alone treatment in public housing. In total, 12 buildings (66 apartments) were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over 7 mo. The buildings were divided into two groups: bait treatment and IPM. Apartments in the bait alone group were treated with Maxforce FC Select (0.01% fipronil) during the first 12 wk and Maxforce Roach Killer Bait Gel (2.15% hydramethylnon) from 16 wk when necessary. For the IPM group, cockroaches were flushed and vacuumed at the beginning of the study; sticky traps were placed in all apartments to monitor and reduce cockroach numbers; educational materials were delivered to the residents; and Maxforce FC Select and Maxforce Roach Killer Bait Gel were applied to kill cockroaches. Two seminars were presented to the manger, and Community Service Program staff of the Gary Housing Authority to help gain tenant cooperation in the program. Effects of the treatments were monitored using sticky traps (six per apartment) at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 29 wk after treatment. More treatments were applied during each monitoring visit when necessary. Those apartments with high levels of infestations (> or =12 cockroaches in six traps) before treatment were used to compare the IPM and bait only treatments. IPM resulted in significantly greater trap catch reduction than the bait treatment. The IPM (n=12) and bait only treatment (n=11) resulted in 100.0 and 94.6%, respectively, reduction in trap catch after 16 wk. At 29 wk, only one apartment in the IPM group had a high level (>12 cockroaches) of cockroach infestation. In contrast, five apartments in the bait treatment group had high level infestations at 29 wk based on overnight trapping counts; thus, IPM is a more sustainable method of population reduction. Sanitation levels in the IPM group significantly improved at 29 wk (n=11) compared with that at the beginning of the study. The sanitation levels in the bait treatment group remained similar throughout the experiment (n=9). The cumulative cost of IPM was significantly higher than that of the bait treatment. The median costs per apartment during 29 wk were 64.8 dollars and 35.0 dollars for the IPM and bait treatment, respectively. The median amount of bait used per apartment in the IPM and bait treatment was 45.0 and 50.0 g, respectively. The cost of the IPM group for the 29 wk service was similar to that of the bait treatment group. We expect that IPM will provide better control at similar cost compared with bait treatment beyond 29 wk. PMID:16813325

  2. Provisioning floral resources to attract aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) useful for pest management in central Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Uña, A; Martín, J M; Fernández-Quintanilla, C; Dorado, J

    2013-12-01

    Noncrop plant communities present on the boundaries or within crop fields are essential for the maintenance of functional biodiversity, affecting beneficial insect numbers and ecological fitness. Habitat manipulation is an increasingly studied strategy aimed at enhancing natural enemies of agricultural pests by providing feeding and shelter resources. In this study, six plant species selected from preliminary work were tested for their potential attractiveness to four common aphidophagous hoverflies species. Potential attractiveness was evaluated through observation of hoverfly feeding visits to replicated flower plots distributed in a randomized design. The combination of the selected species covered a 2-mo full-bloom period. Sphaerophoria scripta L. and Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedeman) were the dominant hoverflies present throughout the sampling period, whereas Eupeodes corollae (F.) and Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer) visits were less abundant and appeared only in the early season. Potential attractiveness varied among plant species. Calendula arvensis L. and Coriandrum sativum L. were the most visited species. C. arvensis received a high number of visits throughout a long period, whereas the visits to Co. sativum were concentrated in a short blooming period. These results suggest that habitat management by using these plant species may increase the abundance of hoverflies and could improve the biological control of aphid pests typical of spring-summer crops in open Mediterranean environments. PMID:24498730

  3. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique. PMID:23342117

  4. An economic analysis of the integrated pest management program for Texas pecans 

    E-print Network

    Steele, Scott Raymond

    1993-01-01

    reported by Young in 1981. Compare yield and number of pesticide applications for reported IPM users and reported non-users. Compare these results to those reported by Woods in 1988. Analyze regional differences in the management practices of pecan... result of different management practices with regards to foliage feeders. In addition to chemical costs, application costs are estimated. Cost of chemical application in $/acre was estimated using the Texas Crop Enterprise Budgets South Central Texas...

  5. Incorporating carbon storage into the optimal management of forest insect pests: a case study of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Rebecca M; Lutz, David A; Howarth, Richard B

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal. PMID:24938795

  6. Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  7. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  8. Influence of pesticide information sources on citrus farmer's knowledge, perception and practices in pest management, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. van Mele; T. V. Hai; O. Thas; A. van Huis

    2002-01-01

    In 1998-99, about 150 citrus farmers and 120 pesticide sellers were interviewed in Can Tho and Dong Thap province, Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Media, pesticide sellers and extension staff had different influences on farmers' pest perception and management practices depending on the region and intensity of the cropping system. Pesticide sellers were notified by about 95% of the farmers about their

  9. A survey of phytotoxic microbial and plant metabolites as potential natural products for pest management.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Kevin K; Andolfi, Anna; Cantrell, Charles L; Cimmino, Alessio; Duke, Stephen O; Osbrink, Weste; Wedge, David E; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Phytotoxic microbial metabolites produced by certain phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria, and a group of phytotoxic plant metabolites including Amaryllidacea alkaloids and some derivatives of these compounds were evaluated for algicide, bactericide, insecticide, fungicide, and herbicide activities in order to discover natural compounds for potential use in the management and control of several important agricultural and household structural pests. Among the various compounds evaluated: i) ophiobolin A was found to be the most promising for potential use as a selective algicide; ii) ungeremine was discovered to be bactericidal against certain species of fish pathogenic bacteria; iii) cycasin caused significant mortality in termites; iv) cavoxin, ophiobolin A, and sphaeropsidin A were most active towards species of plant pathogenic fungi; and v) lycorine and some of its analogues (1-O-acetyllycorine and lycorine chlorohydrate) were highly phytotoxic in the herbicide bioassay. Our results further demonstrated that plants and microbes can provide a diverse and natural source of compounds with potential use as pesticides. PMID:20860028

  10. A Pest Management Approach to the Control of Pratylenchus thornei on Wheat in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Van Gundy, S. D.; Perez B., J. G.; Stolzy, L. H.; Thomason, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus thornei, was clearly demonstrated as a parasite of wheat. It reduced plant stands and stunted plants in the field under the environmental conditions found in Sonora, Mexico. Other soil organisms also may have contributed to the problem. The nematode is widely distributed throughout the wheat-growing region, and may be a problem each growing season. Nematicides controlled the nematode and increased yields, but they were not economical. No resistance was found in existing commercial wheat cultivars. A pest management approach using variety selection, nitrogen fertilizer, planting in cool soil (15 C) and a crop rotation avoiding wheat after wheat was the most practical solution to this problem on a commercial scale. PMID:19308110

  11. 44 CAB International 2011. Urban Pest Management: An Environmental Perspective (ed. P. Dhang)

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    Environmentally Sound Bed Bug Management Solutions CHANGLU WANG AND RICHARD COOPER Summary Bed bugs have become and a lack of public awareness that has enabled bed bugs to spread at alarming rates. Non-chemical techniques and methods. Also, a community-wide programme for effective bed bug management in society is explained

  12. Current control methods for diamondback moth and other brassica insect pests and the prospects for improved management with lepidopteran-resistant Bt vegetable brassicas in Asia and Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Grzywacz; A. Rossbach; A. Rauf; D. A. Russell; R. Srinivasan; A. M. Shelton

    2010-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), remains a major pest of brassica crops worldwide. DBM has been estimated globally to cost US$ 1 billion in direct losses and control costs. Chemical control of this pest remains difficult due to the rapid development of resistance to insecticides and to their effect on natural enemies. These problems are especially severe in

  13. Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, U; Ready, P D

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests'. This six-year CRP (2008-2013) focused on research aimed at under-pinning the Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) of populations of tsetse and screwworm flies, and this introductory paper to the Special Issue integrates the findings of the CRP participants and discusses them in a broader context. The tools and techniques for mapping and modelling the distributions of genetically-characterised populations of tsetse and screwworm flies are increasingly used by researchers and managers for more effective decision-making in AW-IPM programmes, as illustrated by the reports in this Special Issue. Currently, the insect pests are often characterized only by neutral genetic markers suitable for recognizing spatially isolated populations that are sometimes associated with specific environments. Two challenges for those involved in AW-IPM are the standardization of best practice to permit the efficient application of GIS and genetic tools by regional teams, and the need to develop further the mapping and modelling of parasite and pest phenotypes that are epidemiologically important. PMID:24713196

  14. Managing Insect Pests of Cacti and Other Succulents in Water-Efficient Landscapes 

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2008-11-06

    insects or if the plants look unsightly, there is a good chance that the pests will move to similar plants planted nearby. Even if the plants are pest free, new pests can arrive over time. One exotic pest, the cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorium...-efficient ornamental plants native to Texas WaterWise plants 1 Red yucca (Hesperaloe parviflora) Adam?s needle yucca (Yucca filamentosa) Soft-tip yucca (Yucca gloriosa) Pendula yucca (Yucca recurviflora) Texas sage (Leucophylum frutescens) Cactus varieties 2 Prickly...

  15. PHYLOGEOGRAPHY AND GENETIC STRUCTURE OF THE INVASIVE WHEAT STEM SAWFLY, CEPHUS CINCTUS NORTON, (HYMENOPTERA: CEPHIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL MANAGEMENT OF THIS PEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) was originally recovered from wild grasses but has become a chronic pest of wheat in the northern region of the North American Great Plains. Effective and economical pest management practices remain elusive, therefore biological co...

  16. Training Childcare Center Administrators about Integrated Pest Management through Greener Environmental Communication Venues and Collecting Pesticide Use Data in the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Many people assume that schools and childcare centers are environmentally safe places for children to learn. However, adverse health effects from pest allergy related illnesses or pesticide exposure incidents can demonstrate the need for safer and more effective pest management strategies. The goal of this research is to measure the efficacy of…

  17. Neem oil as a potential seed dresser for managing Homopterous sucking pests of Okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Indira Gandhi; K. Gunasekaran; Tongmin Sa

    2006-01-01

    Insecticidal seed treatment is an alternative method to spray and granular applications. It can protect the crop right from\\u000a germination to reproductive stage. Recurrent use of chemical insecticides destabilizes the ecosystem and enhances the development\\u000a of resistance in pest population. Use of biopesticides like neem oil (NO) is a promising one in this situation. Two field\\u000a experiments were conducted to

  18. Effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Controlling Cockroaches, Mice, and Allergens in New York City Public Housing

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. Objectives We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. Methods We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Results Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. Conclusions In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences. PMID:19672400

  19. Plant-parasitic nematodes in Australian viticulture: key pests, current management practices and opportunities for future improvements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Walker; G. R. Stirling

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the Australian grape industry and discusses the distribution and economic importance\\u000a of its main nematode pests and outlines the management practices (hot water treatment of planting material, nematode-resistant\\u000a rootstocks and nematicides) that are currently used to minimise losses from nematodes. However, the main focus of the paper\\u000a is the research that will be

  20. Integration of botanicals and microbials for management of crop and human pests.

    PubMed

    Naresh Kumar, A; Murugan, K; Madhiyazhagan, P

    2013-01-01

    Insect pests inflict damage to humans, farm animals, and crops. Human and animal pests put more than 100 million people and 80 million cattle at risk worldwide. Plant pests are the main reason for destroying one fifth of the world's total crop production annually. Anopheles stephensi is the major vector of human malaria in Middle East and South Asian regions. Spodoptera litura is a polyphagous pest of vegetables and field crops. Because of its broad host range, this insect is also known as cluster caterpillar, common cutworm, cotton leafworm, tobacco cutworm, tobacco caterpillar, and tropical armyworm. The toxic effects of methanolic extract of Senna alata and microbial insecticide, Bacillus sphericus, were tested against the polyphagous crop pest, S. litura (Fab.), and the malarial vector, A. stephensi. Results from the present study states that B. sphericus is more toxic than S. alata to both the crop pest and mosquito. The malarial vector, A. stephensi, was found to be susceptible than the crop pest, S. litura. Both the botanical and microbial insecticide showed excellent larvicidal, pupicidal, longevity, fecundity, and growth regulatory activities. Median lethal concentrations of B. sphericus and methanolic extract of S. alata observed to kill the third instar of S. litura were 0.52 and 193.09 ppm and A. stephensi were 0.40 and 174.64 ppm, respectively. PMID:23052771

  1. Comparative effectiveness of an integrated pest management system and other control tactics for managing the spider mite Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) on eggplant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. V. P. Reddy

    2001-01-01

    The effect of an integrated pest management (IPM) package, host plantresistance, Chrysoperla carnea predation and neem oil wereevaluated against the spider mite Tetranychus ludeni oneggplant(Solanum melongena L.) fields in 1996 and 1997, byestimating the mite population density and yield levels. Compared with the IPMpackage (Panruti local, C. carnea plus neem oil), thestandard (susceptible) eggplant variety (MDU1) grown by farmers andtreated

  2. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum dissitum Leaves and Roots against Three Species of Storage Pests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Kai; You, Chun-Xue; Zhang, Wen-Juan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Du, Shu-Shan; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from Zanthoxylum dissitum leaves and roots and their insecticidal activities against several stored product pests, namely the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and black carpet beetle (Attagenus piceus). The analysis by GC-MS of the essential oils allowed the identification of 28 and 22 components, respectively. It was found that sesquiterpenoids comprised a fairly high portion of the two essential oils, with percentages of 74.0% and 80.9% in the leaves and roots, respectively. The main constituents identified in the essential oil of Z. dissitum leaves were ?-cadinol (12.8%), caryophyllene (12.7%), ?-cubebene (7.9%), 4-terpineol (7.5%) and germacrene D-4-ol (5.7%), while humulene epoxide II (29.4%), caryophyllene oxide (24.0%), diepicedrene-1-oxide (10.7%) and Z,Z,Z-1,5,9,9-tetramethyl-1,4,7-cycloundecatriene (8.7%) were the major components in the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots. The insecticidal activity results indicated that the essential oil of Z. dissitum roots exhibited moderate contact toxicity against three species of storage pests, L. serricorne,T. castaneum and A. piceus, with LD50 values of 13.8, 43.7 and 96.8 µg/adult, respectively. PMID:25946557

  3. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

  4. Apple Burrknot Borers in New York Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State

    E-print Network

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    Apple Burrknot Borers in New York ­ Revisited Pest status and chemical control of borers infesting apple burrknots in New York State DAVID P. KAIN, RICHARD W. STRAUB AND ARTHUR M. AGNELLO Department damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple

  5. Management of plant species for controlling pests, by peasant farmers at Lagoa Seca, Paraíba state, Brazil: an ethnoecological approach

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Andréia de Souza; Mourão, José da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Ethnoecological knowledge may be understood as spontaneous knowledge, culturally referenced of any society's members, learned and transmitted through social interactions and that are targeted at resolution of daily routine situations. The traditional knowledge in small scale economy societies as well as the non-academic knowledge in urban-industrial societies might be included in this concept. An ethnoecological approach study was performed here on people living at the communities of Alvinho, Almeida, Chã do Marinho, Floriano, and Chã de Oiti, all located in the municipality of Lagoa Seca, Paraíba state, Northeast Brazil. The general objective pursued here was to study the knowledge that peasant farmers have on management of plant species utilized for pest control. For this, the methodological instruments employed here to investigate the ethnoecological knowledge were: direct observation, structured and semi-structured interviews, and tours conducted by local peasant farmers. We analyzed the data obtained under an emic/etic view and also by comparing the local knowledge with those obtained from the literature. The results showed that people in those communities utilize management alternatives for controlling pests, which are mainly: (i) fallowing; (ii) crop rotation; (iii) destruction of crop remains and fruits attacked by pests; (iv) alternations of crops with repellent plants; and/or (v) mixed cropping; (vi) insect's larvae covered with soil; (vii) crops irrigated abundantly; and (viii) soil preparation. The recovery and comprehension we get about this knowledge as well as the farmers' savoir faire, are extremely important to the revival of ancient agricultural practices, which have been forgotten due to advances in modern agriculture. The data obtained here showed that a huge body of knowledge the farmers have on many forms or strategies of management are generally compatible with scientific knowledge. PMID:17026748

  6. Update on pest management of the banded sunflower moth in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banded sunflower moth has been a consistent pest of sunflower in the northern Plains. Adults begin to emerge from the soil about mid-July and are present in the field until mid-August. Larvae feed in the florets, developing seed, and also destroy mature seeds. The goal of this project was to inv...

  7. Improved quality management to enhance the efficacy of the sterile insect technique for lepidopteran pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidoptera are among the most severe pests of food and fibre crops in the world and are mainly controlled using broad spectrum insecticides. This does not lead to sustainable control and farmers are demanding alternative control tools which are both effective and friendly to the environment. The st...

  8. Outlooks on Pest Management June 2006 105 2006. Research Information Ltd. All rights reserved

    E-print Network

    Latchininsky, Alexandre

    DOI: 10.1564/17jun04 Abstract Insecticidal baits have been used to control grasshoppers and locusts grasshoppers and Mormon crickets. A typical bait formulation consists of wheat bran impregnated with carbaryl overview Locust and grasshopper control with poisoned baits was one of the earliest attempts of pest

  9. Bifurcation of nontrivial periodic solutions for an impulsively controlled pest management model

    E-print Network

    incidence rate is employed to describe the transmission of the disease which is induced through the use Although synthetic pesticides were first seen as a miraculous way of solving all pest-related issues, it has been quickly noticed that the heavy use of pesticides creates in the long run more problems

  10. Natural Products for Managing Landscape and Garden Pests in Florida1

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    with directions on the manufacturer's label. Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer and disease problems; be target-specific (kill the pest, but not other organisms); break down quickly; have are seeking less hazardous alterna- tives to conventional pesticides. Lists of products that are acceptable

  11. Growth and yield response of pecan to three levels of pest management in Central Texas

    E-print Network

    Cooper, John Norman

    1984-01-01

    in the Southeastern United States. Insect pests added in 1940 to the USDA' spray recommendations included spittlebugs (~C1 sto ta a oht sa), p a t ca(as (Catocala spp. ), th s Ply (P ri 11 t ~a i ice(tie) a e paean phyllo e a (~ph llo era spp. ). The 1940 spray...

  12. Biology and integrated pest management for the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) ( Coleoptera : Curculionidae )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford S. Gold; Jorge E. Pena; Eldad B. Karamura

    2001-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) is the most important insect pest of bananas and plantains (Musa spp.). The larvae bore in the corm, reducing nutrient uptake and weakening the stability of the plant. Attack in newly planted banana stands can lead to crop failure. In established fields, weevil damage can result in reduced bunch weights, mat die-out and shortened

  13. Impact of Kairomones on Moth Pest Management: Pear Ester and the Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth (CM) is the major pest of apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Our focus is to develop novel, species-specific monitoring and control systems based on host-plant odors, kairomones. In 1998 ‘pear ester’ (PE), ethyl (2E, 4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, was identified as a powerful kairomonal attra...

  14. South Carolina Pest Management Handbook for Field Crops -2014 SMALL GRAIN INSECT CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    ) Preventative aphid treatment for barley yellow dwarf virus suppression is recommended for high yield wheat on early- planted high-yield-potential wheat (60+ bu/ac). The key pest is the oat-bird cherry aphid which is recommended if you find 8 oat-bird cherry aphids per row foot prior to jointing. Oats are more susceptible

  15. Evaluation of Two Least Toxic Integrated Pest Management Programs for Managing Bed Bugs (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) With Discussion of a Bed Bug Intercepting Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changlu Wang; Timothy Gibb; Gary W. Bennett

    2009-01-01

    The cost and effectiveness of two bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) integrated pest management (IPM) programs were evaluated for 10 wk. Sixteen bed bugÐinfested apartments were chosen from a high-rise low-income apartment building. The apartments were randomly divided into two treatment groups: diatomaceous earth dustÐ based IPM (D-IPM) and chlorfenapyr sprayÐ based IPM (S-IPM). The initial median (minimum, maximum) bed

  16. Use of chemical communication in the management of freshwater aquatic species that are vectors of human diseases or are invasive.

    PubMed

    Corkum, Lynda D; Belanger, Rachelle M

    2007-01-01

    Chemical communication occurs when both originator (signaller) and one or more receiver(s) possess specializations for chemical exchange of information. Chemical information can be used by a wide variety of species to locate food and mates, avoid predators and engage in social interactions. In this review, we focus on chemical signalling between mates or cues from nest sites or hosts by selected aquatic pest species and indicate how chemical information can be used to manage pests. The pests are vectors of disease (blood-sucking insects) or invasive species (crayfishes and fishes) that have exhibited detrimental effects on indigenous species. Pheromones released by females attract and stimulate males in some taxa (insects, crayfish, goldfish, and crucian carp), whereas pheromones released by males attract females in others (round goby, sea lamprey). Other chemicals (e.g., habitat odours or odours given off by developmental stages of conspecifics) can affect oviposition decisions of pest species. In areas of aquatic environments where other cues may be limited (e.g., visual), freshwater organisms may rely solely on chemical signals or in concert with environmental cues for reproduction. Once the chemical structure of odour attractants are identified and shown to lure conspecifics to traps, odorants or their blends can be used to control the aquatic pests. There is promise for the application of pheromone traps to control the malarian vector (Anopheles gambiae) or invasive species such as signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) by disrupting the reproductive behaviours of these species. PMID:17367788

  17. Chemical-management policy: prioritizing children's health.

    PubMed

    2011-05-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that chemical-management policy in the United States be revised to protect children and pregnant women and to better protect other populations. The Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) was passed in 1976. It is widely recognized to have been ineffective in protecting children, pregnant women, and the general population from hazardous chemicals in the marketplace. It does not take into account the special vulnerabilities of children in attempting to protect the population from chemical hazards. Its processes are so cumbersome that in its more than 30 years of existence, the TSCA has been used to regulate only 5 chemicals or chemical classes of the tens of thousands of chemicals that are in commerce. Under the TSCA, chemical companies have no responsibility to perform premarket testing or postmarket follow-up of the products that they produce; in fact, the TSCA contains disincentives for the companies to produce such data. Voluntary programs have been inadequate in resolving problems. Therefore, chemical-management policy needs to be rewritten in the United States. Manufacturers must be responsible for developing information about chemicals before marketing. The US Environmental Protection Agency must have the authority to demand additional safety data about a chemical and to limit or stop the marketing of a chemical when there is a high degree of suspicion that the chemical might be harmful to children, pregnant women, or other populations. PMID:21518722

  18. Biological control of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Kitto, G B

    1983-01-01

    Isozyme techniques have proven particularly useful in the past in the field of biological insect control. In this brief review I have tried to give a small selection of the varied approaches that have been used. In the future, isozyme analysis will undoubtedly play a major role. But genetic analyses, as exemplified by the use of isozymes, form but a small part of the knowledge we must have if biological control programs are to be successful. In a pest management program where one is using both chemical and biological methods it is necessary to know a great deal about the biology of the pests, their parasites, predators, and host plants or animals, together with a knowledge of the general ecology of the area where the problem exists. Too often, major control programs have been started with pitifully inadequate basic knowledge of the insect pest concerned, dooming such projects to a series of frantic and generally makeshift attempts to redeem these inadequacies. We are starting to see a much greater emphasis on interrelationships between scientific disciplines, more basic research being conducted, and a resurgence of interaction between those people who are in the applied field and those in the basic sciences. This dialog must be continued. In closing, I want to emphasize again that in pest control we are involved in the management of a coexistence with insects and I think it appropriate to end with the thoughts of W.J. Holland [1949]: when all cities shall have been long dead and crumbled into dust, and all life shall be on the very last verge of extinction on this globe; then on a bit of lichen, growing on the bald rocks beside the eternal snows of Panama, shall be seated a tiny insect, preening its antenna in the glow of the worn-out sun, representing the sole survival of animal life on this our earth--a melancholy 'bug'. PMID:6642987

  19. Eco-Friendly Management of Major Pests of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Praveen; N. Dhandapani

    2001-01-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of different biocontrol agents against the major pests of okra, a leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula, sweet potato whitefly, Bemesia tabaci and cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii as well as fruitboring insects, Helicoverpa armigera and Earias vitella in Coimbalore, Tamil Nadu, India. The results revealed that release\\/application of the predator, Chrysoperla carnea (25,000 larvae\\/ha\\/release)

  20. 2014 SOUTHEASTERN PEACH, NECTARINE AND PLUM PEST MANAGEMENT AND CULTURE GUIDE

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    TREE SHORT LIFE MANAGEMENT..................................................58 VERTEBRATE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT FOR NON-BEARING TREES......................................66 GIRDLING...............................................................................................................66 ANNUAL FERTILIZATION OF BEARING TREES..........................................67 Design and Copy

  1. Agile Safety Management System of Chemicals Transportation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Yang; Zhongding Huang

    2009-01-01

    The paper develops an architecture of Agile Safety Management System of Chemicals Transportation (ASMSCT) based on multi-agent based model and software reusability. The decision maker can be an alliance which deal with management activities involving proactive risk analysis, emergency response and regular safety information service. The top level information model and control model are studied in detail and the system

  2. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H. [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Department of Entomology and Nematology, P.O. Box 110630, Gainesville, FL 32611-0630 (United States); Adjei, M.B. [University of Florida, Range Cattle Research and Education Center, 3401 Experiment Station, Ona, FL 33865-9706 (United States); Vicente, N.E. [University of Puerto Rico, Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. Box 9030, Mayaguez, PR 00681-9030 (Puerto Rico)

    2007-03-15

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [Spanish] Los grillotopos invasores no indigenas, Scapteriscus vicinus (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) en el estado de Florida y S. didactylus ('changa') en Puerto Rico, estan siendo manejados por el nematodo entomopathogeno, Steinernema scapterisci (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) y la avispa parasitica, Larra bicolor (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Las poblaciones de los grillotopo plagas han declinado un 95% en el norte central de la Florida desde que estos enemigos naturales especialistas fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

  3. Chemical communication in the honey bee scarab pest Oplostomus haroldi: role of (Z)-9-pentacosene.

    PubMed

    Fombong, Ayuka T; Teal, Peter E A; Arbogast, Richard T; Ndegwa, Paul N; Irungu, Lucy W; Torto, Baldwyn

    2012-12-01

    Oplostomus haroldi Witte belongs to a unique genus of afro-tropical scarabs that have associations with honey bee colonies, from which they derive vital nutrients. Although the attributes of the honey bee nest impose barriers to communication among nest invaders, this beetle still is able to detect conspecific mates for reproduction. Here, we show, through behavioral studies, that cuticular lipids serve as mate discrimination cues in this beetle. We observed five steps during mating: arrestment, alignment, mounting, and copulation, and a post-copulatory stage, lasting ~40-70 % of the total mating duration, that suggested mate guarding. Chemical analysis identified the same nine straight-chain alkanes (C(23)-C(31)), six methyl-branched alkanes (6), and five mono-unsaturated alkenes in the cuticular lipids of both sexes. Methyl alkanes constituted the major component (46 %) of male cuticular lipids, while mono-unsaturated alkenes were most abundant (53 %) in females. (Z)-9-Pentacosene was twice as abundant in females than in males, and ~20 fold more concentrated in beetles than in worker bees. In mating assays, (Z)-9-pentacosene elicited arrestment, alignment, and mounting, but not copulation, by male beetles. These results represent the first evidence of a contact sex pheromone in a scarab beetle. Such contact pheromones may be an essential, cryptic mechanism for arthropods associated with eusocial insects. PMID:23149473

  4. Temperature-activity relationships in Meligethes aeneus: implications for pest management

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Andrew W; Nevard, Lucy M; Clark, Suzanne J; Cook, Samantha M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) management in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) has become an urgent issue in the light of insecticide resistance. Risk prediction advice has relied upon flight temperature thresholds, while risk assessment uses simple economic thresholds. However, there is variation in the reported temperature of migration, and economic thresholds vary widely across Europe, probably owing to climatic factors interacting with beetle activity and plant compensation for damage. The effect of temperature on flight, feeding and oviposition activity of M. aeneus was examined in controlled conditions. RESULTS Escape from a release vial was taken as evidence of flight and was supported by video observations. The propensity to fly followed a sigmoid temperature–response curve between 6 and 23 °C; the 10, 25 and 50% flight temperature thresholds were 12.0–12.5 °C, 13.6–14.2 °C and 15.5–16.2 °C, respectively. Thresholds were slightly higher in the second of two flight bioassays, suggesting an effect of beetle age. Strong positive relationships were found between temperature (6–20 °C) and the rates of feeding and oviposition on flower buds of oilseed rape. CONCLUSION These temperature relationships could be used to improve M. aeneus migration risk assessment, refine weather-based decision support systems and modulate damage thresholds according to rates of bud damage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:25052810

  5. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  6. Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

  7. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated Pest Managment Program to control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using contingent valuation, the perceived value of an area-wide, integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, was estimated. The residents’ maximum willingness-to-pay (WTP) and payment modality was estimat...

  8. EVALUATION OF SEVERAL REDUCED-RISK INSECTICIDES IN COMBINATION WITH AN ACTION THRESHOLD FOR MANAGING LEPIDOPTERAN PESTS OF COLE CROPS IN ALABAMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M AXWELL; Y. F ADAMIRO

    Several reduced-risk insecticides were evaluated for management of three lepidopteran cole crop pests, Plutella xylostella (L.), Pieris rapae (L.), and Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) in central Alabama in 2004 (spring and fall plantings) and 2005 (spring only). The following formu- lated sprays were evaluated: Dipel® ( Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kursatki ), XenTari® ( B. thuringiensis subspecies aizawai ), Dipel+XenTari (a premixed

  9. NONTARGET ARTHROPODS CAPTURED IN CUE-LURE-BAITED BUCKET TRAPS AT AREA-WIDE PEST MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION SITES IN KAMUELA AND KULA, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy and 2,371 specimens or about 1.1 and 34.4 individuals per day were captured in melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), cue-lure monitoring/suppression traps at two area-wide integrated pest management implementation sites in Kula (Maui Island) and Kamuela (Hawaii Island), respectively...

  10. Open knowledge management for chemical hazard assessment & alternatives analysis

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    Open knowledge management for chemical hazard assessment & alternatives analysis A hypothetical- progressive efforts to solve the "toxics" problem by substituting hazardous chemicals. These efforts are exemplified by the scientific assessment of chemical toxicity and environmental hazard (chemical hazard

  11. Ecology and management of the woolly whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a new invasive citrus pest in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belay, Difabachew K; Zewdu, Abebe; Foster, John E

    2011-08-01

    Distribution and importance of woolly whitefly (Aleurothrixus floccosus) (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was studied in Ethiopia with an evaluation of treatments against it. Results showed that the pest is distributed in most citrus-growing parts of the country equally infesting all types of citrus crops. Only one pupal parasitoid, Amitus sp., was recorded at Melkaoba. During 2006-2007, eight treatments gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control: endod (Phytolacca dodecandra L'Herit) berry extract, white oil 80%, neem oil, omo detergent soap, band application of gasoline, cyhalothrin (karate) 5% EC, selecron (profenofos) 500 EC, and rimon (novaluron) 10 EC. Treatments were applied on 6-8 yr-old orange trees at Melkaoba and Nazareth. At Melkaoba, application of cyhalothrin, selecron, white oil, and Neem gave better control of woolly whitefly compared with the control. All the treatments resulted in a lower number of ants than the control. Ants disrupt biocontrol agents of honeydew-secreting pests, including woolly whiteflies. Mean infestation score was higher in the control than the rest of the treatments. Similarly, at Nazareth, woolly whitefly numbers were lower recorded on cyhalothrin-treated plants. However, the numbers of eggs were significantly higher in endod extract-sprayed plants than the control. All treatments controlled ants better than the control except endod. Infestation scores were lower on endod- and cyhalothrin-treated plants than the control. Mean number of adult woolly whiteflies and eggs were significantly higher on newly grown leaves than older leaves. In general, the number of live adult woolly whiteflies showed a decreasing trend at both sites after treatment applications compared with the control. PMID:21882700

  12. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

    2003-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated during the final year of the areawide program. Based on data from 533 bins, SGA Pro accurately predicted which bins were at low, moderate or high risk. Only in two out of 533 bins did SGA Pro incorrectly predict bins as being low risk and, in both cases, insect density was only high (> two insects kg(-1)) at the surface, which suggested recent immigration. SGA Pro is superior to calendar-based management because it ensures that grain is only treated when insect densities exceed economic thresholds (two insects kg(-1)). This approach will reduce the frequency of fumigation while maintaining high grain quality. Minimizing the use of fumigant improves worker safety and reduces both control costs and harm to the environment. PMID:12846311

  13. Thermal biology, population fluctuations and implications of temperature extremes for the management of two globally significant insect pests.

    PubMed

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Weldon, Christopher W; Chown, Steven L; le Roux, Peter C; Terblanche, John S

    2013-12-01

    The link between environmental temperature, physiological processes and population fluctuations is a significant aspect of insect pest management. Here, we explore how thermal biology affects the population abundance of two globally significant pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis capitata (medfly) and C. rosa (Natal fruit fly), including irradiated individuals and those expressing a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that are used in the sterile insect technique. Results show that upper and lower lethal temperatures are seldom encountered at the field sites, while critical minimum temperatures for activity and lower developmental thresholds are crossed more frequently. Estimates of abundance revealed that C. capitata are active year-round, but abundance declines markedly during winter. Temporal autocorrelation of average fortnightly trap captures and of development time, estimated from an integrated model to calculate available degree days, show similar seasonal lags suggesting that population increases in early spring occur after sufficient degree-days have accumulated. By contrast, population collapses coincide tightly with increasing frequency of low temperature events that fall below critical minimum temperatures for activity. Individuals of C. capitata expressing the tsl mutation show greater critical thermal maxima and greater longevity under field conditions than reference individuals. Taken together, this evidence suggests that low temperatures limit populations in the Western Cape, South Africa and likely do so elsewhere. Increasing temperature extremes and warming climates generally may extend the season over which these species are active, and could increase abundance. The sterile insect technique may prove profitable as climates change given that laboratory-reared tsl flies have an advantage under warmer conditions. PMID:24080125

  14. Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

    2013-02-01

    We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2?) and ozonide radical ion (*O3?) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  15. Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Porrini, Martín P; Gende, Liesel B; Álvarez, Estefanía; Buffa, Franco; Brasesco, Constanza; Maggi, Matías D; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2014-02-01

    A diverse set of parasites and pathogens affects productivity and survival of Apis mellifera honeybees. In beekeeping, traditional control by antibiotics and molecules of synthesis has caused problems with contamination and resistant pathogens. In this research, different Laurus nobilis extracts are tested against the main honeybee pests through an integrated point of view. In vivo effects on bee survival are also evaluated. The ethanol extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 208 to 416 ?g/mL, having the best antimicrobial effect on Paenibacillus larvae among all substances tested. Similarly, this leaf extract showed a significant antiparasitic activity on Varroa destructor, killing 50 % of mites 24 h after a 30-s exposure, and on Nosema ceranae, inhibiting the spore development in the midgut of adult bees ingesting 1?×?10(4) ?g/mL of extract solution. Both ethanol extract and volatile extracts (essential oil, hydrolate, and its main component) did not cause lethal effects on adult honeybees. Thus, the absence of topical and oral toxicity of the ethanol extract on bees and the strong antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and miticidal effects registered in this study place this laurel extract as a promising integrated treatment of bee diseases and stimulates the search for other bioactive phytochemicals from plants. PMID:24288051

  16. Adaptive release of natural enemies in a pest-natural enemy system with pesticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A; Wu, Jianhong

    2013-11-01

    Integrated pest management options such as combining chemical and biological control are optimal for combating pesticide resistance, but pose questions if a pest is to be controlled to extinction. These questions include (i) what is the relationship between the evolution of pesticide resistance and the number of natural enemies released? (ii) How does the cumulative number of natural enemies dying affect the number of natural enemies to be released? To address these questions, we developed two novel pest-natural enemy interaction models incorporating the evolution of pesticide resistance. We investigated the number of natural enemies to be released when threshold conditions for the extinction of the pest population in two different control tactics are reached. Our results show that the number of natural enemies to be released to ensure pest eradication in the presence of increasing pesticide resistance can be determined analytically and depends on the cumulative number of dead natural enemies before the next scheduled release time. PMID:23943345

  17. Resurgance of soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber after application of methyl bromide chemical alternatives and solarization in tomato.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted during four consectutive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)-cucumber (Cucumis sativus) rotations to examine the long-term residual effects of tomato methyl bromide alternatives on soilborne pests in double-cropped cucumber. Four treatments were established in tomato field...

  18. Control of invasive marine invertebrates: an experimental evaluation of the use of low salinity for managing pest corals (Tubastraea spp.).

    PubMed

    Moreira, Patrícia L; Ribeiro, Felipe V; Creed, Joel C

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the use of low salinity as a killing agent for the invasive pest corals Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis (Dendrophylliidae). Experiments investigated the efficacy of different salinities, the effect of colony size on susceptibility and the influence of length of exposure. Experimental treatments of colonies were carried out in aquaria. Colonies were then fixed onto experimental plates and monitored in the field periodically over a period of four weeks. The killing effectiveness of low salinity depended on the test salinity and the target species, but was independent of colony size. Low salinity was fast acting and prejudicial to survival: discoloration, necrosis, fragmenting and sloughing, exposure of the skeleton and cover by biofoulers occurred post treatment. For T. tagusensis, 50% mortality (LC50) after three days occurred at eight practical salinity units (PSU); for T. coccinea the LC50 was 2 PSU. Exposure to freshwater for 45-120 min resulted in 100% mortality for T. tagusensis, but only the 120 min period was 100% effective in killing T. coccinea. Freshwater is now routinely used for the post-border management of Tubastraea spp. This study also provides insights as to how freshwater may be used as a routine biosecurity management tool when applied pre-border to shipping vectors potentially transporting non-indigenous marine biofouling species. PMID:24735126

  19. Habitat Management to Conserve Natural Enemies of Arthropod Pests in Agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas A. Landis; Stephen D. Wratten; Geoff M. Gurr

    2000-01-01

    Many agroecosystems are unfavorable environments for natural ene- mies due to high levels of disturbance. Habitat management, a form of conservation biological control, is an ecologically based approach aimed at favoring natural ene- mies and enhancing biological control in agricultural systems. The goal of habitat management is to create a suitable ecological infrastructure within the agricultural landscape to provide resources

  20. Tick pests and vectors (Acari: Ixodoidea) in European towns: Introduction, persistence and management.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Ticks have always been a part of fauna in and around human settlements, and their significance changed concurrently with the enlargement of settlements and their transformation into towns. The increased rate of urbanization during the last decades has created a new reality for tick existence. Two groups of ticks are of major concern for modern towns: those living under natural conditions of urban surroundings and those well-adapted to urban conditions. During the process of urbanization, encroachment into forested and uncultivated areas as well as protection of existing green spaces create opportunities for ticks living in nature to also exist under urban and suburban conditions. Conditions of modern urban and especially suburban environment in developed European countries adequately meet tick requirements. Tick species having an advantage in urban areas are those that can use one and the same host at all parasitic stages, can starve for a prolonged time, can use either urban pests or domesticated animals as hosts, and can live in man-made buildings. The ticks of the Argas reflexus group (Argasidae) and the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae) comply with practically all conditions necessary for successful survival in urban areas. The ability of ticks to transmit numerous human and animal pathogens and the presence of many reservoir hosts in urban and suburban areas create persistent danger for human populations and domestic animals. Impact on urban ticks should be directed against the two major requirements of tick existence: reducing populations of potential tick hosts (feral pigeons, stray dogs and cats, and urban rodents), and changing other environmental conditions to make them less suitable for ticks. It is especially important that urban inhabitants be properly informed about the danger posed by ticks, the sites of possible tick attacks, and basic self-protection techniques. PMID:24183576

  1. Review of 2008 Studies on Integrated Pest Management Strategies to Reduce Damage from the Sunflower Seed Maggot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis, is an emerging pest of cultivated sunflower in the northern Great Plains sunflower production region. It is a seed-feeding pest and infests the sunflower plant from late bud stage through flowering. There are two generations in North Dakota. Adults of...

  2. Effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Controlling Cockroaches, Mice and Allergens in New York City Public Housing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Kass; Wendy McKelvey; Elizabeth Carlton; Marta Hernandez; Ginger Chew; Sean Nagle; Robin Garfinkel; Brian Clarke; Julius Tiven; Christian Espino; David Evans

    2009-01-01

    Background : Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applica - tions of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest man - agement (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance , and limited use of least

  3. Development of a precision areawide pest management decision system for cotton - Preliminary study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop models simulate growth and development, and provide relevant information for the routine management of the crop. Integrating crop models with other information technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS), variable rate technology, remote sensing, and global positioning systems (G...

  4. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (1) Crop rotation and soil and crop nutrient management...practices that enhance crop health, including selection of plant...Mowing; (3) Livestock grazing; (4) Hand weeding and mechanical...replacement purposes in contact with soil or...

  5. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (1) Crop rotation and soil and crop nutrient management...practices that enhance crop health, including selection of plant...Mowing; (3) Livestock grazing; (4) Hand weeding and mechanical...replacement purposes in contact with soil or...

  6. An economic analysis of the integrated pest management program for Texas pecans

    E-print Network

    Steele, Scott Raymond

    1993-01-01

    partial budget analysis suggests the net return of IPM may be as high as $56 per acre. A regional comparison between Texas and Georgia management practices with regards to foliage feeders suggests that Texas pecan producers are saving an estimated $9.... 55/acre by not following the Georgia spray program. In addition, an explanation is offered which may explain how Texas and Georgia have developed different management programs in the face of similar uncertainties. The results of this study...

  7. The potential efficiency of irrigation management and propargyl bromide in controlling three soil pests: Tylenchulus semipenetrans, Fusarium oxysporum and Echinochloa crus-galli.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Suzanne E; Yates, Scott R; Zhang, Ping; Ernst, Fred F

    2005-08-01

    Propargyl bromide (3-bromopropyne, 3BP) is a potential alternative for methyl bromide. Little information is available about its efficiency in controlling pests. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the 3BP dose required for killing three pests and to compare the efficiency of water management approaches to that of fumigation. The pests, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht (fungus), Echinochloa crus-galli (L) Beauv (grass) and Tylenchulus semipenetrans Cobb (nematode) were exposed to different 3BP concentrations in a sandy loam at 30 degrees C in a closed system. The lethal dose for killing 90% of the population (LD90) was calculated from the total applied mass, and varied from 0.3 microg g(-1) soil for the nematode, 3 microg g(-1) for the grass, and 9 microg g(-1) for the fungus. The concentration-time index for killing 90% of the population (CT90) was 11 microg g(-1) h for the nematode, 112 microg g(-1) h for the grass and 345 microg g(-1) h for the fungus. 3BP seems as efficient as other fumigant alternatives in controlling these pests. Using an open system, it was shown that the volume of soil in which the pests were controlled varied for different irrigation managements. Even 96 h after fumigation (with a concentration 10 times higher than would potentially be applied in the field), more than 20% of the soil volume had not reached the fungus and grass CT90 of the non-irrigated soil. The soil underneath the furrow and the bed reached CT90 only slowly in all irrigated treatments even though techniques for increasing efficiency were used (tarping, surface sealing with water and high application rate). PMID:15912563

  8. Managing pests and their resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis: Can transgenic crops be better than sprays?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Roush

    1994-01-01

    Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can now be deployed either in sprays or transgenic plants. Some entomologists and environmentalists have argued that the sprays are preferable to plants because they are less likely to cause resistance. However Bt sprays are not generally competitive with chemical insecticides and seem unlikely to displace them. In contrast, transgenic plants appear to be

  9. Comparative efficacy of various chemical stabilizers on the thermostability of a live-attenuated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sarkar; B. P. Sreenivasa; R. P. Singh; P. Dhar; S. K. Bandyopadhyay

    2003-01-01

    Thermostability of a live-attenuated peste des petits ruminants (PPR) vaccine recently developed at Indian Veterinary Research Institute was studied using conventional lyophilization conditions. A total of four stabilizers viz., lactalbumin hydrolysate–sucrose (LS), Weybridge medium (WBM), buffered gelatin-sorbitol (BUGS) and trehalose dihydrate (TD) were used to prepare the lyophilized vaccine. The study revealed that the PPR vaccine lyophilized with either LS

  10. Demystifying farmers' entomological and pest management knowledge: A methodology for assessing the impacts on knowledge from IPM-FFS and NES interventions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Leimar Price

    2001-01-01

    Enhancing the environmental soundness of agricultural practices, particularly in high input systems, is of increasing concern\\u000a to those involved in agricultural research and development. The Integrated Pest Management Farmer Field School, which is based\\u000a on farmer participatory environmental education, is compared to the No Early Spray intervention, which is a simple rule approach.\\u000a A research methodology was developed and tested

  11. Precision Farming and Precision Pest Management: The Power of New Crop Production Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, R. Mack; Ess, Daniel R.; Parsons, Samuel D.

    1998-01-01

    The use of new technologies including Geographic Information Systems (GIS), the Global Positioning System (GPS), Variable Rate Technology (VRT), and Remote Sensing (RS) is gaining acceptance in the present high-technology, precision agricultural industry. GIS provides the ability to link multiple data values for the same geo-referenced location, and provides the user with a graphical visualization of such data. When GIS is coupled with GPS and RS, management decisions can be applied in a more precise "micro-managed" manner by using VRT techniques. Such technology holds the potential to reduce agricultural crop production costs as well as crop and environmental damage. PMID:19274236

  12. Development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Strategies for Whitefly ( Bemisia tabaci )Transmissible Geminiviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Gilbertson; Maria Rojas; Eric Natwick

    \\u000a Worldwide outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci whiteflies, especially biotype B, have facilitated the emergence of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (WTG). These viruses\\u000a cause economically important diseases of vegetable and fiber crops, especially in tropical and subtropical regions of the\\u000a world. Because small populations of whiteflies can efficiently spread WTGs, management of these diseases is more challenging\\u000a than for whiteflies alone. In this chapter,

  13. The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests

    PubMed Central

    Sobhy, Islam S.; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2014-01-01

    An imminent food crisis reinforces the need for novel strategies to increase crop yields worldwide. Effective control of pest insects should be part of such strategies, preferentially with reduced negative impact on the environment and optimal protection and utilization of existing biodiversity. Enhancing the presence and efficacy of native biological control agents could be one such strategy. Plant strengthener is a generic term for several commercially available compounds or mixtures of compounds that can be applied to cultivated plants in order to ‘boost their vigour, resilience and performance’. Studies into the consequences of boosting plant resistance against pests and diseases on plant volatiles have found a surprising and dramatic increase in the plants' attractiveness to parasitic wasps. Here, we summarize the results from these studies and present new results from assays that illustrate the great potential of two commercially available resistance elicitors. We argue that plant strengtheners may currently be the best option to enhance the attractiveness of cultivated plants to biological control agents. Other options, such as the genetic manipulation of the release of specific volatiles may offer future solutions, but in most systems, we still miss fundamental knowledge on which key attractants should be targeted for this approach. PMID:24535390

  14. Classical biological control of an invasive forest pest: a world perspective of the management of Sirex noctilio using the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae).

    PubMed

    Fischbein, D; Corley, J C

    2015-02-01

    Classical biological control is a key method for managing populations of pests in long-lived crops such as plantation forestry. The execution of biological control programmes in general, as the evaluation of potential natural enemies remains, to a large extent, an empirical endeavour. Thus, characterizing specific cases to determine patterns that may lead to more accurate predictions of success is an important goal of the much applied ecological research. We review the history of introduction, ecology and behaviour of the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides. The species is a natural enemy of Sirex noctilio, one of the most important pests of pine afforestation worldwide. We use an invasion ecology perspective given the analogy between the main stages involved in classical biological control and the biological invasion processes. We conclude that success in the establishment, a common reason of failure in biocontrol, is not a limiting factor of success by I. leucospoides. A mismatch between the spread capacity of the parasitoid and that of its host could nevertheless affect control at a regional scale. In addition, we suggest that given its known life history traits, this natural enemy may be a better regulator than suppressor of the host population. Moreover, spatial and temporal refuges of the host population that may favour the local persistence of the interaction probably reduce the degree to which S. noctilio population is suppressed by the parasitoid. We emphasize the fact that some of the biological attributes that promote establishment may negatively affect suppression levels achieved. Studies on established non-native pest-parasitoid interactions may contribute to defining selection criteria for classical biological control which may prove especially useful in integrated pest management IPM programmes of invasive forest insects. PMID:24923367

  15. Cost-effectiveness of integrated pest management compared with insecticidal spraying against the German cockroach in apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Gholam H; Hafidzi, M N; Khadri, M S; Rafinejad, J; Ibrahim, Y B

    2011-10-01

    This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using hydramethylnon gel baits compared with conventional spraying for controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), in two residential buildings in Yasuj, Iran. The IPM approach was based on educational programs using pamphlets, posters and lectures, sanitation using vacuuming and application of hydramethylnon gel baits. Conventional approach used cypermethrin (10% EC) on baseboard and cracks-and-crevices. Sticky traps were used as tools for monitoring cockroach population densities. The IPM approach reduced (943%) the rate of insecticide application compared to the conventional spray. Cockroach populations in the IPM treatment were significantly reduced from an average of 12.2 ± 3.01 cockroaches per unit before treatment to zero cockroach per unit by week four and thereafter. Cockroach populations in the conventional spray treatment were reduced from an average of 11.5 ± 4.43 cockroaches per unit before treatment to an average of 3.4 ± 0.99 cockroach per unit after 11 weeks of post treatment. The IPM treatment improved 100% of infested units compared to 78% for spray treatment to obtain a clean level of infestation (< 1cockroach per trap per unit). The results suggest that the intervention by IPM using hydramethylnon gel baits significantly reduced cockroach infestation compared to cypermethrin spray throughout the 11 weeks of post-treatment period. However, within the study period, the IPM system involving gel baits, educational program and sanitation was 363.2% more expensive than the conventional method. PMID:22068948

  16. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. 35... WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To...control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease to...

  17. Resource concentration dilutes a key pest in indigenous potato agriculture.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Ccanto, Raul; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2011-03-01

    Modern restructuring of agricultural landscapes, due to the expansion of monocultures and the resulting elimination of non-crop habitat, is routinely blamed for rising populations of agricultural insect pests. However, landscape studies demonstrating a positive correlation between pest densities and the spatial extent of crop monocultures are rare. We test this hypothesis with a data set from 140 subsistence farms in the Andes and find the inverse correlation. Infestations by the Andean potato weevil (Premnotrypes spp.), the most important pest in Andean potato agriculture, decrease with increasing amounts of potato in the landscape. A statistical model predicts that aggregating potato fields may outperform the management of Andean potato weevils by IPM and chemical control. We speculate that the strong pest suppression generated by aggregating potato fields may partly explain why indigenous potato farmers cluster their potato fields under a traditional rotation system common in Andean agriculture (i.e., "sectoral fallow"). Our results suggest that some agricultural pests may also respond negatively to the expansion of monocultures, and that manipulating the spatial arrangement of host crops may offer an important tool for some IPM programs. PMID:21563583

  18. Current status and future perspectives on sunflower insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While occasional insect pests of cultivated sunflowers may be managed by conventional or reduced-risk insecticides, the cumulative costs and risks of relying on insecticides to suppress perennial or severe pests (common in North America) call for exploration of broader pest management strategies. Re...

  19. The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nidchaya Aketarawong; Suksom Chinvinijkul; Watchreeporn Orankanok; Carmela Rosalba Guglielmino; Gerald Franz; Anna Rodolfa Malacrida; Sujinda Thanaphum

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been\\u000a suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since\\u000a the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects’ planning and evaluation usually rely on information from

  20. Lantana and Verbena: How to Combat Insect and Mite Pests

    E-print Network

    Mott, Dale; Merchant, Michael E.

    2005-02-21

    Several insect and mite pests attack lantana and verbena, which are perennial ornamental plants found in many Texas landscapes. This publication describes the most common pests and explains how to manage them....

  1. Chemical management system at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Morss, H.S.; Hischier, R.C.; Keto, D.N.; Woodring, J.L.; Davis, J.T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sherva, B. [Management Consultant, Lombard, IL (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The Argonne Chemical Management System (CMS) is comprised of several applications and the Infrastructure Modules. The Infrastructure Modules, which provide the integrated computing software foundation, include a security processor, common tables, reporting framework, utilities, and other facilities common to applications processing chemical information. The MSDS Sheets were scanned and the images stored for automated faxing to the requester. User searches are accomplished based on ``search`` data keyed into the Oracle Tables; the desired MSDS is subsequently faxed. The system has been designed as an ``open`` system and is totally portable. During development and production the CMS has operated in VAX, VMS, Sun Unix, and Hewlett-Packard HP-UX environments. The only restrictions are that the MSDS Faxing Server must operate under Unix and the bar code scanning processes are accomplished using a portable PC. The current system consists of 20 Oracle Tables, over 350 columns of data, 25 Standard reports, 45 screens, and a number of utilities. With the Oracle RDBMS the computing platform may be sized to the volume of data and processing activity. The Laboratory`s implementation is on an HP 9000 Model H50 with 256 megabytes of memory, 32 concurrent users, and 8 gigabytes of disk storage that is primarily for the MSDS images.

  2. Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 9 1 Identification of Hazardous Chemical Waste

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 9 1 · Identification of Hazardous Chemical Waste OBJECTIVES Do you know how to do the following? If you do, skip ahead a material must be considered a hazardous chemical waste by using the Radiological-Chemical

  3. Integration of endemic natural enemies and Bacillus thuringiensis to manage insect pests of Brassica crops in North Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Furlong; Kim Hak Ju; Pak Wi Su; Jo Kwang Chol; Ri Chang Il; Myron P. Zalucki

    2008-01-01

    Brassica crops, principally varieties of Brassica oleracea and Brassica campestris, account for over half the total vegetable production in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). The crops are attacked by a complex of insects and the two major pest species, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) represent the principal constraints to Brassica crop production.

  4. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF CODLING MOTH (CYDIA POMONELLA, TORTRICIDAE: LEPIDOPTERA) AND ITS ROLE IN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT, WITH EMPHASIS ON ENTOMOPATHOGENS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple and pear. Traditional control methods have been based predominantly on broad spectrum insecticides. Concerns over the safety, environmental impact, and sustainability of synthetic pesticides have stimulated development and use of softer c...

  5. A Review of the Natural Enemies of Beetles in the Subtribe Diabroticina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): Implications for Sustainable Pest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabroticina is a speciose subtribe of New World Chrysomelidae (Subfamily Galerucinae: Tribe Luperini) that includes pests like corn rootworms, cucumber beetles and bean leaf beetles (e.g. Diabrotica, Acalymma, Cerotoma species). The evolution and spread of pesticide resistance, the European invasio...

  6. From triphenyltins to integrated management of the `pest' snail Cerithidea cingulata in mangrove-derived milkfish ponds in the Philippines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bagarinao; I. Lantin-Olaguer

    2000-01-01

    The potamidid snail Cerithidea cingulata is considered a pest in brackishwater milkfish ponds in the Philippines and has been controlled by the triphenyltin (TPT) compounds Aquatin and Brestan. But TPT is also toxic to other invertebrates, fishes, algae, bacteria and people, and high TPT residues occur in sea foods including milkfish. Thus, control of snails in milkfish ponds should be

  7. Economic Evaluation of an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program to Control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Donald S.; Halasa, Yara A.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P.; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8. PMID:25338065

  8. Managing Household Ant Pests 

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2005-12-02

    ?sugar ants? or ?piss ants,? these ants are very small, about 1 /12 to 1 /16 inch long, and are light tan to reddish. This exotic (non- native) species is the ant most often seen indoors in Texas. Pharaoh ants do not sting and usually do not bite... vertical surfaces to attack the intruder. They bite and hold on to the victim with their jaws while injecting venom with stingers at the ends of their abdomens. Fire ant stings produce 3 a burning sensation and often cause whitish blisters. Most people...

  9. Managing Household Ant Pests

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.

    2005-12-02

    ?sugar ants? or ?piss ants,? these ants are very small, about 1 /12 to 1 /16 inch long, and are light tan to reddish. This exotic (non- native) species is the ant most often seen indoors in Texas. Pharaoh ants do not sting and usually do not bite... vertical surfaces to attack the intruder. They bite and hold on to the victim with their jaws while injecting venom with stingers at the ends of their abdomens. Fire ant stings produce 3 a burning sensation and often cause whitish blisters. Most people...

  10. Global Intermodal Tank Container Management for the Chemical Industry

    E-print Network

    Erera, Alan

    Global Intermodal Tank Container Management for the Chemical Industry Alan L. Erera, Juan C chemical industry is enormous: in 2003, the total value of global production exceeded US$1.7 trillion. International logistics is especially crucial to the high-value chemicals industry, since raw materials sources

  11. Sandia National Laboratories, California Chemical Management Program annual report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2012-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Chemical Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Chemical Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. SNL/CA is responsible for tracking chemicals (chemical and biological materials), providing Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and for regulatory compliance reporting according to a variety of chemical regulations. The principal regulations for chemical tracking are the Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) and the California Right-to-Know regulations. The regulations, the Hazard Communication/Lab Standard of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) are also key to the CM Program. The CM Program is also responsible for supporting chemical safety and information requirements for a variety of Integrated Enabling Services (IMS) programs primarily the Industrial Hygiene, Waste Management, Fire Protection, Air Quality, Emergency Management, Environmental Monitoring and Pollution Prevention programs. The principal program tool is the Chemical Information System (CIS). The system contains two key elements: the MSDS library and the chemical container-tracking database that is readily accessible to all Members of the Sandia Workforce. The primary goal of the CM Program is to ensure safe and effective chemical management at Sandia/CA. This is done by efficiently collecting and managing chemical information for our customers who include Line, regulators, DOE and ES and H programs to ensure compliance with regulations and to streamline customer business processes that require chemical information.

  12. Community-Based Participatory Research Helps Farmers and Scientists to Manage Invasive Pests in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Dangles; F. C. Carpio; M. Villares; F. Yumisaca; B. Liger; F. Rebaudo; J. F. Silvain

    2010-01-01

    Participatory research has not been a conspicuous methodology in developing nations for studying invasive pests, an increasing\\u000a threat to the sustainable development in the tropics. Our study presents a community-based monitoring system that focuses\\u000a on three invasive potato tuber moth species (PTM). The monitoring was developed and implemented by young farmers in a remote\\u000a mountainous area of Ecuador. Local participants

  13. Invasive Whitefly Pests of Florida

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Invasive Whitefly Pests of Florida #12;· General Whitefly Introduction · Other Problems Whiteflies · Managing Whiteflies Outline #12;· 1500 species worldwide, at least 60 have been reported from in Madeira, Comoros, Mauritius, Reunion, Taiwan, Hawaii, Portugal · Found in Florida in 2011 · Not much

  14. 76 FR 13972 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Papaya Fruit From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ...States. The analysis consists of a pest list identifying pests of quarantine significance that...into the United States and a risk management document identifying phytosanitary...the commodity to mitigate the pest risk. We have concluded...

  15. 75 FR 62500 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ...States. We have completed a pest risk assessment for this commodity to identify pests of quarantine significance...assessment, have prepared a risk management document to identify phytosanitary...from Jordan to mitigate the pest risk. We have concluded...

  16. 75 FR 6346 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Male Summer Squash...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...risk assessment to identify pests of quarantine significance...be allowed. Based on the pest risk assessment, we then completed a risk management document to identify phytosanitary...disseminating the identified pests via the importation of...

  17. 75 FR 34422 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Mango Fruit From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...risk assessment to identify pests of quarantine significance...be allowed. Based on the pest risk assessment, we then completed a risk management document to identify phytosanitary...disseminating the identified pests via the importation of...

  18. Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

  19. Peanut-Cotton-Rye Rotations and Soil Chemical Treatment for Managing Nematodes and Thrips

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Minton, N. A.; Brenneman, T. B.; Todd, J. W.; Herzog, G. A.; Gascho, G. J.; Baker, S. H.; Bondari, Y.

    1998-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult) infested primarily with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. Continuous peanut, continuous cotton, cotton-peanut rotation, or peanut-cotton rotation were used as main plots; winter rye or fallow as sub-plots; and cotton with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha), or peanut with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha) plus flutolanil (1.12 kg a.i./ha), as sub-sub-plots. Population densities of M. incognita and B. longicaudatus declined rapidly after the first crop in continuous peanut and remained low thereafter. Neither rye nor soil chemical treatment affected M. incognita or B. longicaudatus population density on peanut or cotton. Cotton and peanut yields from the cotton-peanut rotation were 26% and 10% greater, respectively, than those from monoculmre over the 7-year study. Cotton and peanut yields were improved 9% and 4%, respectively, following rye vs. fallow. Soil chemical treatments increased yields of cotton 23% and peanut 32% over those of untreated plots. Our data demonstrate the sustainable benefits of using cotton-peanut rotations, winter rye, and soil chemical treatments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes and other pests and pathogens and improve yield of both cotton and peanut. PMID:19274213

  20. Medical management of incidents with chemical warfare agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Zilker

    2005-01-01

    Successful management of incidents with chemical warfare agents strongly depends on the speed of medical help and the ability of helpers to react properly. Though the general principles of clinical toxicology, such as decontamination, stabilization, patient evaluation and symptomatic treatment are similar for many toxicants, chemical warfare agents deserve special attention because of their very high inhalative and cutaneous toxicity,

  1. Prehospital management and medical intervention after a chemical attack

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Kenar; T Karayilanoglu

    2004-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are toxic weapons and emergency prehospital medical care providers should be well prepared, trained, and equipped to give response. Personnel need to be aware of the following medical issues regarding prehospital management of a chemical attack, event recognition, incident medical command and control, safety and protection, decontamination, isolation of the incident area (hot zone, warm zone, and

  2. Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Control and Management Materials. A Symposium Sponsored by ASTM Committee E-35 on Pesticides, American Society for Testing and Materials, Monterey, California, March 8, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, W. B., Ed.; Marsh, R. E., Ed.

    The first symposium on "Test Methods for Vertebrate Pest Management" was held in March, 1976. Much of the thrust was toward explaining and defining the "state of the art." Concerns included rodents and rabbits, predators, scavengers, and large game animals, and a variety of bird species. Environments were as restricted as a laboratory cage or pen…

  3. Dispersal behavior of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae on tomato at several spatial scales and densities: implications for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Azandémè-Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Fiaboe, Komi K M; Subramanian, Sevgan; Kungu, Miriam; Martin, Thibaud

    2014-01-01

    Studying distribution is necessary to understand and manage the dynamics of species with spatially structured populations. Here we studied the distribution in Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae, two mite pests of tomato, in the scope of evaluating factors that can influence the effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management strategies. We found greater positive density-dependent distribution with T. evansi than T. urticae when assayed on single, detached tomato leaves. Indeed, T. evansi distribution among leaflets increased with initial population density while it was high even at low T. urticae densities. Intensity and rate of damage to whole plants was higher with T. evansi than T. urticae. We further studied the circadian migration of T. evansi within plant. When T. evansi density was high the distribution behavior peaked between 8 am and 3 pm and between 8 pm and 3 am local time of Kenya. Over 24 h the total number of mites ascending and descending was always similar and close to the total population size. The gregarious behavior of T. evansi combined with its rapid population growth rate, may explain why few tomato plants can be severely damaged by T. evansi and how suddenly all the crop can be highly infested. However the localisation and elimination of the first infested plants damaged by T. evansi could reduce the risk of outbreaks in the entire crop. These findings suggest also that an acaricide treated net placed on the first infested plants could be very effective to control T. evansi. Moreover circadian migration would therefore accentuate the efficiency of an acaricide treated net covering the infested plants. PMID:24743580

  4. Dispersal Behavior of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae on Tomato at Several Spatial Scales and Densities: Implications for Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Azandémè-Hounmalon, Ginette Y.; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Fiaboe, Komi K. M.; Subramanian, Sevgan; Kungu, Miriam; Martin, Thibaud

    2014-01-01

    Studying distribution is necessary to understand and manage the dynamics of species with spatially structured populations. Here we studied the distribution in Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae, two mite pests of tomato, in the scope of evaluating factors that can influence the effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management strategies. We found greater positive density-dependent distribution with T. evansi than T. urticae when assayed on single, detached tomato leaves. Indeed, T. evansi distribution among leaflets increased with initial population density while it was high even at low T. urticae densities. Intensity and rate of damage to whole plants was higher with T. evansi than T. urticae. We further studied the circadian migration of T. evansi within plant. When T. evansi density was high the distribution behavior peaked between 8 am and 3 pm and between 8 pm and 3 am local time of Kenya. Over 24 h the total number of mites ascending and descending was always similar and close to the total population size. The gregarious behavior of T. evansi combined with its rapid population growth rate, may explain why few tomato plants can be severely damaged by T. evansi and how suddenly all the crop can be highly infested. However the localisation and elimination of the first infested plants damaged by T. evansi could reduce the risk of outbreaks in the entire crop. These findings suggest also that an acaricide treated net placed on the first infested plants could be very effective to control T. evansi. Moreover circadian migration would therefore accentuate the efficiency of an acaricide treated net covering the infested plants. PMID:24743580

  5. Quantifying trade-os between pest sampling time and precision in commercial

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    tomatoes (Lycopersicon escu- lentum Miller), this paper develops a sample size model based on pest spatial. The sample size model permits variation in pest treatment thresholds and treatment decision accuracy reserved. Keywords: Integrated Pest Management; Pest sampling; Sample size; Decision making 0308-521X/00

  6. Biorational Pest Control – An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rami Horowitz; Peter C. Ellsworth; Isaac Ishaaya

    \\u000a Fifty years ago, Stern et al. (1959) introduced the concept of “Integrated Control” during a time when insect pest control\\u000a was mostly based on broad-spectrum, conventional insecticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates (OPs), and carbamates,\\u000a all neurotoxic. Their work on economic thresholds and economic injury levels implemented within an ecological framework where\\u000a chemical and biological controls could thrive together is the

  7. Study of the pest community of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medic.).

    PubMed

    Nagy, V; Keresztes, B; Nádasy, E

    2011-01-01

    Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medicus 1787) is one of the most economically threatening weed plant in Hungary. Researching biological control against it, and identifying a possible and effective biocontrol agent is an important challenge, as chemical control is difficult and expensive, and there is an increasing claim to practice slight plant protection. Entomological studies were made in several parts of the world, for evaluating the species, occuring in velvetleaf, but none of these kind of experiments were assessed in Hungary. Our observations were made in field and plastic boxes, both under open field circumstances in 2008 and 2009 by visually assessing pests, netting and damage based identifying. Meanwhile 8 pest species were identified, including (Helix pomatia Linnaeus 1758--roman snale; Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood 1856)--greenhouse whitefly; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius 1787)-- lime seed bug; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus 1758)--fire bug; Rhopalus parumpunctatus Schilling 1829--common hyaline bug; Liorhyssus hyalinus--hyaline grass bug (Fabricius 1794); Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus 1758)--cabbage moth; Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner 1808)--corn earworm). On the whole the literature datas were enlarged with four new velvetleaf pests (roman scale, lime seed bug, common hyaline bug, cabbage moth). Considering the earlier literature and our results, Liorhyssus hyalinus may play an important role on biological management of velvetleaf. However this pest considered as polyphagous, but discovered to occur in great numbers on velvetleaf, this points to the fact that can be its main host plant and by sucking on the plant, can cause decreased germination rate. We suggest the "hyaline velvetleaf bug" name istead of "hyaline grass bug". Of course, additional experiments are needed on this pest to may use safety and effectively in the future. PMID:22696962

  8. A Qualitative Study of Urban and Suburban Elementary Student Understandings of Pest-Related Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trexler, Cary J.

    2000-01-01

    Clinical interviews with nine fifth graders revealed that experiences play a pivotal role in their understanding of pests. They lack well-developed schema and language to discuss pest management. A foundation of core biological concepts was necessary for understanding pests and pest management. (Conatains 34 references.) (SK)

  9. Parasitism Performance and Fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): Implications in Integrated Pest Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Suhaimi, Amalina; Abuzid, Ismail; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Ghani, Idris Abd

    2014-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM) strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hym., Braconidae) can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1) and their progeny (F2) had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control. PMID:24968125

  10. Near-Miss Incident Management in the Chemical Process Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Phimister; Ulku Oktem; Paul R. Kleindorfer; Howard Kunreuther

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a systematic framework for the analysis and improvement of near-miss programs in the chemical process industries. Near-miss programs improve corporate environ- mental, health, and safety (EHS) performance through the identification and management of near misses. Based on more than 100 interviews at 20 chemical and pharmaceutical facil- ities, a seven-stage framework has been developed and is presented

  11. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: An introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease r...

  12. Chemical Inventory Management at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Shirley S.; Homan, Joseph R.; Bajorek, Michael J.; Dominguez, Manuel B.; Smith, Vanessa L.

    1997-01-01

    The Chemical Management System (CMS) is a client/server application developed with Power Builder and Sybase for the Lewis Research Center (LeRC). Power Builder is a client-server application development tool, Sybase is a Relational Database Management System. The entire LeRC community can access the CMS from any desktop environment. The multiple functions and benefits of the CMS are addressed.

  13. Impact of combining planting date and chemical control to reduce larval densities of stem-infesting pests of sunflower in the Central Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Dectes texanus texanus L...

  14. DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR EVALUATING RISK MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) risk management (RM) is to minimize the release of EDCs into the environment or to minimize the exposure of humans or wildlife to EDCs already present in the environment. RM research projects may involve: substituting more innocuous...

  15. Are chemicals in articles an obstacle for reaching environmental goals? - Missing links in EU chemical management.

    PubMed

    Molander, Linda; Breitholtz, Magnus; Andersson, Patrik L; Rybacka, Aleksandra; Rudén, Christina

    2012-10-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the management of risks associated with chemicals in articles needs to be improved. The EU environmental policy states that environmental damage should be rectified at source. It is therefore motivated that the risk management of substances in articles also takes particular consideration to those substances identified as posing a risk in different environmental compartments. The primary aim of the present study was to empirically analyze to what extent the regulation of chemicals in articles under REACH is coherent with the rules concerning chemicals in the Sewage Sludge Directive (SSD) and the Water Framework Directive (WFD). We also analyzed the chemical variation of the organic substances regulated under these legislations in relation to the most heavily used chemicals. The results show that 16 of 24 substances used in or potentially present in articles and regulated by the SSD or the WFD are also identified under REACH either as a substance of very high concern (SVHC) or subject to some restrictions. However, for these substances we conclude that there is limited coherence between the legislations, since the identification as an SVHC does not in itself encompass any use restrictions, and the restrictions in REACH are in many cases limited to a particular use, and thus all other uses are allowed. Only a minor part of chemicals in commerce is regulated and these show a chemical variation that deviates from classical legacy pollutants. This warrants new tools to identify potentially hazardous chemicals in articles. We also noted that chemicals monitored in the environment under the WFD deviate in their chemistry from the ones regulated by REACH. In summary, we argue that to obtain improved resource efficiency and a sustainable development it is necessary to minimize the input of chemicals identified as hazardous to health or the environment into articles. PMID:22858536

  16. Chemical eye injuries in the workplace. Prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Lusk, P G

    1999-02-01

    1. The majority of ocular burns are related to accidents at work. Acute ocular chemical injuries require emergent recognition and management. 2. Copious irrigation of the eye, done immediately at the scene, is the most important factor in the long term prognosis of ocular chemical burns. 3. After irrigation has been completed and the eyes have been allowed to rest, visual acuity can be tested and referrals can be made to health care facilities and an ophthalmologist. 4. The nurse conducts health hazard assessments of the workplace, provides information about workplace chemicals and their risks, and ensures proper safety protective equipment and emergency supplies. Practicing emergency procedures such as irrigation is important. 5. The nurse monitors and analyzes injury exposure episodes and trends, along with coordinating referrals, treatments, and follow up care for workers with ocular chemical burns. PMID:10205367

  17. Corn Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

  18. Chilled versus ambient aeration and fumigation of stored popcorn part 1: Temperature management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Maier; R. A. Rulon; L. J. Mason

    1997-01-01

    During the summer of 1994, four commercial 121.5 tonne corrugated steel bins of stored popcorn were evaluated for chemical-free pest management and conditioning. Two of the bins were managed conventionally with intensive aeration for moisture conditioning and calendar-based fumigation treatments for pest control. In the other two bins grain temperatures were managed with the Purdue prototype grain chiller. They were

  19. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” (0.80) < “applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times” (0.83) < “applying common insecticides 14 times” (1.08). The treatment “applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times” was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China. PMID:25906199

  20. Global Crop Pests Identification and Information

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site from the Cornell Institute for Food, Agriculture, and Development contains a newly developed prototype of the "Global Crop Pest Identification and Information Services in Integrated Pest Management (IPM)." Available in English and Spanish, this online guide aims to "increase crop pest diagnosis and IPM information capability among extensionists and farmers of developing countries." Users can search the site by crop or pest name; for example, clicking on a particular crop name will pull up detailed information regarding that crop's diseases and pest species, which in turn links to additional pages of information and photographs. This site is easy to use, and the photos should make identification a relatively easy task as well. In addition to extension agents and farmers, this Web site would be a useful pest identification guide for gardeners, as many of the crop species listed are garden variety vegetables. Users should be aware that this project is a work in progress, and therefore not all species listed have information available online at the moment.

  1. NSF-Sponsored Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Glover, D. M.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Work, T. T.; Biological; Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    2010-12-01

    Ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem research projects are inherently interdisciplinary and benefit from improved access to well-documented data. Improved data sharing practices are important to the continued exploration of research themes that are a central focus of the ocean science community and are essential to interdisciplinary and international collaborations that address complex, global research themes. In 2006, the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to serve the data management requirements of scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to manage marine biogeochemical, ecological, and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research. These valuable data sets are documented, stored, disseminated, and protected over short and intermediate time frames. One of the goals of the BCO-DMO is to facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange through improved data discovery, access, display, downloading, and interoperability. In May 2010, NSF released a statement to the effect that in October 2010, it is planning to require that all proposals include a data management plan in the form of a two-page supplementary document. The data management plan would be an element of the merit review process. NSF has long been committed to making data from NSF-funded research publicly available and the new policy will strengthen this commitment. BCO-DMO is poised to assist in creating the data management plans and in ultimately serving the data and information resulting from NSF OCE funded research. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: geospatial and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data export and download utilities; and strategic use of controlled vocabularies to facilitate data integration and improve interoperability.

  2. Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several a...

  3. GENE STACKING FOR DURABLE PEST RESISTANCE IN SUGARBEET ROOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are exploring novel approaches for managing sugar beet root pests. Our goal is to gain new knowledge of root defense response mechanisms that could be more broadly applied for control of plant pests and pathogens. Using the sugar beet root maggot (SBRM, Tetanops myopaeformis) and sugarbeet as a...

  4. Preparedness for terrorism: managing nuclear, biological and chemical threats.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Kristi L

    2009-12-01

    The management of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) terrorism events is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality in the next decade; however, initial patient care considerations and protective actions for staff are unfamiliar to most front-line clinicians. High explosive events (bomb and blast) remain the most common type of terrorism and are easy to detect. Conversely, some types of terrorist attacks are more likely to be unsuspected or covert. This paper explains the current threat of terrorism and describes clues for detection that an event has occurred. Specific criteria that should lead to a high suspicion for terrorism are illustrated. The manuscript outlines initial actions and clinical priorities for management and treatment of patients exposed to nuclear/radiological, biological, chemical and combined agents (for example an explosion involving a chemical agent). Examples of terrorist events include: a nuclear explosion, an aerosolised release of anthrax (biological), dissemination of sarin in a subway (chemical), and the detonation of a radiologic dispersion device or "dirty bomb" (combined explosive and radiological). Basic principles of decontamination include potential risks to healthcare providers from secondary exposure and contamination. Unique issues may hinder clinical actions. These include coordination with law enforcement for a crime scene, public health entities for surveillance and monitoring, hazardous materials teams for decontamination, and the media for risk communications. Finally, the importance of personal preparedness is discussed. PMID:20052435

  5. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  6. Chemical constraints of groundwater management in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, W.; Lesser, J. M.

    1981-05-01

    Two critical objectives of water management in the Yucatan are: (1) to develop regional groundwater supplies for an expanding population and tourism based on the Mayan archeological sites and excellent beaches; and (2) to control groundwater pollution in a chemically sensitive system made vulnerable by geologic conditions. The Yucatan peninsula is a coastal plain underlain by permeable limestone and has an annual rainfall of more than 1000 mm. Such a setting should provide abundant supplies of water; however, factors of climate and hydrogeology have combined to form a hydrologic system with chemical boundaries that decrease the amount of available fresh water. Management of water resources has long had a major influence on the cultural and economic development of the Yucatan. The Mayan culture of the northern Yucatan developed by extensive use of groundwater. The religion was water-oriented and the Mayan priests prayed to Chac, the water god, for assistance in water management primarily to decrease the severity of droughts. The Spaniards arrived in 1517 and augmented the supplies by digging wells, which remained the common practice for more than 300 years. Many wells now have been abandoned because of serious problems of pollution resulting from the use of a sewage disposal well adjacent to each supply well. The modern phase of water management began in 1959 when the Secretaría de Recursos Hidráulicos (S.R.H.) was charged with the responsibility for both scientific investigations and development programmes for water-supply and sewage-disposal systems for cities, villages and islands.

  7. Citizen's Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... don’t require measuring or mixing. Before you buy a product, read the label! Compare product labels, ... for state contacts.) Read the label before you buy or use a pesticide product. Using Chemical Pest ...

  8. Farmers’ cultural practices and their effects on pest control in sweetpotato in South Nyanza, Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. J. M. Smit; L. O. Matengo

    1995-01-01

    Sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis (Bohe.) and C. brunneus (Fabr.) Coteoptera: Apionidae) are the most important insect pests in South Nyanza, Kenya's principal sweetpotato?growing district. A pest of secondary importance is the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata (Hew.) Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Cultural control is currently the most promising component of an integrated pest management strategy for subsistence sweetpotato farmers in Kenya. A survey

  9. The importance of economic injury levels in the development of integrated pest control programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray F. Smith

    1969-01-01

    Summary Although economic injury levels have long been considered of importance in determining the needs for pest control measures, they take on added significance in integrated pest control programs. The designation of damage tolerance levels defines the goals of the integrated control effort. These management goals should be defined in terms of damage not numbers of pests. Although insect numbers

  10. A Survey of Structural Ant Pests in the Southwestern U.S.A. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herb C. Field; William E. Evans Sr; Robert Hartley; Laurel D. Hansen; John H. Klotz

    A year-long survey of structural pest ants was conducted by Pest Manage- ment Professionals in San Diego, California, and Phoenix, Arizona to de- termine the species of ants, location of infestations, and types of treatments in residential and commercial accounts. Two short-term surveys were also conducted in Tucson, Arizona, and Tijuana, Mexico to obtain similar infor- mation. The key pests

  11. Sustainable Biocontrol of Apple Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol of insect pests is a cornerstone to sustainable production of apples and other crops. The ecology of orchards lends itself to the application of many management options which will enhance the sustainability of biocontrol. Orchards remain in place for decades, allowing for an evolution o...

  12. Biological control of cotton pests in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is one of the most economically important crops in China and insect damage is a major factor affecting production. The strategy of integrated pest management (IPM), where biological control plays an important role, has been widely accepted. Nearly 500 species of natural enemies have been repo...

  13. Insect Pests Models and Insecticide Application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past, the dominant approach in theoretical pest management ecology has emphasized the use of simple analytical or mathematical models and the analysis of systems in equilibrium. Recent advancements in computer technology have provided the opportunity for ecological insect modelers to move aw...

  14. The chemical stockpile emergency preparedness program: Management challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D. [Department of the Army, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) was initiated in response to the 1986 congressional mandate (by Public Law 99-145) to rid the United States of the aging stocks of chemical munitions. After a thorough examination of the risks involved in the transporting and disposing of the stocks and driven by the congressional mandate to protect the public, the Army decided to build incinerators at each of the eight installations. The Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the CSDP found that emergency planning for an accident was inadequate in the communities surrounding storage sites. The Army`s Record of Decision subsequently committed the Army to enhanced emergency planning. This paper discusses the evolution of the emergency preparedness program since 1986. The program has gone through two significant changes in management approaches. In 1988 a joint steering committee and 6 subcommittees were created. Recently, a new organization within the Army was created to manage CSEPP. This paper reviews origins of the committee approach in CSEPP as well as its strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, the paper discusses how the new organization should provide more effective management of the program.

  15. Assessment and management of chemical coping in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Fabbro, Egidio

    2014-06-01

    Chemical coping is a working definition that describes patients' intake of opioids on a scale that spans the range between normal nonaddictive opioid use for pain all the way to opioid addiction. Most patients will fall somewhere between the two extremes in using opioid analgesics to cope with their psychological or spiritual distress. The degree to which patients use their medications in a maladaptive manner will determine their susceptibility to drug toxicity and harm. When there are no obvious cancer-related causes for increased pain intensity, chemical coping and other patient-related factors such as delirium, somatization, and depression should be considered. As part of the initial evaluation of patients with cancer-related pain, a brief screening tool such as the CAGE questionnaire should be used to identify patients who may be at risk for chemical coping. Identifying patients at risk will allow clinicians to avoid unnecessary opioid toxicity, control pain, and improve quality of life. A structured approach for managing opioid use should be adopted, including standardized documentation, opioid treatment agreements, urine drug screens, frequent visits, and restricted quantities of breakthrough opioids. All patients at risk should receive brief motivational interviewing with an objective, nonjudgmental, and empathic style that includes personalized feedback, particularly about markers of risk or harm. For chemical copers approaching the addiction end of the spectrum, with evidence of compulsive use and destructive behavior, referral should be made to substance abuse specialists. PMID:24799476

  16. Serological investigation of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) in small ruminants managed under pastoral and agro-pastoral systems in Ethiopia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Megersa; D. Biffa; T. Belina; E. Debela; A. Regassa; F. Abunna; T. Rufael; S. M. Stubsjøen; E. Skjerve

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study to investigate Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) seroprevalence was conducted between October 2009 and April 2010 in Gambella and Afar regions of Ethiopia. A total of 1163 serum samples were collected from 251 sheep and 912 goats. Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (c-ELISA) was used to detect the presence of antibodies in the sera of animals as

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE TO MANAGE AN INVASIVE INSECT PEST, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM, ATTACKING PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO, AND SOUTHEASTERN USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most successful classical biological control of weeds program has been the control of invasive prickly-pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) by the Argentine cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum. However, the moth has now become an invasive pest in the southeastern USA and its ability to dramatically control ...

  18. Developing the options for managing marine pests: specificity trials on the parasitic castrator, Sacculina carcini, against the European crab, Carcinus maenas, and related species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E Thresher; M Werner; J. T Høeg; I Svane; H Glenner; N. E Murphy; C Wittwer

    2000-01-01

    The impacts of introduced marine pests are becoming increasingly apparent, prompting interest in the possibility of their biological control. We undertook laboratory and field experiments on host selection of one potential control agent (the endoparasitic barnacle, Sacculina carcini) against its natural host (the widely invasive European shore crab, Carcinus maenas) and several confamilial and more distantly related crustaceans. For comparison,

  19. Management of plant pathogens and pests using microbial biological control agents. In: Trigiano, R.N. and Ownley, B.H., editors. Plant Pathology Concepts and Laboratory Exercises

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All parts of plants face continual attack by plant pathogens and insects. Some insects are vectors of pathogens. Plant pests can be controlled by a variety of methods including application of pesticides but one of the most stainable and environmentally friendly approaches is biological control. Mic...

  20. Improving the cost-effectiveness, trade and safety of biological control for agricultural insect pests using nuclear techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Hendrichs; Kenneth Bloem; Gernot Hoch; James E. Carpenter; Patrick Greany; Alan S. Robinson

    2009-01-01

    If appropriately applied, biological control offers one of the most promising, environmentally sound, and sustainable control tactics for arthropod pests and weeds for application as part of an integrated pest management (IPM) approach. Public support for biological control as one of the preferred methods of managing non-indigenous and indigenous pests is increasing in many countries. An FAO\\/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

  1. Insect Pest Management in Virginia

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , this program would have less scope and meaning to other farmers. Jon & Keith Black, Charles City Co. Frank Kuhar, Entomologist, Eastern Shore AREC, Painter, VA Robert Pitman, Director, Eastern Virginia AREC, Painter, VA Jim Jenrette, Research Assistant, Eastern Shore AREC, Painter, VA Louisiana State University

  2. Natural Products for Pest Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most organisms synthesize secondary products with biological activity that is useful in their defense. Defense can be against vertebrates, arthropods, mollusks, plants (both algal and higher plants), and microbes. Many of these compounds have been used from ancient times to the present as pharmace...

  3. Sample NRCS Integrated Pest Management

    E-print Network

    Isaacs, Rufus

    erosion. Invasive species control on agricultural land. Habitat concerning Beneficial insects: __________________________ Farm number: ___________________________ Tract number: ___________________________ Crop rotation is located in Rice County Minnesota. The property has a mix of orchard blocks, crop land, hay/pasture land

  4. A Dynamical Analysis of a Piecewise Smooth Pest Control SI Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Liu, Wanbo; Tao, Fennmei; Kang, Baolin; Cong, Jiguang

    In this paper, we propose a piecewise smooth SI pest control system to model the process of spraying pesticides and releasing infectious pests. We assume that the pest population consists of susceptible pests and infectious pests, and that the disease spreads horizontally between pests. We take the susceptible pest as the control index on whether to implement chemical control and biological control strategies. Based on the theory of Filippov system, the sliding-mode domain and conditions for the existence of real equilibria, virtual equilibria, pseudo-equilibrium and boundary equilibria are given. Further, we show the global stability of real equilibria (or boundary equilibria) and pseudo-equilibrium. Our results can provide theoretical guidance for the problem of pest control.

  5. Significance of Penicillium ochrochloron chitinase as a biocontrol agent against pest Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Patil, Nilambari S; Jadhav, Jyoti P

    2015-06-01

    Penicillium ochrochloron chitinase purified by DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography was evaluated for its antifeedant and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera at different concentrations of 2000, 1000, 500, 250 and 100 U mL(-1). It reduced the successful pupation and increased larval and pupal mortality, adult emergence in a dosage-dependent manner when applied topically. The highest mortalities were recorded for groups treated with 2000 U mL(-1) chitinase activity. The studies showed P.ochrochloron chitinase can affect the growth of H.armigera larvae. Since this insect pest species has developed resistance and resurgence to chemical insecticides, only alternate is the usage of enzyme-based pesticide formulations as an environmentally friendly pest management tool. PMID:25723715

  6. Essential oils nanoformulations for stored-product pest control - characterization and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    The lethal and sublethal activity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles containing essential oils (EO), also the physicochemical characterization, were determined against Tribolium castaneum and Rhizopertha dominica. The 10% ratio EO-PEG nanoparticles showed an average diameter<235 nm (PDI<0.280) and a loading efficacy>75%; after 6 month of storage their size did not change significantly and the amount of the EOs decreased 25%, approximately. Furthermore, during this period, no chemical derivates were observed. The EOs nanoparticles produced a notable increase of the residual contact toxicity apparently due to the slow and persistent release of the active terpenes. In addition, the nanoformulation enhanced the EO contact toxicity and altered the nutritional physiology of both stored product pest. The results indicated that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for T. castaneum and R. dominica control. PMID:24359912

  7. PECAN WEEVIL MANAGEMENT: PAST, PRESENT AND TOWARD A FUTURE STRATEGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pecan weevil is an indigenous pest of the native North American pecan. Before the era of broad-spectrum chemical insecticides, management of the pecan weevil was attempted with cultural methods, but control was generally poor. Chemical insecticides offered efficacious foliar sprays and a few s...

  8. Texas Poultry Pest Control Practices

    E-print Network

    Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Carey, John B.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.

    1999-06-01

    percent. Other pests named include house flies (listed by 71 percent of respondents), rats (65 percent), varmints (28 percent), black flies (28 percent) and mosquitoes (24 percent). Pests listed by less than 15 percent of respondents include chicken mites... 83% House flies 71% Rats 65% Varmints 28% Black flies 28% Mosquitoes 24% Chicken mites 13% Northern foul mites 10% Chiggers 10% Soldier flies 10% Bed bugs 10% Depluming mites 9% Lice 9% Fowl ticks 8% Table 3. Difficulty of controlling pests. Pest...

  9. Fruit Crop Pests. MEP 312.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Leslie O.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of fruit crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases. Also in…

  10. Vegetable Crop Pests. MEP 311.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantzes, James G.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests of vegetable crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of insects, weeds, and diseases.…

  11. PEST ALERT: Glycaspis brimblecombei

    E-print Network

    PEST ALERT: Glycaspis brimblecombei Red Gum Lerp Psyllid The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis. Glycaspis brimblecombei was reported in Eucalyptus plantations for the first time in 2013, when susceptible plantations in the near future. Glycaspis brimblecombei is a sap-sucking insect that feeds

  12. Integrated pest management of two-spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on greenhouse roses using petroleum spray oil and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Nicetic; D. M. Watson; G. A. C. Beattie; A. Meats; J. Zheng

    2001-01-01

    From 1995 to 1999, four experiments were conducted on greenhouse roses to assess the effectiveness of the nC24 petroleum spray oil (PSO), D-C-Tron Plus, against two-spotted mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), and to determine how the oil could be most efficiently and effectively used in combination with the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) in an integrated pest

  13. Unexpected effects of low doses of a neonicotinoid insecticide on behavioral responses to sex pheromone in a pest insect.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Kaouther K; Esancy, Kali; Voisin, Anouk; Crespin, Lucille; Le Corre, Julie; Tricoire-Leignel, Hélène; Anton, Sylvia; Gadenne, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In moths, which include many agricultural pest species, males are attracted by female-emitted sex pheromones. Although integrated pest management strategies are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on widespread use of neurotoxic chemicals, including neonicotinoid insecticides. Residual accumulation of low concentrations of these insecticides in the environment is known to be harmful to beneficial insects such as honey bees. This environmental stress probably acts as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decreases chances of reproduction in target insects that largely rely on olfactory communication. However, low doses of pollutants could on the contrary induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway, thus enhancing reproduction. Here we tested the effects of acute oral treatments with different low doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on the behavioral responses to sex pheromone in the moth Agrotis ipsilon using wind tunnel experiments. We show that low doses of clothianidin induce a biphasic effect on pheromone-guided behavior. Surprisingly, we found a hormetic-like effect, improving orientation behavior at the LD20 dose corresponding to 10 ng clothianidin. On the contrary, a negative effect, disturbing orientation behavior, was elicited by a treatment with a dose below the LD0 dose corresponding to 0.25 ng clothianidin. No clothianidin effect was observed on behavioral responses to plant odor. Our results indicate that risk assessment has to include unexpected effects of residues on the life history traits of pest insects, which could then lead to their adaptation to environmental stress. PMID:25517118

  14. Computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics for geosystems management.

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, Scott; Alger, Nicholas; Turner, Daniel Zack; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Carnes, Brian; Martinez, Mario J.; Notz, Patrick K.; Klise, Katherine A.; Stone, Charles Michael; Field, Richard V., Jr.; Newell, Pania; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Red-Horse, John Robert; Bishop, Joseph E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Hopkins, Polly L.; Mesh, Mikhail; Bean, James E.; Moffat, Harry K.; Yoon, Hongkyu

    2011-09-01

    This document summarizes research performed under the SNL LDRD entitled - Computational Mechanics for Geosystems Management to Support the Energy and Natural Resources Mission. The main accomplishment was development of a foundational SNL capability for computational thermal, chemical, fluid, and solid mechanics analysis of geosystems. The code was developed within the SNL Sierra software system. This report summarizes the capabilities of the simulation code and the supporting research and development conducted under this LDRD. The main goal of this project was the development of a foundational capability for coupled thermal, hydrological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) simulation of heterogeneous geosystems utilizing massively parallel processing. To solve these complex issues, this project integrated research in numerical mathematics and algorithms for chemically reactive multiphase systems with computer science research in adaptive coupled solution control and framework architecture. This report summarizes and demonstrates the capabilities that were developed together with the supporting research underlying the models. Key accomplishments are: (1) General capability for modeling nonisothermal, multiphase, multicomponent flow in heterogeneous porous geologic materials; (2) General capability to model multiphase reactive transport of species in heterogeneous porous media; (3) Constitutive models for describing real, general geomaterials under multiphase conditions utilizing laboratory data; (4) General capability to couple nonisothermal reactive flow with geomechanics (THMC); (5) Phase behavior thermodynamics for the CO2-H2O-NaCl system. General implementation enables modeling of other fluid mixtures. Adaptive look-up tables enable thermodynamic capability to other simulators; (6) Capability for statistical modeling of heterogeneity in geologic materials; and (7) Simulator utilizes unstructured grids on parallel processing computers.

  15. Automatic monitoring of insect pests in stored grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manual sampling of insects in stored grain is a laborious and time consuming process. Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management. To make accurate insect management decisions, managers need to know both the insect species and numbers ...

  16. Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program.

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, G.; Mohrman, G.; Templin, B. R.

    1999-05-07

    Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled discharges to the environment and made it possible to conduct environmental assessments relatively quickly. The PMACWA also arranged for public briefings to ease any community concerns over the operations with chemical weapons. These steps precluded regulatory and community resistance to the ACWA activities. The cooperation of the regulators and stakeholders has been a key element in enabling the ACWA Program to move with the speed that it has to date. Technology demonstrations are currently underway and are scheduled to be completed in late May 1999. The data collected during these demonstrations will be used to prepare and submit a summary report to Congress by August 1999. The challenge continues for the ACWA management to guide the demonstrations to completion and to plan for possible pilot testing. As the scale of the ACWA facilities increase in size, the ease of reduced regulatory processes and environmental analyses will no longer be possible. However, the PMACWA will continue to explore all paths through the environmental process to speed the ACWA program to its goals while at the same time ensuring adequate protection of public health and safety and of the environment.

  17. Stored Product Pest Images

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Photographic gallery containing 81 images of pests of stored products, including eggs, larvae and pupae and damage photos. Mites, beetles, moths, and psocids are included. A web browser and CD-ROM drive are required to view the images. Images are of high quality and the accompanying text is generally accurate and informative. The larval lesser mealworm is mis-captioned as an adult. Navigation of the images is easy.

  18. Vegetable Pests II

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Photographic gallery containing 96 images of pests that attack vegetables, including adults, pupae, larvae, and eggs; and what the insect damage looks like. Covers mites, true bugs, hoppers, whiteflies, aphids, grasshoppers, crickets, and thrips. Most of the images are of good quality; some are exceptional. Some images depict frequently photographed insects, but several are unique. Images are offered in 3 resolutions and file formats. Requires a CD-ROM drive and a web browser.

  19. Short-range movement of major agricultural pests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vansteenwyk, R.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

  20. 75 FR 32900 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Sweet Limes From Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation...public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates...announcing the availability of our pest risk analysis for public review...requirements specified in the risk management document. Authority: 7...

  1. FLEX: AN EXPERT SYSTEM FOR REVIEWING THE CHEMICAL RESISTANCE OF FLEXIBLE MEMBRANE LINERS FOR WASTE MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computerized, expert system (FLEX) has been developed that will assess the chemical resistance of flexible membrane liners (FML) used at waste management facilities. hese FML's must be chemically resistant to the waste, its leachates, or both. o demonstrate chemical resistancy,...

  2. Developing System-Based Leading Indicators for Proactive Risk Management in the Chemical Processing Industry

    E-print Network

    Leveson, Nancy

    Industry by Ibrahim A. Khawaji B.S., Chemical Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, 2001 SUBMITTED Management in the Chemical Processing Industry by Ibrahim A. Khawaji Submitted to the Engineering Systems in Engineering Systems ABSTRACT The chemical processing industry has faced challenges with achieving improvements

  3. A method of multiplex PCR for detection of field released Beauveria bassiana, a fungal entomopathogen applied for pest management in jute (Corchorus olitorius).

    PubMed

    Biswas, Chinmay; Dey, Piyali; Gotyal, B S; Satpathy, Subrata

    2015-04-01

    The fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana is a promising biocontrol agent for many pests. Some B. bassiana strains have been found effective against jute pests. To monitor the survival of field released B. bassiana a rapid and efficient detection technique is essential. Conventional methods such as plating method or direct culture method which are based on cultivation on selective media followed by microscopy are time consuming and not so sensitive. PCR based methods are rapid, sensitive and reliable. A single primer PCR may fail to amplify some of the strains. However, multiplex PCR increases the possibility of detection as it uses multiple primers. Therefore, in the present investigation a multiplex PCR protocol was developed by multiplexing three primers SCA 14, SCA 15 and SCB 9 to detect field released B. bassiana strains from soil as well as foliage of jute field. Using our multiplex PCR protocol all the five B. bassiana strains could be detected from soil and three strains viz., ITCC 6063, ITCC 4563 and ITCC 4796 could be detected even from the crop foliage after 45 days of spray. PMID:25680421

  4. Texas Poultry Pest Control Practices 

    E-print Network

    Hall, Kent D.; Holloway, Rodney L.; Carey, John B.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.

    1999-06-01

    , northern fowl mites, chiggers, soldier flies, bed bugs, depluming mites, lice and fowl ticks. Survey participants ranked the difficulty of controlling each pest. Those ranked most difficult to control were fire ants, darkling beetles, black flies, house... 83% House flies 71% Rats 65% Varmints 28% Black flies 28% Mosquitoes 24% Chicken mites 13% Northern foul mites 10% Chiggers 10% Soldier flies 10% Bed bugs 10% Depluming mites 9% Lice 9% Fowl ticks 8% Table 3. Difficulty of controlling pests. Pest...

  5. Application of the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls to prioritize and promote safer methods of pest control: a case study.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Justine Lew; Bunin, Lisa J; Das, Rupali

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the California Department of Public Health, Occupational Health Branch (OHB) investigated an incident of pesticide exposure and identified 27 vineyard workers who became ill due to drift of cyfluthrin, a pesticide being applied to a neighboring orange field to control katydids. Another pest, citrus thrips, was also present in the field. We investigated safer alternatives for katydid and thrips control to prevent illness due to pesticide exposure and used the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls to prioritize the control methods. OHB evaluated factors that contributed to pesticide exposure and identified safer alternatives by conducting literature reviews on katydid and thrips control, drift prevention technology, and other relevant topics, and by interviewing integrated pest management advisors, conventional and organic growers, equipment manufacturers, county agricultural commissioners, pest control advisors, regulatory agencies, and others. We prioritized methods using the industrial hygiene hierarchy of controls. We identified safer pest control practices that incorporated hazard elimination, chemical substitution, engineering controls, and administrative controls, including employer policies and government regulations. PMID:19618807

  6. Dynamic Project and Workflow Management for Design Processes in Chemical Engineering

    E-print Network

    Westfechtel, Bernhard

    . Keywords process systems engineering, business decision making, workflow management 1. INTRODUCTION DesignDynamic Project and Workflow Management for Design Processes in Chemical Engineering Markus Heller difficult to manage the workflow in design processes, i.e., to coordinate the effort of experts working

  7. Evaluating safety in the management of maintenance activities in the chemical process industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Hale; B. H. J. Heming; K. Smit; F. G. Th. Rodenburg; N. D. van Leeuwen

    1998-01-01

    A study was carried out of the management of safety in maintenance activities in the chemical process industry in the Netherlands. A theoretical model of an ideal maintenance management system incorporating safety was established and tested by peer review in five companies in different industries with high safety risks and requirements and good reputations for maintenance management. The model was

  8. Pest Ants and Cockroaches

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Tutorials on pest ants and cockroaches. Each tutorial has 50 questions; incorrect answers lead to additional information. Covers acrobat ant, Argentine ant, bigheaded ant, crazy ant, Florida carpenter ant, ghost ant, imported fire ant, little fire ant, native fire ant and Pharaoh ant, American cockroach, Australian cockroach, brown cockroach, brownbanded cockroach, Cuban cockroach, Florida woods cockroaches, German cockroach, oriental cockroach, smokybrown cockroach and Surinam cockroach. Requires Windows. program must be downloaded on to hardrive, but once installed is intuitive. many of the species depicted in these tutorials are restricted to Florida and the extreme southern U.S. $15. Part number SW 157.

  9. Risk management in Chemical Supply Chains Rajagopalan Srinivasana,b

    E-print Network

    Alvarado, Matías

    to various types of risk. 1. Introduction The chemical industry is one of the world's largest manufacturing industries, producing more than 50,000 chemicals and formulations. Starting from raw materials such as oil, coal, gas, water, air and minerals, the chemical industry produces a vast array of substances that form

  10. Keep Pests from Becoming a Problem in Your School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Allen

    2000-01-01

    Examines the use of pesticides in an integrated pest management (IPM) program. The three steps to creating an IPM are discussed along with IPM personnel communication requirements, and the need for written policies managed by a knowledgeable coordinator. Additional resources for information about IPMs are included. (GR)

  11. Pest Risk Maps for Invasive Alien Species: A Roadmap for Improvement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Venette (USDA; Forest Service)

    2010-05-03

    Pest risk maps are powerful visual communication tools to describe where invasive alien species might arrive, establish, spread, or cause harmful impacts. These maps inform strategic and tactical pest management decisions, such as potential restrictions on international trade or the design of pest surveys and domestic quarantines. Diverse methods are available to create pest risk maps, and can potentially yield different depictions of risk for the same species. Inherent uncertainties about the biology of the invader, future climate conditions, and species interactions further complicate map interpretation. If multiple maps are available, risk managers must choose how to incorporate the various representations of risk into their decisionmaking process, and may make significant errors if they misunderstand what each map portrays. This article describes the need for pest risk maps, compares pest risk mapping methods, and recommends future research to improve such important decision-support tools.

  12. Educational Requirements for Becoming a California Pest Control Adviser In California, any professional person who offers a recommendation on how to

    E-print Network

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    a PCA license opens up many job opportunities for people interested in pest of these jobs pay well. PCAs may work for independent pest management companies, farm and zoology. Crop Health (13.5 quarter units required) · ABT165 Irrigation

  13. Factors influencing economic profitability of dampling-based integrated management of wheat in country elevators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated pest management provides the potential for better insect management in stored wheat, as well as increased worker safety and reduced environmental concerns. Many country elevators, however, continue to use chemical-based approaches. To determine if this choice is economically justified, to...

  14. Pest toxicology: the primary mechanisms of pesticide action.

    PubMed

    Casida, John E

    2009-04-01

    Pesticides are used to control pests before they harm us or our crops. They are selective toxicants in the form and manner used. Pesticides must be effective without human or crop injury. They must also be safe relative to human and environmental toxicology. The study of how the pesticide works on the pest is referred to here as pest toxicology. About 700 pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides, act on perhaps 95 biochemical targets in pest insects, weeds, and destructive fungi. Current insecticides act primarily on four nerve targets, i.e., acetylcholinesterase, the voltage-gated chloride channel, the acetylcholine receptor, and the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor, systems which are present in animals but not plants. Herbicides act mostly on plant specific pathways by blocking photosynthesis, carotenoid synthesis, or aromatic and branched chain amino acid synthesis essential in plants but not mammals. Many fungicides block ergosterol (the fungal sterol) or tubulin biosynthesis or cytochrome c reductase, while others disrupt basic cellular functions. A major limiting factor in the continuing use of almost all pesticides is the selection of strains not only resistant to the selecting or pressuring compounds but also cross-resistant to other pesticides acting at the same target. One approach to reinstating control is to shift from compounds with the resistant target site or mode of action to another set which have a sensitive target. This type of pesticide management led to the formation of Resistance Action Committees for insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides with very knowledgable experts to define resistance groups, which are in fact listings of primary target sites in pest toxicology. Continued success in pest and pesticide management requires an understanding of comparative biochemistry and molecular toxicology considering pests, people, and crops. Defining and applying the principles of pest toxicology are critical to food production and human health. PMID:19284791

  15. Pest control in postharvest nuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter discusses the impact of insect infestations on the quality of postharvest nuts. The chapter first reviews the biology of key field pests that may be found in harvested nuts, and pests found in nut storage and processing facilities. The chapter then reviews current and developing control...

  16. New Versus Classic Approaches for Chemical Risk Assessment and Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud A. Hassanien

    In recent years, the public has become increasingly aware of the presence of harmful chemicals in our environment. Many people\\u000a express concerns about chemicals and other foreign substances in food, in drinking water, and toxic pollutants in the air.\\u000a Exposure and risk assessment of chemical environmental pollution have been widely studied. Risk assessment provides a systematic\\u000a approach for characterizing the

  17. Policy Name: Chemical Pesticide Use Originating / Responsible Department: Facilities Management and Planning

    E-print Network

    Carleton University

    and Planning Approval Authority: Senior Management Committee Date of Original Policy: September 1999 Last that chemical pesticides such as fungicides, herbicides and insecticides are used only as solutions of last

  18. Medical Management of the Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia M. Weaver

    1996-01-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a complex, chronic disorder characterized by multisystemic symptoms occurring in response to a wide variety of chemical odors or low-level exposures. The etiology is unknown but likely multifactorial. Patient evaluation includes a comprehensive history with a review of past medical records and a physical examination with specific attention to the affected organ systems. Laboratory evaluation

  19. Managing Auditory Risk from Acoustically Impulsive Chemical Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedone, Jeffrey H.; Gee, Kent L.; Vernon, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical demonstrations are an integral part of the process of how students construct meaning from chemical principles, but may introduce risks to students and presenters. Some demonstrations are known to be extremely loud and present auditory hazards; little has been done to assess the risks to educators and students. Using laboratory-grade…

  20. Assessing and Managing Risks Arising from Exposure to Endocrine-Active Chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen P. Phillips; Warren G. Foster; William Leiss; Vanita Sahni; Nataliya Karyakina; Michelle C. Turner; Sam Kacew; Daniel Krewski

    2008-01-01

    Managing risks to human health and the environment produced by endocrine-active chemicals (EAC) is dependent on sound principles of risk assessment and risk management, which need to be adapted to address the uncertainties in the state of the science of EAC. Quantifying EAC hazard identification, mechanisms of action, and dose-response curves is complicated by a range of chemical structure\\/toxicology classes,

  1. Managing chemical risk during design in aeronautics: from technical product data to exposure assessment

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Managing chemical risk during design in aeronautics: from technical product data to exposure a method mutually developed by an Industrial Engineering Laboratory and an aeronautic equipment company, chemical risk, aeronautics. 1. Introduction Transportation, and all the different means used for, represent

  2. Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 11 Empty Container Decision Tree

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    Hazardous Chemical Waste Management Reference Guide for Laboratories 11 Empty Container Decision Tree Chemical waste materials must be handled as hazardous unless they are on the Non-Hazardous Waste List. Used hazardous materials containers are an exception, however. They have their own resource

  3. Management response plan for the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Chemical Safety Vulnerability (CSV) Working Group was established to identify adverse conditions involving hazardous chemicals at DOE facilities that might result in fires or explosions, release of hazardous chemicals to the environment, or exposure of workers or the public to chemicals. A CSV Review was conducted in 146 facilities at 29 sites. Eight generic vulnerabilities were documented related to: abandoned chemicals and chemical residuals; past chemical spills and ground releases; characterization of legacy chemicals and wastes; disposition of legacy chemicals; storage facilities and conditions; condition of facilities and support systems; unanalyzed and unaddressed hazards; and inventory control and tracking. Weaknesses in five programmatic areas were also identified related to: management commitment and planning; chemical safety management programs; aging facilities that continue to operate; nonoperating facilities awaiting deactivation; and resource allocations. Volume 1 contains a discussion of the chemical safety improvements planned or already underway at DOE sites to correct facility or site-specific vulnerabilities. The main part of the report is a discussion of each of the programmatic deficiencies; a description of the tasks to be accomplished; the specific actions to be taken; and the organizational responsibilities for implementation.

  4. Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation.

  5. Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks.

    PubMed

    Petrovskii, Sergei; Petrovskaya, Natalia; Bearup, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Pest insects pose a significant threat to food production worldwide resulting in annual losses worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Pest control attempts to prevent pest outbreaks that could otherwise destroy a sward. It is good practice in integrated pest management to recommend control actions (usually pesticides application) only when the pest density exceeds a certain threshold. Accurate estimation of pest population density in ecosystems, especially in agro-ecosystems, is therefore very important, and this is the overall goal of the pest insect monitoring. However, this is a complex and challenging task; providing accurate information about pest abundance is hardly possible without taking into account the complexity of ecosystems' dynamics, in particular, the existence of multiple scales. In the case of pest insects, monitoring has three different spatial scales, each of them having their own scale-specific goal and their own approaches to data collection and interpretation. In this paper, we review recent progress in mathematical models and methods applied at each of these scales and show how it helps to improve the accuracy and robustness of pest population density estimation. PMID:24618062

  6. HIT THE BULL'S EYE: KNOW PEST, PLANT CANOPY, AND PESTICIDE TO BOOST SPRAYER EFFICIENCY IN VEGETABLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the performance of machinery used to deliver pest management materials is critical to selecting the best equipment for each application. The pesticide, target, and pest problem largely dictate the delivery technique. Field studies using fresh market peppers were established to evalua...

  7. Disease and pest control in the bioenergy crops poplar and willow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DJ Royle; ME Ostry

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the population ecology, genetics and epidemiology of pests and pathogens is necessary for the development of reliable and effective pest and disease management systems in energy crops. Rust diseases are among the most devastating on poplars and willows. Analysis of forms of the Melampsora rust pathogens has revealed a complex array of species, form species, races and

  8. Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of several alternativ...

  9. Pest damage and arthropod community structure in organic vs. conventional tomato production in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Letourneau; B. Goldstein

    2001-01-01

    Summary 1. To test common assumptions that the reduction in agrochemicals on organic farms allows (i) the conservation of biodiversity but (ii) has some cost in terms of increased pest damage, we compared arthropod communities and pest damage levels to fresh market tomato Lycopersicon esculentum on 18 commercial farms. These farms repre- sented a range of management practices, with half

  10. James W. Byler-2/ Abstract: The Pest Damage Inventory (PDI) is a survey

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    James W. Byler-2/ Abstract: The Pest Damage Inventory (PDI) is a survey procedure used by the U procedures are followed i n each survey, but photo and ground sampling techniques may d i f f e r . Six PDI be integrated with stand management prescriptions. INTRODUCTION The Pest Damage Inventory (PDI) is a of t r e e

  11. Development of an embryonic lethality system for transgenic sit in the fruit pest, ceratitis capitata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ceratitis capitata, known as one of the world's most destructive insect pest, costs farmers billions of dollars annually. Improved biological strategies are needed to increase the efficacy of area-wide pest management. Transgenic methodology should enhance and widen the applicability of the sterile ...

  12. Transport and fate of methyl iodide a its pest control in soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For fumigants, information on transport and fate, as well as pest control, is needed to develop management practices with the fewest human and environmental health risks while offering sufficient pest control efficacy. For this purpose, a 2-D soil chamber (60 cm wide, 60 cm long, and 6 cm thick) wit...

  13. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne D. van Diepeningen; Oscar J. de Vos; Gerard W. Korthals; Ariena H. C. van Bruggen

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring farms were analyzed using a polyphasic approach combining traditional soil analysis, culture-dependent and independent microbiological analyses, a nematode community

  14. Toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons: exposure, identification, and management by syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Anthony J; French, Robert N E; Walter, Frank G

    2015-02-01

    Toxidromes aid emergency care providers in the context of the patient presenting with suspected poisoning, unexplained altered mental status, unknown hazardous materials or chemical weapons exposure, or the unknown overdose. The ability to capture an adequate chemical exposure history and to recognize toxidromes may reduce dependence on laboratory tests, speed time to delivery of specific antidote therapy, and improve selection of supportive care practices tailored to the etiologic agent. This article highlights elements of the exposure history and presents selected toxidromes that may be caused by toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons. Specific antidotes for toxidromes and points regarding their use, and special supportive measures, are presented. PMID:25455660

  15. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Richards; Richard A. Gibbs; George M. Weinstock; Susan J. Brown; Robin Denell; Richard W. Beeman; G. Bucher; M. Friedrich; C. J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen; M. Klingler; M. D. Lorenzen; S. Roth; R. Schroder; D. Tautz; E. M. Zdobnov; D. Muzny; T. Attaway; S. Bell; C. J. Buhay; M. N. Chandrabose; D. Chavez; K. P. Clerk-Blankenburg; A. Cree; M. Dao; C. Davis; J. Chacko; H. Dinh; S. Dugan-Rocha; G. Fowler; T. T. Garner; J. Garnes; A. Gnirke; A. Hawes; J. Hernandez; S. Hines; M. Holder; J. Hume; S. N. Jhangiani; V. Joshi; Z. M. Khan; L. Jackson; C. Kovar; A. Kowis; S. Lee; L. R. Lewis; J. Margolis; M. Morgan; L. V. Nazareth; N. Nguyen; G. Okwuonu; D. Parker; S. J. Ruiz; J. Santibanez; J. Savard; S. E. Scherer; B. Schneider; E. Sodergren; S. Vattahil; D. Villasana; C. S. White; R. Wright; J. Lord; B. Oppert; S. Brown; L. J. Wang; Y. Liu; K. Worley; C. G. Elsik; J. T. Reese; E. Elhaik; G. Landan; D. Graur; P. Arensburger; P. Atkinson; J. Beidler; J. P. Demuth; D. W. Drury; Y. Z. Du; H. Fujiwara; V. Maselli; M. Osanai; H. M. Robertson; Z. Tu; J. J. Wang; S. Z. Wang; H. Song; L. Zhang; D. Werner; M. Stanke; B. Morgenstern; V. Solovyev; P. Kosarev; G. Brown; H. C. Chen; O. Ermolaeva; W. Hlavina; Y. Kapustin; B. Kiryutin

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors,

  16. Nursery Crop Production Problems & Issues - Insect Pests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Wells

    2012-04-05

    What insects present problems in nursery crop production, how can they be identified, and how can they be best controlled? First, let's look at the following scenarios to gain an understanding of insect problems that can occur within nursery crop production. Nursery Crop Production Insect Pest Management Scenarios Now read Plant Farm Nursery Website to identify the insect described in the first scenario. Next, read Tree Shrub Damage to identify the insect issue described within the second scenario. Read Extension Service Website to gain a better understanding ...

  17. Insect Pheromones: Mastering Communication to Control Pests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Web site contains an interesting, in-depth article on the use of insect pheromones in pest management. The article is one of many from Beyond Discovery: The Path from Research to Human Benefit; a NAS-sponsored series designed to demonstrate "how science works by illustrating how basic research produces knowledge that can lead to practical results of human benefit." No formal lesson plans are provided, but the article comes with a helpful glossary, related Web links, and a timeline of events.

  18. Effective Control of Household Pests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the environment. Resources Posters: Aging Resources Online Order Form Don't Feed Pests Spills (PDF) (1 pg, ... 850K) Publication Number 100-F-09-027 Chinese Traditional | (PDF) (2 pp, 1.51MB) Publication Number EPA- ...

  19. Management of chemical burns of the canine cornea

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Significant clinical signs and general principles of treatment for chemical burns of the canine cornea are presented using three typical case studies for illustration. Alkali burns are more common in dogs than acid burns. The sources of alkali in this study were soap, cement, and mortar dust. Common signs of chemical burns are ocular pain, corneal ulceration, tear film inadequacy, corneal edema, and marked corneal neovascularity. Successful treatment requires thorough ocular lavage, treatment for corneal ulceration, and adequate anti-inflammatory therapy when the corneal epithelium becomes intact. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:17423874

  20. Chemical-based integrated approaches for the management of tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Acari: Tetranychidae) in tea plantations of sub-Himalayan North Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somnath Roy; Ananda Mukhopadhyay; Guruswami Gurusubramanian

    2012-01-01

    The tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae Nietner (Tetranychidae), is considered one of the main phytophagous mite pests of tea plants in north-east India. To reduce the amount of synthetic chemicals in tea, a strategy of using optimal rates and effective spray practices has been developed. In laboratory tests, the 50% lethal concentration (LC50 in parts per million (ppm)) values

  1. History and use of heat in pest control: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Hansen; J. A. Johnson; D. A. Winter

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the history and use of heat in the management of a wide range of agricultural and structural pests. Definitions and concepts used in heat treatments are discussed as well as possible mechanisms of thermal lethality. Factors used in determining treatments are availability, costs, complexity, and other constraints. Heat can be used separately in multiple forms or in

  2. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER: MEASURING HISTORICAL FARMER PERCEPTIONS AND ADOPTION OF TRANSGENIC BT CORN AS A PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year, multi-state survey of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn farmers was conducted to evaluate perceptions of Bt corn performance and its utility as a European corn borer management option. A questionnaire was sent to farmers who had grown Bt corn during the previous field season...

  3. An index method to evaluate growers’ pesticide use for identifying on-farm innovations and effective alternative pest management strategies: a case study of winegrape in Madera County, California*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-juan; Qin, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Browde, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUI and PUIM. It was found that both PUI and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI?10 and 34 with 1060, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds, which indicated that their pest controls heavily depended on pesticides rather than on-farm management. Through the case study, the proposed approach proved to be useful for analyzing the growers’ pesticide use intensities and interpreting their pesticide use behaviors, which led to a new start point for further investigation of searching ways to reduce pesticide environmental risk. PMID:21370508

  4. An index method to evaluate growers' pesticide use for identifying on-farm innovations and effective alternative pest management strategies: a case study of winegrape in Madera County, California.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-juan; Qin, Zhi-hao; Zhang, Ming-hua; Browde, Joe

    2011-03-01

    Winegrape is an important perennial crop in California, USA. Each year California winegrape farming consumes about 20 million kilograms of pesticides that have been a pollutant source to the fresh water systems of the state. The variation of pesticide use among winegrape growers has been significant. It has been observed that some growers have developed effective ways to reduce pesticide use, yet control pests efficiently to ensure harvest. Identification of the growers with low and high pesticide use is very helpful to extension programs that aim on reducing pesticide environmental risk. In this study, an index approach is proposed to quantitatively measure pesticide use intensity at grower level. An integrated pesticide use index is developed by taking pesticide quantity and toxicity into account. An additive formula and a multiplying formula were used to calculate the pesticide use index, i.e., PUI and PUIM. It was found that both PUI and PUIM were capable of identifying the low and high pesticide users while PUI was slightly more conservative than PUIM. All pesticides used in California winegrape farming were taken into account for calculating the indices. Madera County, one of the largest winegrape producers in California, was taken as an example to test the proposed approach. In year 2000, among the total 208 winegrape growers, 28 with PUI?10 and 34 with 1060, identified as high pesticide users, had large-sized vineyards, i.e., more fields and large planted areas. They used all types of pesticides and many compounds, which indicated that their pest controls heavily depended on pesticides rather than on-farm management. Through the case study, the proposed approach proved to be useful for analyzing the growers' pesticide use intensities and interpreting their pesticide use behaviors, which led to a new start point for further investigation of searching ways to reduce pesticide environmental risk. PMID:21370508

  5. Chemical incident management: gaseous emissions from a stockpile of coal.

    PubMed

    Freudenstein, U; Crowley, D; Welch, F

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal releases a wide range of airborne pollutants which, in high concentrations, may be hazardous to health. Little is known about how the effects on health change in relation to the release of multiple substances. This article reports an incident in which a stockpile of coal released potentially harmful gases into the environment. Although the resultant health effects reported were few, the co-ordinated response by local authorities and health authorities highlighted the advantage of a multidisciplinary approach. Public health departments need to be aware of major chemical hazards within their district. Prompt environmental monitoring and exposure measurement needs to be arranged as this is crucial to making an appropriate response. Updated registers are needed from private companies and public bodies; who can provide timely measurements of chemical hazards. Health districts with more than one local authority may benefit from pooling resources and knowledge in order to prepare for such an incident. PMID:10787025

  6. Chemical supplier quality management: the changes and challenges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. O'Brien; T. Leslie

    2001-01-01

    Over the years the semiconductor industry has undergone tremendous change. The changes in technology are obvious but in addition to these, there have also been significant changes in the supplier quality management system. Some were driven by various quality programs, but others were necessary due to other issues such as container sizes (bottles to bulk containers), inventory control (high inventory

  7. Environmental management of assembled chemical weapons assessment program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Frey; G. Mohrman; B. R. Templin

    1999-01-01

    Environmental planning and management was an integral part of the ACWA Program planning process. To ensure that environmental protection issues could be addressed expeditiously and not delay the demonstrations, the PMACWA scaled the technology demonstrations such that simplified regulatory processes and existing research and development facilities could be used. The use of enclosed facilities for the demonstrations prevents any uncontrolled

  8. Integrating drivers influencing the detection of plant pests carried in the international cut flower trade.

    PubMed

    Areal, F J; Touza, J; MacLeod, A; Dehnen-Schmutz, K; Perrings, C; Palmieri, M G; Spence, N J

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyses the cut flower market as an example of an invasion pathway along which species of non-indigenous plant pests can travel to reach new areas. The paper examines the probability of pest detection by assessing information on pest detection and detection effort associated with the import of cut flowers. We test the link between the probability of plant pest arrivals, as a precursor to potential invasion, and volume of traded flowers using count data regression models. The analysis is applied to the UK import of specific genera of cut flowers from Kenya between 1996 and 2004. There is a link between pest detection and the Genus of cut flower imported. Hence, pest detection efforts should focus on identifying and targeting those imported plants with a high risk of carrying pest species. For most of the plants studied, efforts allocated to inspection have a significant influence on the probability of pest detection. However, by better targeting inspection efforts, it is shown that plant inspection effort could be reduced without increasing the risk of pest entry. Similarly, for most of the plants analysed, an increase in volume traded will not necessarily lead to an increase in the number of pests entering the UK. For some species, such as Carthamus and Veronica, the volume of flowers traded has a significant and positive impact on the likelihood of pest detection. We conclude that analysis at the rank of plant Genus is important both to understand the effectiveness of plant pest detection efforts and consequently to manage the risk of introduction of non-indigenous species. PMID:17761382

  9. Keeping Pests Out of the Home with Fewer Pesticides and Handling Pesticides Safely

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Targeted to homeowners, although it is a great introduction for all students and educators wanting to learn more about integrated pest management. Objectively written. The links to extension offices all go to Georgia Extension.

  10. Chemical Safety Management Program for Lockheed Martin Energy Systems operations at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    C.W. McMahon

    2000-03-24

    Operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems), the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a manufacturing facility that plays an integral role in the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Fulfilling the national security mission at the Y-12 Plant, continuing to be the cornerstone of uranium and lithium technologies for DOE, and providing customers with solutions for challenging manufacturing needs requires usage of a variety of chemicals and chemical processes. Performing this work safely while protecting workers, the public, and the environment is their commitment. The purpose of this document is to provide a description of the essential components of chemical safety, the integration of these components into the Y-12 Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), and the functional integration of chemical safety issues across Y-12 organizations and programs managed by Energy Systems.

  11. Soil-fertility management and host preference by European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), on Zea mays L.: A comparison of organic and conventional chemical farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Phelan; J. F. Mason; B. R. Stinner

    1995-01-01

    It has long been argued by proponents of organic agriculture that crop losses to insects and diseases are reduced by this farming method, and that reduced susceptibility to pests is a reflection of differences in plant health, as mediated by soil-fertility management. These reports although widespread are mostly anecdotal and largely without experimental foundation. In this study, the effects of

  12. Risk assessment and management at U.S. Army Chemical weapons disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.J. [Sciences Applications International Corp., Abingdon, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Department of the Army has established the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) in response to Congressional direction to eliminate the nation`s stockpile of unitary chemical agents and munitions. This will be accomplished through the construction and operation of disposal facilities specifically designed for this mission. It is a fundamental objective of the CSDP to complete the disposal program with maximum protection of the health and safety of the public, facility staff, and the environment. To this end, the CSDP has implemented a comprehensive risk management program. The army has undertaken qualitative and quantitative risk assessments to help understand the risks to be managed. This risk management program also integrates army system safety practices and policies and industrial safety standards and risk management activities.

  13. Terrorism, chemical accidents and major catastrophes - Notre Dame Med Students train for disaster management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Ebbs

    2007-01-01

    All you need to know about terrorism, chemical and biological disasters and trauma management were topics covered at a recent Disaster Management course held at The University of Notre Dame (UNDA), Fremantle.\\u000aThe Boxing Day Tsunami was the catalyst for the innovative program completed by medical students at Notre Dame’s School of Medicine recently. Talking about the tragedy on the

  14. Effectiveness of the high dose/refuge strategy for managing pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing one or two toxins.

    PubMed

    Gryspeirt, Aiko; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2012-10-01

    To delay resistance development to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants expressing their own insecticide, the application of the Insect Resistance Management strategy called "High Dose/Refuge Strategy" (HD/R) is recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). This strategy was developed for Bt plants expressing one toxin. Presently, however, new Bt plants that simultaneously express two toxins are on the market. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficiency of the HD/R strategy for both these Bt toxins. As the current two-toxin Bt plants do not express two new Cry toxins but reuse one toxin already in use with a one-toxin plant, we estimated the spread of resistance when the resistance alleles are not rare. This study assesses: (i) whether the two toxins have to be present in high concentration, and (ii) the impact of the relative size of the refuge zone on the evolution of resistance and population density. We concluded that for Bt plants expressing one toxin, a high concentration is an essential condition for resistance management. For the pyramided Bt plants, one toxin could be expressed at a low titer if the two toxins are used for the first time, and a small refuge zone is acceptable. PMID:23162699

  15. Pantry and Fabric Pests in the Home

    E-print Network

    Merchant, Michael E.; Brown, Wizzie

    2008-10-22

    Pests such as Indian meal moths and various beetles and weevils can infest stored food. Dermestes beetles and clothes moths attack stored fabrics, hides and feathers. The first step in controlling these pests is learning to identify them and find...

  16. Pest persistence and eradication conditions in a deterministic model for sterile insect release.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2015-07-01

    The release of sterile insects is an environment friendly pest control method used in integrated pest management programmes. Difference or differential equations based on Knipling's model often provide satisfactory qualitative descriptions of pest populations subject to sterile release at relatively high densities with large mating encounter rates, but fail otherwise. In this paper, I derive and explore numerically deterministic population models that include sterile release together with scarce mating encounters in the particular case of species with long lifespan and multiple matings. The differential equations account separately the effects of mating failure due to sterile male release and the frequency of mating encounters. When insects spatial spread is incorporated through diffusion terms, computations reveal the possibility of steady pest persistence in finite size patches. In the presence of density dependence regulation, it is observed that sterile release might contribute to induce sudden suppression of the pest population. PMID:25105593

  17. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: X*TRAX MODEL 200 THERMAL DESORPTION SYSTEMS - CHEMICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The X*TRAX? Mode! 200 Thermal Desorption System developed by Chemical Waste Management, Inc. (CWM), is a low-temperature process designed to separate organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and other solid media. The X*TRAX? Model 200 is fully transportable and consists of thre...

  18. Tool support for the management of design processes in chemical engineering

    E-print Network

    Westfechtel, Bernhard

    mutual relation- ships between parts of the design product are neither explicitly stored nor maintained or maintain the complex product of a design process. Moreover, there are lot of gaps with respect to toolTool support for the management of design processes in chemical engineering Manfred Nagl

  19. Bt sweet corn and selective insecticides: impacts on pests and predators.

    PubMed

    Musser, Fred R; Shelton, Anthony M

    2003-02-01

    Sweet corn, Zea mays L., is attacked by a variety of insect pests that can cause severe losses to the producer. Current control practices are largely limited to the application of broad-spectrum insecticides that can have a substantial and deleterious impact on the natural enemy complex. Predators have been shown to provide partial control of sweet corn pests when not killed by broad-spectrum insecticides. New products that specifically target the pest species, while being relatively benign to other insects, could provide more integrated control. In field trials we found that transgenic Bt sweet corn, and the foliar insecticides indoxacarb and spinosad are all less toxic to the most abundant predators in sweet corn (Coleomegilla maculate [DeGeer], Harmonia axyridis [Pallas], and Orius insidiosus [Sav]) than the pyrethroid lambda cyhalothrin. Indoxacarb, however, was moderately toxic to coccinellids and spinosad and indoxacarb were somewhat toxic to O. insidiosus nymphs at field rates. Bt sweet corn and spinosad were able to provide control of the lepidopteran pests better than or equal to lambda cyhalothrin. The choice of insecticide material made a significant impact on survival of the pests and predators, while the frequency of application mainly affected the pests and the rate applied had little effect on either pests or predators. These results demonstrate that some of the new products available in sweet corn allow a truly integrated biological and chemical pest control program in sweet corn, making future advances in conservation, augmentation and classical biological control more feasible. PMID:12650347

  20. The chemical ecology of cecidomyiid midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hall, David R; Amarawardana, Lakmali; Cross, Jerry V; Francke, Wittko; Boddum, Tina; Hillbur, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    The family of cecidomyiid midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) exhibits diversified patterns of life history, behavior, host range, population dynamics and other ecological traits. Those that feed on plants include many important agricultural pests; most cultivated plants are attacked by at least one midge species. Several features of the reproductive biology of cecidomyiid midges point to an important role for chemical communication, with this topic last reviewed comprehensively 12 years ago. Here, we review progress on identification of sex pheromones, chemicals involved in location of host plants, the neurophysiology of reception of volatile chemicals, and application of semiochemicals to management of pest species of cecidomyiid midges that has occurred during the last decade. We hope this review will stimulate and sustain further research in these fields. PMID:22215563

  1. Ornamental, Turf and Nursery Pests. MEP 308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common turf and plant pests that can be found in the urban environment. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests such as insects, weeds, and…

  2. Field and Forage Crop Pests. MEP 310.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Omar, D.; And Others

    As part of a cooperative extension service series by the University of Maryland, this publication introduces the identification and control of common agricultural pests that can be found in field and forage crops. The first of the five sections defines "pest" and "weed" and generally introduces different kinds of pests in the categories of…

  3. Incidence of Sitophilus oryzae and other stored-product pests on cowpea in local markets in Accra: management strategies employed by retailers.

    PubMed

    Egbon, I N; Ayertey, J N

    2013-05-01

    In recent times, the unusual presence of Sitophilus on cowpea has become an issue in Ghana as it constitutes a threat to food sufficiency and food security; this, by extension, necessitated the execution of this survey to establish the specific identity of the insect and its incidence, on stored cowpea in Ghana and consequently assess the level of awareness of traders and the management strategies employed. Using internal morphological identification techniques, the insect was identified as Sitophilus oryzae with an incidence rate of 12, 22 and 20% as against 50, 41 and 42% incidence rate of Callosobruchus maculatus after 30, 60 and 90 days respectively, of undisturbed storage of cowpea within the marketing systems in Accra, Ghana. Relatively low number of retailers (35.44%, N = 79) was aware of this occurrence, with 91.14% of this employing the energy-demanding and time-consuming sieving techniques as their main control strategies. This paper draws attention to the possible worsening of food insecurity already eminent in Africa for insects are no respecters of international or geo-political boundaries as they can spread to other countries, should this observation be left unchecked. PMID:24498808

  4. Avocado Pests and Avocado Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Everett B. Peterson; David Orden

    2008-01-01

    This article evaluates the effects of a November 2004 phytosanitary rule that removed seasonal and geographic restrictions on the importation of fresh Hass avocados from approved orchards in Mexico to the United States. With the remaining systems approach compliance measures in place, pest risks do not substantially increase and U.S. net welfare rises by $77 million. Removal of remaining compliance

  5. Testing for multiple invasion routes and source populations for the invasive brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam: implications for pest management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Wood, Dustin A.; Stanford, James W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    The brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) population on the Pacific island of Guam has reached iconic status as one of the most destructive invasive species of modern times, yet no published works have used genetic data to identify a source population. We used DNA sequence data from multiple genetic markers and coalescent-based phylogenetic methods to place the Guam population within the broader phylogeographic context of B. irregularis across its native range and tested whether patterns of genetic variation on the island are consistent with one or multiple introductions from different source populations. We also modeled a series of demographic scenarios that differed in the effective size and duration of a population bottleneck immediately following the invasion on Guam, and measured the fit of these simulations to the observed data using approximate Bayesian computation. Our results exclude the possibility of serial introductions from different source populations, and instead verify a single origin from the Admiralty Archipelago off the north coast of Papua New Guinea. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis thatB. irregularis was accidentally transported to Guam during military relocation efforts at the end of World War II. Demographic model comparisons suggest that multiple snakes were transported to Guam from the source locality, but that fewer than 10 individuals could be responsible for establishing the population. Our results also provide evidence that low genetic diversity stemming from the founder event has not been a hindrance to the ecological success of B. irregularis on Guam, and at the same time offers a unique ‘genetic opening’ to manage snake density using classical biological approaches.

  6. Insecticides suppress natural enemies and increase pest damage in cabbage.

    PubMed

    Bommarco, Riccardo; Miranda, Freddy; Bylund, Helena; Björkman, Christer

    2011-06-01

    Intensive use of pesticides is common and increasing despite a growing and historically well documented awareness of the costs and hazards. The benefits from pesticides of increased yields from sufficient pest control may be outweighed by developed resistance in pests and killing of beneficial natural enemies. Other negative effects are human health problems and lower prices because of consumers' desire to buy organic products. Few studies have examined these trade-offs in the field. Here, we demonstrate that Nicaraguan cabbage (Brassica spp.) farmers may suffer economically by using insecticides as they get more damage by the main pest diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), at the same time as they spend economic resources on insecticides. Replicated similarly sized cabbage fields cultivated in a standardized manner were either treated with insecticides according common practice or not treated with insecticides over two seasons. Fields treated with insecticides suffered, compared with nontreated fields, equal or, at least in some periods of the seasons, higher diamondback moth pest attacks. These fields also had increased leaf damage on the harvested cabbage heads. Weight and size of the heads were not affected. The farmers received the same price on the local market irrespective of insecticide use. Rates of parasitized diamondback moth were consistently lower in the treated fields. Negative effects of using insecticides against diamondback moth were found for the density of parasitoids and generalist predatory wasps, and tended to affect spiders negatively. The observed increased leaf damages in insecticide-treated fields may be a combined consequence of insecticide resistance in the pest, and of lower predation and parasitization rates from naturally occurring predators that are suppressed by the insecticide applications. The results indicate biological control as a viable and economic alternative pest management strategy, something that may be particularly relevant for the production of cash crops in tropical countries where insecticide use is heavy and possibly increasing. PMID:21735894

  7. Modelling the spatial configuration of refuges for a sustainable control of pests: a case study of Bt cotton

    E-print Network

    Hochberg, Michael

    Modelling the spatial configuration of refuges for a sustainable control of pests: a case study`re, Guyancourt, France Keywords: cotton; Heliothis virescens; refuges; resistance management; spatial model; sustainable pest control; transgenic crops. Abstract The `high-dose-refuge' (HDR) strategy is widely

  8. SPECIAL FEATURE: REVIEW Alien pests threatening biodiversity of forest ecosystems Proactive intervention to sustain high-elevation pine ecosystems

    E-print Network

    by established non-native pests. Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes the disease white pine blister rust of western North America. They are: reducing pest populations; managing forest composition; improving host composition (e.g. gypsy moth), and threaten habitat for an endangered species (e.g. white pine blister rust

  9. Integrated Environmental Risk Assessment and Whole-Process Management System in Chemical Industry Parks

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chaofeng; Yang, Juan; Tian, Xiaogang; Ju, Meiting; Huang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Chemical industry parks in China are considered high-risk areas because they present numerous risks that can damage the environment, such as pollution incidents. In order to identify the environmental risks and the principal risk factors in these areas, we have developed a simple physical model of a regional environmental risk field (ERF) using existing dispersal patterns and migration models. The regional ERF zoning was also conducted and a reference value for diagnostic methods was developed to determine risk-acceptable, risk-warning, and risk-mitigation zones, which can provide a risk source layout for chemical industry parks. In accordance with the environmental risk control requirements, this study focused on the three stages of control and management of environmental risk and established an environmental risk management system including risk source identification and assessment, environmental safety planning, early risk warning, emergency management, assessment of environmental effects, and environmental remediation of pollution accidents. By using this model, the environmental risks in Tianjin Binhai New Area, the largest chemical industry park in China, were assessed and the environmental risk zoning map was drawn, which suggested the existence of many unacceptable environmental risks in this area. Thus, relevant suggestions have been proposed from the perspective of the adjustment of risk source layout, intensified management of environmental risk control and so on. PMID:23603866

  10. Management of chemical warfare injuries (on CD-ROM). Data file

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The threat of use of chemical warfare agents (agents of `mass destruction`) is no longer confined to the battlefield. Agent releases by terrorists in Japan in 1995 served to awaken the world to the dangers faced by civilian communities far removed from centers of armed conflict. The ability to save lives in the event of a chemical agent release turns on provision of immediate and correct medical care in the field and hospital. Being able to ensure availability of life-saving care depends on reaching both military and civilian medical personnel with information on chemical warfare agents and on keeping their skills and knowledge current. While this is of critical importance both to the Department of Defense and to civilian agencies charged with protecting the public, it also is a daunting and potentially expensive task in view of the numbers and geographic dispersion of persons to be trained. The Department of Defense has addressed and overcome these challenges, to the benefit of the military and civilians, by using computer technology as the vehicle by which cost-effective chemical warfare agent training may be conveniently delivered to all who require it. The multi-media instructional program, Management of Chemical Warfare Injuries, was developed for military use by the Naval Health Sciences Education and Training Command, with the technical assistance of the U.S. Army Medical Command. It was originally designed for delivery via video disc, a format used extensively within the Navy. However, in response to a request from the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the Office of the Secretary of Defense agreed to repackage the materials for delivery on CD-ROM in order to make them accessible to a larger audience. In addition, the Navy agreed to include on the two CD-ROMs which contain the program a ready reference not found on the video disc: the Army`s `Medical Management of Chemical Casualties` handbooks for field and medical personnel.

  11. Bioefficacy of indigenous plant products against pests and diseases of Indian forest trees: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Gahukar

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the bioefficacy of natural products (derived from neem and other tropical trees) which have been used\\u000a against insect pests and diseases attacking forest trees in India. These products are effective, cheaper and eco-friendly\\u000a and act as antifeedant, repellent, sterility inducing, toxic or regulate insect growth. Integration of these products in forest\\u000a pest management strategies would enhance the

  12. Insect pests of sweetpotato in Uganda: farmers' perceptions of their importance and control practices.

    PubMed

    Okonya, Joshua Sikhu; Mwanga, Robert Om; Syndikus, Katja; Kroschel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Insect pests are among the most important constraints limiting sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) production in Africa. However, there is inadequate information about farmers' knowledge, perceptions and practices in the management of key insect pests. This has hindered development of effective pest management approaches for smallholder farmers. A standard questionnaire was used to interview individual sweetpotato farmers (n?=?192) about their perception and management practices regarding insect pests in six major sweetpotato producing districts of Uganda. The majority (93%) of farmers perceived insect pests to be a very serious problem. With the exception of Masindi and Wakiso districts where the sweetpotato butterfly (Acraea acerata) was the number one constraint, sweetpotato weevils (Cylas puncticollis and C. brunneus) were ranked as the most important insect pests. Insecticide use in sweetpotato fields was very low being highest (28-38% of households) in districts where A. acerata infestation is the biggest problem. On average, 65% and 87% of the farmers took no action to control A. acerata and Cylas spp., respectively. Farmers were more conversant with the presence of and damage by A. acerata than of Cylas spp. as they thought that Cylas spp. root damage was brought about by a prolonged dry season. Different levels of field resistance (ability of a variety to tolerate damage) of sweetpotato landraces to A. acerata (eight landraces) and Cylas spp. (six landraces) were reported by farmers in all the six districts. This perceived level of resistance to insect damage by landraces needs to be investigated. To improve farmers' capabilities for sweetpotato insect pest management, it is crucial to train them in the basic knowledge of insect pest biology and control. PMID:25279278

  13. Safe management of mass fatalities following chemical, biological, and radiological incidents.

    PubMed

    Baker, David J; Jones, Kelly A; Mobbs, Shelly F; Sepai, Ovnair; Morgan, Dilys; Murray, Virginia S G

    2009-01-01

    Contaminated mass fatalities following the release of chemical, biological, or radiological agents pose a potential major health hazard. A United Kingdom government investigation has identified a number of areas of risk. This paper presents an outline of the findings of the study and describes specific pathways for the management of contaminated and non-contaminated fatalities. Factors determining the choice between cremation and burial are discussed. Effective decontamination remains a neglected area of study for both fatalities and casualties. PMID:19618352

  14. Managing Insects and Related Pests of Roses

    E-print Network

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Pemberton, Brent; Cole, Charles L.

    1999-07-12

    .?predator of larval and adult thrips, mites, aphids and whitefly pupae. n MITES: Metaseiulus occidentalis, Phytoseiulus persimilis, Mesoseiulus longipes (=Phytoseiulus longipes) and Neoseiulus californicus (Amblyseius californicus)?predatory mites of spider mites... in the soil. n WASPS: Aphelinus abdominalis, Aphidius colemani and Aphidius matricariae?parasitic wasps of aphids (such as green peach aphids); Encarsia formosa and Eretmocerus sp. nr. californicus?parasitic wasps of whiteflies; and Trichogramma spp...

  15. Integrated pest management in high value crops

    E-print Network

    · South African Sugarcane Research Institute/Stellenbosch University · USDA-Pretoria/African Fruit Fly African Sugarcane Research Institute/Stellenbosch University (post doc 2012) · USDA-Pretoria/African Fruit

  16. Action and Inaction Levels in Pest Management.

    E-print Network

    Sterling, Winfield

    1984-01-01

    , the presence of the tobacco budworm, H eliot his vires cens (Fabricius), in the Heliothis complex will dictate the need for more toxic insecticides or higher dosages, since H. virescens is generally more resistant to many insec ticides than H. zea (88...

  17. Applications of acoustics in insect pest management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acoustic technology has been applied for many years in studies of insect communication and in the monitoring of calling-insect population levels, geographic distributions, and diversity, as well as in the detection of cryptic insects in soil, wood, container crops, and stored products. Acoustic devi...

  18. 2014 South Carolina Pest Management Handbook

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    /1 min Length: 1 in = 25.4 mm = 2.54 cm 1 ft = 304.8 mm = 30.48 cm 1 yd = 914.4 mm = 91.44 cm = 0.914 m 1 mi = 1,609m = 1.61 km 1 mm = 0.03937 in 1cm = 0.394 in = 0.0328 ft 1 m = 39.37 in = 3,281 ft 1 = Gram; gal = Gallon; h = Hectare (1h = 10,000 square meters); in = Inch; kg = Kilogram; km = Kilometer

  19. 2012 South Carolina Pest Management Handbook

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    in = 25.4 mm = 2.54 cm 1 ft = 304.8 mm = 30.48 cm 1 yd = 914.4 mm = 91.44 cm = 0.914 m 1 mi = 1,609m = 1.61 km 1 mm = 0.03937 in 1cm = 0.394 in = 0.0328 ft 1 m = 39.37 in = 3,281 ft 1 km = 3,281 ft 0.621 mi,000 square meters); in = Inch; kg = Kilogram; km = Kilometer; L = Liter; lb = Pound; mi = Mile; oz = Ounce

  20. Pest management through tropical tree conservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When discussing the need to improve conservation programs for native forests, arguments such as the role of vegetation in water catchment and soil conservation or as sources of food, medicines, firewood and lumber, and habitat for wildlife are commonly used. Here we argue that many native species o...

  1. Integrated Pest Management for Iowa Schools

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    IPM lesson plans are divided into sections devoted to elementary school ages, middle school, and finally high school level. Topics range from recognizing arthropods and insects, to observing butterflies in the field, to understanding ecosystems, and pesticide regulations. As of this writing a few of the links to PDFs are not operating, but seem to direct to other university websites. The plans for the high school exercises are probably of most utility at the university level. The exercises are well designed; however, some of the activities relying on government web-sites may be cumbersome.

  2. A Statewide Pest Management Plan for Texas. 

    E-print Network

    1981-01-01

    pi. sun Har. ), the green and brick-red sowthistle aphids (Amphorophora sonchf, Oestl. and D. ambrosfae), the sedge aph1d (Caro'Linafa cyperf. Ains. ), the rusty plum aphid (BVateroneura eetarfae Thos. ), the green bug ( Schfaaphfa gromfnum Rond... sap as a control. Standard procedures were used for testing transmissibility of the iSOlate by the aphid S. gtraitii. nEEm. Et 1 Ouick dip preparations and leaf-dip serology (34) of diseased sorghum tissues were examined with an Hitachi HS-7S...

  3. Integrated Pest Management in Greenhouses -Mechanical

    E-print Network

    Ling, Peter

    is it that diseases will develop? #12;Will condensation occur? Is surface temperature below dew point temperature? ­ Temperature of the surface ? ­ Air temperature ? ­ Air relative humidity ? ­ Air dew point temperature ? #12 #12;Essentials for plant growth Light Temperature Relative humidity CO2 Water and nutrients #12;White

  4. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

  5. Plant Diseases, Pests and Food Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenifer Huang McBeath; Jerry McBeath

    \\u000a Chapter 5 discusses the plant diseases and pests that affect agricultural production in China, and thus food security. Because\\u000a diseases of plants and insect pests are anthropocentric concepts, we begin the chapter by defining the functions they play\\u000a in ecological renewal and the environmental conditions favoring pathogens and pests. Then we explore the broad range of economic\\u000a damage they do

  6. Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C.; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L?1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for ?-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L?1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices. PMID:24948956

  7. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, Veronique [U.S. Army Public Health Command; Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Bock, Robert Eldon [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  8. Activity of eight strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) against five stored product pests.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth; Negrisoli Júnior, Aldomario Santo; Bernardi, Daniel; Garcia, Mauro Silveira

    2013-07-01

    Stored product pests are responsible for losses that can amount 10% during cereal storage in the world. Aiming to find an alternative method to the chemicals used for the stored-product pests, eight strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) were tested against five species of stored product pests. The bioassays were conducted in microtubes containing paper, inoculated with EPNs and insect diet. All the insect species were susceptible to the EPNs strains. Anagasta kuehniella and Tenebrio molitor larvae and Acanthoscelides obtectus adults were highly sensitive to the higher doses with most species and/or strains of EPNs. Adults of Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais were relatively less sensitive to all EPNs. Therefore, EPNs show as potential control agents for stored products pests in prophylactic applications in warehouses. PMID:23567251

  9. The use of chemical composition data in waste management planning - A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Burnley, S.J. [Department of Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.j.burnley@open.ac.uk

    2007-07-01

    As the waste industry continues to move from a disposal-based system to one based on a combination of recovery options, the need for information on the composition of waste increases and this is reflected by the amount of information on the physical composition of municipal solid wastes that is now available. However, there is far less information on the chemical composition of municipal solid waste. The results from a number of chemical surveys from Europe are compared and show a reasonable degree of agreement, but several problems were identified with the data. Chemical and physical compositional data are combined in a case study example to investigate the flow of key potential pollutants in an integrated solid waste management system that uses materials recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling. This case study has shown that an integrated waste management strategy diverts lead and cadmium away from composting and recycling to incineration, which effectively isolates these elements from the environment through efficient capture of the pollutants followed by secure landfilling or recycling of the residues. However, further work is needed to determine the distribution of mercury in incineration residues and its fate when the residues are landfilled.

  10. The use of chemical composition data in waste management planning--a case study.

    PubMed

    Burnley, S J

    2007-01-01

    As the waste industry continues to move from a disposal-based system to one based on a combination of recovery options, the need for information on the composition of waste increases and this is reflected by the amount of information on the physical composition of municipal solid wastes that is now available. However, there is far less information on the chemical composition of municipal solid waste. The results from a number of chemical surveys from Europe are compared and show a reasonable degree of agreement, but several problems were identified with the data. Chemical and physical compositional data are combined in a case study example to investigate the flow of key potential pollutants in an integrated solid waste management system that uses materials recycling, composting, incineration and landfilling. This case study has shown that an integrated waste management strategy diverts lead and cadmium away from composting and recycling to incineration, which effectively isolates these elements from the environment through efficient capture of the pollutants followed by secure landfilling or recycling of the residues. However, further work is needed to determine the distribution of mercury in incineration residues and its fate when the residues are landfilled. PMID:16647255

  11. Chemical activators: A novel and sustainable management approach for Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood in Chamomilla recutita L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Pandey; A. Kalra

    2005-01-01

    Use of chemical activator for the management of root-knot disease in medicinal and aromatic plants can become an attractive alternative to traditionally used nematicides. Large numbers of chemical molecules are present in the plants and are involved in the induction of different types of proteins. The purpose of our research study is to explore the possibilities of resistance factors that

  12. Risk Assessment and Hierarchical Risk Management of Enterprises in Chemical Industrial Parks Based on Catastrophe Theory

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Song, Guobao; Yang, Fenglin; Zhang, Shushen; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Zhenyu

    2012-01-01

    According to risk systems theory and the characteristics of the chemical industry, an index system was established for risk assessment of enterprises in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) based on the inherent risk of the source, effectiveness of the prevention and control mechanism, and vulnerability of the receptor. A comprehensive risk assessment method based on catastrophe theory was then proposed and used to analyze the risk levels of ten major chemical enterprises in the Songmu Island CIP, China. According to the principle of equal distribution function, the chemical enterprise risk level was divided into the following five levels: 1.0 (very safe), 0.8 (safe), 0.6 (generally recognized as safe, GRAS), 0.4 (unsafe), 0.2 (very unsafe). The results revealed five enterprises (50%) with an unsafe risk level, and another five enterprises (50%) at the generally recognized as safe risk level. This method solves the multi-objective evaluation and decision-making problem. Additionally, this method involves simple calculations and provides an effective technique for risk assessment and hierarchical risk management of enterprises in CIPs. PMID:23208298

  13. Stormwater runoff water quality evaluation and management program for hazardous chemical sites: Development issues

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones-Lee, A. [G. Fred Lee and Associates, El Macero, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The deficiencies in the typical stormwater runoff water quality monitoring from hazardous chemical sites and an alternative approach (Evaluation Monitoring) for monitoring that shifts the monitoring program from periodic sampling and analysis of stormwater runoff for a suite of chemical parameters to examining the receiving waters to determine what, if any, water quality use impairments are occurring due to the runoff-associated constituents is presented in this paper. Rather than measuring potentially toxic constituents such as heavy metals in runoff, the monitoring program determines whether there is aquatic life toxicity in the receiving waters associated with the stormwater runoff. If toxicity is found, its cause is determined and the source of the constituents causing the toxicity is identified through forensic analysis. Based on this information, site-specific, technically valid stormwater runoff management programs can be developed that will control real water quality impacts caused by stormwater runoff-associated constituents.

  14. Drought and arthropod pests of crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water deficit can make otherwise arable regions less, or nonarable, from lack of life-sustaining water and it can also affect the extent to which crops are afflicted by arthropod pests. The effects of drought on host plant availability and nutrititive value influence arthropod pests of crops in a v...

  15. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

  16. BIODIVERSITY Insect pests and pathogens of Australian

    E-print Network

    BIODIVERSITY REVIEW Insect pests and pathogens of Australian acacias grown as non threatened by invasive alien pests and pathogens (Wingfield et al., 2010). The reality of this threat first by the gypsy moth and the chestnut blight pathogens appearing in North America. It is unfortunate that new

  17. Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

  18. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  19. CHEMICAL HAZARD EVALUATION FOR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: A METHOD FOR RANKING AND SCORING CHEMICALS BY POTENTIAL HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Between 60,000 and 100,000 of the over than 8,000,000 chemicals listed by the Chemical Abstracts Services Registry are commercially produced and are potential environmental pollutants. Risk-based evaluation for these chemicals is often required to evaluate the potential impacts...

  20. Ecosystem services and the protection, restoration, and management of ecosystems exposed to chemical stressors.

    PubMed

    Maltby, Lorraine

    2013-04-01

    Ecosystem services-the benefits people obtain from ecosystem structures and processes-are essential for human survival and well-being. Chemicals are also an essential component of modern life; however, they may cause adverse ecological effects and reduce ecosystem service provision. Environmental policy makers are increasingly adopting the ecosystem services concept, but applying this approach to the protection, restoration, and management of ecosystems requires the development of new understanding, tools, and frameworks. There is an urgent need to understand and predict the effect of single and multiple stressors on ecosystem service delivery across different spatial scales (local to global), to develop indicators that can be used to quantify and map services and identify synergies and trade-offs between them, to establish protection goals and restoration targets defined in terms of the types and levels of service delivery required, and to develop approaches for the assessment and management of chemical risk to ecosystem services that consider the whole life cycle of products and processes. These are major research challenges for the environmental science community in general and for ecotoxicologists and risk assessors in particular. PMID:23589419

  1. Ecoinformatics Can Reveal Yield Gaps Associated with Crop-Pest Interactions: A Proof-of-Concept

    PubMed Central

    Rosenheim, Jay A.; Meisner, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Farmers and private consultants execute a vast, decentralized data collection effort with each cropping cycle, as they gather pest density data to make real-time pest management decisions. Here we present a proof of concept for an ecoinformatics approach to pest management research, which attempts to harness these data to answer questions about pest-crop interactions. The impact of herbivory by Lygus hesperus on cotton is explored as a case study. Consultant-derived data satisfied a ‘positive control’ test for data quality by clearly resolving the expected negative relationship between L. hesperus density and retention of flower buds. The enhanced statistical power afforded by the large ecoinformatics dataset revealed an early-season window of crop sensitivity, during which L. hesperus densities as low as 1-2 per sample were associated with yield loss. In contrast, during the mid-season insecticide use by farmers was often unnecessary, as cotton compensated fully for moderate L. hesperus densities. Because the dataset emerged from the commercial production setting, it also revealed the limited degree to which farmers were willing to delay crop harvest to provide opportunities for compensatory fruiting. Observational approaches to pest management research have strengths and weaknesses that complement those of traditional, experimental approaches; combining these methods can contribute to enhanced agricultural productivity. PMID:24260408

  2. Odorant receptors of a primitive hymenopteran pest, the wheat stem sawfly.

    PubMed

    Gress, J C; Robertson, H M; Weaver, D K; Dlaki?, M; Wanner, K W

    2013-12-01

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus, is an herbivorous hymenopteran that feeds exclusively on members of the Graminae family. Synanthropically, it has become one of the most important insect pests of wheat grown in the northern Great Plains region of the USA and Canada. Insecticides are generally ineffective because of the wheat stem sawfly's extended adult flight period and its inaccessible larval stage, during which it feeds within the wheat stems, making it virtually intractable to most pest management strategies. While research towards integrated pest management strategies based on insect olfaction has proved promising, nothing is known about the molecular basis of olfaction in this important pest species. In this study we identified 28 unique odorant receptor (Or) transcripts from an antennal transcriptome. A phylogenetic analysis with the predicted Ors from the honey bee and jewel wasp genomes revealed at least four clades conserved amongst all three Hymenoptera species. Antennal expression levels were analysed using quantitative real-time PCR, and one male-biased and five female-biased Ors were identified. This study provides the basis for future functional analyses to identify behaviourally active odours that can be used to help develop olfactory-mediated pest management tools. PMID:23964849

  3. Beyond REACH: roadblocks and shortcuts en route to integrated risk assessment and management of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Assmuth, Timo; Hildén, Mikael; Craye, Matthieu

    2010-08-15

    This paper addresses obstacles and opportunities for the development and application of novel methods for integrated assessment of cumulative risks from chemicals, exemplified by the REACH legislation of the EU, in the context of multiple stressors and of chemicals policy. We examine the role of such methods in connection with REACH by models of integration and innovation of risk information in multi-actor risk governance; analyses of key documents on REACH; and interviews with EU regulators and stakeholders. We first explain the emergence of REACH as a response to tensions in EU chemicals, environmental and other policies. We then analyze the present configuration of REACH particularly in relation to key dimensions of risk integration: across stressors; exposed organisms; and impacts. Among the policy aspects of integrated risk information, we focus on its interaction with management and the contesting framings and interpretations of assessment. Avenues and barriers are identified for integrated treatment of risks under REACH and with other instruments. We emphasize how bounded, formal and static assessments interact with open and informal approaches that have more flexibility in integrating risks in new ways. We conclude with a generalizing discussion on the role of novel methods of integrated risk assessment in the development of reflexive and participatory governance under REACH and beyond. PMID:20347473

  4. Evaluation of pest vulnerability of 'Benning' soybean value added and insect resistant near isogenic lines.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Foo, Michelle; All, John N; Boerma, H Roger

    2013-04-01

    Crop enhancement with value added traits may affect vulnerability to insects, and evaluating the susceptibility levels of the various value added traits in elite germplasm would aid in developing integrated pest management strategies. During 2007-2008, five 'Benning' soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) lines with different value added nutritional traits and four insect resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL) lines were evaluated in an effort to determine their pest vulnerability under artificial and natural insect pest populations. The lines showed variable susceptibility to lepidopterous insect pests classified as defoliators and stem feeders in replicated greenhouse and field tests. The study was carried out in Athens and Midville, GA. The green cloverworm (Hypena scabra (F.)) was the most common lepidopteran defoliator occurring in the fields. Other caterpillar pests found included the soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens (Walker)), the bollworm (Helicoverpa zea (Boddie)), and the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner)). Data indicated that there was no significantly increased pest susceptibility among the value added cultivars with improved nutritional qualities, with the insect resistant quantitative trait loci lines Benning M and Benning MGH consistently being less susceptible to lepidopterous (Noctuidae) leaf injury. PMID:23786071

  5. Pest control experiments show benefits of complexity at landscape and local scales.

    PubMed

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Kremen, Claire

    2012-10-01

    Farms benefit from pest control services provided by nature, but management of these services requires an understanding of how habitat complexity within and around the farm impacts the relationship between agricultural pests and their enemies. Using cage experiments, this study measures the effect of habitat complexity across scales on pest suppression of the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae in broccoli. Our results reveal that proportional reduction of pest density increases with complexity both at the landscape scale (measured by natural habitat cover in the 1 km around the farm) and at the local scale (plant diversity). While high local complexity can compensate for low complexity at landscape scales and vice versa, a delay in natural enemy arrival to locally complex sites in simple landscapes may compromise the enemies' ability to provide adequate control. Local complexity in simplified landscapes may only provide adequate top-down pest control in cooler microclimates with relatively low aphid colonization rates. Even so, strong natural enemy function can be overwhelmed by high rates of pest reproduction or colonization from nearby source habitat. PMID:23210310

  6. The impact of managed behavorial healthcare on the costs of psychiatric and chemical dependency treatment.

    PubMed

    Geraty, R; Bartlett, J; Hill, E; Lee, F; Shusterman, A; Waxman, A

    1994-01-01

    As Congress debates the Health Security Act, a key issue centers on whether and how to include mental health and substance abuse benefits and how to contain costs if and when these benefits are paid at parity with general healthcare. Previous studies estimating the average annual cost of providing behavioral healthcare services have shown considerable divergence, depending on the nature of the defined population and the inclusion of various benefit categories, out-of-pocket expense and administrative costs. Experience from 14 members of the American Managed Behavioral Healthcare Association (AMBHA) is used to define the key features of managed behavioral healthcare, and to demonstrate that a properly managed behavioral healthcare benefit can be significantly less costly than the current reform debate would admit. AMBHA companies (which have many years of experience and presently manage the cost and quality of care for over 65 million people in the United States) [See Table 3, page 28], have shown that a specialty managed care approach can achieve not only significant savings to healthcare providers, payers and society, but also improve quality and access to care. Traditional attempts at reducing mental illness benefit coverage costs have entailed limitations on the availability or access to care. These approaches, however, ignored the larger implications to society of untreated mental illness and chemical dependency. When traditional coverages have offered more extensive benefits, they have primarily favored inpatient treatment, thus increasing costs by overemphasizing care of patients at expensive inpatient settings. AMBHA's proposed principles of healthcare reform and recommended benefit packages for behavioral healthcare can be found on page 80 of this magazine. PMID:10172255

  7. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

  8. Conservation Biological Control and Pest Performance in Lawn Turf: Does Mowing Height Matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, Emily K.; Potter, Daniel A.

    2014-03-01

    With >80 million United States households engaged in lawn and gardening activities, increasing sustainability of lawn care is important. Mowing height is an easily manipulated aspect of lawn management. We tested the hypothesis that elevated mowing of tall fescue lawn grass promotes a larger, more diverse community of arthropod natural enemies which in turn provides stronger biological control services, and the corollary hypothesis that doing so also renders the turf itself less suitable for growth of insect pests. Turf-type tall fescue was mowed low (6.4 cm) or high (10.2 cm) for two growing seasons, natural enemy populations were assessed by vacuum sampling, pitfall traps, and ant baits, and predation and parasitism were evaluated with sentinel prey caterpillars, grubs, and eggs. In addition, foliage-feeding caterpillars and root-feeding scarab grubs were confined in the turf to evaluate their performance. Although some predatory groups (e.g., rove beetles and spiders) were more abundant in high-mowed grass, predation rates were uniformly high because ants, the dominant predators, were similarly abundant regardless of mowing height. Lower canopy temperatures in high-mowed grass were associated with slower growth of grass-feeding caterpillars. Higher lawn mowing reduces fuel consumption and yard waste, and promotes a deep, robust root system that reduces need for water and chemical inputs. Although in this study elevated mowing height did not measurably increase the already-high levels of predation, it did suggest additional ways through which bottom-up effects on insect pest growth might interact with natural enemies to facilitate conservation biological control.

  9. IPM Standards for Schools: A Program for Reducing Pest and Pesticide Risks in Schools and Other Sensitive Environments. Version 2.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas A., Ed.

    This guide presents Integrated Pest Management (IPM) practice standards for educational facilities to help schools become certified in providing effective and safe pest control. The guide is divided into two parts with three modules each for both buildings and grounds. The first module addresses building the IPM foundation to meet all legal…

  10. Pantry and Fabric Pests in the Home 

    E-print Network

    Merchant, Michael E.; Brown, Wizzie

    2008-10-22

    or clothes moths may lay their eggs on woolen carpets or stored fabric items. Pantry pests Pests of seeds, grains, and spices The most common pests in Texas home pantries are cigarette and drugstore beetles (Fig. 1). The larvae of these beetles feed... to reddish brown bodies. From above, the head is not visible. These beetles are strong fliers and may be attracted to light fixtures and windows. The adults do not feed but lay their eggs on food sources. Figure 1. Drugstore (a) and cigarette beetle (b...

  11. Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée)(Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Neotropical solanaceous fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the most important pests of solanaceous crops in South America. The larva of this insect develops inside the fruit, feeding on the mesocarp and the endosperm; therefore, chemical control is inefficient, yet...

  12. Active solarization as a nonchemical alternative to soil fumigation for controlling pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deterioration of soil, water, and air resources by soil fumigants represents a serious threat to agricultural production in semiarid regions due to their high volatility and high emission rates. New pest control methods are needed that do not rely on fumigant chemicals. Soil heating via solarization...

  13. Ovicidal Efficacy of Sulfuryl Fluoride to Stored-Product Pests of Dried Fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical fumigants are an important component of protecting postharvest commodity from insect pests. Sulfuryl fluoride, originally produced and marketed as the structural fumigant Vikane®, has transitioned toward use in durable commodities as ProFume®. Substantial laboratory- and commercial-scale da...

  14. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane), next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA) and denitrifying (nirK) genes), greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil. A high impact of land use was observed in soil under the common burnt cane management. The green cane soil also presented different profiles compared to the control soil, but to at a lesser degree. PMID:22873209

  15. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

  16. PEST sequences in calmodulin-binding proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junor A. Barnes; Aldrin V. Gomes

    1995-01-01

    Many short-lived proteins which are devoid of proteolytic activity contain PEST sequences which are segments along the polypeptide chain that are rich in proline (P), glutamate (E), serine (S) and threonine (T). These designated PEST sequences are believed to be putative intramolecular signals for rapid proteolytic degradation. Calmodulin is a ubiquitous, 17kDa, acidic Ca2+-binding protein which plays an important role

  17. Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 62:434439 (2006) Efficacy of noviflumuron gel bait

    E-print Network

    Wang, Changlu

    2006-01-01

    for control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) ­ laboratory studies, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA Abstract: The insecticidal activity of a cockroach gel strains of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Noviflumuron gel bait (0.01­5 mg g-1 ) caused

  18. Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 64:933944 (2008) Identification of key climatic factors

    E-print Network

    Fowler, Hayley

    2008-01-01

    regulating the transport of pesticides in leaching and to tile drains Bernard T Nolan,1,2 Igor G Dubus,1 Nicolas Surdyk,1 Hayley J Fowler,3 Aidan Burton,3 John M Hollis,4,5 Stefan Reichenberger6 and Nicholas J

  19. Pest Management Science Pest Manag Sci 61:532538 (2005 ) DOI: 10.1002/ps.1027

    E-print Network

    Lucas, Éric

    , mobility, foraging efficacy and oviposition.8­13 Pesticides may also modify arthropod behaviour predation and lambda-cyhalothrin on predation efficacy of three acarophagous predators Caroline Provost,1 reports the interaction of three predators found in commercial apple orchards in Quebec, Hyaliodes

  20. 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process safety management of highly hazardous chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...procedures or equipment. The process safety management standard...and process equipment is essential...process safety management program...process safety management standard...modifications to equipment,...